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Neural architecture human

Richard Ramsey
The perception of other people is instrumental in guiding social interactions. For example, the appearance of the human body cues a wide range of inferences regarding sex, age, health, and personality, as well as emotional state and intentions, which influence social behavior. To date, most neuroscience research on body perception has aimed to characterize the functional contribution of segregated patches of cortex in the ventral visual stream. In light of the growing prominence of network architectures in neuroscience, the current article reviews neuroimaging studies that measure functional integration between different brain regions during body perception...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Alessio Plebe
This paper addresses a fundamental line of research in neuroscience: the identification of a putative neural processing core of the cerebral cortex, often claimed to be "canonical". This "canonical" core would be shared by the entire cortex, and would explain why it is so powerful and diversified in tasks and functions, yet so uniform in architecture. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the search for canonical explanations over the past 40 years, discussing the theoretical frameworks informing this research...
June 15, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
Harvey B Sarnat
The cerebellar system is a series of axonal projections and synaptic circuits as networks, similar to those of the limbic system and those subserving the propagation and spread of seizures. Three principal cerebellar networks are identified and cerebellar disease often affects components of the networks other than just the cerebellar cortex. Contemporary developmental neuropathology of the cerebellum is best considered in the context of alterations of developmental processes: embryonic segmentation and genetic gradients along the three axes of the neural tube, individual neuronal and glial cell differentiation, migration, synaptogenesis, and myelination...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Nadia Rbia, Liselotte F Bulstra, Allen T Bishop, Andre J van Wijnen, Alexander Y Shin
BACKGROUND: The addition of adipose-derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) to decellularized nerve allografts may improve outcomes of nerve reconstruction. Prior techniques used for cell seeding are traumatic to both the MSCs and nerve graft. An adequate, reliable and validated cell seeding technique is an essential step for evaluating the translational utility of MSC-enhanced decellularized nerve grafts. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple seeding strategy with an optimal seeding duration...
May 22, 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Miriam E Weaverdyck, Carolyn Parkinson
The computational demands associated with navigating large, complexly bonded social groups are thought to have significantly shaped human brain evolution. Yet, research on social network representation and cognitive neuroscience have progressed largely independently. Thus, little is known about how the human brain encodes the structure of the social networks in which it is embedded. This review highlights recent work seeking to bridge this gap in understanding. While the majority of research linking social network analysis and neuroimaging has focused on relating neuroanatomy to social network size, researchers have begun to define the neural architecture that encodes social network structure, cognitive and behavioral consequences of encoding this information, and individual differences in how people represent the structure of their social world...
May 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Cecile Sarabian, Val Curtis, Rachel McMullan
All free-living animals are subject to intense selection pressure from parasites and pathogens resulting in behavioural adaptations that can help potential hosts to avoid falling prey to parasites. This special issue on the evolution of parasite avoidance behaviour was compiled following a Royal Society meeting in 2017. Here we have assembled contributions from a wide range of disciplines including genetics, ecology, parasitology, behavioural science, ecology, psychology and epidemiology on the disease avoidance behaviour of a wide range of species...
July 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Tyler R Clites, Matthew J Carty, Jessica B Ullauri, Matthew E Carney, Luke M Mooney, Jean-François Duval, Shriya S Srinivasan, Hugh M Herr
Humans can precisely sense the position, speed, and torque of their body parts. This sense is known as proprioception and is essential to human motor control. Although there have been many attempts to create human-mechatronic interactions, there is still no robust, repeatable methodology to reflect proprioceptive information from a synthetic device onto the nervous system. To address this shortcoming, we present an agonist-antagonist myoneural interface (AMI). The AMI is composed of (i) a surgical construct made up of two muscle-tendons-an agonist and an antagonist-surgically connected in series so that contraction of one muscle stretches the other and (ii) a bidirectional efferent-afferent neural control architecture...
May 30, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Muhammad Ali, Shahid Y Khan, Shivakumar Vasanth, Mariya R Ahmed, Ruiqiang Chen, Chan Hyun Na, Jason J Thomson, Caihong Qiu, John D Gottsch, S Amer Riazuddin
Purpose: Corneal endothelial cells (CECs) are critical in maintaining clarity of the cornea. This study was initiated to develop peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-originated, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived CECs. Methods: We isolated PBMCs and programmed the mononuclear cells to generate iPSCs, which were differentiated to CECs through the neural crest cells (NCCs). The morphology of differentiating iPSCs was examined at regular intervals by phase contrast microscopy...
May 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Ilia Korvigo, Maxim Holmatov, Anatolii Zaikovskii, Mikhail Skoblov
Chemical named entity recognition (NER) is an active field of research in biomedical natural language processing. To facilitate the development of new and superior chemical NER systems, BioCreative released the CHEMDNER corpus, an extensive dataset of diverse manually annotated chemical entities. Most of the systems trained on the corpus rely on complicated hand-crafted rules or curated databases for data preprocessing, feature extraction and output post-processing, though modern machine learning algorithms, such as deep neural networks, can automatically design the rules with little to none human intervention...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Cheminformatics
L Cornelissen, S E Kim, J M Lee, E N Brown, P L Purdon, C B Berde
BACKGROUND: General anaesthetics generate spatially defined brain oscillations in the EEG that relate fundamentally to neural-circuit architecture. Few studies detailing the neural-circuit activity of general anaesthesia in children have been described. The study aim was to identify age-related changes in EEG characteristics that mirror different stages of early human brain development during sevoflurane anaesthesia. METHODS: Multichannel EEG recordings were performed in 91 children aged 0-3 yr undergoing elective surgery...
