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Lijun Yu, Yao Huang, Wen Zhang, Tingting Li, Wenjuan Sun
Methane (CH4) is one of the most potent greenhouse gases. Although forest and grassland soils generally consume atmospheric CH4, the quantities and spatiotemporal changes in CH4 uptake remain largely uncertain for these ecosystems at the global scale. In this study, we developed an empirical model to estimate the CH4 uptake in global forest and grassland soils during the period 1981-2010. We estimated that the mean values of CH4 uptake were 9.16 (± 3.84) Tg yr(-1) in forest soils and 3.73 (± 1.41) Tg yr(-1) in grassland soils during the study period...
July 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Saptarshi Ghosh, Nayan Roy, T Sanjoy Singh, Nitin Chattopadhyay
The present work reports detailed photophysics of a coumarin based Schiff base, namely, (E)-7-(((8-hydroxyquinolin-2-yl)methylene)amino)-4-methyl-2H-chromen-2-one (HMC) in different solvents of varying polarity exploiting steady state absorption, fluorescence and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The dominant photophysical features of HMC are discussed in terms of emission from an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) excited state. Molecular orbital (MO) diagrams as obtained from DFT based computational analysis confirms the occurrence of charge transfer from 8'-hydroxy quinoline moiety of the molecule to the coumarin part...
July 13, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Alexander V Postnikov, Ilia V Uvarov, Mikhail V Lokhanin, Vitaly B Svetovoy
Using different experimental techniques we visualize a cloud of gas in water that is produced electrochemically by the alternating polarity process. Liquid enriched with gas does not contain bubbles strongly scattering visible light but its refractive index changes significantly near the electrodes. The change of the refractive index is a collective effect of bulk nanobubbles with a diameter smaller than 200 nm. Any alternative explanation fails to explain the magnitude of the effect. Spatial structure of the cloud is investigated with the optical lever method...
2017: PloS One
Laura C Miller, Damarius S Fleming, Xiangdong Li, Darrell O Bayles, Frank Blecha, Yongming Sang
Monocyte-derived DCs (mDCs) are major target cells in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) pathogenesis; however, the plasticity of mDCs in response to activation stimuli and PRRSV infection remains unstudied. In this study, we polarized mDCs, and applied genome-wide transcriptomic analysis and predicted protein-protein interaction networks to compare signature genes involved in mDCs activation and response to PRRSV infection. Porcine mDCs were polarized with mediators for 30 hours, then mock-infected, infected with PRRSV strain VR2332, or a highly pathogenic PRRSV strain (rJXwn06), for 5 h...
2017: PloS One
Wanying Zhang, Shuai-Feng Zhang, Zhenhu Zhang, Huanzhi Yang, Ao Zhang, Xingtian Hao, Jianchuang Wang, Chunxiu Zhang, Jialing Pu
A series of discotic liquid crystals based on hexapentyloxytriphenylene (HAT5) have been investigated where one out of the six ether side chains of a triphenylene core was replaced by an ester side chain and named for 5a-5h. During the process of studying these compounds, the characteristic straight line defect of ordered columnar structure was identified by polarizing optical microscopy (POM) and liquid crystal state over a wide temperature range was obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Basic phase structure and molecular arrangement were assigned by one-dimensional wide-angle X-ray diffraction (1D WAXD), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), two-dimensional wide-angle X-ray diffraction (2D WAXD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM)...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Renato B Corradi, Emily A Vertosick, Daniel P Nguyen, Antoni Vilaseca, Daniel D Sjoberg, Nicole Benfante, Lucas N Nogueira, Massimiliano Spaliviero, Karim A Touijer, Paul Russo, Jonathan A Coleman
OBJECTIVES: Based on imaging features, nephrometry scoring systems have been conceived to create a standardized and reproducible way to characterize renal tumor anatomy. However, less is known about which of these individual measures are important with regard to clinically relevant perioperative outcomes such as ischemia time (IT), estimated blood loss (EBL), length of hospital stay (LOS), and change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after robotic partial nephrectomy (PN)...
July 20, 2017: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
T A Bakhsh, A S Bakry, M M Mandurah, M A Abbassy
OBJECTIVE: White spot lesions (WSLs) are commonly seen during and after orthodontic treatment. Therefore, the objective of this in vitro study was to assess the effect of 45S5-bioglass in remineralizing WSLs using cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) and confirm the findings by micro-hardness test. METHODS: Ceramic orthodontic brackets were bonded to the buccal surface of 45 human premolars with Transbond XT primer followed by Transbond PLUS according to the manufacturer's instructions...
