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sex differences; anxiety

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093793/the-sex-dependent-effects-of-letrozole-on-anxiety-in-middle-aged-rats
#1
Veronika Borbélyová, Emese Domonkos, Melinda Csongová, Mária Kačmárová, Daniela Ostatníková, Peter Celec, Július Hodosy
Aromatase catalyzes the conversion of testosterone to estradiol and is involved in physiological effects of sex hormones on brain functions. Animal experiments have shown that the aromatase inhibitor, letrozole, can induce anxiety in young ovariectomized females that are used as a model of aging. Whether or not these effects would be similar in intact middle-aged animals is unknown. The aim of our study was to analyze the effects of letrozole on anxiety in middle-aged rats of both sexes. Fifteen months old male and female rats were treated daily with either letrozole or vehicle for 2 weeks...
January 16, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088551/individual-and-sex-differences-in-high-and-low-responder-phenotypes
#2
María B Carreira, Ricardo Cossio, Gabrielle B Britton
Individual differences in responses to a novel environment are an important tool to predict predisposition to neuropsychiatric disorders. One way to examine individual differences involves classifying animals based on locomotion in a novel context. In this study we focused on individual and sex differences by categorizing female and male mice as high (HR) or low responders (LR) on the basis of open field locomotion. We then assessed whether groups differed on behavioral measures of spontaneous alternations, anxiety, depression and contextual fear conditioning...
January 11, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069466/voice-disorders-in-older-adults-living-in-nursing-homes-prevalence-and-associated-factors
#3
Leandro Pernambuco, Albert Espelt, Amanda C B Góis, Kenio Costa de Lima
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence and the associated factors with voice disorders (VDs) in older adults living in nursing homes. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: A sample of 117 Brazilian individuals of both sexes and preserved cognitive function, aged >59 years, living in 10 nursing homes, was studied. VDs were screened using the validated tool "Rastreamento de Alterações Vocais em Idosos" (RAVI-Screening for Voice Disorders in Older Adults)...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043898/effects-of-acute-caffeine-on-anxiety-related-behavior-in-rats-chronically-exposed-to-the-drug-with-some-evidence-of-possible-withdrawal-reversal
#4
Robert N Hughes, Nicola J Hancock
For 20days male and female PVG/c hooded rats were provided with caffeinated (approximately 50mg/kg/day) or unadulterated drinking water, and then their anxiety-related behavior was observed in an open field and elevated plus maze. Their choices of a brightness change were also observed in a Y maze to assess any caffeine effects on spatial memory. 24h later, all rats were tested again following an intraperitoneal injection of 50mg/kg acute caffeine, or vehicle. Earlier chronic caffeine decreased ambulation, walking, rearing, center occupancy and increased immobility in the open field thereby suggesting increased anxiety...
December 30, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040450/cortical-inhibitory-and-excitatory-function-in-drug-naive-generalized-anxiety-disorder
#5
Cheng-Ta Li, Chia-Feng Lu, Hui-Ching Lin, Ying-Zu Huang, Chi-Hung Juan, Tung-Ping Su, Ya-Mei Bai, Mu-Hong Chen, Wei-Chen Lin
BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence suggests that deficits in GABAergic inhibitory and glutamatergic excitatory neurotransmission may be involved in the core pathophysiology of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), a disease characterized by pathological anxious worrying. The aim of the present study was to measure motor cortical excitability by paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) in patients with GAD. METHODS: ppTMS measurements of excitation and inhibition from bilateral motor cortices were investigated in 26 right-handed GAD patients who were drug-naïve (half of them with a comorbidity of major depressive disorder) and 35 right-handed age- and sex-matched healthy controls...
December 21, 2016: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039531/stress-and-psychopathology-and-its-impact-on-quality-of-life-in-chronic-anal-fissure-caf-patients
#6
Özden Arısoy, Neriman Şengül, Affan Çakir
BACKGROUND: Chronic anal fissure (CAF) onset, exacerbation, and impact on quality of life are influenced by a host of psychological, physiological, and social factors. We aimed to investigate the difference in psychopathology and stress between normal and CAF groups. METHODS: Thirty CAF patients and 20 age-sex matched healthy controls were evaluated for Axis I psychopathology, depression, anxiety, and stress with Hamilton and Hospital Depression-Anxiety Scales, Perceived Stress Scale, and SF-36...
December 30, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033197/impact-of-panic-attacks-on-bronchoconstriction-and-subjective-distress-in-asthma-patients-with-and-without-panic-disorder
#7
Maxine Boudreau, Simon L Bacon, Nicola J Paine, André Cartier, Barbara Trutschnigg, Alexandre Morizio, Kim L Lavoie
OBJECTIVES: Panic disorder (PD) is common among asthmatics and is associated with worse asthma outcomes. This may occur due to psychophysiological factors or to cognitive/affective factors. This study evaluated the impact of panic attacks (PAs) on bronchoconstriction and subjective distress in asthmatics with and without PD. METHODS: A total of 25 asthmatics (15 with PD who had a PA [PD/PA], 10 without PD who didn't have a PA [noPD/noPA]) were recruited from an outpatient clinic...
