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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212440/emergent-inequality-and-self-organized-social-classes-in-a-network-of-power-and-frustration
#1
Benoit Mahault, Avadh Saxena, Cristiano Nisoli
We propose a simple agent-based model on a network to conceptualize the allocation of limited wealth among more abundant expectations at the interplay of power, frustration, and initiative. Concepts imported from the statistical physics of frustrated systems in and out of equilibrium allow us to compare subjective measures of frustration and satisfaction to collective measures of fairness in wealth distribution, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini index. We find that a completely libertarian, law-of-the-jungle setting, where every agent can acquire wealth from or lose wealth to anybody else invariably leads to a complete polarization of the distribution of wealth vs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212376/the-legionella-pneumophila-genome-evolved-to-accommodate-multiple-regulatory-mechanisms-controlled-by-the-csra-system
#2
Tobias Sahr, Christophe Rusniok, Francis Impens, Giulia Oliva, Odile Sismeiro, Jean-Yves Coppée, Carmen Buchrieser
The carbon storage regulator protein CsrA regulates cellular processes post-transcriptionally by binding to target-RNAs altering translation efficiency and/or their stability. Here we identified and analyzed the direct targets of CsrA in the human pathogen Legionella pneumophila. Genome wide transcriptome, proteome and RNA-Co-immunoprecipitaion followed by deep sequencing of a wild type and a csrA mutant strain identified 479 RNAs with potential CsrA interaction sites located in the untranslated and/or coding regions of mRNAs or of known non-coding sRNAs...
February 17, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212028/photoisomerization-kinetics-and-mechanical-stress-in-azobenzene-containing-materials
#3
Vladimir Petrovich Toshchevikov, Jaroslav M Ilnytskyi, Marina Grenzer Saphiannikova
Kinetics of photoisomerization and time evolution of ordering in azobenzene-containing materials are studied theoretically and by using computer simulations. Starting from kinetic equations of photoisomerization, we show that the influence of light is equivalent to the action of the effective potential which reorients chromophores perpendicularly to polarization direction. The strength of the potential is defined by optical and viscous characteristics of the material. The potential generates photomechanical stress of giant values ~GPa, in accordance with recent experimental findings for azobenzene materials deep in a glassy state...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211745/superdense-coding-over-optical-fiber-links-with-complete-bell-state-measurements
#4
Brian P Williams, Ronald J Sadlier, Travis S Humble
Adopting quantum communication to modern networking requires transmitting quantum information through a fiber-based infrastructure. We report the first demonstration of superdense coding over optical fiber links, taking advantage of a complete Bell-state measurement enabled by time-polarization hyperentanglement, linear optics, and common single-photon detectors. We demonstrate the highest single-qubit channel capacity to date utilizing linear optics, 1.665±0.018, and we provide a full experimental implementation of a hybrid, quantum-classical communication protocol for image transfer...
February 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211740/ultrafast-structure-switching-through-nonlinear-phononics
#5
D M Juraschek, M Fechner, N A Spaldin
We describe a mechanism by which nonlinear phononics allows ultrafast coherent and directional control of transient structural distortions. With ErFeO_{3} as a model system, we use density functional theory to calculate the structural properties as input into an anharmonic phonon model that describes the response of the system to a pulsed optical excitation. We find that the trilinear coupling of two orthogonal infrared-active phonons to a Raman-active phonon causes a transient distortion of the lattice. In contrast to the quadratic-linear coupling that has been previously explored, the direction of the distortion is determined by the polarization of the exciting light, introducing a novel mechanism for nonlinear phononic switching...
February 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211728/electron-vortices-in-femtosecond-multiphoton-ionization
#6
D Pengel, S Kerbstadt, D Johannmeyer, L Englert, T Bayer, M Wollenhaupt
Multiphoton ionization of potassium atoms with a sequence of two counter-rotating circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses produces vortex-shaped photoelectron momentum distributions in the polarization plane describing Archimedean spirals. The pulse sequences are produced by polarization shaping and the three-dimensional photoelectron distributions are tomographically reconstructed from velocity map imaging measurements. We show that perturbative ionization leads to electron vortices with c_{6} rotational symmetry...
February 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211675/synthesis-of-orthorhombic-perovskite-type-znsno3-single-crystal-nanoplates-and-their-application-in-energy-harvesting
#7
Runjiang Guo, Yiping Guo, Huanan Duan, Hua Li, Hezhou Liu
In recent years, the lead-free piezoelectric nanogenerators have attracted much attention, because of their great potential for harvesting energy from our environment. Here, we report on the first synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) single crystal ZnSnO3 hexagon nanoplates and fabrication of nanogenerators based on the single crystal ZnSnO3 nanoplates. The orthorhombic perovskite structured ZnSnO3 nanoplates with the (111) facets exposed at the surface of the plates are successfully synthesized via a one-step hydrothermal reaction...
