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Personality theory

Barri B Burrus, Kathleen Krieger, Regina Rutledge, Alexander Rabre, Sarah Axelson, Audra Miller, LeBretia White, Christine Jackson
BACKGROUND: Data suggest that adverse social determinants during adolescence can set in motion a lifetime of poor social and health outcomes. Vulnerable youths are at particularly high risk in this regard. OBJECTIVES: To identify and assess the current evidence base for adolescent-focused interventions designed to influence adulthood preparation that could affect longer-term social determinants. SEARCH METHODS: Using a systematic review methodology, we conducted an initial assessment of intervention evaluations targeting 6 adulthood preparation subject (APS) areas to assess the quality and character of the evidence base...
February 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Sarah Blackford
With an ever more competitive global labour market, coupled with an ever-increasing population of PhD-qualified graduates, the ability to communicate effectively and build strategic connections with others can be advantageous in the job-search process. Whether in pursuit of a tenure-track or non-academic position, many postdoctoral researchers and PhD students will benefit from networking as early as possible to enhance their career propsects. Sometimes viewed cynically as 'using people' or dismissed as 'the old boy network', the ability to make meaningful connections and build relationships can be more valuable than other job-related skills in order to gain entry to, and progress within, many professions...
February 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Denise Davidson, Elizabeth Hilvert, Ieva Misiunaite, Michael Giordano
Self-conscious emotions (e.g., guilt, shame, and pride) are complex emotions that require self-reflection and self-evaluation, and are thought to facilitate the maintenance of societal norms and personal standards. Despite the importance of self-conscious emotions, most research has focused on basic emotion processing in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Therefore, in the present study, we used the Test of Self-Conscious Affect for Children (TOSCA-C) to assess proneness to, or propensity to experience, the self-conscious emotions guilt, shame, and pride in children with ASD and neurotypical children...
February 13, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Michael S Wolf, Samuel G Smith, Anjali U Pandit, David M Condon, Laura M Curtis, James Griffith, Rachel O'Conor, Steven Rush, Stacy C Bailey, Gordon Kaplan, Vincent Haufle, David Martin
BACKGROUND: Although there has been increasing interest in patient engagement, few measures are publicly available and suitable for patients with limited health literacy. OBJECTIVE: We sought to develop a Consumer Health Activation Index (CHAI) for use among diverse patients. METHODS: Expert opinion, a systematic literature review, focus groups, and cognitive interviews with patients were used to create and revise a potential set of items...
February 1, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
Indrė Kalinauskaitė, Antal Haans, Yvonne A W de Kort, Wijnand A Ijsselsteijn
Aggression is strongly influenced by the surrounding socio-physical context, and the development of aggressive behavior is best understood through a continuous cycle of ongoing person-environment interactions. Empirical studies, nevertheless, have been predominantly conducted in the laboratory, studying aggression as a short-lived phenomenon, emerging from and within an individual, and - with situational factors studied in isolation - devoid of its context. The present field study, conducted in an urban nightlife area, complements this research...
February 13, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Dori E Rosenberg, Amy K Lee, Melissa Anderson, Anne Renz, Theresa E Matson, Jacqueline Kerr, David Arterburn, Jennifer B McClure
BACKGROUND: Older adults have high rates of obesity and are prone to chronic health conditions. These conditions are in part due to high rates of sedentary time (ST). As such, reducing ST could be an innovative strategy for improving health outcomes among obese older adults. To test this theory, we developed a novel, technology-enhanced intervention to reduce sitting time (I-STAND) and pilot tested it to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effects of the intervention on ST and biometric outcomes...
February 12, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Alexandre Heeren, Emily E Bernstein, Richard J McNally
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: For decades, the dominant paradigm in trait anxiety research has regarded the construct as signifying the underlying cause of the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that supposedly reflect its presence. Recently, a network theory of personality has appeared. According to this perspective, trait anxiety is a formative construct emerging from interactions among its constitutive features (e.g., thought, feelings, behaviors); it is not a latent cause of these features...
February 13, 2018: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Damian Jacob Sendler
INTRODUCTION: The intoxicated person may cause harm to others, often requiring expert evaluation for the determination of guilt. The primary aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms of mistakes that led 17 doctors accused of working under the influence of alcohol to face malpractice. We also wanted to clarify what were the legal, professional, and financial consequences - depending on specific patient outcomes. METHOD: We based analysis on the review and meta-analysis of the past forensic evaluation reports of institution-run forensics programs...
February 5, 2018: Forensic Science International
Elizabeth C Pinel
I-sharing, or believing one has the same in-the-moment experience as another person, constitutes a specific way in which people may share reality. I-sharing research underscores its significance for interpersonal and intergroup outcomes. I-sharing fosters liking for people who differ from us in objective and sometimes important ways, and counteracts robust tendencies to favor ingroup members and dehumanize outgroup members. Research and theory indicate that existential isolation-feeling alone in one's experience-explains the potency of I-sharing, insofar as people with high levels of existential isolation are especially drawn to those with whom they have reason to believe they I-share...
January 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Eugene Tartakovsky, Sophie D Walsh
The current study examines value preferences of social workers in Israel. Using a theoretical framework of person-environment fit paradigm and theory of values, the study compared social workers (N = 641, mean age = 37.7 years, 91 percent female) with a representative sample of Israeli Jews (N = 1,600, mean age = 44.2, 52 percent female). Questionnaires included personal value preferences and sociodemographic variables (gender, age, education, religiosity, and immigrant status). Multivariate analysis of covariance showed that value preferences of social workers differed significantly from those of the general population...
