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sex differences; anxiety

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142058/juvenile-female-rats-but-not-male-rats-show-renewal-reinstatement-and-spontaneous-recovery-following-extinction-of-conditioned-fear
#1
Chun Hui J Park, Despina E Ganella, Jee Hyun Kim
Anxiety disorders emerge early, and girls are significantly more likely to develop anxiety compared to boys. However, sex differences in fear during development are poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated juvenile male and female rats in the relapse behaviors following extinction of conditioned fear. In all experiments, 18-d-old rats first received three white-noise-footshock pairings on day 1. On day 2, extinction involved 60 white-noise alone trials. In experiment 1, we examined renewal by testing the rats in either the same or different context as extinction on day 3...
December 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138656/-hyperthyroidism-in-children-at-the-university-hospital-in-dakar-senegal
#2
Djibril Boiro, Demba Diédhiou, Babacar Niang, Djiby Sow, Mandiaye Mbodj, Anna Sarr, Aliou Abdoulaye Ndongo, Aliou Thiongane, Modou Guèye, Lamine Thiam, Ndiogou Seck, Yaay Joor Dieng, Abou Ba, Idrissa Demba Ba, Ibrahima Mané Diallo, Ousmane Ndiaye, Said Nourou Diop
Introduction: Hyperthyroidism in children is rare and constitutes a problem because of its psychosomatic impact. This study aimed to present an overview of the state of knowledge on these aspects in children from Dakar. Methods: We conducted a multicenter, descriptive study over a period of 15 years. We evaluated the epidemiological, clinical and etiologic aspects of hyperthyroidism in children. Results: 239 patients were included in the study with a prevalence of 2...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135728/internal-distraction-resulted-in-improved-patient-reported-outcomes-for-midface-hypoplasia
#3
David I Hindin, Corbin E Muetterties, Justine C Lee, Anand Kumar, Henry K Kawamoto, James P Bradley
BACKGROUND: Both internal and external distraction devices have been used successfully in correcting midface hypoplasia. Although the indication for surgery and the osteotomy techniques may be similar, deciding when to use internal versus external devices has not been studied. The authors studied patient-reported outcomes with FACE-Q and functional surveys for internal and external devices for midface distraction patients. METHODS: Patients who underwent distraction advancement after Le Fort I and Le Fort III were surveyed using the FACE-Q survey and a functional survey...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129183/targeting-mental-health-care-attributes-by-diagnosis-and-clinical-stage-the-views-of-youth-mental-health-clinicians
#4
Matthew P Hamilton, Sarah E Hetrick, Cathrine Mihalopoulos, David Baker, Vivienne Browne, Andrew M Chanen, Kerryn Pennell, Rosemary Purcell, Heather Stavely, Patrick D McGorry
OBJECTIVES: To explore the potential utility of clinical stage and mental disorder categories as a basis for determining which attributes of youth mental health care should be offered to which groups of young people. METHODS: In June 2017, we conducted an online survey of youth mental health clinicians that collected information on the participants' background and areas of expertise, then presented vignettes describing young people with different stages of six mental disorders (disorder-based vignettes were matched to participants' area of expertise)...
November 20, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125095/social-comparison-orientation-in-monozygotic-and-dizygotic-twins
#5
Pascal Huguet, Michèle Carlier, Conor V Dolan, Eco J de Geus, Dorret I Boomsma
Twin research has offered evidence that monozygotic (MZ) twins are more socially close than dizygotic (DZ) twins, but has not paid much attention to the way twins compare themselves with their co-twin. The few studies in this area suggest that 'horizontal comparisons' (social comparison motivated by solidarity or communion with others) matter more for MZ twins than for DZ twins, at least when the co-twin is the social comparison standard. Consistent with this view, we predicted higher interest in MZ twins relative to DZ twins to select their co-twin rather than other people in general as the social comparison standard...
November 10, 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124290/predicting-psychiatric-readmission-sex-specific-models-to-predict-30-day-readmission-following-acute-psychiatric-hospitalization
#6
Lucy Church Barker, Andrea Gruneir, Kinwah Fung, Nathan Herrmann, Paul Kurdyak, Elizabeth Lin, Paula A Rochon, Dallas Seitz, Valerie H Taylor, Simone N Vigod
PURPOSE: Psychiatric readmission is a common negative outcome. Predictors of readmission may differ by sex. This study aimed to derive and internally validate sex-specific models to predict 30-day psychiatric readmission. METHODS: We used population-level health administrative data to identify predictors of 30-day psychiatric readmission among women (n = 33,353) and men (n = 32,436) discharged from all psychiatric units in Ontario, Canada (2008-2011). Predictor variables included sociodemographics, health service utilization, and clinical characteristics...
