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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341303/cardiorespiratory-fitness-is-associated-with-enhanced-hippocampal-functional-connectivity-in-healthy-young-adults
#1
Chelsea M Stillman, Fatma Uyar, Haiqing Huang, George A Grove, Jennifer C Watt, Mariegold E Wollam, Kirk I Erickson
Consistent associations have been found between higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and indices of enhanced brain health and function, including behavioral measures of cognition as well as neuroimaging indicators such as regional brain volume. Several studies have reported that higher CRF levels are associated with a larger hippocampus, yet associations between volume and memory or functional connectivity metrics with the hippocampus remain poorly understood. Using a multi-modal framework, we hierarchically examine the association between CRF and hippocampal volume and resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) in younger adults (ages 22-38), as well as the relationship between these imaging markers and memory function...
January 17, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341064/can-addressing-personality-change-enhance-cognitive-functioning-and-delay-development-of-mild-cognitive-impairment
#2
EDITORIAL
Kevin J Manning, David C Steffens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339558/does-sleep-facilitate-the-consolidation-of-allocentric-or-egocentric-representations-of-implicitly-learned-visual-motor-sequence-learning
#3
Jeremy Viczko, Valya Sergeeva, Laura B Ray, Adrian M Owen, Stuart M Fogel
Sleep facilitates the consolidation (i.e., enhancement) of simple, explicit (i.e., conscious) motor sequence learning (MSL). MSL can be dissociated into egocentric (i.e., motor) or allocentric (i.e., spatial) frames of reference. The consolidation of the allocentric memory representation is sleep-dependent, whereas the egocentric consolidation process is independent of sleep or wake for explicit MSL. However, it remains unclear the extent to which sleep contributes to the consolidation of implicit (i.e., unconscious) MSL, nor is it known what aspects of the memory representation (egocentric, allocentric) are consolidated by sleep...
February 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339557/chronic-dietary-creatine-enhances-hippocampal-dependent-spatial-memory-bioenergetics-and-levels-of-plasticity-related-proteins-associated-with-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#4
Wanda M Snow, Chris Cadonic, Claudia Cortes-Perez, Subir K Roy Chowdhury, Jelena Djordjevic, Ella Thomson, Michael J Bernstein, Miyoung Suh, Paul Fernyhough, Benedict C Albensi
The brain has a high demand for energy, of which creatine (Cr) is an important regulator. Studies document neurocognitive benefits of oral Cr in mammals, yet little is known regarding their physiological basis. This study investigated the effects of Cr supplementation (3%, w/w) on hippocampal function in male C57BL/6 mice, including spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze and oxygen consumption rates from isolated mitochondria in real time. Levels of transcription factors and related proteins (CREB, Egr1, and IκB to indicate NF-κB activity), proteins implicated in cognition (CaMKII, PSD-95, and Egr2), and mitochondrial proteins (electron transport chain Complex I, mitochondrial fission protein Drp1) were probed with Western blotting...
February 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339315/insulin-sensitivity-predicts-brain-network-connectivity-following-a-meal
#5
John P Ryan, Helmet T Karim, Howard J Aizenstein, Nicole L Helbling, Frederico G S Toledo
There is converging evidence that insulin plays a role in food-reward signaling in the brain and has effects on enhancing cognition. Little is known about how these effects are altered in individuals with insulin resistance. The present study was designed to identify the relationships between insulin resistance and functional brain connectivity following a meal. Eighteen healthy adults (7 male, 11 female, age: 41-57 years-old) completed a frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test to quantify insulin resistance...
January 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339018/nicotine-alleviates-chronic-stress-induced-anxiety-and-depressive-like-behavior-and-hippocampal-neuropathology-via-regulating-autophagy-signaling
#6
Xi Xiao, Xueliang Shang, Baohui Zhai, Hui Zhang, Tao Zhang
Recently, we reported that chronic nicotine significantly improved chronic stress-induced impairments of cognition and the hippocampal synaptic plasticity in mice, however, the underlying mechanism still needs to be explored. In the present study, 32 male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: control (CON), stress (CUS), stress with chronic nicotine administration (CUS + Nic) and chronic nicotine administration (Nic). The anxiety-like behavior and neuropathological alteration of DG neurons were examined...
January 12, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338767/effect-of-exercise-versus-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-or-no-intervention-on-anxiety-depression-fitness-and-quality-of-life-in-adults-with-previous-methamphetamine-dependency-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Linzette Morris, Jessica Stander, Wardah Ebrahim, Stephanie Eksteen, Orissa Anna Meaden, Ané Ras, Annemarie Wessels
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (MA) is a highly addictive psychostimulant used by approximately 52 million people worldwide. Chronic MA abuse leads to detrimental physiological and neurological changes, as well as increases in anxiety and depression, and decreases in overall fitness and quality of life. Exercise has been reported to possibly reverse physiological and neurological damage caused by previous MA use, and to reduce anxiety and depression in this population. The aim of this systematic review was to identify, clinically appraise and synthesise the available evidence for the effectiveness of exercise, compared to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), standard care or no intervention, on decreasing anxiety and depression and improving fitness and quality of life in previous MA users...