February 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211528/a-new-model-for-in-situ-nitrogen-incorporation-into-4h-sic-during-epitaxy
#8
Gabriel Ferro, Didier Chaussende
Nitrogen doping of 4H-SiC during vapor phase epitaxy is still lacking of a general model explaining the apparently contradictory trends obtained by different teams. In this paper, the evolutions of nitrogen incorporation (on both polar Si and C faces) as a function of the main growth parameters (C/Si ratio, temperature, pressure and growth rate) are reviewed and explained using a model based on surface exchanges between the gas phase and the uppermost 4H-SiC atomic layers. In this model, N incorporation is driven mainly by the transient formation of C vacancies, due to H2 etching, at the surface or near the surface...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211523/pedf-mediates-pathological-neovascularization-by-regulating-macrophage-recruitment-and-polarization-in-the-mouse-model-of-oxygen-induced-retinopathy
#9
Sha Gao, Changwei Li, Yanji Zhu, Yanuo Wang, Ailing Sui, Yisheng Zhong, Bing Xie, Xi Shen
Macrophages have been demonstrated to play a proangiogenic role in retinal pathological vascular growth. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) works as a powerful endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor, but its role in macrophage recruitment and polarization is largely unknown. To explore the underlying mechanisms, we first evaluated macrophage polarization in the retinas of the oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) mouse model. Compared to that in normal controls, M1- and M2-like macrophages were all abundantly increased in the retinas of OIR mice...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211498/a-terahertz-in-line-polarization-converter-based-on-through-via-connected-double-layer-slot-structures
#10
Jeong Min Woo, Sajid Hussain, Jae-Hyung Jang
A terahertz (THz) in-line polarization converter that yields a polarization conversion ratio as high as 99.9% is demonstrated at 1 THz. It has double-layer slot structures oriented in orthogonal directions that are electrically connected by 1/8-wavelngth-long through-via holes beside the slot structures. The slots on the front metal-plane respond to the incident THz wave with polarization orthogonal to the slots and generates a circulating surface current around the slots. The surface current propagates along a pair of through-via holes that function as a two-wire transmission line...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211469/soil-wettability-can-be-explained-by-the-chemical-composition-of-particle-interfaces-an-xps-study
#11
Susanne K Woche, Marc-O Goebel, Robert Mikutta, Christian Schurig, Matthias Kaestner, Georg Guggenberger, Jörg Bachmann
Soil wettability (quantified in terms of contact angle, CA) is crucial for physical, chemical, and biological soil functioning. As the CA is determined by components present within the outmost nanometer of particles, this study applied X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with a maximum analysis depth of 10 nm to test the relationship between CA and surface elemental composition, using soil samples from a chronosequence where CA increased from 0° (0 yrs) to about 98° (120 yrs). Concurrently, as seen by XPS, C and N content increased and the content of O and the mineral-derived cations (Si, Al, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe) decreased...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211309/chryseobacterium-reticulitermitis-sp-nov-isolated-from-the-gut-of-reticulitermes-aculabialis
#12
Yun Zhao, Yu Wang, Dan Hong Li, Yu Deng, Hong Yang
A Gram-staining-negative, non-motile, aerobic and rod-shaped bacterium, strain Ra1T, was isolated from the gut of a wood-feeding lower termite, Reticulitermes aculabialis. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain was closely related to Chryseobacterium rigui JCM 18078T (96.7%). Growth was observed at 15-45℃ (optimum 30℃), at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum pH 8.0) and in the presence of 0-2% NaCl (optimum 0%). The DNA G+C content of strain Ra1T was 39.9 mol%. The cells contained MK-6 as the sole respiratory quinone and the major fatty acids were iso-C15:0, iso-C17:0, summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1ω6c and/or C16:1ω7c) and summed feature 9 (comprising C16:0 10-methyl and/or iso-C17:1ω9c)...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211276/tuning-the-pseudospin-polarization-of-graphene-by-a-pseudo-magnetic-field
#13
Alexander Georgi, Peter Nemes-Incze, Ramon Carrillo-Bastos, Daiara Faria, Silvia Viola Kusminskiy, Dawei Zhai, Martin Schneider, Dinesh Subramaniam, Torge Mashoff, Nils Michael Freitag, Marcus Liebmann, Marco Pratzer, Ludger Wirtz, Colin R Woods, Roman Vladislavovich Gorbachev, Yang Cao, Kostya S Novoselov, Nancy Sandler, Markus Morgenstern
One of the intriguing characteristics of honeycomb lattices is the appearance of a pseudo-magnetic field as a result of mechanical deformation. In the case of graphene, the Landau quantization resulting from this pseudo-magnetic field has been measured using scanning tunneling microscopy. Here we show that a signature of the pseudo-magnetic field is a local sublattice symmetry breaking observable as a redistribution of the local density of states. This can be interpreted as a polarization of graphene's pseudospin due to a strain induced pseudo-magnetic field, in analogy to the alignment of a real spin in a magnetic field...
