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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339747/deep-learning-for-pharmacovigilance-recurrent-neural-network-architectures-for-labeling-adverse-drug-reactions-in-twitter-posts
#1
Anne Cocos, Alexander G Fiks, Aaron J Masino
Objective: Social media is an important pharmacovigilance data source for adverse drug reaction (ADR) identification. Human review of social media data is infeasible due to data quantity, thus natural language processing techniques are necessary. Social media includes informal vocabulary and irregular grammar, which challenge natural language processing methods. Our objective is to develop a scalable, deep-learning approach that exceeds state-of-the-art ADR detection performance in social media...
February 22, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318904/dual-memory-neural-networks-for-modeling-cognitive-activities-of-humans-via-wearable-sensors
#2
Sang-Woo Lee, Chung-Yeon Lee, Dong-Hyun Kwak, Jung-Woo Ha, Jeonghee Kim, Byoung-Tak Zhang
Wearable devices, such as smart glasses and watches, allow for continuous recording of everyday life in a real world over an extended period of time or lifelong. This possibility helps better understand the cognitive behavior of humans in real life as well as build human-aware intelligent agents for practical purposes. However, modeling the human cognitive activity from wearable-sensor data stream is challenging because learning new information often results in loss of previously acquired information, causing a problem known as catastrophic forgetting...
February 20, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315294/neuronal-cell-sheet-of-cortical-motor-neuron-phenotype-derived-from-human-ips-cells
#3
Noboru Suzuki, Nagisa Arimitsu, Jun Shimizu, Kenji Takai, Chieko Hirotsu, Erika Takada, Yuji Ueda, Sueshige Wakisaka, Naruyoshi Fujiwara, Tomoko Suzuki
<p>Transplantation of stem cells which differentiate into more mature neural cells brings about functional improvement in pre-clinical studies of stroke. Previous transplant approaches in diseased brain have utilized injection of the cells in a cell suspension. In addition, neural stem cells were preferentially used as graft. However, these cells had no specific relationship to the damaged tissue of stroke patients and brain injury. The injection of cells in a suspension destroyed the cell-cell interactions that are suggested to be important for promoting functional integrity as cortical motor neurons...
March 17, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303100/a-neural-dynamic-architecture-for-reaching-and-grasping-integrates-perception-and-movement-generation-and-enables-on-line-updating
#4
Guido Knips, Stephan K U Zibner, Hendrik Reimann, Gregor Schöner
Reaching for objects and grasping them is a fundamental skill for any autonomous robot that interacts with its environment. Although this skill seems trivial to adults, who effortlessly pick up even objects they have never seen before, it is hard for other animals, for human infants, and for most autonomous robots. Any time during movement preparation and execution, human reaching movement are updated if the visual scene changes (with a delay of about 100 ms). The capability for online updating highlights how tightly perception, movement planning, and movement generation are integrated in humans...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289062/mapping-neurodegenerative-disease-onset-and-progression
#5
William W Seeley
Brain networks have been of long-standing interest to neurodegeneration researchers, including but not limited to investigators focusing on conventional prion diseases, which are known to propagate along neural pathways. Tools for human network mapping, however, remained inadequate, limiting our understanding of human brain network architecture and preventing clinical research applications. Until recently, neuropathological studies were the only viable approach to mapping disease onset and progression in humans but required large autopsy cohorts and laborious methods for whole-brain sectioning and staining...
March 13, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287998/design-and-validation-of-a-virtual-player-for-studying-interpersonal-coordination-in-the-mirror-game
#6
Chao Zhai, Francesco Alderisio, Piotr Slowinski, Krasimira Tsaneva-Atanasova, Mario di Bernardo
The mirror game has been recently proposed as a simple, yet powerful paradigm for studying interpersonal interactions. It has been suggested that a virtual partner able to play the game with human subjects can be an effective tool to affect the underlying neural processes needed to establish the necessary connections between the players, and also to provide new clinical interventions for rehabilitation of patients suffering from social disorders. Inspired by the motor processes of the central nervous system (CNS) and the musculoskeletal system in the human body, in this paper we develop a novel interactive cognitive architecture based on nonlinear control theory to drive a virtual player (VP) to play the mirror game with a human player (HP) in different configurations...
March 7, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287992/spanner-a-self-repairing-spiking-neural-network-hardware-architecture
#7
Junxiu Liu, Jim Harkin, Liam P Maguire, Liam J McDaid, John J Wade
Recent research has shown that a glial cell of astrocyte underpins a self-repair mechanism in the human brain, where spiking neurons provide direct and indirect feedbacks to presynaptic terminals. These feedbacks modulate the synaptic transmission probability of release (PR). When synaptic faults occur, the neuron becomes silent or near silent due to the low PR of synapses; whereby the PRs of remaining healthy synapses are then increased by the indirect feedback from the astrocyte cell. In this paper, a novel hardware architecture of Self-rePAiring spiking Neural NEtwoRk (SPANNER) is proposed, which mimics this self-repairing capability in the human brain...