August 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
Gang Xu, Jian Cao, Yali Zhao, Lishuo Zheng, Minli Tao, Wenqin Zhang
A novel solid acid catalyst (PANEAPF) was developed by immobilization of phosphoric acid on polyacrylonitrile fiber via covalent bond. Various characterization techniques such as elemental analysis (EA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), etc. were utilized to confirm the successful grafting and the stability of the fiber catalysts during application. The PANEAPF showed high catalytic activity in the acetalization of aldehydes due to the high utilization efficiency of its functionalized acid sites...
July 20, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Moirangthem Kiran Singh, Mohammad Firoz Khan, Him Shweta, Sobhan Sen
Despite significant interest in understanding the role of the local dielectric environment and lipid-bilayer fluidity/rigidity in resonance energy transfer between chromophores at lipid/water interfaces, a comprehensive approach to quantify such environmental dependence on energy transfer is missing - primarily because of the scarcity of suitable probes. Here we present the results on multi-chromophoric Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from a series of 4-aminophthalimide-based molecules (4AP-Cn; n = 2-10, 12) of different lipophilicity (donors), which reside at different depths across the lipid/water interfaces, to rhodamine-6G (Rh6G; acceptor) molecules that stay in a water-rich region near the lipid headgroups...
July 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
G L Jiang, W J Chen, Biao Wang, Jian Shao, Yue Zheng
Both electrodes and substrates are factors of great significance for the performance of ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs) in designing functional nanodevices. To provide a comprehensive view on the polarization stability in FTJs due to the effects of an electrode and a substrate misfit strain, in this work we calculated more than 1000 FTJ structures by utilizing an ab initio density functional theory (DFT) method, via changing the symmetry of the FTJ structure (i.e., both asymmetric and symmetric FTJs), electrodes (including Au, Ag, Cu, Pt, Co, Fe, and SrRuO3), barrier thickness (ranging from 2 to 10 unit cells), polarization direction (both positive and negative polarizations) and epitaxial strain (i...
July 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Ignat Harczuk, Balazs Nagy, Frank Jensen, Olav Vahtras, Hans Ågren
We present a new way to compute the two-body contribution to the dispersion energy using ab initio theory. By combining the complex polarization propagator method and the LoProp transformation, local contributions to the Casimir-Polder interaction is obtained. The full dispersion energy in dimer systems consisting of pairs of molecules including H2, N2, CO, CH4, pyridine, and benzene is investigated, where anisotropic as well as isotropic models of dispersion are obtained using a decomposition scheme for the dipole-dipole polarizability...
July 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yilong Liu, Chuanhong Ren, Yunlin Cao, Yue Wang, Wenyi Duan, Linfeng Xie, Chongde Sun, Xian Li
Bergamottin is a natural furanocoumarin compound with weak polarity. Characterization and quantification of bergamottin were carried out in different fruit tissues of various citrus cultivars. Among the four citrus tissues tested, i.e., flavedo, albedo, segment membrane (SM), and juice sacs (JS) in eight citrus cultivars, the highest bergamottin content was found in the flavedo of Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck cv. Yongjiazaoxiangyou (YJZXY, 666.54 μg·g(-1) DW). A combination of silica gel column chromatography and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was established to efficiently purify bergamottin from the flavedo of YJZXY...
July 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Klemen Kregar, Jan Možina, Tomaž Ambrožič, Dušan Kogoj, Aleš Marjetič, Gašper Štebe, Simona Savšek
This article presents a method for measuring the geometry of crane rails with terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). Two sets of crane rails were divided into segments, their planes were adjusted, and the characteristic rail lines were defined. We used their profiles to define the positional and altitude deviations of the rails, the span and height difference between the two rails, and we also verified that they complied with the Eurocode 3 standard. We tested the method on crane rails at the hydroelectric power plant in Krško and the thermal power plant in Brestanica...
