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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339342/change-in-body-weight-from-age-20-years-is-a-powerful-determinant-of-the-metabolic-syndrome
#1
Lars Lind, Sölve Elmståhl, Johan Ärnlöv
BACKGROUND: Higher body weight is a well-known determinant of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components. It is however less well studied how the change in weight from age 20 years to middle age or old age affects MetS development. METHODS: In the community-based EpiHealth (n = 19,000, age range 45 to 75 years, 56% females) and PIVUS (n = 1000, all aged 70 years, 50% females) studies, the participants were asked about their body weight at age 20 years...
April 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338874/does-fetal-growth-restriction-cause-later-obesity-pitfalls-in-analyzing-causal-mediators-as-confounders
#2
Michael S Kramer, Xun Zhang, Mourad Dahhou, Seungmi Yang, Richard M Martin, Emily Oken, Robert W Platt
Recent studies finding that small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth is associated with increased adiposity in childhood and adulthood have been based on analyses "adjusting" for height, weight, or body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) measured concurrently with the adiposity measurement. To assess the potential for bias due to overadjustment for a causal mediator, we compared 2 approaches to analyzing the association between SGA birth and adiposity outcomes (skinfold thicknesses and bioelectrical impedance measurement of body fat) at age 11...
March 3, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337523/hip-fracture-incidence-and-social-deprivation-results-from-a-french-ecological-study
#3
M -P Petit, J Bryère, M Maravic, F Pallaro, C Marcelli
The association between socioeconomic status (SES) and hip fracture (HF) incidence was analyzed in France in 2008. In men and women, a decrease in HF incidence was observed as the social deprivation index increased. This result may be partly due to the protective effect of increasing body weight against HF. INTRODUCTION: Regional variations in hip fracture (HF) incidence exist worldwide. Reasons for these variations remain unknown. As regional variations have also been observed for socioeconomic status, we analyzed the association between socioeconomic deprivation (SED) and HF incidence in France in 2008...
March 23, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337087/medication-dosage-in-overweight-and-obese-children
#4
Kelly L Matson, Evan R Horton, Amanda C Capino
Approximately 31.8% of U.S. children ages 2 to 19 years are considered overweight or obese. This creates significant challenges to dosing medications that are primarily weight based (mg/kg) and in predicting pharmacokinetics parameters in pediatric patients. Obese individuals generally have a larger volume of distribution for lipophilic medications. Conversely, the Vd of hydrophilic medications may be increased or decreased due to increased lean body mass, blood volume, and decrease percentage of total body water...
January 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336148/preoperative-body-mass-index-and-physical-function-are-associated-with-length-of-stay-and-facility-discharge-after-total-knee-arthroplasty
#5
Matthew G Prohaska, Benjamin J Keeney, Haaris A Beg, Ishaan Swarup, Wayne E Moschetti, Stephen R Kantor, Ivan M Tomek
BACKGROUND: Hospital length of stay (LOS) and facility discharge are primary drivers of the cost of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We sought to identify modifiable patient factors that were associated with increased LOS and facility discharge after TKA. METHODS: Prospective data were reviewed from 716 consecutive, primary TKA procedures performed by two arthroplasty surgeons between 2006 and 2012 at a single institution. Preoperative body mass index (BMI), Veterans RAND-12 (VR-12) physical component score (PCS), and hemoglobin level were collected in addition to other adjusters...
March 20, 2017: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335755/the-incidence-of-diabetes-mellitus-and-diabetic-retinopathy-in-a-population-based-cohort-study-of-people-age-50%C3%A2-years-and-over-in-nakuru-kenya
#6
Andrew Bastawrous, Wanjiku Mathenge, Kevin Wing, Madeleine Bastawrous, Hillary Rono, Helen A Weiss, David Macleod, Allen Foster, Tunde Peto, Peter Blows, Matthew Burton, Hannah Kuper
BACKGROUND: The epidemic rise of diabetes carries major negative public health and economic consequences particularly for low and middle-income countries. The highest predicted percentage growth in diabetes is in the sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) region where to date there has been no data on the incidence of diabetic retinopathy from population-based cohort studies and minimal data on incident diabetes. The primary aims of this study were to estimate the cumulative six-year incidence of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and DR (Diabetic Retinopathy), respectively, among people aged ≥50 years in Kenya...
