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Personality theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454110/personalizing-chinese-medicine-by-integrating-molecular-features-of-diseases-and-herb-ingredient-information-application-to-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#1
REVIEW
Lin Huang, Haichang Li, Duoli Xie, Tieliu Shi, Chengping Wen
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been widely used as a complementary medicine in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) treatment. In this study, we proposed a new classification of Chinese Medicines (CMs) by integrating the latest discoveries in disease molecular mechanisms and traditional medicine theory. We screened out a set of chemical compounds on basis of AML differential expression genes and chemical-protein interactions and then mapped them to Traditional Chinese Medicine Integrated Database. 415 CMs contain those compounds and they were categorized into 8 groups according to the Traditional Chinese Pharmacology...
April 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453978/oxytocin-attenuates-social-and-non-social-avoidance-re-thinking-the-social-specificity-of-oxytocin
#2
Osnat Harari-Dahan, Amit Bernstein
Re-examining decades of the social construal of Oxytocin, the General Approach-Avoidance Hypothesis of Oxytocin (GAAO) predicts that Oxytocin will modulate responding to emotionally-evocative and personally-relevant social and non-social stimuli due to its action on the neural substrate of approach and avoidance motivation. We report the first critical experimental test of GAAO predictions by means of a double-blind intra-nasal administration of Oxytocin vs. placebo in 90 healthy adults (N=90, 50% women). As predicted, we found that among men and women for whom negative emotion (anxious arousal) is motivationally-relevant, intra-nasal administration of Oxytocin reduced behavioral avoidance of emotionally-evocative negatively-valenced social and non-social stimuli, but not closely matched emotionally-neutral stimuli...
April 10, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448497/examination-of-an-ehealth-literacy-scale-and-a-health-literacy-scale-in-a-population-with-moderate-to-high-cardiovascular-risk-rasch-analyses
#3
Sarah S Richtering, Rebecca Morris, Sze-Ee Soh, Anna Barker, Fiona Bampi, Lis Neubeck, Genevieve Coorey, John Mulley, John Chalmers, Tim Usherwood, David Peiris, Clara K Chow, Julie Redfern
INTRODUCTION: Electronic health (eHealth) strategies are evolving making it important to have valid scales to assess eHealth and health literacy. Item response theory methods, such as the Rasch measurement model, are increasingly used for the psychometric evaluation of scales. This paper aims to examine the internal construct validity of an eHealth and health literacy scale using Rasch analysis in a population with moderate to high cardiovascular disease risk. METHODS: The first 397 participants of the CONNECT study completed the electronic health Literacy Scale (eHEALS) and the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447832/the-role-of-political-affiliation-in-employment-decisions-a-model-and-research-agenda
#4
Philip L Roth, Caren B Goldberg, Jason B Thatcher
Organizational researchers have studied how individuals identify with groups and organizations and how this affiliation influences behavior for decades (e.g., Tajfel, 1982). Interestingly, investigation into political affiliation and political affiliation similarity in the organizational sciences is extremely rare. This is striking, given the deep political divides that exist between groups of individuals described in the political science literature. We draw from theories based on similarity, organizational identification, and person-environment fit, as well as theoretical notions related to individuating information, to develop a model, the political affiliation model (PAM), which describes the implications of political affiliation and political similarity for employment decisions...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447466/results-of-a-randomized-trial-on-an-intervention-promoting-adoption-of-occupational-sun-protection-policies
#5
David B Buller, Barbara J Walkosz, Mary Klein Buller, Allan Wallis, Peter A Andersen, Michael D Scott, Rachel Eye, Xia Liu, Gary Cutter
PURPOSE: To evaluate an intervention promoting adoption of occupational sun protection policies by employers in a randomized trial. DESIGN: A randomized pretest-posttest controlled design with 2-year follow-up was conducted in 2010 to 2013. SETTING: Local government organizations in Colorado who had outdoor workers in public works, public safety, and/or parks and recreation. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-eight local government organizations (n = 51 municipalities, 10 counties, and 37 special districts)...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446887/the-impact-of-prenatal-parental-locus-of-control-on-children-s-psychological-outcomes-in-infancy-and-early-childhood-a-prospective-5-year-study
#6
Stephen Nowicki, Yasmin Iles-Caven, Steven Gregory, Genette Ellis, Jean Golding
Locus of control is one of the most widely studied concepts in the history of personality psychology. In spite of its popularity and its associations with numerous relevant outcomes, the ability of locus of control to predict future behaviors involving parenting effectiveness has been under researched. The few parent locus of control children's outcome studies are characterized by cross-sectional methodologies that focus on mothers. The present study uses a prospective methodology to compare data on mothers' and fathers' locus of control with their child's behavior outcomes from a large scale research project, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446141/a-mobile-application-of-breast-cancer-e-support-program-versus-routine-care-in-the-treatment-of-chinese-women-with-breast-cancer-undergoing-chemotherapy-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Jiemin Zhu, Lyn Ebert, Xiangyu Liu, Sally Wai-Chi Chan
BACKGROUND: Women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy suffer from a number of symptoms and report receiving inadequate support from health care professionals. Innovative and easily accessible interventions are lacking. Breast Cancer e-Support is a mobile Application program (App) that provides patients with individually tailored information and a support group of peers and health care professionals. Breast Cancer e-Support aims to promote women's self-efficacy, social support and symptom management, thus improving their quality of life and psychological well-being...
