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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794190/model-of-rhythmic-ball-bouncing-using-a-visually-controlled-neural-oscillator
#1
Guillaume Avrin, Isabelle Anne Siegler, Maria Makarov, Pedro Rodriguez-Ayerbe
The present paper investigates the sensory-driven modulations of Central Pattern Generators dynamics that can be expected to reproduce human behavior during rhythmic hybrid tasks. We propose a theoretical model of human sensorimotor behavior able to account for the observed data from the ball-bouncing task. The novel control architecture is composed of a Matsuoka neural oscillator parametrically controlled by a sensorimotor controller and coupled with the environment through visual sensory feedback. The architecture's ability to reproduce human-like performance during the ball-bouncing task in the presence of perturbations is quantified by comparison of simulated and recorded trials...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756955/whole-brain-calcium-imaging-reveals-an-intrinsic-functional-network-in-drosophila
#2
Kevin Mann, Courtney L Gallen, Thomas R Clandinin
A long-standing goal of neuroscience has been to understand how computations are implemented across large-scale brain networks. By correlating spontaneous activity during "resting states" [1], studies of intrinsic brain networks in humans have demonstrated a correspondence with task-related activation patterns [2], relationships to behavior [3], and alterations in processes such as aging [4] and brain disorders [5], highlighting the importance of resting-state measurements for understanding brain function...
August 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756059/spinenet-automated-classification-and-evidence-visualization-in-spinal-mris
#3
Amir Jamaludin, Timor Kadir, Andrew Zisserman
The objective of this work is to automatically produce radiological gradings of spinal lumbar MRIs and also localize the predicted pathologies. We show that this can be achieved via a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) framework that takes intervertebral disc volumes as inputs and is trained only on disc-specific class labels. Our contributions are: (i) a CNN architecture that predicts multiple gradings at once, and we propose variants of the architecture including using 3D convolutions; (ii) showing that this architecture can be trained using a multi-task loss function without requiring segmentation level annotation; and (iii) a localization method that clearly shows pathological regions in the disc volumes...
July 21, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748830/a-neural-network-with-central-pattern-generators-entrained-by-sensory-feedback-controls-walking-of-a-bipedal-model
#4
Wei Li, Nicholas Stephen Szczecinski, Roger D Quinn
A neuromechanical simulation of a planar, bipedal walking robot has been developed. It is constructed as a simplified, planar musculoskeletal model of the biomechanics of the human lower body. The controller consists of a dynamic neural network with central pattern generators (CPGs) entrained by force and movement sensory feedback to generate appropriate muscle forces for walking. The CPG model is a two-level architecture, which consists of separate rhythm generator (RG) and pattern formation (PF) networks...
July 27, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747717/contextual-connectivity-a-framework-for-understanding-the-intrinsic-dynamic-architecture-of-large-scale-functional-brain-networks
#5
Rastko Ciric, Jason S Nomi, Lucina Q Uddin, Ajay B Satpute
Investigations of the human brain's connectomic architecture have produced two alternative models: one describes the brain's spatial structure in terms of static localized networks, and the other describes the brain's temporal structure in terms of dynamic whole-brain states. Here, we used tools from connectivity dynamics to develop a synthesis that bridges these models. Using resting fMRI data, we investigated the assumptions undergirding current models of the human connectome. Consistent with state-based models, our results suggest that static localized networks are superordinate approximations of underlying dynamic states...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731567/integration-of-white-matter-network-is-associated-with-interindividual-differences-in-psychologically-mediated-placebo-response-in-migraine-patients
#6
Jixin Liu, Shaohui Ma, Junya Mu, Tao Chen, Qing Xu, Wanghuan Dun, Jie Tian, Ming Zhang
Individual differences of brain changes of neural communication and integration in the modular architecture of the human brain network exist for the repeated migraine attack and physical or psychological stressors. However, whether the interindividual variability in the migraine brain connectome predicts placebo response to placebo treatment is still unclear. Using DTI and graph theory approaches, we systematically investigated the topological organization of white matter networks in 71 patients with migraine without aura (MO) and 50 matched healthy controls at three levels: global network measure, nodal efficiency, and nodal intramodule/intermodule efficiency...