January 16, 2018: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338674/would-you-be-willing-to-zap-your-child-s-brain-public-perspectives-on-parental-responsibilities-and-the-ethics-of-enhancing-children-with-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#8
Katy Wagner, Hannah Maslen, Justin Oakley, Julian Savulescu
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an experimental brain stimulation technology that may one day be used to enhance the cognitive capacities of children. Discussion about the ethical issues that this would raise has rarely moved beyond expert circles. However, the opinions of the wider public can lead to more democratic policy decisions and broaden academic discussion of this issue. METHODS: We performed a quantitative survey of members of the US public...
January 17, 2018: AJOB Empirical Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337893/soybean-derived-phytoalexins-improve-cognitive-function-through-activation-of-nrf2-ho-1-signaling-pathway
#9
Ji Yeon Seo, Bo Ram Kim, Jisun Oh, Jong-Sang Kim
As soy-derived glyceollins are known to induce antioxidant enzymes in various types of cells and tissues, we hypothesized that the compounds could protect neurons from damage due to reactive oxygen species (ROS). In order to examine the neuroprotective effect of glyceollins, primary cortical neurons collected from mice and mouse hippocampal HT22 cells were challenged with glutamate. Glyceollins attenuated glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in primary cortical neuron isolated from mice carrying wild-type nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), but the compounds were ineffective in those isolated from Nrf2 knockout mice, suggesting the involvement of the Nrf2 signaling pathway in glyceollin-mediated neuroprotection...
January 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335844/the-adiponectin-homolog-osmotin-enhances-neurite-outgrowth-and-synaptic-complexity-via-adipor1-ngr1-signaling-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Gwangho Yoon, Shahid Ali Shah, Tahir Ali, Myeong Ok Kim
Alzheimer's disease is a major neurodegenerative disease characterized by memory loss and cognitive deficits. Recently, we reported that osmotin, which is a homolog of adiponectin, improved long-term potentiation and cognitive functions in Alzheimer's disease mice. Several lines of evidence have suggested that Nogo-A and the Nogo-66 receptor 1 (NgR1), which form a complex that inhibits long-term potentiation and cognitive function, might be associated with the adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1), which is a receptor for osmotin...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335671/feasibility-acceptability-and-preliminary-effectiveness-of-a-4-week-mindfulness-based-cognitive-therapy-protocol-for-hospital-employees
#11
Christina M Luberto, Rachel S Wasson, Kristen M Kraemer, Richard W Sears, Carly Hueber, Sian Cotton
Hospital employees may experience occupational stress and burnout, which negatively impact quality of life and job performance. Evidence-based interventions implemented within the hospital setting are needed to promote employees' well-being. We offered a 4-week Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy group program for hospital employees, and used a mixed-methods practice-based research approach to explore feasibility, acceptability, and effects on stress and burnout. Participants were 65 hospital employees (Mage = 44...
December 2017: Mindfulness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335360/activity-in-the-ventral-medial-prefrontal-cortex-is-necessary-for-the-therapeutic-effects-of-extinction-in-rats
#12
Elizabeth A Fucich, Denisse Paredes, Madeleine O Saunders, David A Morilak
Poor response and high relapse rates remain problematic in the treatment of stress-related psychiatric disorders like depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While mechanisms of pharmacotherapies are intensely studied, little is known about mechanisms of behavioral therapy that could inform improved treatments. We have previously demonstrated the therapeutic effects of extinction learning as a behavioral intervention modeling exposure therapy in rats. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that activity in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) during extinction is necessary for its therapeutic effects...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335209/chameleon-like-behavior-of-indolylpiperidines-in-complex-with-cholinesterases-targets-potent-butyrylcholinesterase-inhibitors
#13
Talita P C Chierrito, Susimaire Pedersoli-Mantoani, Carlos Roca, Victor Sebastian-Pérez, Loreto Martínez-Gonzalez, Daniel I Pérez, Concepción Perez, Angeles Canales, F Javier Cañada, Nuria E Campillo, Ivone Carvalho, Ana Martinez
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia worldwide with an increasing prevalence for the next years. The multifactorial nature of AD precludes the design of new drugs directed to a single target being probably one of the reasons for recent failures. Therefore, dual binding site acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors have been revealed as cognitive enhancers and β-amyloid modulators offering an alternative in AD therapy field. Based on the dual ligands NP61 and donepezil, the present study reports the synthesis of a series of indolylpiperidines hybrids to optimize the NP61 structure preserving the indole nucleus, but replacing the tacrine moiety of NP61 by benzyl piperidine core found in donepezil...
