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sex differences; anxiety

Ricardo Pagan
BACKGROUND: Although sleep is considered an essential part of individuals' lives, there are no previous studies analysing how sleep duration affects the levels of life satisfaction reported by males and females with disabilities. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: To analyse and compare the impact of hours of sleep on life satisfaction scores reported by people without and with disabilities (stratified by sex) in Germany. METHODS: Using data taken from the German Socio-Economic Panel for the period 2008-2013, we estimate life satisfaction equations for males and females (running a fixed-effects model) which include a set of variables measuring the number of sleep hours on workdays and weekends...
October 11, 2016: Disability and Health Journal
Rafael Mesquita, Frits M E Franssen, Sarah Houben-Wilke, Nicole H M K Uszko-Lencer, Lowie E G W Vanfleteren, Yvonne M J Goërtz, Fabio Pitta, Emiel F M Wouters, Martijn A Spruit
BACKGROUND: It remains unknown whether and to what extent impaired left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) affects physical and psychological status in COPD. We aimed to compare health outcome measures between COPD patients with and without impaired LVEF after adjusting for age, sex, BMI and FEV1. METHODS: Impaired LVEF was defined as values <50%. 85 COPD patients with impaired LVEF and 85 COPD patients with normal LVEF were matched for sex, age, BMI and FEV1...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Saeid Komasi, Mozhgan Saeidi
BACKGROUND: To investigate the role of sex and age differences in marital conflict and stress of patients who were under cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program. METHODS: The data of this cross-sectional study were collected from the database of the CR Department of Imam Ali Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran. The demographics and medical data of 683 persons were collected from January 2003 and January 2010 using medical records, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Hudson's Index of Marital Stress, and the Structured Clinical Interview for axis I disorders...
May 2016: ARYA Atherosclerosis
Heba A Abdel Sadek, Mervat W Abu-Nazel, Zeinab N Shata, Nesrin K Abd El-Fatah
BACKGROUND: Although the relationship between obesity and depression has been researched extensively, the relation of the wide range of body-weight problems, as indicated by the BMI, to emotional health problems has received little attention. OBJECTIVES: To assess the rate of concomitant co-occurrence of emotional health and weight problems in Alexandria University students, and to investigate the relationship between their BMI and emotional status. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 842 university students (17-27 years), enrolled in four faculties of Alexandria University, Egypt, during the academic year 2012-2013...
September 2016: Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association
Lauren B Alloy, Jessica L Hamilton, Elissa J Hamlat, Lyn Y Abramson
Adolescence marks the emergence of sex differences in internalizing symptoms and disorders, with girls at increased risk for depression and anxiety during the pubertal transition. However, the mechanisms through which puberty confers risk for internalizing psychopathology for girls, but not boys, remain unclear. We examined two pubertal indicators (pubertal status and timing) as predictors of the development of emotion regulation styles (rumination and emotional clarity) and depressive and anxiety symptoms and disorders in a three-wave study of 314 adolescents...
September 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
Morganne A Kraines, Lucas J A Kelberer, Tony T Wells
Research demonstrates that women experience disgust more readily and with more intensity than men. The experience of disgust is associated with increased attention to disgust-related stimuli, but no prior study has examined sex differences in attention to disgust facial expressions. We hypothesised that women, compared to men, would demonstrate increased attention to disgust facial expressions. Participants (n = 172) completed an eye tracking task to measure visual attention to emotional facial expressions...
October 15, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
Siyang Yan, Amanda C Kentner
Exposure to painful procedures and/or stressors during the early neonatal period can reprogram the underlying neurocircuitry involved in nociception and neuropathic pain perception. The reprogramming of these systems can result in an enduring elevation in sensitivity towards mechanical and thermal stimuli. Recent evidence suggests that exposure to mild inflammatory mediators during the neonatal period can induce similar pain responses in both adolescent and adult rats. Therefore, we sought to profile changes in the expression of several genes across brain areas involved in the active modulation of nociception and neuropathic pain using a well-recognized model of neonatal inflammation...
