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sex differences; anxiety

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919738/long-term-ethanol-self-administration-induces-%C3%AE-fosb-in-male-and-female-adolescent-but-not-in-adult-wistar-rats
#1
Aranza Wille-Bille, Soledad de Olmos, Leonardo Marengo, Florencia Chiner, Ricardo Marcos Pautassi
Early-onset ethanol consumption predicts later development of alcohol use disorders. Age-related differences in reactivity to ethanol's effects may underlie this effect. Adolescent rats are more sensitive and less sensitive than adults to the appetitive and aversive behavioral effects of ethanol, respectively, and more sensitive to the neurotoxic effects of experimenter-administered binge doses of ethanol. However, less is known about age-related differences in the neural consequences of self-administered ethanol...
December 2, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913899/linking-temperamental-shyness-and-social-anxiety-in-childhood-and-adolescence-moderating-influences-of-sex-and-age
#2
Tiffany Y L Tsui, Ayelet Lahat, Louis A Schmidt
Although childhood shyness has been linked to social anxiety problems, the factors playing a role in this association have gone largely unexplored. Here we examined the potential moderating roles of sex and age on this relation in a sample of 119 (75 girls) children (10-12 years) and adolescents (14-16 years). As predicted, shyness was positively associated with social anxiety symptoms. Sex, but not age, served as a moderating factor in linking shyness and social anxiety. Specifically, shyness was more strongly associated with social anxiety symptoms among girls than boys...
December 2, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901518/life-events-substance-use-psychological-distress-and-quality-of-life-in-male-and-female-french-gamblers
#3
Ce Line Bonnaire, Vivianne Kovess, Romain Guignard, Jean-Baptiste Richard, Enguerrand Du-Roscoat, Franc Ois Beck
BACKGROUND: Most studies on substance use, psychological distress, quality of life (QoL), and life events among gamblers are carried out on pathological gamblers seeking treatment, and sex differences are rarely investigated. The aim of this study was to explore the potential male-female differences in the relationship between these variables in a nationally representative French sample. METHODS: Three hundred thirty-two problem gamblers (PGs) and 25,314 non-problem gamblers or non-gamblers (NPGs) were evaluated for sociodemographic variables, gambling behavior, substance use, QoL, and life events...
November 2016: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898709/individual-differences-in-emotion-regulation-childhood-trauma-and-proneness-to-shame-and-guilt-in-adolescence
#4
Aurora Szentágotai-Tătar, Andrei C Miu
Dispositional shame and guilt have been associated with psychopathology and an increasing number of studies have traced this relation back to adolescence. This developmental period is thought to be characterized by maturational changes in emotion regulation, which also play an important role in vulnerability to psychopathology, but little is known about the links between emotion regulation and dispositional shame and guilt. The current study investigated the relations between individual differences in the habitual use of a wide range of emotion regulation strategies and proneness to shame and guilt in a large sample of adolescents (N = 706), aged 13 to 17 years...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896313/effects-of-paternal-predation-risk-and-rearing-environment-on-maternal-investment-and-development-of-defensive-responses-in-the-offspring
#5
Austin C Korgan, Elizabeth O'Leary, Jessica Bauer, Aidan Fortier, Ian C G Weaver, Tara S Perrot
Detecting past experiences with predators of a potential mate informs a female about prevailing ecological threats, in addition to stress-induced phenotypes that may be disseminated to offspring. We examined whether prior exposure of a male rat to a predator (cat) odor influences the attraction of a female toward a male, subsequent mother-infant interactions and the development of defensive (emotional) responses in the offspring. Females displayed less interest in males that had experienced predator odor. Mothers that reared young in larger, seminaturalistic housing provided more licking and grooming and active arched back-nursing behavior toward their offspring compared with dams housed in standard housing, although some effects interacted with paternal experience...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894461/does-mindfulness-based-cognitive-therapy-benefit-all-people-with-diabetes-and-comorbid-emotional-complaints-equally-moderators-in-the-diamind-trial
#6
Ivan Nyklíček, Jenny van Son, Victor J Pop, Johan Denollet, François Pouwer
OBJECTIVES: Research has shown the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions for a variety of emotional problems in different samples, but it is unknown which factors influence this effectiveness. Therefore, the aim of the current study was: which factors (demographic, personality, and baseline levels of mindfulness skills) moderate the effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT)? METHODS: Outpatients with diabetes (type 1 or type 2; N=139) and an elevated level of emotional distress participated in the Diabetes and Mindfulness (DiaMind) trial...
