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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934745/association-between-body-composition-and-motor-performance-in-preschool-children
#1
Tanja H Kakebeeke, Stefano Lanzi, Annina E Zysset, Amar Arhab, Nadine Messerli-Bürgy, Kerstin Stuelb, Claudia S Leeger-Aschmann, Einat A Schmutz, Andrea H Meyer, Susi Kriemler, Simone Munsch, Oskar G Jenni, Jardena J Puder
OBJECTIVE: Being overweight makes physical movement more difficult. Our aim was to investigate the association between body composition and motor performance in preschool children. METHODS: A total of 476 predominantly normal-weight preschool children (age 3.9 ± 0.7 years; m/f: 251/225; BMI 16.0 ± 1.4 kg/m2) participated in the Swiss Preschoolers' Health Study (SPLASHY). Body composition assessments included skinfold thickness, waist circumference (WC), and BMI...
September 22, 2017: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934721/association-of-long-term-exposure-to-transportation-noise-and-traffic-related-air-pollution-with-the-incidence-of-diabetes-a-prospective-cohort-study
#2
Charlotte Clark, Hind Sbihi, Lillian Tamburic, Michael Brauer, Lawrence D Frank, Hugh W Davies
BACKGROUND: Evidence for an association between transportation noise and cardiovascular disease has increased; however, few studies have examined metabolic outcomes such as diabetes or accounted for environmental coexposures such as air pollution, greenness, or walkability. OBJECTIVES: Because diabetes prevalence is increasing and may be on the causal pathway between noise and cardiovascular disease, we examined the influence of long-term residential transportation noise exposure and traffic-related air pollution on the incidence of diabetes using a population-based cohort in British Columbia, Canada...
August 31, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933095/-investigation-of-effects-of-albiflorin-and-paeoniflorin-on-hippocampal-bdnf-and-no-in-chronic-restraint-stress-rats
#3
Ying-Li Zhu, Lin-Yuan Wang, Cheng-Long Wang, Dan-Ping Zhao, Sha Wang, Wen-Ting Fei, Jian-Jun Zhang
This paper aimed to investigate the antidepressant-like effects and the mechanism of the albiflorin, paeoniflorin on rats with chronic restraint stress model. Fluoxetine and Xiaoyao group served as the positive control, body weight, sucrose preference test and the open field behavioral experiment were measured, the levels of nitric oxide (NO) in hippocampus were detected by Greg colorimetric method. Furthermore, the levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in hippocampus were detected by ELISA. Finally, the expressions of nNOS mRNA in hippocampus detected by RT-qPCR, the protein levels of nNOS and BDNF in hippocampus were detected by Western blot...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933032/the-effect-of-dumping-on-weight-loss-in-conversion-of-failed-restrictive-surgery-a-cross-sectional-pilot-study
#4
Ruth Van Looveren, Yannick Mandeville, Pieter Logghe, Katrien Vandendriessche, Xander Verbeke, Patrick Vuylsteke, Paul Pattyn, Bart Smet
PURPOSE: Dumping is currently seen as a negative side effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). However, it may help patients to comply with their prescribed diet. In this study, we assess the role of dumping on weight loss in patients who have undergone conversion of failed restrictive surgery into RYGB. METHODS: An analysis was performed of 100 consecutive patients who underwent revisional RYGB (rRYGB) between 2006 and 2011 due to inadequate weight loss or band intolerance after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB)...
September 21, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932995/pharmacokinetics-and-preliminary-pharmacodynamics-of-single-and-multiple-dose-lyophilized-recombinant-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-re-4-in-chinese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#5
Yitong Wang, Bingfeng Xu, Lixia Zhu, Kun Lou, Yingli Chen, Xia Zhao, Qian Wang, Ling Xu, Xiaohui Guo, Linong Ji, Yimin Cui, Yi Fang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recombinant glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (rE-4) is a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, which has the same amino acid sequence to exenatide, except for the C-terminal deamidated. This study assessed the pharmacokinetics and preliminary pharmacodynamics of rE-4, following single and multiple subcutaneous injections in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). DESIGN AND METHODS: In the randomized, open-label study, Chinese patients with T2DM (n = 36) were randomly assigned to three groups of rE-4 (n = 12), rE-4 with metformin (n = 12) and exenatide (n = 12, as the control group) for 12 weeks...
