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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813676/pharmacologic-or-genetic-targeting-of-glutamine-synthetase-skews-macrophages-toward-an-m1-like-phenotype-and-inhibits-tumor-metastasis
#1
Erika M Palmieri, Alessio Menga, Rosa Martín-Pérez, Annamaria Quinto, Carla Riera-Domingo, Giacoma De Tullio, Douglas C Hooper, Wouter H Lamers, Bart Ghesquière, Daniel W McVicar, Attilio Guarini, Massimiliano Mazzone, Alessandra Castegna
Glutamine-synthetase (GS), the glutamine-synthesizing enzyme from glutamate, controls important events, including the release of inflammatory mediators, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation, and autophagy. However, its role in macrophages remains elusive. We report that pharmacologic inhibition of GS skews M2-polarized macrophages toward the M1-like phenotype, characterized by reduced intracellular glutamine and increased succinate with enhanced glucose flux through glycolysis, which could be partly related to HIF1α activation...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813499/staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-elicits-the-expansion-activation-and-polarization-of-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#2
Kuo-Ti Peng, Ching-Chuan Hsieh, Tsung-Yu Huang, Pei-Chun Chen, Hsin-Nung Shih, Mel S Lee, Pey-Jium Chang
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most common causes of biofilm infections in periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs). Accumulating evidence has shown that the immunosuppressive environment established by S. aureus biofilm infection in PJIs involves the presence of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and M2-macrophages. Due to the diversity of MDSCs, little is known about whether S. aureus biofilm preferentially expands specific MDSC subsets or whether MDSCs can further differentiate into M2-macrophages during S...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813178/centriole-biogenesis-from-identifying-the-characters-to-understanding-the-plot
#3
Niccolò Banterle, Pierre Gönczy
The centriole is a beautiful microtubule-based organelle that is critical for the proper execution of many fundamental cellular processes, including polarity, motility, and division. Centriole biogenesis, the making of this miniature architectural wonder, has emerged as an exemplary model to dissect the mechanisms governing the assembly of a eukaryotic organelle. Centriole biogenesis relies on a set of core proteins whose contributions to the assembly process have begun to be elucidated. Here, we review current knowledge regarding the mechanisms by which these core characters function in an orderly fashion to assemble the centriole...
August 16, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813160/a-strain-driven-antiferroelectric-to-ferroelectric-phase-transition-in-la-doped-bifeo3-thin-films-on-si
#4
Deyang Chen, Christopher T Nelson, Xiaohong Zhu, Claudy R Serrao, James D Clarkson, Zhe Wang, Ya Gao, Shang-Lin Hsu, Liv R Dedon, Zuhuang Chen, Di Yi, Heng-Jui Liu, Dechang Zeng, Ying-Hao Chu, Jian Liu, Darrell Schlom, Ramamoorthy Ramesh
A strain driven orthorhombic (O) to rhombohedral (R) phase transition is reported in La-doped BiFeO3 thin films on silicon substrates. Biaxial compressive epitaxial strain is found to stabilize the rhombohedral phase at La concentrations beyond the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). By tailoring the residual strain with film thickness we demonstrate a mixed O/R phase structure consisting of O phase domains measuring tens of nanometers wide within a predominant R phase matrix. A combination of piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), polarization-electric field hysteresis loop (P-E loop) and polarization maps reveal that the O-R structural change is an antiferroelectric to ferroelectric (AFE-FE) phase transition...
August 16, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813044/short-bent-core-molecules-x-ray-polarization-dielectricity-texture-and-electro-optics-investigations
#5
S Torgova, S P Sreenilayam, Yu P Panarin, O Francescangeli, F Vita, J K Vij, E Pozhidaev, M Minchenko, C Ferrero, A Strigazzi
Bent-core liquid crystals based on 1,2,4-oxadiazole as a central unit have been the first mesogens to exhibit a ferroelectric response in the nematic phase. This behavior has been widely recognized as due to the presence of smectic-like polar cybotactic clusters permeating the nematic phase. Unfortunately, these compounds exhibited rather high melting points, about 120 °C, due to the presence of four benzene rings in the molecules. Here we describe the synthesis and physical characterization of a new series of BC mesogens, featuring the same bent core as the previous compounds but shorter outer substituents...