April 26, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445741/memory-scrutinized-through-electrical-brain-stimulation-a-review-of-80-years-of-experiential-phenomena
#8
REVIEW
Jonathan Curot, Thomas Busigny, Luc Valton, Marie Denuelle, Jean-Pierre Vignal, Louis Maillard, Patrick Chauvel, Jérémie Pariente, Agnès Trebuchon, Fabrice Bartolomei, Emmanuel J Barbeau
Electrical Brain Stimulations (EBS) sometimes induce reminiscences, but it is largely unknown what type of memories they can trigger. We reviewed 80 years of literature on reminiscences induced by EBS and added our own database. We classified them according to modern conceptions of memory. We observed a surprisingly large variety of reminiscences covering all aspects of declarative memory. However, most were poorly detailed and only a few were episodic. This result does not support theories of a highly stable and detailed memory, as initially postulated, and still widely believed as true by the general public...
April 23, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445221/changes-in-personal-relationships-during-residency-and-their-effects-on-resident-wellness-a-qualitative-study
#9
Marcus Law, Michelle Lam, Diana Wu, Paula Veinot, Maria Mylopoulos
PURPOSE: Residency poses challenges for residents' personal relationships. Research suggests residents rely on family and friends for support during their training. The authors explored the impact of residency demands on residents' personal relationships and the effects changes in those relationships could have on their wellness. METHOD: The authors used a constructivist grounded theory approach. In 2012-2014, they conducted semistructured interviews with a purposive and theoretical sample of 16 Canadian residents from various specialties and training levels...
April 25, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443057/cognitive-constructivist-approach-in-medical-settings-the-use-of-personal-meaning-questionnaire-for-neurological-patients-personality-investigation
#10
Barbara Poletti, Laura Carelli, Annalisa Lafronza, Federica Solca, Andrea Faini, Andrea Ciammola, Monica Grobberio, Vanessa Raimondi, Rita Pezzati, Rita B Ardito, Vincenzo Silani
Objective: The cognitive-constructivist psychotherapy approach considers the self as a continuous regulation process between present and past experience, in which attributions of meaning is characterized by the use of internal rules. In this conception, everyone would be driven by a specific inner coherence called Personal Meaning Organization (PMO). Such approach has never been applied to neurological patients by means of ad hoc developed tools. We performed an explorative study aimed to characterize personality styles in different neurological conditions within the theoretical framework of cognitive-constructivist model...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439727/barriers-to-information-provision-regarding-breast-cancer-and-its-treatment
#11
Heather J Campbell-Enns, Roberta L Woodgate, Harvey M Chochinov
PURPOSE: Women with breast cancer require information about their cancer and its treatment during the process of treatment decision-making, yet it is unclear if there are barriers to information support. This study explores the experience of making treatment decisions in breast cancer, paying particular attention to the barriers experienced to the provision of information. METHODS: Using a grounded theory methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 women with invasive breast cancer exploring the experience of treatment decision-making...
April 24, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438728/designing-patient-centered-text-messaging-interventions-for-increasing-physical-activity-among-participants-with-type-2-diabetes-qualitative-results-from-the-text-to-move-intervention
#12
Gabrielle N Horner, Stephen Agboola, Kamal Jethwani, Aswita Tan-McGrory, Lenny Lopez
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a disease affecting approximately 29.1 million people in the United States, and an additional 86 million adults have prediabetes. Diabetes self-management education, a complex health intervention composed of 7 behaviors, is effective at improving self-care behaviors and glycemic control. Studies have employed text messages for education, reminders, and motivational messaging that can serve as "cues to action," aiming to improve glucose monitoring, self-care behaviors, appointment attendance, and medication adherence...