June 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Christine E Boone, Heydar Davoudi, Jon B Harrold, David J Foster
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common heritable cause of intellectual disability and single-gene cause of autism spectrum disorder. The Fmr1 null mouse models much of the human disease including hyperarousal, sensory hypersensitivity, seizure activity, and hippocampus-dependent cognitive impairment. Sleep architecture is disorganized in FXS patients, but has not been examined in Fmr1 knockout (Fmr1-KO) mice. Hippocampal neural activity during sleep, which is implicated in memory processing, also remains uninvestigated in Fmr1-KO mice...
May 15, 2018: Neuroscience
Shaoguo Cui, Lei Mao, Jingfeng Jiang, Chang Liu, Shuyu Xiong
Brain tumors can appear anywhere in the brain and have vastly different sizes and morphology. Additionally, these tumors are often diffused and poorly contrasted. Consequently, the segmentation of brain tumor and intratumor subregions using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data with minimal human interventions remains a challenging task. In this paper, we present a novel fully automatic segmentation method from MRI data containing in vivo brain gliomas. This approach can not only localize the entire tumor region but can also accurately segment the intratumor structure...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Felipe Pegado, Michelle H A Hendriks, Steffie Amelynck, Nicky Daniels, Jessica Bulthé, Haemy Lee Masson, Bart Boets, Hans Op de Beeck
Humans show a unique capacity to process complex information from multiple sources. Social perception in natural environment provides a good example of such capacity as it typically requires the integration of information from different sensory systems, and also from different levels of sensory processing. Here, instead of studying one isolate system and level of representation, we focused upon a neuroimaging paradigm which allows to capture multiple brain representations simultaneously, i.e., low and high-level processing in two different sensory systems, as well as abstract cognitive processing of congruency...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Rohit Abraham John, Fucai Liu, Nguyen Anh Chien, Mohit R Kulkarni, Chao Zhu, Qundong Fu, Arindam Basu, Zheng Liu, Nripan Mathews
Emulation of brain-like signal processing with thin-film devices can lay the foundation for building artificially intelligent learning circuitry in future. Encompassing higher functionalities into single artificial neural elements will allow the development of robust neuromorphic circuitry emulating biological adaptation mechanisms with drastically lesser neural elements, mitigating strict process challenges and high circuit density requirements necessary to match the computational complexity of the human brain...
May 4, 2018: Advanced Materials
Qianqian Wang, Ke Wang, R Sergio Solorzano-Vargas, Po-Yu Lin, Christopher M Walthers, Anne-Laure Thomas, Martín G Martín, James C Y Dunn
Although critical for studies of gut motility and intestinal regeneration, the in vitro culture of intestinal muscularis with peristaltic function remains a significant challenge. Periodic contractions of intestinal muscularis result from the coordinated activity of smooth muscle cells (SMC), the enteric nervous system (ENS), and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). Reproducing this activity requires the preservation of all these cells in one system. Here we report the first serum-free culture methodology that consistently maintains spontaneous and periodic contractions of murine and human intestinal muscularis cells for months...
2018: PloS One
Alejandro Baldominos, Yago Saez, Pedro Isasi
Human activity recognition is a challenging problem for context-aware systems and applications. It is gaining interest due to the ubiquity of different sensor sources, wearable smart objects, ambient sensors, etc. This task is usually approached as a supervised machine learning problem, where a label is to be predicted given some input data, such as the signals retrieved from different sensors. For tackling the human activity recognition problem in sensor network environments, in this paper we propose the use of deep learning (convolutional neural networks) to perform activity recognition using the publicly available OPPORTUNITY dataset...
April 23, 2018: Sensors
John C Nouls, Alexandra Badea, Robert B J Anderson, Gary P Cofer, G Allan Johnson
The correlation between brain connectivity and psychiatric or neurological diseases has intensified efforts to develop brain connectivity mapping techniques on mouse models of human disease. The neural architecture of mouse brain specimens can be shown non-destructively and three-dimensionally by diffusion tensor imaging, which enables tractography, the establishment of a connectivity matrix and connectomics. However, experiments on cohorts of animals can be prohibitively long. To improve throughput in a 7-T preclinical scanner, we present a novel two-coil system in which each coil is shielded, placed off-isocenter along the axis of the magnet and connected to a receiver circuit of the scanner...
June 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Ratnesh Singh, Oscar Cuzzani, François Binette, Hal Sternberg, Michael D West, Igor O Nasonkin
The retina is a very fine and layered neural tissue, which vitally depends on the preservation of cells, structure, connectivity and vasculature to maintain vision. There is an urgent need to find technical and biological solutions to major challenges associated with functional replacement of retinal cells. The major unmet challenges include generating sufficient numbers of specific cell types, achieving functional integration of transplanted cells, especially photoreceptors, and surgical delivery of retinal cells or tissue without triggering immune responses, inflammation and/or remodeling...
April 19, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Karla Batista-García-Ramó, Caridad Ivette Fernández-Verdecia
How the human brain works is still a question, as is its implication with brain architecture: the non-trivial structure–function relationship. The main hypothesis is that the anatomic architecture conditions, but does not determine, the neural network dynamic. The functional connectivity cannot be explained only considering the anatomical substrate. This involves complex and controversial aspects of the neuroscience field and that the methods and methodologies to obtain structural and functional connectivity are not always rigorously applied...
April 18, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Corrina Maguinness, Claudia Roswandowitz, Katharina von Kriegstein
Humans have a remarkable skill for voice-identity recognition: most of us can remember many voices that surround us as 'unique'. In this review, we explore the computational and neural mechanisms which may support our ability to represent and recognise a unique voice-identity. We examine the functional architecture of voice-sensitive regions in the superior temporal gyrus/sulcus, and bring together findings on how these regions may interact with each other, and additional face-sensitive regions, to support voice-identity processing...
March 31, 2018: Neuropsychologia
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