September 20, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931589/oral-supplementation-of-glutamine-attenuates-the-progression-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#6
Cathrin Sellmann, Anja Baumann, Annette Brandt, Cheng Jun Jin, Anika Nier, Ina Bergheim
Background: Universally accepted therapeutic strategies for the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are still lacking. Studies suggest a preventive effect of oral Gln supplementation on the development of NASH; however, whether Gln also has therapeutic potential for pre-existing NASH has not yet been clarified.Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine whether Gln prevents the progression of diet-induced NASH in mice.Methods: For 8 wk, female C57BL/6J mice (6-8 wk old) were pair-fed a liquid Western-style diet [WSD, 25% of energy from fat, 50% wt:wt fructose, 0...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931545/regulation-of-genes-related-to-cholesterol-metabolism-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-fed-plant-based-diet
#7
Tengfei Zhu, Genevieve Corraze, Elisabeth Plagnes-Juan, Edwige Quillet, Mathilde Dupont-Nivet, Sandrine Skiba-Cassy
Compared to fishmeal and fish oil, plant ingredients differ not only in the protein content, amino acid and fatty acid profiles but are also devoid of cholesterol, the major component of cell membrane and precursor of several bioactive compounds. Based on these nutritional characteristics, plant-based diets can affect fish physiology and cholesterol metabolism. In order to investigate the mechanisms underlying cholesterol homeostasis, rainbow trout were fed from 1g body weight during six months with a totally plant-based diet (V), a marine diet (M) and a marine restricted diet (MR) with feed intake adjusted to that of the V group...
September 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930514/weight-and-metabolic-outcomes-12-years-after-gastric-bypass
#8
Ted D Adams, Lance E Davidson, Sheldon E Litwin, Jaewhan Kim, Ronette L Kolotkin, M Nazeem Nanjee, Jonathan M Gutierrez, Sara J Frogley, Anna R Ibele, Eliot A Brinton, Paul N Hopkins, Rodrick McKinlay, Steven C Simper, Steven C Hunt
BACKGROUND: Few long-term or controlled studies of bariatric surgery have been conducted to date. We report the 12-year follow-up results of an observational, prospective study of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass that was conducted in the United States. METHODS: A total of 1156 patients with severe obesity comprised three groups: 418 patients who sought and underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (surgery group), 417 patients who sought but did not undergo surgery (primarily for insurance reasons) (nonsurgery group 1), and 321 patients who did not seek surgery (nonsurgery group 2)...
September 21, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928462/total-and-specific-dietary-polyphenol-intakes-and-6-year-anthropometric-changes-in-a-middle-aged-general-population-cohort
#9
S Adriouch, E Kesse-Guyot, T Feuillet, M Touvier, V Olié, V Andreeva, S Hercberg, P Galan, L Fezeu
BACKGROUND: Dietary polyphenols are suggested anti-obesogenic agents. Prospective evidence in general populations of an association between polyphenol intakes and anthropometry is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To assess the associations between dietary polyphenol intakes and changes in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) over a 6-year period. METHODS: Individual intakes of 264 different polyphenols (mg/day) were estimated using the Phenol-Explorer database and the mean of 6-17 24-h dietary records collected in 1994-1996...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928038/reach-and-effectiveness-of-the-national-diabetes-prevention-program-for-young-women
#10
Natalie D Ritchie, Katherine A Sauder, Stefka Fabbri
INTRODUCTION: Reducing obesity and diabetes risks among women of child-bearing age is urgently needed to halt the transgenerational cycle of disease. Interventions among pregnant women have largely been ineffective and may be initiated too late to improve maternal and child health. The National Diabetes Prevention Program is a widely disseminated lifestyle intervention that may help mitigate risks before pregnancy. However, the program has targeted relatively older adults, and effectiveness among women of child-bearing age remains largely unknown...