August 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812993/enhanced-corrosion-resistance-of-carbon-steel-in-hydrochloric-acid-solution-by-eriobotrya-japonica-thunb-leaf-extract-electrochemical-study
#6
Wenjing Yang, Qihui Wang, Ke Xu, Yanjun Yin, Hebin Bao, Xueming Li, Lidan Niu, Shiqi Chen
The biodegradable inhibitors, which could effectively reduce the rate of corrosion of carbon steel, were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The mixed-type inhibitors extracted from Eriobotrya japonica Thunb. leaf exhibited excellent inhibition performance, and the inhibition efficiency for carbon steel reached 90.0% at 298 K in hydrochloric acid. Moreover, the adsorption mechanism of the inhibitors on a carbon steel surface is described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm...
August 16, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812901/behavior-of-methylammonium-dipoles-in-mapbx3-x-br-and-i
#7
Sharada Govinda, Bhushan P Kore, Menno Bokdam, Pratibha Mahale, Abhinav Kumar, Somnath Pal, Biswajit Bhattacharyya, Jonathan Lahnsteiner, Georg Kresse, Cesare Franchini, Anshu Pandey, D D Sarma
Dielectric constants of MAPbX3 (X = Br, I) in 1 kHz-1 MHz range show strong temperature dependencies near the room temperature in contrast to the nearly temperature independent dielectric constant of CsPbBr3. This strong temperature dependence for MAPbX3 in the tetragonal phase is attributed to the MA(+) dipoles rotating freely within the probing time scale. This interpretation is supported by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations on MAPbI3 that establish these dipoles as randomly oriented with a rotational relaxation time scale of ~7 ps at 300 K...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812773/side-by-side-observation-of-the-interfacial-improvement-of-vertical-graphene-coated-silicon-nanocone-anodes-for-lithium-ion-batteries-by-patterning-technology
#8
Chao Wang, Fei Luo, Hao Lu, Bonan Liu, Geng Chu, Baogang Quan, Junjie Li, Changzhi Gu, Hong Li, Liquan Chen
We report that vertical graphene coating can greatly improve the electrochemical performance and the interfacial stability of silicon nanocone (SNC) anodes for lithium-ion batteries. The coating patterning technology is innovatively employed for side-by-side demonstration of the exclusive influences of graphene coating on the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation and the structural stability of the SNC electrode. The silicon nanocone-graphene (SNC-G) electrode achieves a longer cycle life (1715 cycles), higher Coulombic efficiency (average 98...
August 16, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812428/microvascular-perfusion-in-cardiac-arrest-a-review-of-microcirculatory-imaging-studies
#9
Petra Krupičková, Zuzana Mormanová, Tomáš Bouček, Tomáš Belza, Jana Šmalcová, Jan Bělohlávek
Cardiac arrest represents a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in developed countries. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) increases the chances for a beneficial outcome in victims of refractory cardiac arrest. However, ECPR and post-cardiac arrest care are affected by high mortality rates due to multi-organ failure syndrome, which is closely related to microcirculatory disorders. Therefore, microcirculation represents a key target for therapeutic interventions in post-cardiac arrest patients...