March 23, 2017: BMC Endocrine Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331199/influence-of-maternal-overweight-obesity-and-gestational-weight-gain-on-the-perinatal-outcomes-in-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Miao Miao, Mei Dai, Yue Zhang, Fang Sun, Xirong Guo, Guiju Sun
To assess the associations between maternal body mass index (BMI) as well as gestational weight gain (GWG) and pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This is a retrospective analysis involving 832 nulliparous women complicated with GDM. Multivariate logistic and restricted cubic logistic regression were used to investigate the association of interest. Overall, 178 (21.4%) women were overweight or obese, and 298 (35.2%) exhibited excessive GWG. Compared with women of normal weight, high pre-pregnancy BMI resulted in a higher risk of cesarean section with an adjusted odds ratio of 1...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331148/optimized-acquisition-time-for-dopamine-transporter-imaging
#8
Naoya Hayashi, Naoki Akagi, Masataka Sawada, Akiko Hirota, Kenji Ito
Excess acquisition counts were often obtained by the current image acquisition of 30 minutes after (123)I-ioflupane administration in a dopamine transporter study. The purpose of this study was to calculate the minimum acquisition time while retaining sufficient image quality, which could be adjusted for individual characteristics. Fifty patients who underwent dopamine transporter imaging were included in this retrospective study. The brain count density, determined by a striatum phantom, was compared to the participant's characteristics...
2017: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330732/racial-ethnic-differences-in-weight-loss-strategies-among-us-adults-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2007-2012
#9
Becky Marquez, Rosenda Murillo
BACKGROUND: Dieting, exercising, and seeking professional help have been associated with intentional weight loss among adults. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the use of diet (eg, ate less, ate less fat, or switched to low-calorie foods), exercise, diet and exercise, and professional help (eg, weight-loss program or prescribed diet pills) for weight loss among non-Hispanic whites, Mexican Americans, and non-Hispanic blacks. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data from the 2007-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used...
March 15, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330635/the-association-between-muscle-weakness-and-incident-diabetes-in%C3%A2-older-mexican-americans
#10
Ryan McGrath, Brenda M Vincent, Soham Al Snih, Kyriakos S Markides, Mark D Peterson
OBJECTIVES: A natural decline of muscle strength occurs during the aging process; however, preserving muscle strength may lower the rate of many preventable diseases such as diabetes, especially in higher risk populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the sex-specific association between muscle weakness and incident diabetes in older Mexican Americans. DESIGN: Observational, longitudinal study. SETTING: Urban and rural households in the Southwestern United States...
March 18, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329121/very-low-calorie-diets-for-weight-loss-in-obese-older-adults-a-randomized-trial
#11
Cilla J Haywood, Luke A Prendergast, Katrina Purcell, Lauren Le Fevre, Wen Kwang Lim, Mary Galea, Joseph Proietto
Background: Obesity contributes to disability in older adults, and this is offset by weight loss and exercise. Very Low Calorie Diets (VLCDs) achieve rapid weight loss; however, these have not been rigorously evaluated in older people. Methods: A randomized trial was conducted from August 2012 through December 2015. The intervention was 12 weeks of thrice weekly exercise combined with either healthy eating advice (Ex/HE), hypocaloric diet (Ex/Diet), or VLCD (Ex/VLCD)...
February 20, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327672/tox-and-adipoq-gene-polymorphisms-are-associated-with-antipsychotic-induced-weight-gain-in-han-chinese
#12
Shen Li, Chengai Xu, Yuan Tian, Xueshi Wang, Rui Jiang, Miaomiao Zhang, Lili Wang, Guifu Yang, Ying Gao, Chenyu Song, Yukun He, Ying Zhang, Jie Li, Wei-Dong Li
To find the genetic markers related to the antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG), we analyzed associations among candidate gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and quantitative traits of weight changes and lipid profiles in a Chinese Han population. A total of 339 schizophrenic patients, including 86 first-episode patients (FEPs), meeting the entry criteria were collected. All patients received atypical antipsychotic drug monotherapy and hospitalization and were followed for 12 weeks. Forty-three SNPs in 23 candidate genes were calculated for quantitative genetic association with AIWG, performed by PLINK...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326297/coronary-artery-calcium-score-and-bone-metabolism-a-pilot-study-in-postmenopausal-women
#13
Pooneh Salari, Abbasali Keshtkar, Shapour Shirani, Leila Mounesan
BACKGROUND: Since 1991 many studies evaluated the link between cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis, two age-related conditions, but the main common pathologic pathway has not been determined yet. The histological similarity between arterial calcified plaque and bone matrix and involvement of similar cells and mediators provide a special field of research. Therefore in the present study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between coronary artery calcium score (CACS) as a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis and bone mediators and parameters in postmenopausal women...
February 2017: Journal of Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326296/association-between-sarcopenic-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-postmenopausal-women-a-cross-sectional-study-based-on-the-korean-national-health-and-nutritional-examination-surveys-from-2008-to-2011
#14
Sun-Young Kang, Gyeong Eun Lim, Yang Keun Kim, Hye Won Kim, Kayoung Lee, Tae-Jin Park, Jinseung Kim
BACKGROUND: Menopause contributes to an increase in visceral fat mass and a decrease in muscle protein synthesis. Therefore, we performed this study to examine their relationship how effect the changes of body composition as obesity and sarcopenia on metabolic syndrome (MS) as a predictor of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. METHODS: Using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 to 2011, we estimated that 4,183 postmenopausal women underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans...