December 28, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025364/-managing-the-placebo-effect-the-single-blind-placebo-lead-in-response-in-two-pain-models
#8
R Norman Harden, Meryem Saracoglu, Sara Connolly, Amy Kirsling, Kelly Comstock, Katherine Khazey, Trevor Gerson, John Burns
OBJECTIVE: "Placebo effects" in analgesic medication trials for chronic pain are pervasive; however, little is known regarding mechanisms or factors that may influence the presence or magnitude of these effects. Our objective is to consider elements of the placebo response in the context of two pain models using a "single-blind placebo lead-in" design (SBPLI). METHODS: As part of two pilot drug trials using knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and non-radicular low back pain (LBP) subjects, SBPLI protocols were conducted...
December 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025041/effect-of-lps-treatment-on-tyrosine-hydroxylase-expression-and-parkinson-like-behaviors
#9
Olivier Girard-Joyal, Nafissa Ismail
Puberty is a critical period of development during which the brain undergoes reorganizing and remodeling. Exposure to stress during this period is thought to interfere with normal brain development and increase susceptibility to mental illnesses. In female mice, pubertal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial endotoxin, has been shown to alter sexual, anxiety-like, and depression-like behaviors and cognition in an enduring manner. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unknown. The present study examined age and sex difference in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and dopamine-dependent and Parkinson-like behaviors following LPS treatment...
December 24, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018214/total-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-mri-score-is-associated-with-cognitive-decline-in-executive-function-in-patients-with-hypertension
#10
Renske Uiterwijk, Robert J van Oostenbrugge, Marjolein Huijts, Peter W De Leeuw, Abraham A Kroon, Julie Staals
Objectives: Hypertension is a major risk factor for white matter hyperintensities (WMH), lacunes, cerebral microbleeds, and perivascular spaces, which are MRI markers of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). Studies have shown associations between these individual MRI markers and cognitive functioning and decline. Recently, a "total SVD score" was proposed in which the different MRI markers were combined into one measure of SVD, to capture total SVD-related brain damage. We investigated if this SVD score was associated with cognitive decline over 4 years in patients with hypertension...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017919/relationship-of-a-common-oxtr-gene-variant-to-brain-structure-and-default-mode-network-function-in-healthy-humans
#11
Junping Wang, Meredith N Braskie, George W Hafzalla, Joshua Faskowitz, Katie L McMahon, Greig I de Zubicaray, Margaret J Wright, Chunshui Yu, Paul M Thompson
A large body of research suggests that oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene polymorphisms may influence both social behaviors and psychiatric conditions related to social deficits, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), schizophrenia, and mood and anxiety disorders. However, the neural mechanism underlying these associations is still unclear. Relative to controls, patients with these psychiatric conditions show differences in brain structure, and in resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) signal synchronicity among default mode network (DMN) regions (also known as functional connectivity)...
December 23, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017851/immediate-and-delayed-anxiety-and-depression-like-profiles-in-the-adolescent-wistar-kyoto-rat-model-of-endogenous-depression-following-postweaning-social-isolation
#12
Reshma A Shetty, Monika Sadananda
In order to understand links that exist between inherited risk or predisposition, brain and behavioural development, endocrine regulation and social/environmental stimuli, animal models are crucial. The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat has been shown to have validity as a model of adult and adolescent depression. While sex- and age-specific differences in some of the face, predictive and construct validities of the model such as depression-like behaviours have been established, anhedonia and anxiety using other induced anxiety paradigms such as elevated plus maze remain equivocal...
December 23, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013357/physical-activity-but-not-sedentary-activity-is-reduced-in-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#13
Wan-Fai Ng, Ariana Miller, Simon J Bowman, Elizabeth J Price, George D Kitas, Colin Pease, Paul Emery, Peter Lanyon, John Hunter, Monica Gupta, Ian Giles, David Isenberg, John McLaren, Marian Regan, Annie Cooper, Steven A Young-Min, Neil McHugh, Saravanan Vadivelu, Robert J Moots, David Coady, Kirsten MacKay, Bhaskar Dasgupta, Nurhan Sutcliffe, Michele Bombardieri, Costantino Pitzalis, Bridget Griffiths, Sheryl Mitchell, Samira Tatiyama Miyamoto, Michael Trenell
The aim of the study was to evaluate the levels of physical activity in individuals with primary Sjögren's syndrome (PSS) and its relationship to the clinical features of PSS. To this cross-sectional study, self-reported levels of physical activity from 273 PSS patients were measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short form (IPAQ-SF) and were compared with healthy controls matched for age, sex and body mass index. Fatigue and other clinical aspects of PSS including disease status, dryness, daytime sleepiness, dysautonomia, anxiety and depression were assessed using validated tools...