February 17, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211205/locking-interconversion-of-aromatic-oligoamide-foldamers-by-intramolecular-side-chain-crosslinking-toward-absolute-control-of-helicity-in-synthetic-aromatic-foldamers
#14
Lu Zheng, Chengyuan Yu, Yulin Zhan, Xuebing Deng, Ying Wang, Hua Jiang
A series of foldamers of 8-amino-2-quinolinecarboxylic acid were stapled by intramolecular ring-closing olefin metathesis to generate the constrained aromatic foldamers with varying lengths of hydrocarbon side-chains. Investigations clearly revealed that the side-chain crosslinkers are capable of completely locking the interconversions of the stapled aromatic foldamers over a wide range of temperature in CDCl3, even in C2D2Cl4. Hence, the stapled foldamers with the short hydrocarbon crosslinker can be easily separated by silica gel chromatography to generate foldamers with stable, absolute one-handed helicity...
February 16, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210984/effect-of-solution-ionic-strength-on-the-pka-of-the-nitroxide-ph-epr-probe-2-2-3-4-5-5-hexamethylimidazolidin-1-oxyl
#15
Kaleigh Margita, Maxim A Voinov, Alex I Smirnov
Spin probe and spin labeling Electron Paramagnetic Resonance methods are indispensable research tools for solving a wide range of bioanalytical problems-from measuring microviscosity and polarity of phase-separated liquids to oxygen concentrations in tissues. One of the emerging uses of spin probes are the studies of proton transfer-related and surface electrostatic phenomena. The latter Electron Paramagnetic Resonance methods rely on molecular probes containing an additional functionality capable of reversible ionization (protonation, in particular) in the immediate proximity to an Electron Paramagnetic Resonance-active reporter group, such as (N-O(•)) for nitroxides...
February 17, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210716/a-nonmonotonic-dependence-of-the-contact-angles-on-the-surface-polarity-for-a-model-solid-surface
#16
Chonghai Qi, Bo Zhou, Chunlei Wang, Yujun Zheng, Haiping Fang
Based on molecular dynamics simulations, we found a nonmonotonic relationship between the contact angle of water droplets and the surface polarity on a solid surface with specific hexagonal charge patterns at room temperature. The contact angle firstly decreases and then increases as polarity (denoted as charge q) increases from 0 e to 1.0 e with a vertex value of q = 0.5 e. We observed a different wetting behavior for a water droplet on a conventional nonwetted solid surface when q ≤ 0.5 e, and a water droplet on an ordered water monolayer adsorbed on a highly polar solid surface when q > 0...
February 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209925/the-stress-polarity-pathway-ampk-giv-es-protection-against-metabolic-insults
#17
Pradipta Ghosh
Loss of cell polarity impairs organ development and function; it can also serve as one of the first triggers for oncogenesis. In 2006-2007 two groups simultaneously reported the existence of a special pathway for maintaining epithelial polarity in the face of environmental stressors. In this pathway, AMPK, a key sensor of metabolic stress stabilizes tight junctions, preserves cell polarity, and thereby, maintains epithelial barrier functions. Accumulating evidence since has shown that pharmacologic activation of AMPK by Metformin protects the epithelial barrier against multiple environmental and pathological stressful states and suppresses tumorigenesis...
February 15, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209899/gtpase-activity-coupled-treadmilling-of-the-bacterial-tubulin-ftsz-organizes-septal-cell-wall-synthesis
#18
Xinxing Yang, Zhixin Lyu, Amanda Miguel, Ryan McQuillen, Kerwyn Casey Huang, Jie Xiao
The bacterial tubulin FtsZ is the central component of the cell division machinery, coordinating an ensemble of proteins involved in septal cell wall synthesis to ensure successful constriction. How cells achieve this coordination is unknown. We found that in Escherichia coli cells, FtsZ exhibits dynamic treadmilling predominantly determined by its guanosine triphosphatase activity. The treadmilling dynamics direct the processive movement of the septal cell wall synthesis machinery but do not limit the rate of septal synthesis...
February 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209887/scientific-curiosity-versus-polarization
#19
Barbara R Jasny
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209780/microtubule-associated-protein-4-map4-controls-nanovesicle-dynamics-and-t-cell-activation
#20
Eugenio Bustos-Morán, Noelia Blas-Rus, Noa Martin-Cófreces, Francisco Sánchez-Madrid
The Immune Synapse (IS) is a specialized structure formed at the contact area between T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells (APC), essential for the adaptive immune response. Proper T cell activation requires its polarization towards the APC, which is highly dependent on the tubulin cytoskeleton. Microtubule associated protein-4 (MAP4) is a microtubule (MT)-stabilizing protein that controls MTs in physiological processes such as cell division, migration, vesicular transport or primary cilia formation. In this study, we have assessed the role of MAP4 in T cell activation...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
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