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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089676/multimodal-evaluation-of-the-amygdala-s-functional-connectivity
#1
Rebecca Kerestes, Henry W Chase, Mary L Phillips, Cecile D Ladouceur, Simon B Eickhoff
The amygdala is one of the most extensively studied human brain regions and undisputedly plays a central role in many psychiatric disorders. However, an outstanding question is whether connectivity of amygdala subregions, specifically the centromedial (CM), laterobasal (LB) and superficial (SF) nuclei, are modulated by brain state (i.e., task vs. rest). Here, using a multimodal approach, we directly compared meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) and specific co-activation likelihood estimation (SCALE)-derived estimates of CM, LB and SF task-based co-activation to the functional connectivity of these nuclei as assessed by resting state fmri (rs-fmri)...
January 9, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071765/neural-codes-of-seeing-architectural-styles
#2
Heeyoung Choo, Jack L Nasar, Bardia Nikrahei, Dirk B Walther
Images of iconic buildings, such as the CN Tower, instantly transport us to specific places, such as Toronto. Despite the substantial impact of architectural design on people's visual experience of built environments, we know little about its neural representation in the human brain. In the present study, we have found patterns of neural activity associated with specific architectural styles in several high-level visual brain regions, but not in primary visual cortex (V1). This finding suggests that the neural correlates of the visual perception of architectural styles stem from style-specific complex visual structure beyond the simple features computed in V1...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059233/cytopathological-image-analysis-using-deep-learning-networks-in-microfluidic-microscopy
#3
G Gopakumar, K Hari Babu, Deepak Mishra, Sai Siva Gorthi, Gorthi R K Sai Subrahmanyam
Cytopathologic testing is one of the most critical steps in the diagnosis of diseases, including cancer. However, the task is laborious and demands skill. Associated high cost and low throughput drew considerable interest in automating the testing process. Several neural network architectures were designed to provide human expertise to machines. In this paper, we explore and propose the feasibility of using deep-learning networks for cytopathologic analysis by performing the classification of three important unlabeled, unstained leukemia cell lines (K562, MOLT, and HL60)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057725/the-neuro-computational-architecture-of-value-based-selection-in-the-human-brain
#4
Philippe Domenech, Jérôme Redouté, Etienne Koechlin, Jean-Claude Dreher
Current neural models of value-based decision-making consider choices as a 2-stage process, proceeding from the "valuation" of each option under consideration to the "selection" of the best option on the basis of their subjective values. However, little is known about the computational mechanisms at play at the selection stage and its implementation in the human brain. Here, we used drift-diffusion models combined with model-based functional magnetic resonance imaging, effective connectivity, and multivariate pattern analysis to characterize the neuro-computational architecture of value-based decisions...
January 4, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993674/beyond-the-ffa-brain-behavior-correspondences-in-face-recognition-abilities
#5
Daniel B Elbich, Suzanne Scherf
Despite the thousands of papers investigating the neural basis of face perception in both humans and non-human primates, very little is known about how activation within this neural architecture relates to face processing behavior. Here, we investigated individual differences in brain-behavior correspondences within both core and extended regions of the face-processing system in healthy typically developing adults. To do so, we employed a set of behavioral and neural measures to capture a multifaceted perspective on assessing these brain-behavior relations...
December 16, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989779/tracking-thoughts-exploring-the-neural-architecture-of-mental-time-travel-during-mind-wandering
#6
Theodoros Karapanagiotidis, Boris C Bernhardt, Elizabeth Jefferies, Jonathan Smallwood
The capacity to imagine situations that have already happened or fictitious events that may take place in the future is known as mental time travel (MTT). Studies have shown that MTT is an important aspect of spontaneous thought, yet we lack a clear understanding of how the neurocognitive architecture of the brain constrains this element of human cognition. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have shown that MTT involves the coordination between multiple regions that include mesiotemporal structures such as the hippocampus, as well as prefrontal and parietal regions commonly associated with the default mode network (DMN)...
December 15, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983720/microbiota-network-and-mathematic-microbe-mutualism-in-colostrum-and-mature-milk-collected-in-two-different-geographic-areas-italy-versus-burundi
#7
Lorenzo Drago, Marco Toscano, Roberta De Grandi, Enzo Grossi, Ezio M Padovani, Diego G Peroni
Human milk is essential for the initial development of newborns, as it provides all nutrients and vitamins, such as vitamin D, and represents a great source of commensal bacteria. Here we explore the microbiota network of colostrum and mature milk of Italian and Burundian mothers using the auto contractive map (AutoCM), a new methodology based on artificial neural network (ANN) architecture. We were able to demonstrate the microbiota of human milk to be a dynamic, and complex, ecosystem with different bacterial networks among different populations containing diverse microbial hubs and central nodes, which change during the transition from colostrum to mature milk...
