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Motor speech neural network

Anne Smith, Christine Weber
Remarkable progress has been made over the past two decades in expanding our understanding of the behavioral, peripheral physiologic, and central neurophysiologic bases of stuttering in early childhood. It is clear that stuttering is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by atypical development of speech motor planning and execution networks. The speech motor system must interact in complex ways with neural systems mediating language and other cognitive and emotional processes. During the time when stuttering typically appears and follows its path to either recovery or persistence, all of these neurobehavioral systems are undergoing rapid and dramatic developmental changes...
November 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
Angela Morgan, Alexandra Bonthrone, Frédérique J Liégeois
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Developmental speech and language disorders are common, seen in one in 20 preschool children, in the absence of frank neurological deficits or intellectual impairment. They are a key reason parents seek help from paediatricians. Complex neurogenetic and environmental contributions underpin the disorders, yet few specific causes are known. With the advent of quantitative brain imaging, a growing number of studies have investigated neural contributions. Here, we discuss current MRI approaches and recent findings (January 2014-June 2016) in the field...
September 22, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Anna-Maria Mersov, Cecilia Jobst, Douglas O Cheyne, Luc De Nil
Adults who stutter (AWS) have demonstrated atypical coordination of motor and sensory regions during speech production. Yet little is known of the speech-motor network in AWS in the brief time window preceding audible speech onset. The purpose of the current study was to characterize neural oscillations in the speech-motor network during preparation for and execution of overt speech production in AWS using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Twelve AWS and 12 age-matched controls were presented with 220 words, each word embedded in a carrier phrase...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Ashley M Adams
This manuscript explores the role of embodied views of language comprehension and production in bilingualism and specific language impairment. Reconceptualizing popular models of bilingual language processing, the embodied theory is first extended to this area. Issues such as semantic grounding in a second language and potential differences between early and late acquisition of a second language are discussed. Predictions are made about how this theory informs novel ways of thinking about teaching a second language...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Adolfo M García, Facundo Carrillo, Juan Rafael Orozco-Arroyave, Natalia Trujillo, Jesús F Vargas Bonilla, Sol Fittipaldi, Federico Adolfi, Elmar Nöth, Mariano Sigman, Diego Fernández Slezak, Agustín Ibáñez, Guillermo A Cecchi
To assess the impact of Parkinson's disease (PD) on spontaneous discourse, we conducted computerized analyses of brief monologues produced by 51 patients and 50 controls. We explored differences in semantic fields (via latent semantic analysis), grammatical choices (using part-of-speech tagging), and word-level repetitions (with graph embedding tools). Although overall output was quantitatively similar between groups, patients relied less heavily on action-related concepts and used more subordinate structures...
August 5, 2016: Brain and Language
Matthew K Leonard, Ruofan Cai, Miranda C Babiak, Angela Ren, Edward F Chang
Verbal repetition requires the coordination of auditory, memory, linguistic, and motor systems. To date, the basic dynamics of neural information processing in this deceptively simple behavior are largely unknown. Here, we examined the neural processes underlying verbal repetition using focal interruption (electrocortical stimulation) in 58 patients undergoing awake craniotomies, and neurophysiological recordings (electrocorticography) in 8 patients while they performed a single word repetition task. Electrocortical stimulation revealed that sub-components of the left peri-Sylvian network involved in single word repetition could be differentially interrupted, producing transient perceptual deficits, paraphasic errors, or speech arrest...
July 19, 2016: Brain and Language
Marco Riva, Alessandra Casarotti, Alessandro Comi, Federico Pessina, Lorenzo Bello
BACKGROUND: Music is one of the most sophisticated and fascinating functions of the brain. Yet, how music is instantiated within the brain is not fully characterized. Singing is a peculiar aspect of music, in which both musical and linguistic skills are required to provide a merged vocal output. Identifying the neural correlates of this process is relevant for both clinical and research purposes. CASE DESCRIPTION: An adult white man with a presumed left temporal glioma was studied...
September 2016: World Neurosurgery
Svetlana Pinet, Anne-Sophie Dubarry, F-Xavier Alario
Recent work in language production research suggests complex relationships between linguistic and motor processes. Typing is an interesting candidate for investigating further this issue. First, typing presumably relies on the same distributed left-lateralized brain network as handwriting and speech production. Second, typing has its own set of highly specific motor constraints, such as internal keystroke representations that hold information about both letter identity and spatial characteristics of the key to strike...
August 2016: Brain and Language
Peter E Turkeltaub, Mary K Swears, Anila M D'Mello, Catherine J Stoodley
BACKGROUND: Aphasia is an acquired deficit in the ability to communicate through language. Noninvasive neuromodulation offers the potential to boost neural function and recovery, yet the optimal site of neuromodulation for aphasia has yet to be established. The right posterolateral cerebellum is involved in multiple language functions, interconnects with left-hemisphere language cortices, and is crucial for optimization of function and skill acquisition, suggesting that cerebellar neuromodulation could enhance aphasia rehabilitation...
May 24, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Kevin R Sitek, Shanqing Cai, Deryk S Beal, Joseph S Perkell, Frank H Guenther, Satrajit S Ghosh
Persistent developmental stuttering is characterized by speech production disfluency and affects 1% of adults. The degree of impairment varies widely across individuals and the neural mechanisms underlying the disorder and this variability remain poorly understood. Here we elucidate compensatory mechanisms related to this variability in impairment using whole-brain functional and white matter connectivity analyses in persistent developmental stuttering. We found that people who stutter had stronger functional connectivity between cerebellum and thalamus than people with fluent speech, while stutterers with the least severe symptoms had greater functional connectivity between left cerebellum and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Masazumi Fujii, Satoshi Maesawa, Sumio Ishiai, Kenichiro Iwami, Miyako Futamura, Kiyoshi Saito
The neural basis of language had been considered as a simple model consisting of the Broca's area, the Wernicke's area, and the arcuate fasciculus (AF) connecting the above two cortical areas. However, it has grown to a larger and more complex model based upon recent advancements in neuroscience such as precise imaging studies of aphasic patients, diffusion tensor imaging studies, functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, and electrophysiological studies with cortical and subcortical stimulation during awake surgery...