September 16, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926635/a-comparison-of-running-kinetics-in-children-with-and-without-genu-varus-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Amir Ali Jafarnezhadgero, Morteza Madadi Shad, Mahdi Majlesi, Urs Granacher
INTRODUCTION: Varus knee alignment has been identified as a risk factor for the progression of medial knee osteoarthritis. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated yet in children. Thus, the aims of the present study were to examine differences in ground reaction forces, loading rate, impulses, and free moment values during running in children with and without genu varus. METHODS: Thirty-six boys aged 9-14 volunteered to participate in this study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926575/does-body-image-perception-relate-to-quality-of-life-in-middle-aged-women
#12
Maria Socorro Medeiros de Morais, Rafaela Andrade do Nascimento, Mariana Carmem Apolinário Vieira, Mayle Andrade Moreira, Saionara Maria Aires da Câmara, Álvaro Campos Cavalcanti Maciel, Maria das Graças Almeida
OBJECTIVE: In Brazil, information about the influence of body image on the various life domains of women in menopausal transition is scarce. Thus, the objective of the study was to analyze the relationship between body image and quality of life in middle-aged Brazilian women. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 250 women between 40 and 65 years old, living in Parnamirim/RN, Brazil, who were evaluated in relation to body image and quality of life. For body image, women were classified as: dissatisfied due to low weight, satisfied (with their body weight) and dissatisfied due to being overweight...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925412/prenatal-antimicrobial-use-and-early-childhood-body-mass-index
#13
A E Cassidy-Bushrow, C Burmeister, S Havstad, A M Levin, S V Lynch, D R Ownby, A G Rundle, K J Woodcroft, E M Zoratti, C C Johnson, G Wegienka
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Growing evidence suggests that antibiotic use is associated with childhood body mass index (BMI), potentially via mechanisms mediated by gut microbiome alterations. Less is known on the potential role of prenatal antimicrobial use in offspring obesity risk. We examined whether prenatal antibiotic or antifungal use was associated with BMI at the age of 2 years in 527 birth cohort participants. METHODS/SUBJECTS: Antimicrobial use was obtained from the prenatal medical record...
August 17, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925409/metabolic-and-genomic-adaptations-to-winter-fattening-in-a-primate-species-the-grey-mouse-lemur-microcebus-murinus
#14
J Terrien, M Gaudubois, D Champeval, V Zaninotto, L Roger, J F Riou, F Aujard
AIM: To understand the mechanisms underlying the development of metabolic changes leading to obesity remains a major world health issue. Among such mechanisms, seasonality is quite underestimated although it corresponds to the manifestation of extreme metabolic flexibility in response to a changing environment. Nevertheless, the changes induced by such flexibility are far to be understood, especially at the level of insulin signaling, genomic stability or inflammation. METHODS: Here, we investigated the metabolic regulations displayed by a seasonal primate species, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) that exhibits pronounced changes in body mass during the 6-month winter season: a fattening period followed by a spontaneous fat loss, without ever reaching pathological stages...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925405/intermittent-energy-restriction-improves-weight-loss-efficiency-in-obese-men-the-matador-study
#15
N M Byrne, A Sainsbury, N A King, A P Hills, R E Wood
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The MATADOR (Minimising Adaptive Thermogenesis And Deactivating Obesity Rebound) study examined whether intermittent energy restriction (ER) improved weight loss efficiency compared with continuous ER and, if so, whether intermittent ER attenuated compensatory responses associated with ER. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Fifty-one men with obesity were randomised to 16 weeks of either: (1) continuous (CON), or (2) intermittent (INT) ER completed as 8 × 2-week blocks of ER alternating with 7 × 2-week blocks of energy balance (30 weeks total)...