December 2016: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889459/effect-of-music-on-level-of-anxiety-in-patients-undergoing-colonoscopy-without-sedation
#7
Chia-Hui Ko, Yi-Yu Chen, Kuan-Ta Wu, Shu-Chi Wang, Jeng-Fu Yang, Yu-Yin Lin, Chia-I Lin, Hsiang-Ju Kuo, Chia-Yen Dai, Meng-Hsuan Hsieh
BACKGROUND: Listening to music can be a noninvasive method for reducing the anxiety level without any adverse effects. The aim of this study was to explore whether music can reduce anxiety and to compare two different styles of music, informal classical music and light music, to ascertain the more effective style of music in reducing anxiety in patients undergoing colonoscopy without sedation. METHODS: This study enrolled 138 patients who underwent colonoscopy without sedation during a general health examination from February 2009 to January 2015...
November 23, 2016: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878933/psychiatric-disorders-during-early-adulthood-in-those-with-childhood-onset-type-1-diabetes-rates-and-clinical-risk-factors-from-population-based-follow-up
#8
M N Cooper, A Lin, G A Alvares, N H de Klerk, T W Jones, E A Davis
AIM: To determine the incidence of and risk factors for psychiatric disorders in early adulthood in patients with childhood onset type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: In this retrospective-cohort study, we identified a population-based childhood onset T1D cohort and an age and sex matched (5:1) non-diabetic comparison cohort. Data linkage was used to access inpatient hospitalization data, mental health support service data, and mortality data to follow-up both cohorts into early adulthood...
November 23, 2016: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873536/discomfort-and-avoidance-of-touch-new-insights-on-the-emotional-deficits-of-social-anxiety
#9
Todd B Kashdan, James Doorley, Melissa C Stiksma, Matthew J Hertenstein
Physical touch is central to the emotional intimacy that separates romantic relationships from other social contexts. In this study of 256 adults (128 heterosexual couples, mean relationship length = 20.5 months), we examined whether individual differences in social anxiety influenced comfort with and avoidance of physical touch. Because of prior work on sex difference in touch use, touch comfort, and social anxiety symptoms and impairment, we explored sex-specific findings. We found evidence that women with greater social anxiety were less comfortable with touch and more avoidant of touch in same-sex friendships...
November 22, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870451/preclinical-sex-differences-in-depression-and-antidepressant-response-implications-for-clinical-research
#10
REVIEW
Nikolaos Kokras, Christina Dalla
Women suffer from depression and anxiety disorders more often than men, and as a result they receive antidepressants to a greater extent. Sex differences in antidepressant response in humans have been modestly studied, and results have been controversial. At the same time, preclinical studies on animal models of depression and antidepressant response have provided insights with regard to sex differences that could be useful for the design and interpretation of future clinical trials. This Mini-Review discusses such sex-differentiated findings with regard to the presentation of depression, endophenotypes, and antidepressant response...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870445/evaluating-social-defeat-as-a-model-for-psychopathology-in-adult-female-rodents
#11
REVIEW
Matia B Solomon
Social conflict is a predominant stressor in humans and is associated with increased risk for developing psychological illnesses including depression and anxiety. Overwhelmingly, more women suffer from these disorders, which may be due to increased stress sensitivity. Like humans, rodents experience a myriad of physiological and behavioral sequelae due to prolonged stress exposure. Although the motivation for social conflict may differ between humans and rodents, female rodents may provide an opportunity to explore the underlying mechanisms by which stress confers risk for psychopathology in women...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870414/sex-differences-in-neural-responses-to-subliminal-sad-and-happy-faces-in-healthy-individuals-implications-for-depression
#12
Teresa A Victor, Wayne C Drevets, Masaya Misaki, Jerzy Bodurka, Jonathan Savitz
Twice as many women as men suffer from mood and anxiety disorders, yet the biological underpinnings of this phenomenon have been understudied and remain unclear. We and others have shown that the hemodynamic response to subliminally presented sad or happy faces during functional MRI (fMRI) is a robust biomarker for the attentional bias toward negative information classically observed in major depression. Here we used fMRI to compare the performance of healthy females (n = 28) and healthy males (n = 28) on a backward masking task using a fast event-related design with gradient-recalled, echoplanar imaging with sensitivity encoding...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869563/subjective-report-of-side-effects-of-prescribed-and-nonprescribed-psychostimulant-use-in-young-adults
#13
Tess E Smith, Michelle M Martel, Alan D DeSantis
BACKGROUND: Side effects of prescribed and nonprescribed psychostimulant use are understudied. OBJECTIVES: The study examined side effects of prescribed and nonprescribed psychostimulant use in a college sample with attention to possible gender differences. METHODS: 2716 undergraduates (1448 male) between the ages of 17 and 57 years (M = 19.43 years, SD = 1.7 years) completed an online survey that included questions about the subjective side effects of prescribed and nonprescribed psychostimulant use...
