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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641214/motor-system-dysfunction-in-the-schizophrenia-diathesis-neural-systems-to-neurotransmitters
#1
R Abboud, C Noronha, V A Diwadkar
Motor control is a ubiquitous aspect of human function, and from its earliest origins, abnormal motor control has been proposed as being central to schizophrenia. The neurobiological architecture of the motor system is well understood in primates and involves cortical and sub-cortical components including the primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, the prefrontal cortex, the basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Notably all of these regions are associated in some manner to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia...
April 25, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592863/human-cortical-activity-evoked-by-contextual-processing-in-attentional-orienting
#2
Shuo Zhao, Chunlin Li, Shota Uono, Sayaka Yoshimura, Motomi Toichi
The ability to assess another person's direction of attention is paramount in social communication, many studies have reported a similar pattern between gaze and arrow cues in attention orienting. Neuroimaging research has also demonstrated no qualitative differences in attention to gaze and arrow cues. However, these studies were implemented under simple experiment conditions. Researchers have highlighted the importance of contextual processing (i.e., the semantic congruence between cue and target) in attentional orienting, showing that attentional orienting by social gaze or arrow cues could be modulated through contextual processing...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585249/closure-of-the-vertebral-canal-in-human-embryos-and-fetuses
#3
Hayelom K Mekonen, Jill P J M Hikspoors, Greet Mommen, Nutmethee Kruepunga, S Eleonore Köhler, Wouter H Lamers
The vertebral column is the paradigm of the metameric architecture of the vertebrate body. Because the number of somites is a convenient parameter to stage early human embryos, we explored whether the closure of the vertebral canal could be used similarly for staging embryos between 7 and 10 weeks of development. Human embryos (5-10 weeks of development) were visualized using Amira 3D(®) reconstruction and Cinema 4D(®) remodelling software. Vertebral bodies were identifiable as loose mesenchymal structures between the dense mesenchymal intervertebral discs up to 6 weeks and then differentiated into cartilaginous structures in the 7th week...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557689/functional-mechanisms-encoding-others-direction-of-gaze-in-the-human-nervous-system
#4
Colin J Palmer, Colin W G Clifford
The direction of others' gaze is a strong social signal to their intentions and future behavior. Pioneering electrophysiological research identified cell populations in the primate visual cortex that are tuned to specific directions of observed gaze, but the functional architecture of this system is yet to be precisely specified. Here, we develop a computational model of how others' gaze direction is flexibly encoded across sensory channels within the gaze system. We incorporate the divisive normalization of sensory responses-a computational mechanism that is thought to be widespread in sensory systems but has not been examined in the context of social vision...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551749/neuroanatomy-and-neuropathology-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-humans
#5
Christine Ecker, Michael J Schmeisser, Eva Loth, Declan G Murphy
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a lifelong heterogeneous neurodevelopmental condition that is associated with differences in brain anatomy and connectivity. Yet, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underpin the atypical developmental of the brain in ASD remain poorly understood. Here, we review the findings of in vivo neuroimaging studies examining the time course of atypical brain development in ASD and relate the different neurodevelopmental stages that are atypical in ASD to the known neurobiological mechanisms that drive the maturation of the typically developing brain...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539116/modeling-long-term-human-activeness-using-recurrent-neural-networks-for-biometric-data
#6
Zae Myung Kim, Hyungrai Oh, Han-Gyu Kim, Chae-Gyun Lim, Kyo-Joong Oh, Ho-Jin Choi
BACKGROUND: With the invention of fitness trackers, it has been possible to continuously monitor a user's biometric data such as heart rates, number of footsteps taken, and amount of calories burned. This paper names the time series of these three types of biometric data, the user's "activeness", and investigates the feasibility in modeling and predicting the long-term activeness of the user. METHODS: The dataset used in this study consisted of several months of biometric time-series data gathered by seven users independently...
May 18, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514892/single-case-cognitive-neuropsychology-in-the-age-of-big-data
#7
Jared Medina, Simon Fischer-Baum
Historically, single-case studies of brain-damaged individuals have contributed substantially to our understanding of cognitive processes. However, the role of single-case cognitive neuropsychology has diminished with the proliferation of techniques that measure neural activity in humans. Instead, large-scale informatics approaches in which data are gathered from hundreds of neuroimaging studies have become popular. It has been claimed that utilizing these informatics approaches can address problems found in single imaging studies...
