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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151234/excavating-the-psyche-a-social-history-of-soviet-psychiatry-in-bulgaria
#1
Julian Chehirian
This article investigates how an imported Soviet psychiatric model affected Bulgarians who experienced psychological crisis by examining therapeutic possibilities that were available and foreclosed in the People's Republic of Bulgaria. Bulgarians struggling with psychological disorders in the present day experience polar forms of marginalization: non-recognition on one extreme, and chronic medicalization on the other. Both tendencies can be traced to the Communist-period remodeling of mental healthcare, which outlawed private practice and individual-centered therapy, which reified empirically observable, physiological underpinnings of pathology while suppressing therapies that engaged with the existential context of mental illness...
November 18, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151221/quantitative-determination-of-interacting-protein-surfaces-in-prokaryotes-and-eukaryotes-by-using-in-cell-nmr-spectroscopy
#2
David S Burz, Christopher M DeMott, Asma Aldousary, Stephen Dansereau, Alexander Shekhtman
This paper describes three protocols for identifying interacting surfaces on (15)N-labeled target proteins of known structure by using in-cell NMR spectroscopy. The first protocol describes how to identify protein quinary structure interaction surfaces in prokaryotes by using cross-relaxation-induced polarization transfer, CRIPT, based in-cell NMR. The second protocol describes how to introduce labeled protein into eukaryotic (HeLa) cells via electroporation for CRIPT-based in-cell studies. The third protocol describes how to quantitatively map protein interacting surfaces by utilizing singular value decomposition, SVD, analysis of STructural INTeractions by in-cell NMR, STINT-NMR, data...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151209/in-vitro-dissolution-dynamic-nuclear-polarization-for-sensitivity-enhancement-of-nmr-with-biological-molecules
#3
Yaewon Kim, Yunyi Wang, Hsueh-Ying Chen, Christian Hilty
Dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (D-DNP) is a technique to prepare hyperpolarized nuclear spin states, yielding a signal enhancement of several orders of magnitude for liquid-state NMR. Here, we describe experimental procedures for the application of D-DNP in high-resolution NMR of biochemical compounds, to determine the time evolution of biochemical processes and intermolecular interactions.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151208/strategies-for-efficient-sample-preparation-for-dynamic-nuclear-polarization-solid-state-nmr-of-biological-macromolecules
#4
Boris Itin, Ivan V Sergeyev
Solid-state NMR (SSNMR) is a powerful tool for the elucidation of structure and dynamics in biological macromolecules. Over the years, SSNMR spectroscopists have developed an array of techniques enabling the measurement of internuclear correlations, distances, and torsional angles; these have been applied to the study of a number of biological systems that are difficult to study by X-ray crystallography and solution NMR, including key biological targets such as membrane proteins and amyloid fibrils. Applications of SSNMR to other topic areas, including materials science, pharmaceuticals, and small molecules, have also flourished in recent years...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151204/afterglow-solid-state-nmr-spectroscopy
#5
Gili Abramov, Nathaniel J Traaseth
Biomolecular solid-state NMR experiments have traditionally been collected through detection of (13)C or (15)N nuclei. Since these nuclei have relatively low sensitivity stemming from their smaller gyromagnetic ratios relative to (1)H, the time required to collect multi-dimensional datasets serves as a limitation to resonance assignment and structure determination. One improvement in the field has been to employ simultaneous or parallel acquisition techniques with the goal of acquiring more than one dataset at a time and therefore speeding up the overall data collection process...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151203/experimental-aspects-of-polarization-optimized-experiments-poe-for-magic-angle-spinning-solid-state-nmr-of-microcrystalline-and-membrane-bound-proteins
#6
T Gopinath, Gianluigi Veglia
Conventional NMR pulse sequences record one spectrum per experiment, while spending most of the time waiting for the spin system to return to the equilibrium. As a result, a full set of multidimensional NMR experiments for biological macromolecules may take up to several months to complete. Here, we present a practical guide for setting up a new class of MAS solid-state NMR experiments (POE or polarization optimized experiments) that enable the simultaneous acquisition of multiple spectra of proteins, accelerating data acquisition...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150729/effect-of-microemulsion-structure-on-fluorescence-and-nonlinear-optical-properties-of-rhodamine-6g
#7
M Pourtabrizi, N Shahtahmassebi, A Kompany, S Sharifi
This study is conducted to investigate the effect of nano-droplets concentration and size on linear and nonlinear optical properties of Rhodamine 6G by UV-Vis, spectrofluorometer and Z-Scan techniques. Nano-droplets were prepared by mixture of AOT, n-Decane and Water at three different water to surfactant molar ratios (W = 3, 6.7 and 40) and two dye to water mass ratios (R). At high enough dye concentration, the fluorescence intensity and its red shift depend on the concentration of dye in water nano-droplets (R)...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150691/mechanical-regulation-of-organ-asymmetry-in-leaves
#8
Jiyan Qi, Binbin Wu, Shiliang Feng, Shouqin Lü, Chunmei Guan, Xiao Zhang, Dengli Qiu, Yingchun Hu, Yihua Zhou, Chuanyou Li, Mian Long, Yuling Jiao
How appendages, such as plant leaves or animal limbs, develop asymmetric shapes remains a fundamental question in biology. Although ongoing research has revealed the genetic regulation of organ pattern formation, how gene activity ultimately directs organ shape remains unclear. Here, we show that leaf dorsoventral (adaxial-abaxial) polarity signals lead to mechanical heterogeneity of the cell wall, related to the methyl-esterification of cell-wall pectins in tomato and Arabidopsis. Numerical simulations predicate that mechanical heterogeneity is sufficient to produce the asymmetry seen in planar leaves...