December 16, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980110/dynamic-reconfiguration-of-visuomotor-related-functional-connectivity-networks
#8
Andrea Brovelli, Jean-Michel Badier, Francesca Bonini, Fabrice Bartolomei, Olivier Coulon, Guillaume Auzias
: Cognitive functions arise from the coordination of large-scale brain networks. Yet, the principles governing interareal functional connectivity dynamics (FCD) remain elusive. Here, we test the hypothesis that human executive functions arise from the dynamic interplay of multiple networks. To do so, we investigated FCD mediating a key executing function, known as arbitrary visuomotor mapping, using brain connectivity analyses of high-gamma activity recorded using magnetoencephalography and intracranial electroencephalography...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929098/ep-dnn-a-deep-neural-network-based-global-enhancer-prediction-algorithm
#9
Seong Gon Kim, Mrudul Harwani, Ananth Grama, Somali Chaterji
We present EP-DNN, a protocol for predicting enhancers based on chromatin features, in different cell types. Specifically, we use a deep neural network (DNN)-based architecture to extract enhancer signatures in a representative human embryonic stem cell type (H1) and a differentiated lung cell type (IMR90). We train EP-DNN using p300 binding sites, as enhancers, and TSS and random non-DHS sites, as non-enhancers. We perform same-cell and cross-cell predictions to quantify the validation rate and compare against two state-of-the-art methods, DEEP-ENCODE and RFECS...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911847/zika-virus-cell-tropism-in-the-developing-human-brain-and-inhibition-by-azithromycin
#10
Hanna Retallack, Elizabeth Di Lullo, Carolina Arias, Kristeene A Knopp, Matthew T Laurie, Carmen Sandoval-Espinosa, Walter R Mancia Leon, Robert Krencik, Erik M Ullian, Julien Spatazza, Alex A Pollen, Caleigh Mandel-Brehm, Tomasz J Nowakowski, Arnold R Kriegstein, Joseph L DeRisi
The rapid spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) and its association with abnormal brain development constitute a global health emergency. Congenital ZIKV infection produces a range of mild to severe pathologies, including microcephaly. To understand the pathophysiology of ZIKV infection, we used models of the developing brain that faithfully recapitulate the tissue architecture in early to midgestation. We identify the brain cell populations that are most susceptible to ZIKV infection in primary human tissue, provide evidence for a mechanism of viral entry, and show that a commonly used antibiotic protects cultured brain cells by reducing viral proliferation...
December 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909395/reversal-learning-in-humans-and-gerbils-dynamic-control-network-facilitates-learning
#11
Christian Jarvers, Tobias Brosch, André Brechmann, Marie L Woldeit, Andreas L Schulz, Frank W Ohl, Marcel Lommerzheim, Heiko Neumann
Biologically plausible modeling of behavioral reinforcement learning tasks has seen great improvements over the past decades. Less work has been dedicated to tasks involving contingency reversals, i.e., tasks in which the original behavioral goal is reversed one or multiple times. The ability to adjust to such reversals is a key element of behavioral flexibility. Here, we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying contingency-reversal tasks. We first conduct experiments with humans and gerbils to demonstrate memory effects, including multiple reversals in which subjects (humans and animals) show a faster learning rate when a previously learned contingency re-appears...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890749/the-medial-and-lateral-lemnisci-anatomically-adjoined-but-functionally-distinct-fiber-tracts
#12
Ruben Rodríguez-Mena, Uğur Türe
OBJECTIVE: The dense and complex distribution of neural structures in the brain stem makes it challenging to understand their real configuration. We used the fiber microdissection technique to reveal the course of the medial and lateral lemnisci within the brain stem. Although these structures seem anatomically alike, they are functionally distinct. METHODS: Fifteen human brain stems and eight brain hemispheres (formalin-fixed and previously frozen) were dissected and studied under the operating microscope by applying the fiber microdissection technique...
November 24, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886714/classification-of-ct-brain-images-based-on-deep-learning-networks
#13
Xiaohong W Gao, Rui Hui, Zengmin Tian
While computerised tomography (CT) may have been the first imaging tool to study human brain, it has not yet been implemented into clinical decision making process for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). On the other hand, with the nature of being prevalent, inexpensive and non-invasive, CT does present diagnostic features of AD to a great extent. This study explores the significance and impact on the application of the burgeoning deep learning techniques to the task of classification of CT brain images, in particular utilising convolutional neural network (CNN), aiming at providing supplementary information for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease...
January 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886204/characterization-of-structural-connectivity-of-the-default-mode-network-in-dogs-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#14
Jennifer L Robinson, Madhura Baxi, Jeffrey S Katz, Paul Waggoner, Ronald Beyers, Edward Morrison, Nouha Salibi, Thomas S Denney, Vitaly Vodyanoy, Gopikrishna Deshpande
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides us an insight into the micro-architecture of white-matter tracts in the brain. This method has proved promising in understanding and investigating the neuronal tracts and structural connectivity between the brain regions in primates as well as rodents. The close evolutionary relationship between canines and humans may have spawned a unique bond in regard to social cognition rendering them useful as an animal model in translational research. In this study, we acquired diffusion data from anaesthetized dogs and created a DTI-based atlas for a canine model which could be used to investigate various white matter diseases...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856312/empirical-validation-of-directed-functional-connectivity
#15
Ravi D Mill, Anto Bagic, Andreea Bostan, Walter Schneider, Michael W Cole
Mapping directions of influence in the human brain connectome represents the next phase in understanding its functional architecture. However, a host of methodological uncertainties have impeded the application of directed connectivity methods, which have primarily been validated via "ground truth" connectivity patterns embedded in simulated functional MRI (fMRI) and magneto-/electro-encephalography (MEG/EEG) datasets. Such simulations rely on many generative assumptions, and we hence utilized a different strategy involving empirical data in which a ground truth directed connectivity pattern could be anticipated with confidence...