May 17, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503145/a-neural-dynamic-architecture-for-concurrent-estimation-of-object-pose-and-identity
#8
Oliver Lomp, Christian Faubel, Gregor Schöner
Handling objects or interacting with a human user about objects on a shared tabletop requires that objects be identified after learning from a small number of views and that object pose be estimated. We present a neurally inspired architecture that learns object instances by storing features extracted from a single view of each object. Input features are color and edge histograms from a localized area that is updated during processing. The system finds the best-matching view for the object in a novel input image while concurrently estimating the object's pose, aligning the learned view with current input...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499334/recent-advances-on-neuromorphic-systems-using-phase-change-materials
#9
REVIEW
Lei Wang, Shu-Ren Lu, Jing Wen
Realization of brain-like computer has always been human's ultimate dream. Today, the possibility of having this dream come true has been significantly boosted due to the advent of several emerging non-volatile memory devices. Within these innovative technologies, phase-change memory device has been commonly regarded as the most promising candidate to imitate the biological brain, owing to its excellent scalability, fast switching speed, and low energy consumption. In this context, a detailed review concerning the physical principles of the neuromorphic circuit using phase-change materials as well as a comprehensive introduction of the currently available phase-change neuromorphic prototypes becomes imperative for scientists to continuously progress the technology of artificial neural networks...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497581/what-could-cognitive-capital-mean-for-china-s-children
#10
Douglas J Noble, Kathryn Martin, Lisa Qin, Pia Britto, Margo O'sullivan, Jillian Popkins, Ron Pouwels, Robert W Scherpbier, Rana Flowers
Cognitive capital is an emerging paradigm that captures the criticality of investing in children whilst neural proliferation and development of brain architecture are at their peak. Distinct from financial capital, cognitive capital represents investment in future human potential from interventions in nutrition, health, education, child protection, and social welfare systems that optimize brain development. The return on investment is significant given the plasticity of the developing brain in response to positive stimuli...
May 12, 2017: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497111/investigating-the-influence-of-biological-sex-on-the-behavioral-and-neural-basis-of-face-recognition
#11
K Suzanne Scherf, Daniel B Elbich, Natalie V Motta-Mena
There is interest in understanding the influence of biological factors, like sex, on the organization of brain function. We investigated the influence of biological sex on the behavioral and neural basis of face recognition in healthy, young adults. In behavior, there were no sex differences on the male Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT)+ or the female CFMT+ (that we created) and no own-gender bias (OGB) in either group. We evaluated the functional topography of ventral stream organization by measuring the magnitude and functional neural size of 16 individually defined face-, two object-, and two place-related regions bilaterally...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484610/on-strongly-connected-networks-with-excitable-refractory-dynamics-and-delayed-coupling
#12
P Grindrod, T E Lee
We consider a directed graph model for the human brain's neural architecture that is based on small scale, directed, strongly connected sub-graphs (SCGs) of neurons, that are connected together by a sparser mesoscopic network. We assume transmission delays within neuron-to-neuron stimulation, and that individual neurons have an excitable-refractory dynamic, with single firing 'spikes' occurring on a much faster time scale than that of the transmission delays. We demonstrate numerically that the SCGs typically have attractors that are equivalent to continual winding maps over relatively low-dimensional tori, thus representing a limit on the range of distinct behaviour...
April 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480333/a-unified-model-of-human-semantic-knowledge-and-its-disorders
#13
Lang Chen, Matthew A Lambon Ralph, Timothy T Rogers
How is knowledge about the meanings of words and objects represented in the human brain? Current theories embrace two radically different proposals: either distinct cortical systems have evolved to represent different kinds of things, or knowledge for all kinds is encoded within a single domain-general network. Neither view explains the full scope of relevant evidence from neuroimaging and neuropsychology. Here we propose that graded category-specificity emerges in some components of the semantic network through joint effects of learning and network connectivity...
March 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467888/auditory-object-perception-a-neurobiological-model-and-prospective-review
#14
Julie A Brefczynski-Lewis, James W Lewis
Interaction with the world is a multisensory experience, but most of what is known about the neural correlates of perception comes from studying vision. Auditory inputs enter cortex with its own set of unique qualities, and leads to use in oral communication, speech, music, and the understanding of emotional and intentional states of others, all of which are central to the human experience. To better understand how the auditory system develops, recovers after injury, and how it may have transitioned in its functions over the course of hominin evolution, advances are needed in models of how the human brain is organized to process real-world natural sounds and "auditory objects"...