November 21, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867662/death-anxiety-reliability-validity-and-factorial-structure-of-the-farsi-form-of-the-arabic-scale-of-death-anxiety-in-iranian-old-aged-persons
#14
Mahboubeh Dadfar, David Lester, Fazel Bahrami
The present study is aimed at examining the level of death anxiety and the sex-related differences among old-aged Iranian individuals sample to compare the old-aged persons with young college students and to explore the psychometric properties of the Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety (ASDA) factors in old-aged sample. A sample of 146 volunteer Iranian individuals took part in the study. The mean ages were 68.58 (SD = 7.10), men 68.81 (SD = 7.44) and women 68.28 (SD = 6.76), respectively. The mean score of the ASDA was 51...
2016: Journal of Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857777/associations-between-anxiety-disorder-diagnoses-and-body-mass-index-differ-by-age-sex-and-race-a-population-based-study
#15
Ramona S DeJesus, Carmen R Breitkopf, Jon O Ebbert, Lila J Finney Rutten, Robert M Jacobson, Debra J Jacobson, Chun Fan, Jennifer St Sauver
BACKGROUND: Few large studies have examined correlations between anxiety and body mass index (BMI) by gender or racial groups using clinical data. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine associations between diagnosed anxiety disorders and BMI, and evaluate whether observed associations varied by demographic characteristics. METHOD: Data from the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) data linkage system were analyzed to examine associations between anxiety disorders and BMI among adults ages 18-85 residing in Olmsted County, MN in 2009 (n=103,557)...
2016: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856395/why-are-women-so-vulnerable-to-anxiety-trauma-related-and-stress-related-disorders-the-potential-role-of-sex-hormones
#16
REVIEW
Sophie H Li, Bronwyn M Graham
Increased prevalence, severity, and burden of anxiety, trauma-related and stress-related disorders in women compared with men has been well documented. Evidence from a variety of fields has emerged suggesting that sex hormones, particularly oestradiol and progesterone, play a significant part in generation of these sex differences. In this Series paper, we aim to integrate the literature reporting on the effects of sex hormones on biological, behavioural, and cognitive pathways, to propose two broad mechanisms by which oestradiol and progesterone influence sex differences in anxiety disorders: augmentation of vulnerability factors associated with anxiety disorder development; and facilitation of the maintenance of anxious symptoms post-development...
November 11, 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855436/psychosocial-and-economic-status-of-the-parents-with-children-with-and-without-tooth-trauma
#17
Željko Verzak, Nataša Ivančić Jokić, Vesna Erika Modrić, Danko Bakarčić, Zoran Karlović, Zlatko Ulovec, Dubravka Negovetić Vranić
BACKGROUND: The main goal of this research is to try and understand influence of psychological and social factors in children with tendencies to repeat tooth trauma. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Research included 147 patients, children of preschool and school age (88 boys and 59 girls). In the research patients were divided in two age groups: 5-8 and 9-12 years. In both groups there were 49 patients with no experience of dental trauma and 69 patients with experience of one dental trauma and 29 patients with repeated dental trauma...
December 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852981/no-effect-of-testosterone-on-behavior-in-aged-wistar-rats
#18
Veronika Borbélyová, Emese Domonkos, Janka Bábíčková, Ľubomíra Tóthová, Martin Bosý, Július Hodosy, Peter Celec
In men, aging is accompanied by a gradual decline in androgen secretion. Studies suggest beneficial effects of endogenous and exogenous testosterone on affective behavior and cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to describe behavioral and cognitive sex differences and to analyze the effects of long-term androgen deficiency in aged male rats. Thirty-months old rats divided into three groups (males, females and males gonadectomized as young adults) underwent a battery of behavioral tests assessing locomotor activity, anxiety, memory, anhedonia, sociability and depression-like behavior...
November 12, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852337/eating-problems-in-adolescents-and-youths-explanatory-variables
#19
Carmen Maganto, Maite Garaigordobil, Lorea Kortabarria
This study had the following goals: (1) to analyze the differences between participants with and without risk of eating disorders (ED) in self-esteem, happiness, depression, anxiety, anger, and psychological variables related to ED; (2) to determine possible differences in the group at risk of ED on these variables as a function of sex; and (3) to determine which variables explain the risk of ED. Eight assessment instruments were administered to 1.075 participants (74.6% without risk of ED and 25.4% at risk)...
November 17, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837573/the-impact-of-depression-and-cardiophobia-on-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-essential-hypertension
#20
D Tsartsalis, E Dragioti, K Kontoangelos, Chr Pitsavos, P Sakkas, G N Papadimitriou, Chr Stefanadis, I Kallikazaros
Patients with chronic conditions like hypertension may experience many negative emotions which endorse the development of anxiety and depression symptomatology, thus they increase their risk for poor quality of life. Several studies have shown an association between symptoms of psychological distress and hypertension. In this study we aimed to quantify the link between depression, cardiophobia and quality of life in hypertensive patients. A cross-sectional design was employed. A sample of 197 hypertensive patients (89 men-108 women, mean age 53 years, SD=12 ranged 25-78) from a university outpatient hypertension clinic in Greece participated...
July 2016: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
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