July 15, 2016: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
Ranit Sengupta, Sazzad M Nasir
The human speech system exhibits a remarkable flexibility by adapting to alterations in speaking environments. While it is believed that speech motor adaptation under altered sensory feedback involves rapid reorganization of speech motor networks, the mechanisms by which different brain regions communicate and coordinate their activity to mediate adaptation remain unknown, and explanations of outcome differences in adaption remain largely elusive. In this study, under the paradigm of altered auditory feedback with continuous EEG recordings, the differential roles of oscillatory neural processes in motor speech adaptability were investigated...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Guangting Mai, James W Minett, William S-Y Wang
A growing number of studies indicate that multiple ranges of brain oscillations, especially the delta (δ, <4Hz), theta (θ, 4-8Hz), beta (β, 13-30Hz), and gamma (γ, 30-50Hz) bands, are engaged in speech and language processing. It is not clear, however, how these oscillations relate to functional processing at different linguistic hierarchical levels. Using scalp electroencephalography (EEG), the current study tested the hypothesis that phonological and the higher-level linguistic (semantic/syntactic) organizations during auditory sentence processing are indexed by distinct EEG signatures derived from the δ, θ, β, and γ oscillations...
June 2016: NeuroImage
Naomi S Kort, Pablo Cuesta, John F Houde, Srikantan S Nagarajan
Modulation of vocal pitch is a key speech feature that conveys important linguistic and affective information. Auditory feedback is used to monitor and maintain pitch. We examined induced neural high gamma power (HGP) (65-150 Hz) using magnetoencephalography during pitch feedback control. Participants phonated into a microphone while hearing their auditory feedback through headphones. During each phonation, a single real-time 400 ms pitch shift was applied to the auditory feedback. Participants compensated by rapidly changing their pitch to oppose the pitch shifts...
April 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Jessica C Hodgson, John M Hudson
Research using clinical populations to explore the relationship between hemispheric speech lateralization and handedness has focused on individuals with speech and language disorders, such as dyslexia or specific language impairment (SLI). Such work reveals atypical patterns of cerebral lateralization and handedness in these groups compared to controls. There are few studies that examine this relationship in people with motor coordination impairments but without speech or reading deficits, which is a surprising omission given the prevalence of theories suggesting a common neural network underlying both functions...
February 25, 2016: Journal of Neuropsychology
Xing Tian, Jean Mary Zarate, David Poeppel
Sensory cortices can be activated without any external stimuli. Yet, it is still unclear how this perceptual reactivation occurs and which neural structures mediate this reconstruction process. In this study, we employed fMRI with mental imagery paradigms to investigate the neural networks involved in perceptual reactivation. Subjects performed two speech imagery tasks: articulation imagery (AI) and hearing imagery (HI). We found that AI induced greater activity in frontal-parietal sensorimotor systems, including sensorimotor cortex, subcentral (BA 43), middle frontal cortex (BA 46) and parietal operculum (PO), whereas HI showed stronger activation in regions that have been implicated in memory retrieval: middle frontal (BA 8), inferior parietal cortex and intraparietal sulcus...
April 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Anne S Warlaumont, Megan K Finnegan
At around 7 months of age, human infants begin to reliably produce well-formed syllables containing both consonants and vowels, a behavior called canonical babbling. Over subsequent months, the frequency of canonical babbling continues to increase. How the infant's nervous system supports the acquisition of this ability is unknown. Here we present a computational model that combines a spiking neural network, reinforcement-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity, and a human-like vocal tract to simulate the acquisition of canonical babbling...
2016: PloS One
Ezequiel Gleichgerrcht, Julius Fridriksson, Chris Rorden, Travis Nesland, Rutvik Desai, Leonardo Bonilha
BACKGROUND: Representations of objects and actions in everyday speech are usually materialized as nouns and verbs, two grammatical classes that constitute the core elements of language. Given their very distinct roles in singling out objects (nouns) or referring to transformative actions (verbs), they likely rely on distinct brain circuits. METHOD: We tested this hypothesis by conducting network-based lesion-symptom mapping in 38 patients with chronic stroke to the left hemisphere...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Bin Shi, Li-Zhuang Yang, Ying Liu, Shu-Li Zhao, Ying Wang, Feng Gu, Zhiyu Yang, Yifeng Zhou, Peng Zhang, Xiaochu Zhang
The present study investigates the effect of early-onset hearing loss on the reorganization of visual and auditory networks in children without cochlear implants. Eleven congenitally deaf children and 12 age-matched hearing children were included in the study. Bilateral transverse temporal cortices and bilateral lateral occipital cortices were defined as auditory and visual seeds, respectively (as verified using an independent component analysis). The four seed-based connectivity maps were computed for each participant...
February 10, 2016: Neuroreport
Hanna S Gauvin, Wouter De Baene, Marcel Brass, Robert J Hartsuiker
To minimize the number of errors in speech, and thereby facilitate communication, speech is monitored before articulation. It is, however, unclear at which level during speech production monitoring takes place, and what mechanisms are used to detect and correct errors. The present study investigated whether internal verbal monitoring takes place through the speech perception system, as proposed by perception-based theories of speech monitoring, or whether mechanisms independent of perception are applied, as proposed by production-based theories of speech monitoring...
February 1, 2016: NeuroImage
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