April 30, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456159/ising-model-with-conserved-magnetization-on-the-human-connectome-implications-on-the-relation-structure-function-in-wakefulness-and-anesthesia
#15
S Stramaglia, M Pellicoro, L Angelini, E Amico, H Aerts, J M Cortés, S Laureys, D Marinazzo
Dynamical models implemented on the large scale architecture of the human brain may shed light on how a function arises from the underlying structure. This is the case notably for simple abstract models, such as the Ising model. We compare the spin correlations of the Ising model and the empirical functional brain correlations, both at the single link level and at the modular level, and show that their match increases at the modular level in anesthesia, in line with recent results and theories. Moreover, we show that at the peak of the specific heat (the critical state), the spin correlations are minimally shaped by the underlying structural network, explaining how the best match between the structure and function is obtained at the onset of criticality, as previously observed...
April 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455369/complement-c5ar1-signaling-promotes-polarization-and-proliferation-of-embryonic-neural-progenitor-cells-through-pkc%C3%AE
#16
Liam G Coulthard, Owen A Hawksworth, Rui Li, Anushree Balachandran, John D Lee, Farshid Sepehrband, Nyoman Kurniawan, Angela Jeanes, David G Simmons, Ernst Wolvetang, Trent M Woodruff
The complement system, typically associated with innate immunity, is emerging as a key controller of non-immune systems including in development, with recent studies linking complement mutations with neurodevelopmental disease. A key effector of the complement response is the activation fragment C5a which, through its receptor C5aR1, is a potent driver of inflammation. Surprisingly, C5aR1 is also expressed during early mammalian embryogenesis, however no clearly defined function is ascribed to C5aR1 in development...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450582/intersection-of-diverse-neuronal-genomes-and-neuropsychiatric-disease-the-brain-somatic-mosaicism-network
#17
REVIEW
Michael J McConnell, John V Moran, Alexej Abyzov, Schahram Akbarian, Taejeong Bae, Isidro Cortes-Ciriano, Jennifer A Erwin, Liana Fasching, Diane A Flasch, Donald Freed, Javier Ganz, Andrew E Jaffe, Kenneth Y Kwan, Minseok Kwon, Michael A Lodato, Ryan E Mills, Apua C M Paquola, Rachel E Rodin, Chaggai Rosenbluh, Nenad Sestan, Maxwell A Sherman, Joo Heon Shin, Saera Song, Richard E Straub, Jeremy Thorpe, Daniel R Weinberger, Alexander E Urban, Bo Zhou, Fred H Gage, Thomas Lehner, Geetha Senthil, Christopher A Walsh, Andrew Chess, Eric Courchesne, Joseph G Gleeson, Jeffrey M Kidd, Peter J Park, Jonathan Pevsner, Flora M Vaccarino
Neuropsychiatric disorders have a complex genetic architecture. Human genetic population-based studies have identified numerous heritable sequence and structural genomic variants associated with susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disease. However, these germline variants do not fully account for disease risk. During brain development, progenitor cells undergo billions of cell divisions to generate the ~80 billion neurons in the brain. The failure to accurately repair DNA damage arising during replication, transcription, and cellular metabolism amid this dramatic cellular expansion can lead to somatic mutations...
April 28, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444127/hla-class-i-binding-prediction-via-convolutional-neural-networks
#18
Yeeleng S Vang, Xiaohui Xie
Motivation: Many biological processes are governed by protein-ligand interactions. One such example is the recognition of self and nonself cells by the immune system. This immune response process is regulated by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein which is encoded by the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex. Understanding the binding potential between MHC and peptides can lead to the design of more potent, peptide-based vaccines and immunotherapies for infectious autoimmune diseases...
April 21, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439524/brainsegnet-a-convolutional-neural-network-architecture-for-automated-segmentation-of-human-brain-structures
#19
Raghav Mehta, Aabhas Majumdar, Jayanthi Sivaswamy
Automated segmentation of cortical and noncortical human brain structures has been hitherto approached using nonrigid registration followed by label fusion. We propose an alternative approach for this using a convolutional neural network (CNN) which classifies a voxel into one of many structures. Four different kinds of two-dimensional and three-dimensional intensity patches are extracted for each voxel, providing local and global (context) information to the CNN. The proposed approach is evaluated on five different publicly available datasets which differ in the number of labels per volume...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424576/defensive-vocalizations-and-motor-asymmetry-triggered-by-disinhibition-of-the-periaqueductal-gray-in-non-human-primates
#20
Patrick A Forcelli, Hannah F Waguespack, Ludise Malkova
Rapid and reflexive responses to threats are present across phylogeny. The neural circuitry mediating reflexive defense reactions has been well-characterized in a variety of species, for example, in rodents and cats, the detection of and species-typical response to threats is mediated by a network of structures including the midbrain tectum (deep and intermediate layers of the superior colliculus [DLSC]), periaqueductal gray (PAG), and forebrain structures such as the amygdala and hypothalamus. However, relatively little is known about the functional architecture of defense circuitry in primates...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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