August 17, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924987/influence-of-a-gas-exchange-correction-procedure-on-resting-metabolic-rate-and-respiratory-quotient-in-humans
#16
Jose E Galgani, Mauricio A Castro-Sepulveda
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the influence of a gas exchange correction protocol on resting metabolic rate (RMR) and respiratory quotient (RQ), assessed by a Vmax Encore 29n metabolic cart (SensorMedics Co., Yorba Linda, California) in overnight fasted and fed humans, and to assess the predictive power of body size for corrected and uncorrected RMR. METHODS: Healthy participants (23 M/29 F; 34 ± 9 years old; 26.3 ± 3.7 kg/m(2) ) ingested two 3-hour-apart glucose loads (75 g)...
September 19, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923051/perceived-neighborhood-safety-related-to-physical-activity-but-not-recreational-screen-based-sedentary-behavior-in-adolescents
#17
Clare M Lenhart, Andrew Wiemken, Alexandra Hanlon, Mackenzie Perkett, Freda Patterson
BACKGROUND: A growing proportion of adolescents have poor cardiovascular health behaviors, including low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behavior, thus increasing the likelihood of poor heart health in later years. This study tested the hypothesis that low perceived neighborhood safety would be associated with low levels of physical activity and high levels of recreational sedentary behavior in high-school students. METHODS: Using cross-sectional, weighted data from the 2015 Pennsylvania (USA) State and Philadelphia city Youth Risk Behavior Survey, multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to examine the association between perceived neighborhood safety, and physical activity levels and recreational screen-based sedentary behavior time respectively, while controlling for potential confounders...
September 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921862/efficacy-and-safety-of-the-addition-of-ertugliflozin-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-inadequately-controlled-with-metformin-and-sitagliptin-the-vertis-sita2-placebo-controlled-randomized-study
#18
Samuel Dagogo-Jack, Jie Liu, Roy Eldor, Guillermo Amorin, Jeremy Johnson, Darcy Hille, Yuqin Liao, Susan Huyck, Gregory Golm, Steven G Terra, James P Mancuso, Samuel S Engel, Brett Lauring
AIMS: To assess ertugliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin and sitagliptin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this double-blind randomized study (NCT02036515), patients (glycated haemoglobin [HbA1c] 7.0-10.5% [53-91 mmol/mol] on metformin ≥1500 mg/day and sitagliptin 100 mg/day; estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) ) were randomized to ertugliflozin 5 mg once-daily, 15 mg once-daily, or placebo. Primary efficacy endpoint was change from baseline in HbA1c at Week 26; treatment was continued until Week 52...
September 17, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921641/pharmacokinetic-guided-dosing-of-new-oral-cancer-agents
#19
Catherine J Lucas, Jennifer H Martin
Generally, licensed drug-dosing recommendations for chemotherapy are based on results from clinical trials in which subjects are usually of relatively normal body size, middle-aged, and are relatively racially homogeneous, with minimal comorbidity and specific tumor characteristics. Very few nontrial patients meet these characteristics, resulting in clinical practice having to extrapolate dosing recommendations to the specific patient. There is insufficient research on the impact of obesity-associated physiological changes prevalent in patients with common cancers on standard pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919382/overweight-and-obesity-in-new-caledonian-adults-results-from-measured-and-adjusted-self-reported-anthropometric-data
#20
Philippe Corsenac, Isabella Annesi-Maesano, Damian Hoy, Adam Roth, Bernard Rouchon, Isabelle Capart, Richard Taylor
AIMS: To estimate the overweight (OW) and obesity (Ob) prevalence and associated socio-demographic risk factors in New Caledonian adults aged 18-67years. METHODS: From a randomly selected cross-sectional population survey, self-reported (n=2513) and measured (n=736) height and weight data were collected. Separate linear regression analyses for measured weight and height were performed, using cases with both self-reported weight and height and socio-demographic variables...
June 22, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
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