July 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721594/exome-analysis-in-an-estonian-multiplex-family-with-neural-tube-defects-a-case-report
#7
Liina Pappa, Mart Kals, Paula Ann Kivistik, Andres Metspalu, Ann Paal, Tiit Nikopensius
INTRODUCTION: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a group of common and severe congenital birth defects that occur during early embryonic development due to incomplete closure of the neural tube. The genetic architecture of human NTDs, including spina bifida and hydrocephalus, is highly heterogeneous, with multiple genes/loci and both gene-gene and gene-environment interactions involved. Hence, the variation in outcomes also most likely relates to a combination of the severity of different variants in multiple genes and genetic modifiers affecting the biochemical traits...
July 18, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716967/contextual-and-developmental-differences-in-the-neural-architecture-of-cognitive-control
#8
Raluca Petrican, Cheryl L Grady
Since both development and context impact functional brain architecture, the neural connectivity signature of a cognitive or affective predisposition may similarly vary across different ages and circumstances. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of age and cognitive versus social-affective context on the stable and time-varying neural architecture of inhibition, the putative core cognitive control component, in a subsample (N= 359 [22-36 yrs], 174 men) of the Human Connectome Project. Among younger individuals, a neural signature of superior inhibition emerged in both stable and dynamic connectivity analyses...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716966/hierarchically-organized-medial-frontal-cortex-basal-ganglia-loops-selectively-control-task-and-response-selection
#9
Franziska M Korb, Jiefeng Jiang, Joseph A King, Tobias Egner
Adaptive behavior requires context-sensitive configuration of task-sets that specify time-varying stimulus-response mappings. Intriguingly, response time costs associated with changing task-sets and motor responses are known to be strongly interactive: switch costs at the task-level are small in the presence of a response-switch but large when accompanied by a response-repetition, and vice versa for response-switch costs. The reasons behind this well-known inter-dependence between task- and response-level control processes are currently not well understood...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715955/the-functional-neuroanatomy-of-human-face-perception
#10
Kalanit Grill-Spector, Kevin S Weiner, Kendrick Kay, Jesse Gomez
Face perception is critical for normal social functioning and is mediated by a network of regions in the ventral visual stream. In this review, we describe recent neuroimaging findings regarding the macro- and microscopic anatomical features of the ventral face network, the characteristics of white matter connections, and basic computations performed by population receptive fields within face-selective regions composing this network. We emphasize the importance of the neural tissue properties and white matter connections of each region, as these anatomical properties may be tightly linked to the functional characteristics of the ventral face network...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713235/connecting-the-brain-to-itself-through-an-emulation
#11
Mijail D Serruya
Pilot clinical trials of human patients implanted with devices that can chronically record and stimulate ensembles of hundreds to thousands of individual neurons offer the possibility of expanding the substrate of cognition. Parallel trains of firing rate activity can be delivered in real-time to an array of intermediate external modules that in turn can trigger parallel trains of stimulation back into the brain. These modules may be built in software, VLSI firmware, or biological tissue as in vitro culture preparations or in vivo ectopic construct organoids...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701923/cell-polarity-in-cerebral-cortex-development-cellular-architecture-shaped-by-biochemical-networks
#12
REVIEW
Andi H Hansen, Christian Duellberg, Christine Mieck, Martin Loose, Simon Hippenmeyer
The human cerebral cortex is the seat of our cognitive abilities and composed of an extraordinary number of neurons, organized in six distinct layers. The establishment of specific morphological and physiological features in individual neurons needs to be regulated with high precision. Impairments in the sequential developmental programs instructing corticogenesis lead to alterations in the cortical cytoarchitecture which is thought to represent the major underlying cause for several neurological disorders including neurodevelopmental and psychiatric diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698556/location-sensitive-deep-convolutional-neural-networks-for-segmentation-of-white-matter-hyperintensities
#13
Mohsen Ghafoorian, Nico Karssemeijer, Tom Heskes, Inge W M van Uden, Clara I Sanchez, Geert Litjens, Frank-Erik de Leeuw, Bram van Ginneken, Elena Marchiori, Bram Platel
The anatomical location of imaging features is of crucial importance for accurate diagnosis in many medical tasks. Convolutional neural networks (CNN) have had huge successes in computer vision, but they lack the natural ability to incorporate the anatomical location in their decision making process, hindering success in some medical image analysis tasks. In this paper, to integrate the anatomical location information into the network, we propose several deep CNN architectures that consider multi-scale patches or take explicit location features while training...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686137/using-a-large-scale-neural-model-of-cortical-object-processing-to-investigate-the-neural-substrate-for-managing-multiple-items-in-short-term-memory
#14
Qin Liu, Antonio Ulloa, Barry Horwitz
Many cognitive and computational models have been proposed to help understand working memory. In this article, we present a simulation study of cortical processing of visual objects during several working memory tasks using an extended version of a previously constructed large-scale neural model [Tagamets, M. A., & Horwitz, B. Integrating electrophysiological and anatomical experimental data to create a large-scale model that simulates a delayed match-to-sample human brain imaging study. Cerebral Cortex, 8, 310-320, 1998]...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680161/a-new-look-at-domain-specificity-insights-from-social-neuroscience
#15
REVIEW
Robert P Spunt, Ralph Adolphs
The concept of domain specificity - which suggests that some aspects of neural processing are specialized for particular types of stimuli - has been invoked to explain a range of cognitive phenomena, including language, face perception and theory of mind, and has been a hallmark of theories of cognitive architecture. More recent usage of this concept draws on neuroscientific data and, in particular, on work in social neuroscience. A critical examination of the part that the concept of domain specificity has played in theories of human brain function leads us to suggest a new view according to which domain specificity pertains to centrally generated constraints on information processing that can be both dynamic and context sensitive...