October 11, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
David A Moskowitz, Michael E Roloff
Research on gay and bisexual men's sexual position self-label (i.e., being a top, bottom, or versatile during anal sex) has revealed only independent snapshots of its development by focusing primarily on the influence of penis size. Moreover, the basic chronology of development of the sexual position self-label has barely been addressed. In response, we implemented a survey of 282 gay and bisexual men that measured demographics (including height and penis size), age of sexual recognitions, sexual position self-label, and attitudinal constructs suggested by previous literature as important (e...
October 12, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Joakim Öhlén, Lara Russell, Cecilia Håkanson, Anette Alvariza, Carl Johan Fürst, Kristofer Årestedt, Richard Sawatzky
CONTEXT: Symptom relief is a key goal of palliative care. There is a need to consider complexities in symptom relief patterns for groups of people in order to understand and evaluate symptom relief as an indicator of quality of care at end of life. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to distinguish classes of patients who have different symptom relief patterns during the last week of life and to identify predictors of these classes in an adult register population...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Edith V Sullivan, Barton Lane, Dongjin Kwon, M J Meloy, Susan F Tapert, Sandra A Brown, Ian M Colrain, Fiona C Baker, Michael D De Bellis, Duncan B Clark, Bonnie J Nagel, Kilian M Pohl, Adolf Pfefferbaum
Structural MRI of volunteers deemed "normal" following clinical interview provides a window into normal brain developmental morphology but also reveals unexpected dysmorphology, commonly known as "incidental findings." Although unanticipated, these anatomical findings raise questions regarding possible treatment that could even ultimately require neurosurgical intervention, which itself carries significant risk but may not be indicated if the anomaly is nonprogressive or of no functional consequence. Neuroradiological readings of 833 structural MRI from the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) cohort found an 11...
October 8, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Thaíse Campos Mondin, Taiane de Azevedo Cardoso, Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza, Karen Jansen, Pedro Vieira da Silva Magalhães, Flávio Kapczinski, Ricardo Azevedo da Silva
BACKGROUND: It is known that sleep disturbance has been considered a trait-marker of mood disorders. However, the role of disruptions in biological rhythms, such as eating, activity, and social patterns, needs to be better understood. AIM: To assess the differences in biological rhythms in subjects with bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and healthy controls. We also tested the association between disruptions of biological rhythms and circadian preferences...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Jaime Barrientos, Fabiola Gómez, Manuel Cárdenas
This paper examines the levels of subjective well-being (psychological and social well-being, subjective happiness, and satisfaction with life) and clinical symptomatology (anxiety, depression, somatization, hostility, and phobic anxiety) in a transwomen sample (n = 112). The sample was recruited through a snowball procedure in Chile (Santiago, Valparaíso, and Arica). Data obtained are compared to those from a group of Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) (n = 323). Results reveal statistically significant differences in the levels of happiness (t(157) = 2...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Homosexuality
Marc B Lande, Donald L Batisky, Juan C Kupferman, Joshua Samuels, Stephen R Hooper, Bonita Falkner, Shari R Waldstein, Peter G Szilagyi, Hongyue Wang, Jennifer Staskiewicz, Heather R Adams
OBJECTIVE: To compare neurocognitive test performance of children with primary hypertension with that of normotensive controls. STUDY DESIGN: Seventy-five children (10-18 years of age) with newly diagnosed, untreated hypertension and 75 frequency-matched normotensive controls had baseline neurocognitive testing as part of a prospective multicenter study of cognition in primary hypertension. Subjects completed tests of general intelligence, attention, memory, executive function, and processing speed...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
S Garthus-Niegel, S Ayers, J Martini, T von Soest, M Eberhard-Gran
BACKGROUND: Against the background of very limited evidence, the present study aimed to prospectively examine the impact of maternal postpartum post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms on four important areas of child development, i.e. gross motor, fine motor, communication and social-emotional development. METHOD: This study is part of the large, population-based Akershus Birth Cohort. Data from the hospital's birth record as well as questionnaire data from 8 weeks and 2 years postpartum were used (n = 1472)...