November 9, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111200/quality-of-life-psychological-functioning-and-treatment-satisfaction-of-men-who-have-undergone-penile-prosthesis-surgery-following-robot-assisted-radical-prostatectomy
#7
Brindha Pillay, Daniel Moon, Christopher Love, Denny Meyer, Emma Ferguson, Helen Crowe, Nicholas Howard, Sarah Mann, Addie Wootten
BACKGROUND: Penile prosthesis surgery is last-line treatment to regaining erectile function after radical prostatectomy (RP) for localized prostate cancer. AIMS: To assess quality of life, psychological functioning, and treatment satisfaction of men who underwent penile implantation after RP; the psychosocial correlates of treatment satisfaction and sexual function after surgery; and the relation between patients' and partners' ratings of treatment satisfaction...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110024/parenting-style-and-mental-disorders-in-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-us-adolescents
#8
John David Eun, Diana Paksarian, Jian-Ping He, Kathleen Ries Merikangas
PURPOSE: We examined associations between parenting style and past-year mental disorders in a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of US adolescents and whether the associations differed by adolescent demographic characteristics. METHODS: The sample included 6483 adolescents aged 13-18 years who were interviewed for a full range of DSM-IV mental disorders. Parenting style was assessed by adolescent-reported maternal and paternal care and control using items from the Parental Bonding Instrument...
November 6, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109664/a-cross-sectional-study-of-psychiatric-disorders-in-medical-sciences-students
#9
Farkhondeh Jamshidi, Sasan Mogehi, Maria Cheraghi, Seiedeh Farzaneh Jafari, Iman Kabi, Leila Rashidi
Introduction: Aim of article was to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders (depression, social dysfunction, anxiety and somatic symptoms) and some of its influencing factors in freshmen at Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study which has conducted among 781 new students of all faculties of University in 2014. A study tool was the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ28). Results: Founding of this study has shown that from 781 students under study (33% male and 67% female)...
September 2017: Materia Socio-medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109260/natural-language-indicators-of-differential-gene-regulation-in-the-human-immune-system
#10
Matthias R Mehl, Charles L Raison, Thaddeus W W Pace, Jesusa M G Arevalo, Steve W Cole
Adverse social conditions have been linked to a conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA) in circulating leukocytes that may contribute to social gradients in disease. However, the CNS mechanisms involved remain obscure, in part because CTRA gene-expression profiles often track external social-environmental variables more closely than they do self-reported internal affective states such as stress, depression, or anxiety. This study examined the possibility that variations in patterns of natural language use might provide more sensitive indicators of the automatic threat-detection and -response systems that proximally regulate autonomic induction of the CTRA...
November 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102870/depression-and-associated-factors-in-nondemented-chinese-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Jun Zhu, Liyu Lu, Yang Pan, Bo Shen, Shulan Xu, Yuchao Hou, Xiangrong Zhang, Li Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Depression is more common in Parkinson's disease (PD) than other chronic and disabling disorders. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and identify potential risk factors influencing depression in 519 consecutive nondemented Chinese PD patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Depression was assessed using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD), PD severity was assessed using Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) staging, motor symptoms were measured with the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) part III, and the Non-Motor Symptoms Questionnaire (NMS-Quest) was used to evaluate the global non-motor symptoms (NMS)...
October 31, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097595/determining-the-neural-substrate-for-encoding-a-memory-of-human-pain-and-the-influence-of-anxiety
#12
Ming-Tsung Tseng, Yazhuo Kong, Falk Eippert, Irene Tracey
To convert a painful stimulus into a briefly maintainable construct when the painful stimulus is no longer accessible is essential to guide human behavior and avoid dangerous situations. Due to the aversive nature of pain, this encoding process might be influenced by emotional aspects and could thus vary across individuals, but we have yet to understand both the basic underlying neural mechanisms as well as potential inter-individual differences. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in combination with a delayed-discrimination task in healthy volunteers of both sexes, we discovered that brain regions involved in this working memory encoding process were dissociable according to whether the to-be-remembered stimulus was painful or not, with the medial thalamus and the rostral anterior cingulate cortex encoding painful and the primary somatosensory cortex encoding non-painful stimuli...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096718/stress-amplifies-sex-differences-in-primate-prefrontal-profiles-of-gene-expression
#13
Alex G Lee, Megan Hagenauer, Devin Absher, Kathleen E Morrison, Tracy L Bale, Richard M Myers, Stanley J Watson, Huda Akil, Alan F Schatzberg, David M Lyons
BACKGROUND: Stress is a recognized risk factor for mood and anxiety disorders that occur more often in women than men. Prefrontal brain regions mediate stress coping, cognitive control, and emotion. Here, we investigate sex differences and stress effects on prefrontal cortical profiles of gene expression in squirrel monkey adults. METHODS: Dorsolateral, ventrolateral, and ventromedial prefrontal cortical regions from 18 females and 12 males were collected after stress or no-stress treatment conditions...