December 24, 2016: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009630/sex-differences-in-the-efficacy-of-psychological-therapies-for-the-management-of-chronic-and-recurrent-pain-in-children-and-adolescents-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Katelynn E Boerner, Christopher Eccleston, Christine T Chambers, Edmund Keogh
Sex differences in chronic pain are reported to emerge during adolescence, although it is unclear if this includes responses to treatment. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine whether sex differences were present on outcome variables at pre-treatment, and whether the efficacy of psychological therapies for pediatric chronic pain differs between boys and girls at post-treatment and follow-up time points. Searches were conducted, extending two existing Cochrane reviews of randomized-controlled trials examining the efficacy of psychological therapies for chronic and recurrent pain in children and adolescents...
December 15, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008793/social-isolation-alters-central-nervous-system-monoamine-content-in-prairie-voles-following-acute-restraint
#15
Neal McNeal, Eden M Anderson, Deirdre Moenk, Diane Trahanas, Leslie Matuszewich, Angela J Grippo
Animal models have shown that social isolation and other forms of social stress lead to depressive- and anxiety-relevant behaviors, as well as neuroendocrine and physiological dysfunction. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of prior social isolation on neurotransmitter content following acute restraint in prairie voles. Animals were either paired with a same-sex sibling or isolated for four weeks. Plasma adrenal hormones and ex vivo tissue concentrations of monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites were measured following an acute restraint stressor in all animals...
December 23, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000794/parental-life-events-cause-behavioral-difference-among-offspring-adult-pre-gestational-restraint-stress-reduces-anxiety-across-generations
#16
Nan He, Qiao-Qiao Kong, Jun-Zuo Wang, Shu-Fen Ning, Yi-Long Miao, Hong-Jie Yuan, Shuai Gong, Xiang-Zhong Cui, Chuan-Yong Li, Jing-He Tan
While effects of gestational, neonatal or adolescent stress on psychological alterations in progeny have been extensively studied, much less is known regarding the effects of adult pre-gestational life events on offspring behavior. Although full siblings often display behavioral differences, whether the different parental life events prior to different pregnancies contribute to these behavioral differences among siblings is worth studying. In this study, male and female adult mice were restrained for 60 days before mating with unstressed or stressed partners...
December 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999678/associations-between-obesity-and-mental-distress-in-late-midlife-results-from-a-large-danish-community-sample
#17
Cathrine Lawaetz Wimmelmann, Rikke Lund, Ulla Christensen, Merete Osler, Erik Lykke Mortensen
BACKGROUND: To examine associations of Body mass Index (BMI) and mental distress in late midlife in a large Danish community sample and to investigate the effect of socio-demographic factors. METHODS: The study sample comprised 3613 Danish men and 1673 women aged 49-63 years from the Copenhagen Ageing and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) with complete information on measured BMI, severity of mental symptoms assessed by the Symptom Check-List' (SCL-90), and socio-demographic factors including sex, age, occupational social class, and educational duration...
2016: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999530/disturbed-interhemispheric-functional-connectivity-rather-than-structural-connectivity-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#18
Rongfeng Qi, Chang Liu, Yifei Weng, Qiang Xu, Liya Chen, Fangyu Wang, Long J Zhang, Guang M Lu
Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-a relapsing functional bowel disorder-presents with disrupted brain connections. However, little is known about the alterations of interhemispheric functional connectivity and underlying structural connectivity in IBS. This study combined resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate changes in interhemispheric coordination in IBS patients. Resting-state functional and structural magnetic resonance images were acquired from 65 IBS patients and 67 healthy controls (HCs; matched for age, sex and educational level)...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998780/paternal-deprivation-affects-social-behaviors-and-neurochemical-systems-in-the-offspring-of-socially-monogamous-prairie-voles
#19
Manal Tabbaa, Kelly Lei, Yan Liu, Zuoxin Wang
Early life experiences, particularly the experience with parents, are crucial to phenotypic outcomes in both humans and animals. Although the effects of maternal deprivation on offspring well-being have been studied, paternal deprivation (PD) has received little attention despite documented associations between father absence and children health problems in humans. In the present study, we utilized the socially monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), which displays male-female pair bonding and bi-parental care, to examine the effects of PD on adult behaviors and neurochemical expression in the hippocampus...
December 18, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988785/anxiety-in-adolescence-can-we-prevent-it
#20
A Llorca, E Malonda, P Samper
BACKGROUND: Emotions are potent modulators and motivators of the behaviour that the individual displays in the different situations they have to live and they can act as a protection factor or vulnerability of the adapted or maladaptive behaviour. This study focuses on anxiety in adolescence. OBJECTIVES: The objective is, through a longitudinal study, to analyse the psychological processes and emotions that facilitate the symptoms of anxiety and those which protect the adolescent from these symptoms...
January 1, 2017: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
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