July 20, 2017: Sensors
Fatemeh Fouladi Mahani, Arash Mokhtari, Mahdiyeh Mehran
Taking advantage of nanostructured metal films as plasmonic colour filters has been evolved remarkably as an alternative to the conventional technologies of chemical colour filtering. However, most of the proposed plasmonic colour filters depict a poor colour purity focusing on the generating of either the additive or subtractive colours. In this paper, we present dual mode operation plasmonic colour filters employing an opaque aluminium film patterned with sub-wavelength holes. Subtractive colours like cyan, magenta, and yellow are the results of reflection mode of these filters yielding optical efficiencies as high as 70-80 percent and full width at half maximum of the stop-bands up to 40-50 nm...
July 20, 2017: Nanotechnology
Matthew Pevarnik, Weibin Cui, Sukru Yemenicioglu, Justin Rofeh, Luke Theogarajan
Voltage gating is essential to the computational ability of neurons. We show this effect can be mimicked in a solid-state nanopore by functionalizing the pore interior with a redox active molecule. We study the integration of an active biological molecule, a quinone, into a solid state nanopore and its subsequent induced voltage gating. We show that the voltage gating effect mimics biological gating systems in its classic sigmoidal voltage response, unlike previous synthetic voltage gating systems. Initially the quinone undergoes a reduction due to radicals in the bulk solution and is converted to the hydroquinone state...
July 20, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Fei Wei, Yinghong Zhou, Jing Wang, Changsheng Liu, Yin Xiao
Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is one of the most frequently used osteogenic factors for osteogenesis. Macrophages, acting as both immune cells and osteoclast precursors, have an indispensable functional input during multiple stages of bone healing. This study aims to investigate the immunoregulatory role of BMP-2 on macrophages and the subsequent effects on osteogenesis. In the subcutaneous implantation study, gelatin sponge incorporated with 20 μg/mL BMP-2 rendered significantly enhanced macrophage infiltration compared to the gelatin sponge control...
July 20, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Jilan A Nazeam, Hala M El-Hefnawy, Gamal Omran, Abdel-Naser Singab
Hypolipidemic effect of Portulaca oleracea L. seed extract and its fractions have been studied on streptozotocin (STZ) at dose 75 mg/kg b.wt. After fractionation of the alcoholic extract; petroleum ether fraction was the most active fraction that decreased different hyperlipidemia biochemical parameters. After chromatographic analysis; oleamide, ethylpalmitate, β-amyrin, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol were identified. The GLC analysis of unsaponifiable matter revealed the presence of; lignoceric acid as a major constituent in the most bioactive fraction...
July 20, 2017: Natural Product Research
Weidi Zhu, Galan Moore, Bruce G Aitken, Simon Clark, Sabyasachi Sen
Structural anisotropy induced by steady shear and its mechanistic relation with shear thinning are investigated in AsxSe1-x glasses (5≤x≤30) quenched from parent liquids subjected to shear rates ranging between 0 and 104 s1 using polarized Raman spectroscopy and two-dimensional x-ray diffraction. When taken together, the results demonstrate significant shear-induced partial alignment of -Se-Se-Se- chain moieties in the flow direction of the extruded fibers. This alignment is reminiscent of nematic liquid crystals where orientational order exists without positional order...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Shen-Shu Sung
Recent site-resolved hydrogen exchange measurements have uncovered significant discrepancies between simulations and experimental data during protein folding, including the excessive intramolecular hydrogen bonds in simulations. This finding indicates a possibility that intramolecular charge-charge interactions have not included sufficient dielectric screening effect of the electronic polarization. Scaling down peptide atomic charges according to the optical dielectric constant is tested in this study. As a result, the number of intramolecular hydrogen bonds is lower than using unscaled atomic charges while reaching the same levels of helical contents or β-hairpin backbone hydrogen bonds, because van der Waals interactions contribute substantially to peptide folding in water...
July 20, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Steven Marczak, Elaine Smith, Satyajyoti Senapati, Hsueh-Chia Chang
Selectivity against mutant nontargets with a few mismatches remains challenging in nucleic acid sensing. Sensitivity enhancement by analyte concentration does not improve selectivity because it affects targets and nontargets equally. Hydrodynamic or electrical shear enhanced selectivity is often accompanied by substantial losses in target signals, thereby leading to poor limits of detection. We introduce a platform based on depletion isotachophoresis in agarose gel generated by an ion-selective membrane that allows both selectivity and sensitivity enhancement with a two-step assay involving concentration polarization at an ion-selective membrane...
July 20, 2017: Electrophoresis
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