August 1, 2017: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812357/importance-of-terminal-amino-acid-residues-to-the-transport-of-oligopeptides-across-caco-2-cell-monolayer
#10
Long Ding, Liying Wang, Zhipeng Yu, Sitong Ma, Zhiyang Du, Ting Zhang, Jingbo Liu
The objective of this paper was to investigate the effects of terminal amino acids on the transport of oligopeptides across Caco-2 cell monolayer. Ala-based tetra- and penta-peptides were designed and the N-terminal or C-terminal amino acid residues were replaced by different amino acids. The results showed that the oligopeptides had a wide range of transport permeability across Caco-2 cell monolayer and could be divided into 4 categories: non/poor permeability, low permeability, intermediate permeability, and good permeability...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812355/adaptively-recognizing-parallel-stranded-duplex-structure-for-fluorescent-dna-polarity-analysis
#11
Mei-Yun Ye, Rui-Tao Zhu, Xiang Li, Xiao-Shun Zhou, Zheng-Zhi Yin, Qian Li, Yong Shao
Besides the canonical Watson-Crick (WC) linked antiparallel-stranded duplex (aps-DNA), DNA is also able to form bioactive parallel-stranded duplex (ps-DNA) with the two involving strands adopting the equal 5'-3' polarity. Discriminating ps-DNA from aps-DNA with an ideal selectivity is more challenging because of their comparable duplex topologies. Herein, we designed a unique probe of HPIN to fluorescently recognize ps-DNA but to keep an almost nonfluorescent response in binding with aps-DNA. The success of the Hoogsteen hydrogen bonding pattern in lighting up the HPIN fluorescence over the reverse Watson-Crick (rWC) one suggests the critical role of HPIN in structurally adaptive recognition to the strand polarity-determined base-pairing peculiarity...
August 16, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812259/evolutionary-dynamics-in-the-fungal-polarization-network-a-mechanistic-perspective
#12
REVIEW
Eveline T Diepeveen, Leila Iñigo de la Cruz, Liedewij Laan
Polarity establishment underlies proper cell cycle completion across virtually all organisms. Much progress has been made in generating an understanding of the structural and functional components of this process, especially in model species. Here we focus on the evolutionary dynamics of the fungal polarization protein network in order to determine general components and mechanistic principles, species- or lineage-specific adaptations and the evolvability of the network. The currently available genomic and proteomic screens in a variety of fungal species have shown three main characteristics: (1) certain proteins, processes and functions are conserved throughout the fungal clade; (2) orthologous functions can never be assumed, as various cases have been observed of homologous loci with dissimilar functions; (3) species have, typically, various species- or lineage-specific proteins incorporated in their polarization network...
August 15, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812258/chromosomal-flhb1-gene-of-the-alphaproteobacterium-azospirillum-brasilense-sp245-is-essential-for-correct-assembly-of-both-constitutive-polar-flagellum-and-inducible-lateral-flagella
#13
Yulia Filip'echeva, Andrei Shelud'ko, Alexei Prilipov, Elizaveta Telesheva, Dmitry Mokeev, Andrei Burov, Lilia Petrova, Elena Katsy
Azospirillum brasilense has the ability of swimming and swarming motility owing to the work of a constitutive polar flagellum and inducible lateral flagella, respectively. The interplay between these flagellar systems is poorly understood. One of the key elements of the flagellar export apparatus is the protein FlhB. Two predicted flhB genes are present in the genome of A. brasilense Sp245 (accession nos. HE577327-HE577333). Experimental evidence obtained here indicates that the chromosomal coding sequence (CDS) AZOBR_150177 (flhB1) of Sp245 is essential for the production of both types of flagella...