November 2, 2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096131/winter-birth-urbanicity-and-immigrant-status-predict-psychometric-schizotypy-dimensions-in-adolescents
#14
D Mimarakis, T Roumeliotaki, P Roussos, S G Giakoumaki, P Bitsios
BACKGROUND: Urbanicity, immigration and winter-birth are stable epidemiological risk factors for schizophrenia, but their relationship to schizotypy is unknown. This is a first examination of the association of these epidemiological risk factors with positive schizotypy, in nonclinical adolescents, controlling for a range of potential and known confounders. METHODS: We collected socio-demographics, life-style, family and school circumstances, positive schizotypy dimensions and other personality traits from 445 high school pupils (192 males, 158 immigrants) from 9 municipalities in Athens and Heraklion, Greece, which covered a range of host population and migrant densities...
September 18, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095747/sleep-sufficiency-in-pediatric-and-adolescent-tourette-s-disorder-national-survey-of-children-s-health
#15
Emily J Ricketts, Michelle Rozenman, Caitlin Choy, Hannah B Goldberg, Jessica S Kim, Christopher S Colwell, James T McCracken, John Piacentini
OBJECTIVE: The present study compared sleep sufficiency in youth with current Tourette's disorder (TD), history of TD and matched case controls, and examined predictors of sufficient sleep using a large US population-based survey. METHOD: Participants were 673 caregivers of youth aged 6 to 17 years (298 with current TD, 122 with a history of TD with no endorsement of current diagnosis, and 254 matched case controls) from the 2007 and 2011-2012 versions of the National Survey of Children's Health...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095515/increased-odds-of-bladder-and-bowel-symptoms-in-early-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Monica C Serra, Alexus Landry, Jorge L Juncos, Alayne D Markland, Kathryn L Burgio, Patricia S Goode, Theodore M Johnson, Camille P Vaughan
AIMS: To compare the prevalence of urinary and bowel symptoms in a sample of adults with early Parkinson's disease (PD) and healthy controls (HC). METHODS: Data were obtained from the Michael J. Fox Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI). Prevalent bladder (urinary incontinence (UI) and nighttime voiding) and bowel (constipation and fecal incontinence (FI)) symptoms were defined as occurring at least sometimes when queried using the Scale for Outcomes in PD for Autonomic Symptoms...
November 2, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094921/endosulfan-and-cypermethrin-pesticide-mixture-induces-synergistic-or-antagonistic-effects-on-developmental-exposed-rats-depending-on-the-analyzed-behavioral-or-neurochemical-end-points
#17
Belén Gómez-Giménez, Marta Llansola, Andrea Cabrera-Pastor, Vicente Hernández-Rabaza, Ana Agustí, Vicente Felipo
Exposure to pesticides has been associated with neurodevelopmental toxicity. Usually people are exposed to mixtures of pesticides. However, most studies analyze the effects of individual pesticides. Developmental exposure to mixtures of pesticides may result in additive effects or in antagonistic or synergistic effects. The aim of this work was to compare the effects of developmental exposure of rats to cypermethrin or endosulfan with the effects of its mixture on cognitive and motor function and on some underlying mechanisms...
November 13, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093580/mental-condition-and-specificity-of-mental-disorders-in-a-group-of-workers-from-southern-poland-a-research-report
#18
Bernadetta Izydorczyk
BACKGROUND: The aim of this work is to provide empirical evidence regarding types and increasing prevalence of mental disorders affecting Polish working population in the years 2014-2016. The research questions concerned the specific characteristics of the types of mental disorders and their prevalence as well as the differences between males and females. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Types of mental disorders were investigated using a clinical method, a structured interview, as well as medical record data gathered in the years 2014-2016 in one mental health treatment center...
October 30, 2017: Medycyna Pracy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092782/psychopathological-constellation-in-patients-with-pnes-a-new-hypothesis
#19
Iolanda Martino, Antonella Bruni, Angelo Labate, Roberta Vasta, Antonio Cerasa, Giuseppe Borzì, Pasquale De Fazio, Antonio Gambardella
Depression symptoms have often reported in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), although the underlying psychopathological symptomatology has been poorly understood. Our aim was to compare constellations of psychological and behavioral disturbance in PNES with respect to patients with mild-major depressive disorder (MDD), hypothesizing that the construct of depression might be different in the two groups. Ten patients with PNES and ten sex-/age-matched patients with mild-MDD newly-diagnosed, were enrolled in this study...
October 29, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089246/osteoarthritis-and-other-long-term-health-conditions-in-former-elite-cricketers
#20
Mary E Jones, Madeleine A M Davies, Kirsten M Leyland, Antonella Delmestri, Angus Porter, Jason Ratcliffe, Nick Peirce, Julia L Newton, Nigel K Arden
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe the prevalence and risk of chronic conditions in former elite cricketers compared to a normal population, and describe wellbeing in former elite cricketers. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Former elite cricketers, recruited from the Professional Cricketers' Association, completed a self-report cross-sectional questionnaire. The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) served as the normal population...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
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