September 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150613/a-study-of-the-ground-attachment-process-in-natural-lightning-with-emphasis-on-its-breakthrough-phase
#9
M D Tran, V A Rakov
Synchronized high-speed (124 or 210 kiloframes per second) video images and wideband electromagnetic field records of the attachment process were obtained for 4 negative strokes in natural lightning at the Lightning Observatory in Gainesville, Florida. The majority of imaged upward connecting leaders (UCLs) and upward unconnected leaders, inferred to be mostly initiated from trees, exhibited a pulsating behavior (brightening/fading cycles). UCLs, whose maximum extent ranged from 11 to 25 m, propagated in virgin air at speeds ranging from 1...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150567/amplifying-ifn-%C3%AE-signaling-in-dendritic-cells-by-cd11c-specific-loss-of-socs1-increases-innate-immunity-to-infection-while-decreasing-adaptive-immunity
#10
Alejandro F Alice, Gwen Kramer, Shelly Bambina, Jason R Baird, Keith S Bahjat, Michael J Gough, Marka R Crittenden
Although prophylactic vaccines provide protective humoral immunity against infectious agents, vaccines that elicit potent CD8 T cell responses are valuable tools to shape and drive cellular immunity against cancer and intracellular infection. In particular, IFN-γ-polarized cytotoxic CD8 T cell immunity is considered optimal for protective immunity against intracellular Ags. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1 is a cross-functional negative regulator of TLR and cytokine receptor signaling via degradation of the receptor-signaling complex...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150563/nfat5-regulated-macrophage-polarization-supports-the-proinflammatory-function-of-macrophages-and-t-lymphocytes
#11
Mónica Tellechea, Maria Buxadé, Sonia Tejedor, Jose Aramburu, Cristina López-Rodríguez
Macrophages are exquisite sensors of tissue homeostasis that can rapidly switch between pro- and anti-inflammatory or regulatory modes to respond to perturbations in their microenvironment. This functional plasticity involves a precise orchestration of gene expression patterns whose transcriptional regulators have not been fully characterized. We had previously identified the transcription factor NFAT5 as an activator of TLR-induced responses, and in this study we explore its contribution to macrophage functions in different polarization settings...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149896/liposomal-vaccine-formulations-as-prophylactic-agents-design-considerations-for-modern-vaccines
#12
REVIEW
Luis O De Serrano, David J Burkhart
Vaccinology is one of the most important cornerstones in modern medicine, providing better quality of life. The human immune system is composed of innate and adaptive immune processes that interplay when infection occurs. Innate immunity relies on pathogen-associated molecular patterns which are recognized by pathogen recognition receptors localized in antigen presenting cells. After antigen processing and presentation, CD4(+) T cell polarization occurs, further leading to B cell and CD8(+) activation and humoral and cell-mediated adaptive immune responses...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149812/architectures-and-mechanical-properties-of-drugs-and-complexes-of-surface-active-compounds-at-air-water-and-oil-water-interfaces
#13
Dipak K Sarker
BACKGROUND: Drugs can represents a multitude of compounds from proteins and peptides, such as growth hormones and insulin and on to simple organic molecules such as flurbiprofen, ibuprofen and lidocaine. Given the chemical nature of these compounds two features are always present. A portion or portions of the molecule that has little affinity for apolar surfaces and media and the opposite a series of part or one large part that has considerable affinity for hydrophilic, polar or charged media and surfaces...