April 24, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438726/analyzing-unstructured-communication-in-a-computer-mediated-environment-for-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-a-research-protocol
#13
Allison A Lewinski, Ruth A Anderson, Allison A Vorderstrasse, Edwin B Fisher, Wei Pan, Constance M Johnson
BACKGROUND: Individuals with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk for comorbidities such as heart disease, lower limb amputations, stroke, and renal failure. Multiple factors influence development of complications in a person living with type 2 diabetes; however, an individual's self-management behaviors may delay the onset of, or lessen the severity of, these complications. Social support provides personal, informal advice and knowledge that helps individuals initiate and sustain self-management and adherence...
April 24, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438073/the-meaning-profiles-of-anxiety-and-depression-similarities-and-differences-in-two-age-groups
#14
Shulamith Kreitler
The distinctiveness of anxiety and depression is discussed concerning their nature, definitions, uses, manifestations and determinants. The objective was to examine the difference and similarity of anxiety and depression by applying the psychosemantic approach, which is a theory and methodology based on analysing the cognitive processes applied in communicating meanings. In Study 1, there were 760 participants of both genders, 23-31 years old. They were administered the Meanings Test, which yields the respondent's meaning profile, and one of seven anxiety scales or one of three depression scales...
April 25, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438063/measuring-the-needs-of-family-caregivers-of-people-with-dementia-an-assessment-of-current-methodological-strategies-and-key-recommendations
#15
Lauren R Bangerter, Joan M Griffin, Steven H Zarit, Rachel Havyer
While dementia caregivers are regarded as a population with high unmet needs, there is little consensus as to how caregivers' needs should be conceptualized and measured. This article describes how dementia caregivers' needs are currently assessed in the scientific literature with the goal of suggesting guidelines for the enhancement of future measurement of caregiver needs. A review of 26 articles identified overarching themes within measurement approaches including variation in methodological rigor, proxy indicators of need, dual needs assessment of caregiver and person with dementia (PWD), and third-party needs assessment...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437750/becoming-comfortable-with-my-epilepsy-strategies-that-patients-use-in-the-journey-from-diagnosis-to-acceptance-and-disclosure
#16
Sinead Pembroke, Agnes Higgins, Niall Pender, Naomi Elliott
OBJECTIVE: Proponents of resilience theory have highlighted the importance of understanding the processes of resilience. The objective of the study was to explore how people with epilepsy reach a stage of being comfortable with their epilepsy. Identifying the processes used is important to developing effective self-management for people who are newly diagnosed with epilepsy. METHOD: A grounded theory approach involving forty-nine consenting adult people with epilepsy (18 years and over), was used to explore their first-hand experiences of coming to terms with their epilepsy...
April 19, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434819/the-functional-test-of-the-hemiparetic-upper-extremity-a-rasch-analysis-with-theoretical-implications
#17
Veronica T Rowe, Carolee J Winstein, Steven L Wolf, Michelle L Woodbury
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the measurement properties of the Functional Test of the Hemiparetic Upper Extremity (FTHUE) and examine how its score may or may not inform design of a rehabilitation program. DESIGN: The FTHUE was recently used in the Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation Stroke (ICARE) Randomized Clinical Trial (RCT). This circumstance provided the opportunity to examine the psychometric properties of the FTHUE as it pertains to contemporary post-stroke rehabilitation and recovery models...
April 20, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431536/-popping-nana-back-into-bed-a-qualitative-exploration-of-paramedic-decision-making-when-caring-for-older-people-who-have-fallen
#18
Paul Simpson, Ric Thomas, Jason Bendall, Bill Lord, Stephen Lord, Jacqueline Close
BACKGROUND: Older fallers constitute a large proportion of ambulance work, and as many as 25% are not transported to hospital following paramedic assessment. The objective of this study was to explore the decision making process used by paramedics when caring for older fallers. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted using constructivist grounded theory methodology. Purposive sampling was used to recruit paramedics to participate in semi-structured interviews and focus groups...
April 21, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431192/a-personal-connection-promoting-positive-attitudes-towards-teaching-and-learning
#19
Heidi L Lujan, Stephen E DiCarlo
Students' attitudes towards teaching and learning must be addressed with the same seriousness and effort as we address content. Establishing a personal connection and addressing our students' basic psychological needs will produce positive attitudes towards teaching and learning and develop life-long learners. It will also promote constructive student-teacher relationships that have a profound influence on our students' approach towards school. To begin this process, consider the major tenets of the Self-Determination Theory...
April 21, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429177/learning-from-one-s-own-errors-and-those-of-others
#20
Janet Metcalfe, Judy Xu
Three experiments investigated the effects of making errors oneself, as compared to just hearing the correct answer without error generation, hearing another person make an error, or being "on-the-hook," that is, possibly but not necessarily being the person who would be "called-on" to give a response. In all three experiments, generating either an error of commission or generating the correct response, oneself, out loud, compared to being a person who heard another's commission errors (or correct responses), was beneficial for later recall of the correct answer...
April 20, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
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