January 5, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334684/aberrant-connectivity-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-disease-revealed-by-multimodal-neuroimaging-data
#14
Qing Li, Xia Wu, Fufang Xie, Kewei Chen, Li Yao, Jiacai Zhang, Xiaojuan Guo, Rui Li
BACKGROUND: Making use of multimodal data simultaneously to understand the neural mechanism of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been in the focus nowadays. The simultaneous use of multimodal data can take advantage of each modality which may only provide the view of one specific aspect of the brain. OBJECTIVE: To this end, the present study used structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and florbetapir PET to reveal the integrated brain network between MCI and normal controls (NCs)...
January 13, 2018: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333504/community-based-physical-activity-as-adjunctive-smoking-cessation-treatment-rationale-design-and-baseline-data-for-the-lifestyle-enhancement-program-leap-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Mark W Vander Weg, Mace Coday, Michelle B Stockton, Barbara McClanahan, George Relyea, Mary C Read, Nancy Wilson, Stephanie Connelly, Phyllis Richey, Karen C Johnson, Kenneth D Ward
Despite advances in behavioral and pharmacological treatment for tobacco use and dependence, quit rates remain suboptimal. Increasing physical activity has shown some promise as a strategy for improving cessation outcomes. However, initial efficacy studies focused on intensive, highly structured exercise programs that may not be applicable to the general population of smokers. We describe the rationale and study design and report baseline participant characteristics from the Lifestyle Enhancement Program (LEAP), a two-group, randomized controlled trial...
March 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332255/profiling-attention-and-cognition-enhancing-drugs-in-a-rat-touchscreen-based-continuous-performance-test
#16
Zhiyong Ding, Jordan W Brown, Lynne E Rueter, Eric G Mohler
RATIONALE: A novel rodent continuous performance test (CPT) was developed as one of the goals of the NEWMEDS (Novel Methods leading to New Medications in Depression and Schizophrenia) consortium to improve its translatability to the CPT test used in human subjects. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of attention and cognition enhancing drugs in rodent CPT. METHODS: A single cohort of rats were trained to asymptotic performance in the test...
January 13, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332052/when-art-meets-gardens-does-it-enhance-the-benefits-the-nancy-hypothesis-of-care-for-persons-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Thérèse Rivasseau Jonveaux, Reinhard Fescharek
The creation of healing gardens for persons with Alzheimer's disease and related diseases (ADRD) offers vast potential. They can play a role in the scaffolding of cognitive disorders, emotional stress, sensory processing, sense of harmony, and appeasement. These effects are achieved through a distributed interplay of psychological functions with the immediate environment and local culture on the one hand, and dialogue on the other. The garden, a natural canvas created by man, shares with art the ability to foster an esthetic sense for which the perception can be measured by functional neurological imaging exploration...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332050/supplemental-retinal-carotenoids-enhance-memory-in-healthy-individuals-with-low-levels-of-macular-pigment-in-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#18
Rebecca Power, Robert F Coen, Stephen Beatty, Riona Mulcahy, Rachel Moran, Jim Stack, Alan N Howard, John M Nolan
BACKGROUND: There is a biologically plausible rationale whereby the dietary carotenoids lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z), and meso-zeaxanthin (MZ), which are collectively referred to as macular pigment (MP) in the central retina (macula), support the maintenance of cognition via their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of supplemental L, Z, and MZ on memory, executive function, and verbal fluency among healthy individuals with low MP levels...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331971/a-study-protocol-for-a-non-randomised-comparison-trial-evaluating-the-feasibility-and-effectiveness-of-a-mobile-cognitive-behavioural-programme-with-integrated-coaching-for-anxious-adults-in-primary-care
#19
Eva Szigethy, Francis Solano, Meredith Wallace, Dina L Perry, Lauren Morrell, Kathryn Scott, Megan Jones Bell, Megan Oser
INTRODUCTION: Generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and subclinical GAD are highly prevalent in primary care. Unmanaged anxiety worsens quality of life in patients seen in primary care practices and leads to increased medical utilisation and costs. Programmes that teach patients cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) techniques have been shown to improve anxiety and to prevent the evolution of anxiety symptoms to disorders, but access and engagement have hampered integration of CBT into medical settings...
January 13, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331876/app-go-protein-g%C3%AE-%C3%AE-complex-signaling-mediates-a%C3%AE-degeneration-and-cognitive-impairment-in-alzheimer-s-disease-models
#20
Elena Anahi Bignante, Nicolás Eric Ponce, Florencia Heredia, Juliana Musso, María C Krawczyk, Julieta Millán, Gustavo F Pigino, Nibaldo C Inestrosa, Mariano M Boccia, Alfredo Lorenzo
Deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ), the proteolytic product of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), might cause neurodegeneration and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the direct involvement of APP in the mechanism of Aβ-induced degeneration in AD remains on debate. Here, we analyzed the interaction of APP with heterotrimeric Go protein in primary hippocampal cultures and found that Aβ deposition dramatically enhanced APP-Go protein interaction in dystrophic neurites. APP overexpression rendered neurons vulnerable to Aβ toxicity by a mechanism that required Go-Gβγ complex signaling and p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase activation...
December 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
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