February 7, 2018: Social Work
Heidi Igarashi, Michael R Levenson, Carolyn M Aldwin
Objectives: This study examined the development of wisdom within the context of difficult life events (DLEs), and the importance of individuals and their social environments in this process of growth. Social support has long been studied in adulthood, yet less is known about the ways social transactions can promote wisdom. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with men (n = 14) and women (n = 36), ages 56-91 years (M = 71.71; SD = 8.8) who described a DLE and how they coped with it...
February 7, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Yamile Molina, Jessica Dirkes, Jesus Ramirez-Valles
Understanding factors associated with burnout among HIV/AIDS volunteers has long-ranging implications for community organizations and prevention. Using a cross-sectional sample of Latino gay/bisexual men and transgender people (N=309), we assess potential correlates of burnout identified by multiple theories, including factors associated with volunteering (experiences, motives) and contextual factors (stigma, sense of community). Reporting negative volunteering experiences was positively associated with burnout, while being motivated by personal HIV/AIDS experiences and having a greater sense of GLBT community was negatively related to burnout...
December 2017: Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly
Tian-Ying Chang, Yan Shan, Sai-Sai Liu, Song Xiao-Yue, Zheng-Yan Li, Li-Ping Du, Yan-Yan Li, Gao Douqing
AIM AND OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model could predict self-care behavior among Chinese peritoneal dialysis patients. BACKGROUND: Peritoneal dialysis is a treatment performed by patients or their caregivers in their own home. It is important to implement theory-based projects to increase the self-care of patients with peritoneal dialysis. The IMB model has been verified in diverse populations as a comprehensive, effective model to guide the design, implementation, and evaluation of self-care programs...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Per-Olof H Wikström, Richard P Mann, Beth Hardie
The overall purpose of this study is to contribute to bridging the gap between people- and place-oriented approaches in the study of crime causation. To achieve this we will explore some core hypotheses derived from Situational Action Theory about what makes young people crime prone and makes places criminogenic, and about the interaction between crime propensity and criminogenic exposure predicting crime events. We will also calculate the expected reduction in aggregate levels of crime that will occur as a result of successful interventions targeting crime propensity and criminogenic exposure...
January 2018: European Journal of Criminology
Johannes G Reiter, Christian Hilbe, David G Rand, Krishnendu Chatterjee, Martin A Nowak
Direct reciprocity is a mechanism for cooperation among humans. Many of our daily interactions are repeated. We interact repeatedly with our family, friends, colleagues, members of the local and even global community. In the theory of repeated games, it is a tacit assumption that the various games that a person plays simultaneously have no effect on each other. Here we introduce a general framework that allows us to analyze "crosstalk" between a player's concurrent games. In the presence of crosstalk, the action a person experiences in one game can alter the person's decision in another...
February 7, 2018: Nature Communications
Vyjeyanthi S Periyakoil, Eric Neri, Helena Kraemer
BACKGROUND: To provide preference-sensitive care, we propose that clinicians might routinely inquire about their patients' bucket-lists and discuss the impact (if any) of their medical treatments on their life goals. METHODS: This cross-sectional, mixed methods online study explores the concept of the bucket list and seeks to identify common bucket list themes. Data were collected in 2015-2016 through an online survey, which was completed by a total of 3056 participants across the United States...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
Francesco Brigo, Eugen Trinka, Bruno Brigo, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Giammario Ragnedda, Raffaele Nardone, Mariano Martini
Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179AD) is one of the most relevant figures of the Middle Ages. She wrote two medical books, Physica (Natural history) and Causae et curae (Causes and remedies). Our aim was to provide a comprehensive account of Hildegard of Bingen's conception of epilepsy, of the remedies proposed to treat it, and of the medical and physiological theories behind their use. We searched Hildegard of Bingen's entire body of writings to identify any possible reference to epilepsy or epileptic seizures...
February 1, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Jukka Törrönen, Christoffer Tigerstedt
The article applies actor network theory (ANT) to autobiographical data on alcohol dependence to explore what ANT can offer to the analysis of 'addiction stories'. By defining 'addiction' as a relational achievement, as the effect of elements acting together as a configuration of human and non-human actors, the article demonstrates how the moving and changing attachments of addiction can be dynamically analyzed with concepts of 'assemblage', 'mediator', 'tendency', 'translation', 'trajectory', 'immutable mobile', 'fluid' and 'bush fire'...
January 30, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Rafaela Vivian Valcarenghi, Angela Maria Alvarez, Silvana Sidney Costa Santos, Josiane Steil Siewert, Simony Fabíola Lopes Nunes, Andrelise Viana Rosa Tomasi
OBJECTIVE: To understand the daily lives of people with Parkinson's disease. METHOD: Qualitative research, using as methodological and theoretical referential the Grounded Theory and Symbolic Interactionism, respectively. The in-depth interview was conducted with 30 people with Parkinson's disease. RESULTS: From data analysis, three themes were selected: Living with the disease - living with the treatment and changes in lifestyle; Modifying of one's job performance - revealing incapacity for work and the need to anticipate retirement and; Living with the stigma - the feeling of prejudice against the disease and the perceived limitations of the health services...
March 2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Elissa A Adame, Ryan S Bisel, Edward S Kosik, Julia A Rygaard
An essential piece of anesthesiologist training is attending resident feedback sessions. Yet, few attending anesthesiologists have formal teaching education and little time to acquire it. In this field experiment, attending physicians were randomly assigned to a control group or to receive 30 minutes of feedback training inspired by Implicit Person Theory (IPT). As such, IPT training encouraged physicians to praise process-oriented learning while discouraging performance-oriented mindsets. Attending physicians then observed residents participate in a human patient simulation (HPS) activity and provided residents with feedback...
February 7, 2018: Health Communication
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