July 6, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674168/connectome-wide-phenotypical-and-genotypical-associations-in-focal-dystonia
#16
Stefan Fuertinger, Kristina Simonyan
Isolated focal dystonia is a debilitating movement disorder of unknown pathophysiology. Early studies in focal dystonias have pointed to segregated changes in brain activity and connectivity. Only recently has the notion that dystonia pathophysiology may lie in abnormalities of large-scale brain networks appeared in the literature. Here, we outline a novel concept of functional connectome-wide alterations that are linked to dystonia phenotype and genotype. Using a neural community detection strategy and graph theoretical analysis of functional MRI data in human patients with the laryngeal form of dystonia (LD) and healthy controls (both males and females), we identified an abnormally widespread hub formation in LD, which particularly affected the primary sensorimotor and parietal cortices and thalamus...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670349/epigenetic-mechanisms-during-ageing-and-neurogenesis-as-novel-therapeutic-avenues-in-human-brain-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Raúl Delgado-Morales, Roberto Carlos Agís-Balboa, Manel Esteller, María Berdasco
Ageing is the main risk factor for human neurological disorders. Among the diverse molecular pathways that govern ageing, epigenetics can guide age-associated decline in part by regulating gene expression and also through the modulation of genomic instability and high-order chromatin architecture. Epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the regulation of neural differentiation as well as in functional processes related to memory consolidation, learning or cognition during healthy lifespan. On the other side of the coin, many neurodegenerative diseases are associated with epigenetic dysregulation...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670152/deep-learning-in-medical-imaging-general-overview
#18
REVIEW
June-Goo Lee, Sanghoon Jun, Young-Won Cho, Hyunna Lee, Guk Bae Kim, Joon Beom Seo, Namkug Kim
The artificial neural network (ANN)-a machine learning technique inspired by the human neuronal synapse system-was introduced in the 1950s. However, the ANN was previously limited in its ability to solve actual problems, due to the vanishing gradient and overfitting problems with training of deep architecture, lack of computing power, and primarily the absence of sufficient data to train the computer system. Interest in this concept has lately resurfaced, due to the availability of big data, enhanced computing power with the current graphics processing units, and novel algorithms to train the deep neural network...
July 2017: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663073/a-study-of-the-suitability-of-autoencoders-for-preprocessing-data-in-breast-cancer-experimentation
#19
Laura Macías-García, José María Luna-Romera, Jorge García-Gutiérrez, María Del Mar Martínez-Ballesteros, José C Riquelme-Santos, Ricardo González-Cámpora
Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in women. Today, post-transcriptional protein products of the genes involved in breast cancer can be identified by immunohistochemistry. However, this method has problems arising from the intra-observer and inter-observer variability in the assessment of pathologic variables, which may result in misleading conclusions. Using an optimal selection of preprocessing techniques may help to reduce observer variability. Deep learning has emerged as a powerful technique for any tasks related to machine learning such as classification and regression...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659838/the-robust-running-ape-unraveling-the-deep-underpinnings-of-coordinated-human-running-proficiency
#20
REVIEW
John Kiely
In comparison to other mammals, humans are not especially strong, swift or supple. Nevertheless, despite these apparent physical limitations, we are among Natures most superbly well-adapted endurance runners. Paradoxically, however, notwithstanding this evolutionary-bestowed proficiency, running-related injuries, and Overuse syndromes in particular, are widely pervasive. The term 'coordination' is similarly ubiquitous within contemporary coaching, conditioning, and rehabilitation cultures. Various theoretical models of coordination exist within the academic literature...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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