November 17, 2017: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149781/macrophages-from-behcet-s-disease-patients-express-decreased-level-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-ahr-mrna
#14
Mohammad Taghi Palizgir, Maryam Akhtari, Mahdi Mahmoudi, Shayan Mostafaei, Alireza Rezaeimanesh, Massoomeh Akhlaghi, Farhad Shahram
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor, connecting environmental stimulators with the immune system. M1 macrophages are a part of immune system that contribute to the inflammatory events in the pathogenesis of Behcet's disease (BD). The effect of AHR on the macrophages in BD patients is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the mRNA expression of AHR in the monocyte-derived and M1 macrophages in active BD patients in comparison to healthy controls. Isolated monocytes from 10 healthy controls and 10 active BD patients were differentiated to macrophages by macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) for 7 days...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149565/enhanced-magnetic-hybridization-of-a-spinterface-through-insertion-of-a-two-dimensional-magnetic-oxide-layer
#15
Alberto Brambilla, Andrea Picone, Dario Giannotti, Alberto Calloni, Giulia Berti, Gianlorenzo Bussetti, Simona Achilli, Guido Fratesi, Mario Italo Trioni, Giovanni Vinai, Piero Torelli, Giancarlo Panaccione, Lamberto Duò, Marco Finazzi, Franco Ciccacci
Interfaces between organic semiconductors and ferromagnetic metals offer intriguing opportunities in the rapidly developing field of organic spintronics. Understanding and controlling the spin-polarized electronic states at the interface is the key towards a reliable exploitation of this kind of systems. Here we propose an approach consisting in the insertion of a two-dimensional magnetic oxide layer at the interface, with the aim of both increasing the reproducibility of the interface preparation and offering a way for a further fine control over the electronic and magnetic properties...
November 17, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149564/binding-thermodynamics-and-kinetics-calculations-using-chemical-host-and-guest-a-comprehensive-picture-of-molecular-recognition
#16
Zhiye Tang, Chia-En A Chang
Understanding the fine balance between changes of entropy and enthalpy and the competition between a guest and water molecules in molecular binding is crucial in fundamental studies and practical applications. Experiments provide measurements. However, illustrating the binding/unbinding processes gives a complete picture of molecular recognition not directly available from experiments, and computational methods bridge the gaps. Here, we investigated guest association/dissociation with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) by using microsecond-timescale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, post-analysis and numerical calculations...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149327/focused-time-lapse-analysis-reveals-novel-aspects-of-human-fertilization-and-suggests-new-parameters-of-embryo-viability
#17
G Coticchio, M Mignini Renzini, P V Novara, M Lain, E De Ponti, D Turchi, R Fadini, M Dal Canto
STUDY QUESTION: Can focused application of time-lapse microscopy (TLM) lead to a more detailed map of the morphokinetics of human fertilization, revealing novel or neglected aspects of this process? SUMMARY ANSWER: Intensive harnessing of TLM reveals novel or previously poorly characterised phenomena of fertilization, such as a cytoplasmic wave (CW) preceding pronuclear formation and kinetics of pronuclear chromatin polarization, thereby suggesting novel non-invasive biomarkers of embryo quality...
November 15, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149212/mycolactone-displays-anti-inflammatory-effects-on-the-nervous-system
#18
Caroline Isaac, Annie Mauborgne, Alfonso Grimaldi, Kemy Ade, Michel Pohl, Cristina Limatola, Yves Boucher, Caroline Demangel, Laure Guenin-Macé
BACKGROUND: Mycolactone is a macrolide produced by the skin pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans, with cytotoxic, analgesic and immunomodulatory properties. The latter were recently shown to result from mycolactone blocking the Sec61-dependent production of pro-inflammatory mediators by immune cells. Here we investigated whether mycolactone similarly affects the inflammatory responses of the nervous cell subsets involved in pain perception, transmission and maintenance. We also investigated the effects of mycolactone on the neuroinflammation that is associated with chronic pain in vivo...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149034/multiferroic-hysteresis-loop
#19
Alexander Ruff, Alois Loidl, Stephan Krohns
Multiferroics, showing both ferroelectric and magnetic order, are promising candidates for future electronic devices. Especially, the fundamental understanding of ferroelectric switching is of key relevance for further improvements, which however is rarely reported in literature. On a prime example for a spin-driven multiferroic, LiCuVO₄, we present an extensive study of the ferroelectric order and the switching behavior as functions of external electric and magnetic fields. From frequency-dependent polarization switching and using the Ishibashi-Orihara theory, we deduce the existence of ferroelectric domains and domain-walls...
November 17, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148913/using-cross-polarized-photography-as-a-guide-for-selecting-resin-composite-shade
#20
C A Villavicencio-Espinoza, M H Narimatsu, A Y Furuse
The restoration of single discolored maxillary anterior teeth is still a difficult task, as not only shape and surface characterization play an important role in the success of the treatment, but the propagation of light throughout the restorative material does as well. In some cases, small changes in morphology, color, and brightness will be noticeable. These factors are sometimes very tricky, and shade guides alone are difficult to use for color selection. This article proposes a protocol of employing cross-polarization imaging for improving the accuracy of the shade selection of resin composites...
November 17, 2017: Operative Dentistry
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