November 14, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825537/functional-connectivity-of-the-human-brain-in-utero
#16
REVIEW
Marion I van den Heuvel, Moriah E Thomason
The brain is subject to dramatic developmental processes during the prenatal period. Nevertheless, information about the development of functional brain networks during gestation is scarce. Until recently it has not been possible to probe function in the living human fetal brain. Advances in functional MRI have changed the paradigm, making it possible to measure spontaneous activity in the fetal brain and to cross-correlate functional signals to attain information about neural connectional architecture across human gestation...
December 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825385/neurogenomics-and-the-role-of-a-large-mutational-target-on-rapid-behavioral-change
#17
Craig E Stanley, Rob J Kulathinal
BACKGROUND: Behavior, while complex and dynamic, is among the most diverse, derived, and rapidly evolving traits in animals. The highly labile nature of heritable behavioral change is observed in such evolutionary phenomena as the emergence of converged behaviors in domesticated animals, the rapid evolution of preferences, and the routine development of ethological isolation between diverging populations and species. In fact, it is believed that nervous system development and its potential to evolve a seemingly infinite array of behavioral innovations played a major role in the successful diversification of metazoans, including our own human lineage...
November 8, 2016: Biology Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821758/mapping-human-temporal-and-parietal-neuronal-population-activity-and-functional-coupling-during-mathematical-cognition
#18
Amy L Daitch, Brett L Foster, Jessica Schrouff, Vinitha Rangarajan, Itır Kaşikçi, Sandra Gattas, Josef Parvizi
Brain areas within the lateral parietal cortex (LPC) and ventral temporal cortex (VTC) have been shown to code for abstract quantity representations and for symbolic numerical representations, respectively. To explore the fast dynamics of activity within each region and the interaction between them, we used electrocorticography recordings from 16 neurosurgical subjects implanted with grids of electrodes over these two regions and tracked the activity within and between the regions as subjects performed three different numerical tasks...
November 15, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806376/single-cell-rna-seq-supports-a-developmental-hierarchy-in-human-oligodendroglioma
#19
Itay Tirosh, Andrew S Venteicher, Christine Hebert, Leah E Escalante, Anoop P Patel, Keren Yizhak, Jonathan M Fisher, Christopher Rodman, Christopher Mount, Mariella G Filbin, Cyril Neftel, Niyati Desai, Jackson Nyman, Benjamin Izar, Christina C Luo, Joshua M Francis, Aanand A Patel, Maristela L Onozato, Nicolo Riggi, Kenneth J Livak, Dave Gennert, Rahul Satija, Brian V Nahed, William T Curry, Robert L Martuza, Ravindra Mylvaganam, A John Iafrate, Matthew P Frosch, Todd R Golub, Miguel N Rivera, Gad Getz, Orit Rozenblatt-Rosen, Daniel P Cahill, Michelle Monje, Bradley E Bernstein, David N Louis, Aviv Regev, Mario L Suvà
Although human tumours are shaped by the genetic evolution of cancer cells, evidence also suggests that they display hierarchies related to developmental pathways and epigenetic programs in which cancer stem cells (CSCs) can drive tumour growth and give rise to differentiated progeny. Yet, unbiased evidence for CSCs in solid human malignancies remains elusive. Here we profile 4,347 single cells from six IDH1 or IDH2 mutant human oligodendrogliomas by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and reconstruct their developmental programs from genome-wide expression signatures...
November 10, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801899/analysis-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-carrying-22q11-2-deletion
#20
M Toyoshima, W Akamatsu, Y Okada, T Ohnishi, S Balan, Y Hisano, Y Iwayama, T Toyota, T Matsumoto, N Itasaka, S Sugiyama, M Tanaka, M Yano, B Dean, H Okano, T Yoshikawa
Given the complexity and heterogeneity of the genomic architecture underlying schizophrenia, molecular analyses of these patients with defined and large effect-size genomic defects could provide valuable clues. We established human-induced pluripotent stem cells from two schizophrenia patients with the 22q11.2 deletion (two cell lines from each subject, total of four cell lines) and three controls (total of four cell lines). Neurosphere size, neural differentiation efficiency, neurite outgrowth, cellular migration and the neurogenic-to-gliogenic competence ratio were significantly reduced in patient-derived cells...
November 1, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
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