August 15, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812026/evidence-of-immunosuppressive-and-th2-immune-polarizing-effects-of-antidiabetic-momordica-charantia-fruit-juice
#14
Rufine Fachinan, Adnette Fagninou, Magloire Pandoua Nekoua, Abdou Madjid Amoussa, Marius Adjagba, Latifou Lagnika, Anatole Lalèyè, Kabirou Moutairou, Akadiri Yessoufou
The mechanism of action of the antidiabetic capacity of Momordica charantia is still under investigation. Here, we assessed phytochemical compositions, antioxidant activity, and effects of total and filtered fruit and leafy stem juices of Momordica charantia on human T cell proliferation and differentiation through quantification of Th1/Th2 cytokines. In the absence of stimulation, total fruit and leafy stem juices induced significant T cell proliferation. Under PHA stimulation, both juices potentiated plant-induced T cell proliferation...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812011/oil-characterization-and-lipids-class-composition-of-pomegranate-seeds
#15
Zahra Amri, Houda Lazreg-Aref, Manel Mekni, Sinda El-Gharbi, Olfa Dabbaghi, Beligh Mechri, Mohamed Hammami
This study aims to investigate the physicochemical characteristics, phenolics content, and oil composition of pomegranate oil seeds (PSO). Quality indices, pigments, phenolics content, and antioxidant activity were determined. PSO was fractioned into polar lipids: glycolipids (GL) and phospholipids (PL). Sterols profile and fatty acids composition of total lipids (TL), GL, and PL were determined by GC/FID. The free acidity, the peroxide value, and the specific extinction coefficients were, respectively, 1.69%, 3...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811825/ethanol-extract-of-mylabris-phalerata-inhibits-m2-polarization-induced-by-recombinant-il-4-and-il-13-in-murine-macrophages
#16
Hwan-Suck Chung, Bong-Seon Lee, Jin Yeul Ma
Mylabris phalerata (MP) is an insect used in oriental herbal treatments for tumor, tinea infections, and stroke. Recent studies have shown that tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) have detrimental roles such as tumor progression, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Although TAM has phenotypes and characteristics in common with M2-polarized macrophages, M1 macrophages have tumor suppression and immune stimulation effects. Medicines polarizing macrophages to M1 have been suggested to have anticancer effects via the modulation of the tumor microenvironment...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811742/respiratory-t-wave-inversion-in-a-patient-with-chest-pain
#17
Himani Sharma, Abhinav Tiwari
T-wave inversion on electrocardiogram (ECG) is always a concerning finding as it is often associated with myocardial ischemia or ventricular strain. Respiratory variation in the T-wave morphology has been reported in the literature; however, the frequency of this observation remains unknown as this is not routinely evaluated. Although the exact physiological mechanisms underlying this ECG change are unclear, it is proposed to be due to the respiratory variation of the heart position resulting in an alteration in T-wave polarity...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811630/solid-state-31-p-and-1-h-chemical-mr-micro-imaging-of-hard-tissues-and-biomaterials-with-magic-angle-spinning-at-very-high-magnetic-field
#18
Maxime Yon, Vincent Sarou-Kanian, Ulrich Scheler, Jean-Michel Bouler, Bruno Bujoli, Dominique Massiot, Franck Fayon
In this work, we show that it is possible to overcome the limitations of solid-state MRI for rigid tissues due to large line broadening and short dephasing times by combining Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) with rotating pulsed field gradients. This allows recording ex vivo (31)P 3D and 2D slice-selected images of rigid tissues and related biomaterials at very high magnetic field, with greatly improved signal to noise ratio and spatial resolution when compared to static conditions. Cross-polarization is employed to enhance contrast and to further depict spatially localized chemical variations in reduced experimental time...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811599/histone-deacetylase-6-hdac6-is-an-essential-factor-for-oocyte-maturation-and-asymmetric-division-in-mice
#19
Dongjie Zhou, Yun-Jung Choi, Jin-Hoi Kim
Tubastatin A (Tub-A), a highly selective histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) inhibitor, has been widely used as a cytotoxic anticancer agent, or for the treatment of patients with asthma. However, the potential toxicity of Tub-A on oocyte maturation and asymmetric division is still unclear. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the effect and potential regulatory role of Tub-A on the meiotic maturation of oocytes. We observed that Tub-A treatment induced an increased level of the acetylation of α-tubulin, and a failure of spindle migration and actin cap formation...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811579/cxcl12-enhances-angiogenesis-through-cxcr7-activation-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#20
Min Zhang, Lisha Qiu, Yanyan Zhang, Dongsheng Xu, Jialin C Zheng, Li Jiang
Angiogenesis is the process by which new vessels form from existing vascular networks. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) may contribute to the study of vascular repair and angiogenesis. The chemokine CXCL12 regulates multiple cell functions, including angiogenesis, mainly through its receptor CXCR4. In contrast to CXCL12/CXCR4, few studies have described roles for CXCR7 in vascular biology, and the downstream mechanism of CXCR7 in angiogenesis remains unclear. The results of the present study showed that CXCL12 dose-dependently enhanced angiogenesis in chorioallantoic membranes (CAMs) and HUVECs...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
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