September 29, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Emna Toulgui, Sonia Jemni, Frioui Samia, Nadia Lazreg, Sahbi Mtaouaa, Fayçal Khachnaoui
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine depression in mothers of children with CP, with hypothesis to have an elevated risk of anxiety and depressive profile among mothers of children with cerebral palsy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study is a descriptive cross-sectional survey conducted at The Physical and Rehability Department of Sahloul Hospital in Tunisia. Where included 62 children with cerebral palsy with their mothers. The inclusion criteria for the study were being the mothers of a child having a CP and aged more than two years...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Sameh Ghroubi, Islem Feki, Hedi Chelly, Mohamed Habib Elleuch
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to evaluate the different neuropsychological and behavioral disorders of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to study their correlations with the epidemiological and neurotraumatic characteristics. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: It was a cross-sectional study including 30 patients with TBI conducted in the physical medicine and rehabilitation department. The analysis of memory impairment was performed by the (MMS) and the (GOAT) tests...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Kathryn E Flynn, Li Lin, Deborah Watkins Bruner, Jill M Cyranowski, Elizabeth A Hahn, Diana D Jeffery, Jennifer Barsky Reese, Bryce B Reeve, Rebecca A Shelby, Kevin P Weinfurt
INTRODUCTION: Discussions about sexual health are uncommon in clinical encounters, despite the sexual dysfunction associated with many common health conditions. Understanding of the importance of sexual health and sexual satisfaction in U.S. adults is limited. AIM: To provide epidemiologic data on the importance of sexual health for quality of life and people's satisfaction with their sex lives and to examine how each is associated with demographic and health factors...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Mu-Hong Chen, Tai-Long Pan, Ju-Wei Hsu, Kai-Lin Huang, Tung-Ping Su, Cheng-Ta Li, Wei-Chen Lin, Shih-Jen Tsai, Wen-Han Chang, Tzeng-Ji Chen, Ya-Mei Bai
The comorbidity between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depression is common. However, the influence of ADHD comorbidity in the response or resistance to antidepressants remains unknown among patients with major depression. 1891 patients with major depression and ADHD and 1891 age-/sex-matched patients with major depression only were enrolled and followed for 1 year in our study. Use of antidepressants and ADHD medications during 1-year follow-up period were assessed. Antidepressant resistance was defined as treatment failure in two or more than two different antidepressants for adequate treatment dose and duration...
September 22, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Nicole Prause, Lambert Kuang, Peter Lee, Geoffrey Miller
INTRODUCTION: Most women report that clitoral stimulation is an integral aspect of their orgasm experience. Thus, recent claims that vaginal stimulation and vaginally generated orgasms are superior to clitoral stimulation and clitorally generated orgasms pathologize most women and maintain a clitoral vs vaginal dichotomy that might not accurately reflect the complexity of women's sexual experience. AIM: To have women report on their experienced source of orgasm, including combinations of vaginal and clitoral stimulation, the solo or partnered context of the stimulation, and the intensity of the orgasms from different sources and to predict indicators of mental health and sexual health using the orgasm source...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Rachel Puralewski, Georgia Vasilakis, Marianne L Seney
BACKGROUND: Women are twice as likely to be diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) compared to men, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this sex difference are unclear. Previous studies in the human postmortem brain suggest dysfunction in basolateral amygdala (BLA) inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) function, specifically in females with MDD. METHODS: We investigated the effects of sex chromosome complement, developmental gonadal sex, and circulating testosterone on expression of 3 GABA-related and 2 BDNF-related genes in the BLA using three cohorts of four core genotypes (FCG) mice...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
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