February 2017: Journal of Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326112/associations-of-upper-arm-and-thigh-circumferences-with-dementia-and-depression-in-korean-elders
#15
Yong-Seong Lee, Sang-Dae Kim, Hee-Ju Kang, Sung-Wan Kim, Il-Seon Shin, Jin-Sang Yoon, Jae-Min Kim
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have reported an association between weight loss and cognitive impairment. Changes in anthropometric measurements, such as arm and thigh circumferences, are associated with body mass changes and physical activity. Our aim was to investigate the association of upper arm and thigh circumferences with dementia and depression in the community-dwelling elderly population. METHODS: In total, 2,498 community residents aged 65 years or over were clinically assessed for dementia using the Korean version of the Community Screening Interview for Dementia...
March 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325931/body-mass-index-adjustments-to-increase-the-validity-of-body-fatness-assessment-in-uk-black-african-and-south-asian-children
#16
M T Hudda, C M Nightingale, A S Donin, M S Fewtrell, D Haroun, S Lum, J E Williams, C G Owen, A R Rudnicka, J C K Wells, D G Cook, P H Whincup
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: BMI (weight/height(2)) is the most widely used marker of childhood obesity and total body fatness (BF). However, its validity is limited, especially in children of South Asian and black African origins. We aimed to quantify BMI adjustments needed for UK children of black African and South Asian origins so that adjusted BMI related to BF in the same way as for white European children. METHODS: We used data from four recent UK studies which made deuterium dilution BF measurements in UK children of white European, South Asian and black African origins...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323952/randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-mufa-or-fiber-rich-diet-on-hepatic-fat-in-pre-diabetes
#17
Isabel Errazuriz, Simmi Dube, Michael Slama, Roberto Visentin, Sunita Nayar, Helen O'Connor, Claudio Cobelli, Swapan Kumar Das, Ananda Basu, Walter Karl Kremers, John Port, Rita Basu
Context: Increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and prediabetes worldwide has been attributed, at least in part, to a modern lifestyle, in particular, to an unhealthy diet. Objective: To evaluate whether 12 weeks of high MUFA or fiber-rich weight maintenance diet lowers hepatic fat and improves glucose tolerance in people with prediabetes. Design: Subjects underwent a [6, 6-2H2] labeled 75 g oral glucose tolerance test to estimate hepatic insulin sensitivity (Siliver) along with measurement of liver fat fraction (LFF) using magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after intervention...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322014/carbohydrate-intake-during-early-pregnancy-is-inversely-associated-with-abnormal-glucose-challenge-test-results-in-japanese-pregnant-women
#18
Ryoko Tajima, Yoko Yachi, Yasuhiro Tanaka, Yui Anasako Kawasaki, Izumi Nishibata, Ayumi Sugawara Hirose, Chika Horikawa, Satoru Kodama, Kaoruko Iida, Hirohito Sone
BACKGROUND: In East Asian countries, which have a high prevalence of underweight individuals, there is little information about the association between dietary factors and abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy. We examined the association between carbohydrate intake and moderately abnormal glucose tolerance in Japanese pregnant women. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study on 325 Japanese pregnant women without a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus prior to pregnancy...
March 20, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321276/phase-angle-obtained-by-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-independently-predicts-mortality-in-patients-with-cirrhosis
#19
Giliane Belarmino, Maria Cristina Gonzalez, Raquel S Torrinhas, Priscila Sala, Wellington Andraus, Luiz Augusto Carneiro D'Albuquerque, Rosa Maria R Pereira, Valéria F Caparbo, Graziela R Ravacci, Lucas Damiani, Steven B Heymsfield, Dan L Waitzberg
AIM: To evaluate the prognostic value of the phase angle (PA) obtained from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for mortality prediction in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: In total, 134 male cirrhotic patients prospectively completed clinical evaluations and nutritional assessment by BIA to obtain PAs during a 36-mo follow-up period. Mortality risk was analyzed by applying the PA cutoff point recently proposed as a malnutrition marker (PA ≤ 4.9°) in Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate Cox regression models...
March 8, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320766/an-adverse-lipid-profile-and-increased-levels-of-adiposity-significantly-predict-clinical-course-after-a-first-demyelinating-event
#20
Prudence Tettey, Steve Simpson, Bruce Taylor, Anne-Louise Ponsonby, Robyn M Lucas, Terence Dwyer, Karam Kostner, Ingrid Af van der Mei
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prospective associations between adiposity and lipid-related variables and conversion to multiple sclerosis (MS), time to subsequent relapse and progression in disability. METHODS: A cohort of 279 participants with a first clinical diagnosis of central nervous system demyelination was prospectively followed to 5-year review. Height, weight, waist and hip circumference were measured, and serum samples taken for measurement of lipids and apolipoproteins...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
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