March 6, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249158/ultrastructural-characterization-of-zika-virus-replication-factories
#8
Mirko Cortese, Sarah Goellner, Eliana Gisela Acosta, Christopher John Neufeldt, Olga Oleksiuk, Marko Lampe, Uta Haselmann, Charlotta Funaya, Nicole Schieber, Paolo Ronchi, Martin Schorb, Priit Pruunsild, Yannick Schwab, Laurent Chatel-Chaix, Alessia Ruggieri, Ralf Bartenschlager
A global concern has emerged with the pandemic spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections that can cause severe neurological symptoms in adults and newborns. ZIKV is a positive-strand RNA virus replicating in virus-induced membranous replication factories (RFs). Here we used various imaging techniques to investigate the ultrastructural details of ZIKV RFs and their relationship with host cell organelles. Analyses of human hepatic cells and neural progenitor cells infected with ZIKV revealed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane invaginations containing pore-like openings toward the cytosol, reminiscent to RFs in Dengue virus-infected cells...
February 28, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243761/neural-pathways-subserving-face-based-mentalizing
#9
Yordanka Nikolova Yordanova, Hugues Duffau, Guillaume Herbet
Over the past few years, considerable progress has been done in clarifying the neural networks underlying mentalizing. However, although the cortical architecture of this function is relatively well understood, the white matter pathways that may be involved in conveying neural signals within the mentalizing network remain to be elucidated. To gain insight into this matter, a detailed stimulation mapping of face-based mentalizing was performed in 27 patients undergoing awake surgery for a right-sided diffuse low-grade glioma (DLGG)...
February 27, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242315/individual-differences-and-time-varying-features-of-modular-brain-architecture
#10
Xuhong Liao, Miao Cao, Mingrui Xia, Yong He
Recent studies have suggested that human brain functional networks are topologically organized into functionally specialized but inter-connected modules to facilitate efficient information processing and highly flexible cognitive function. However, these studies have mainly focused on group-level network modularity analyses using "static" functional connectivity approaches. How these extraordinary modular brain structures vary across individuals and spontaneously reconfigure over time remain largely unknown...
February 24, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236965/ror-family-receptor-tyrosine-kinases
#11
Sigmar Stricker, Verena Rauschenberger, Alexandra Schambony
ROR-family receptor tyrosine kinases form a small subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), characterized by a conserved, unique domain architecture. ROR RTKs are evolutionary conserved throughout the animal kingdom and act as alternative receptors and coreceptors of WNT ligands. The intracellular signaling cascades activated downstream of ROR receptors are diverse, including but not limited to ROR-Frizzled-mediated activation of planar cell polarity signaling, RTK-like signaling, and antagonistic regulation of WNT/β-Catenin signaling...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218920/a-non-volatile-organic-electrochemical-device-as-a-low-voltage-artificial-synapse-for-neuromorphic-computing
#12
Yoeri van de Burgt, Ewout Lubberman, Elliot J Fuller, Scott T Keene, Grégorio C Faria, Sapan Agarwal, Matthew J Marinella, A Alec Talin, Alberto Salleo
The brain is capable of massively parallel information processing while consuming only ∼1-100 fJ per synaptic event. Inspired by the efficiency of the brain, CMOS-based neural architectures and memristors are being developed for pattern recognition and machine learning. However, the volatility, design complexity and high supply voltages for CMOS architectures, and the stochastic and energy-costly switching of memristors complicate the path to achieve the interconnectivity, information density, and energy efficiency of the brain using either approach...
February 20, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212113/age-and-gender-dependency-of-physiological-networks-in-sleep
#13
Dagmar Krefting, Christoph Jansen, Thomas Penzel, Fang Han, Jan Kantelhardt
Recently, time delay stability analysis of biosignals has been successfully applied as a multivariate time series analysis method to assess the human physiological network in young adults. The degree of connectivity between different network nodes is described by the so-called link strength. Based on polysomnographic recordings (PSGs), it could be shown that the network changes with the sleep stage. Here, we apply the method to a large set of healthy controls spanning six decades of age. As it is well known, that the overall sleep architecture is dependent both on age and on gender, we particularly address the question, if these changes are also found in the network dynamics...
February 17, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186883/detection-and-localization-of-robotic-tools-in-robot-assisted-surgery-videos-using-deep-neural-networks-for-region-proposal-and-detection
#14
Duygu Sarikaya, Jason Corso, Khurshid Guru
Video understanding of robot-assisted surgery (RAS) videos is an active research area. Modeling the gestures and skill level of surgeons presents an interesting problem. The insights drawn may be applied in effective skill acquisition, objective skill assessment, real-time feedback, and human-robot collaborative surgeries. We propose a solution to the tool detection and localization open problem in RAS video understanding, using a strictly computer vision approach and the recent advances of deep learning. We propose an architecture using multimodal convolutional neural networks for fast detection and localization of tools in RAS videos...
February 8, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179882/connecting-artificial-brains-to-robots-in-a-comprehensive-simulation-framework-the-neurorobotics-platform
#15
Egidio Falotico, Lorenzo Vannucci, Alessandro Ambrosano, Ugo Albanese, Stefan Ulbrich, Juan Camilo Vasquez Tieck, Georg Hinkel, Jacques Kaiser, Igor Peric, Oliver Denninger, Nino Cauli, Murat Kirtay, Arne Roennau, Gudrun Klinker, Axel Von Arnim, Luc Guyot, Daniel Peppicelli, Pablo Martínez-Cañada, Eduardo Ros, Patrick Maier, Sandro Weber, Manuel Huber, David Plecher, Florian Röhrbein, Stefan Deser, Alina Roitberg, Patrick van der Smagt, Rüdiger Dillman, Paul Levi, Cecilia Laschi, Alois C Knoll, Marc-Oliver Gewaltig
Combined efforts in the fields of neuroscience, computer science, and biology allowed to design biologically realistic models of the brain based on spiking neural networks. For a proper validation of these models, an embodiment in a dynamic and rich sensory environment, where the model is exposed to a realistic sensory-motor task, is needed. Due to the complexity of these brain models that, at the current stage, cannot deal with real-time constraints, it is not possible to embed them into a real-world task...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179553/mouth-and-voice-a-relationship-between-visual-and-auditory-preference-in-the-human-superior-temporal-sulcus
#16
Lin L Zhu, Michael S Beauchamp
Cortex in and around the human posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is known to be critical for speech perception. The pSTS responds to both the visual modality (especially biological motion) and the auditory modality (especially human voices). Using fMRI in single subjects with no spatial smoothing, we show that visual and auditory selectivity are linked. Regions of the pSTS were identified that preferred visually presented moving mouths (presented in isolation or as part of a whole face) or moving eyes...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158264/recognition-of-prokaryotic-and-eukaryotic-promoters-using-convolutional-deep-learning-neural-networks
#17
Ramzan Kh Umarov, Victor V Solovyev
Accurate computational identification of promoters remains a challenge as these key DNA regulatory regions have variable structures composed of functional motifs that provide gene-specific initiation of transcription. In this paper we utilize Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) to analyze sequence characteristics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic promoters and build their predictive models. We trained a similar CNN architecture on promoters of five distant organisms: human, mouse, plant (Arabidopsis), and two bacteria (Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157638/probing-human-brain-evolution-and-development-in-organoids
#18
REVIEW
Stefano L Giandomenico, Madeline A Lancaster
Expansion of the neocortex is thought to underpin the higher cognitive abilities of a number of mammalian lineages, such as cetaceans, elephants, and primates, with humans exhibiting a particularly enlarged and dense cerebral cortex. However, the evolutionary and developmental mechanisms that led to this expansion are not well-understood and limited to correlative observations. Historically, this has been due to technical and ethical limitations owing to the intractability of various species for functional studies...
January 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130264/vagal-innervation-is-required-for-pulmonary-function-phenotype-in-htr4-mice
#19
John House, Cody E Nichols, Huiling Li, Christina Brandenberger, Rohan Virgincar, Laura Miller, Bastiaan Driehuys, Darryl C Zeldin, Stephanie London
Human genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified over 50 loci associated with pulmonary function and related phenotypes, yet follow-up studies to determine causal genes or variants are rare. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in serotonin receptor 4 (HTR4) are associated with human pulmonary function in genome-wide association studies and follow-up animal work has demonstrated that Htr4 is causally associated with pulmonary function in mice, although the precise mechanisms were not identified...
January 27, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126336/modular-neuromuscular-control-of-human-locomotion-by-central-pattern-generator
#20
Seyyed Arash Haghpanah, Farzam Farahmand, Hassan Zohoor
The central pattern generators (CPG) in the spinal cord are thought to be responsible for producing the rhythmic motor patterns during rhythmic activities. For locomotor tasks, this involves much complexity, due to a redundant system of muscle actuators with a large number of highly nonlinear muscles. This study proposes a reduced neural control strategy for the CPG, based on modular organization of the co-active muscles, i.e., muscle synergies. Four synergies were extracted from the EMG data of the major leg muscles of two subjects, during two gait trials each, using non-negative matrix factorization algorithm...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
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