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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923013/community-mobilization-for-hiv-testing-uptake-results-from-a-community-randomized-trial-of-a-theory-based-intervention-in-rural-south-africa
#1
Sheri A Lippman, Torsten B Neilands, Catherine MacPhail, Dean Peacock, Suzanne Maman, Dumisani Rebombo, Rhian Twine, Amanda Selin, Hannah H Leslie, Kathleen Kahn, Audrey Pettifor
BACKGROUND: HIV testing uptake in South Africa is below optimal levels. Community mobilization (CM) may increase and sustain demand for HIV testing, however, little rigorous evidence exists regarding the effect of CM interventions on HIV testing and the mechanisms of action. METHODS: We implemented a theory-driven CM intervention in 11 of 22 randomly-selected villages in rural Mpumalanga Province. Cross-sectional surveys including a community mobilization measure were conducted before (n = 1181) and after (n = 1175) a 2-year intervention (2012-2014)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922203/vulnerability-to-alcohol-related-problems-a-policy-brief-with-implications-for-the-regulation-of-alcohol-marketing
#2
Thomas F Babor, Katherine Robaina, Jonathan K Noel, E Bruce Ritson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The concern that alcohol advertising can have detrimental effects on vulnerable viewers has prompted the development of codes of responsible advertising practices. This paper evaluates critically the concept of vulnerability as it applies to (1) susceptibility to alcohol-related harm and (2) susceptibility to the effects of marketing, and describes its implications for the regulation of alcohol marketing. METHOD: We describe the findings of key published studies, review papers and expert reports to determine whether these two types of vulnerability apply to population groups defined by (1) age and developmental history; (2) personality characteristics; (3) family history of alcoholism; (4) female sex and pregnancy risk; and (5) history of alcohol dependence and recovery status...
December 6, 2016: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922177/before-attachment-theory-separation-research-at-the-tavistock-clinic-1948-1956
#3
Bican Polat
This article traces the formation of attachment theory to the pioneering research program of Bowlby and his colleagues at the Tavistock Clinic between 1948 and 1956. Through a discussion of the concepts and practices that informed Bowlby's program, I examine the efforts of his team to reconstruct psychoanalytic objects according to preventive objectives and operational criteria. I discuss how the exploratory techniques that Bowlby and his colleagues were developing during these years ultimately led to the establishment of a hybrid investigative framework, in which the prophylactic requirements of mental hygiene, the psychometric model of personality disturbances, the psychoanalytic theory of object relations, and a direct-observational methodology were brought to bear on the problem of the psychological consequences of early separation experiences...
December 6, 2016: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921634/smoking-cessation-in-smoke-free-prisons-a-grounded-theory-study
#4
Ashleigh Djachenko, Winsome St John, Creina Mitchell
Purpose Prisoners are vulnerable to tobacco addiction and have a smoking prevalence significantly higher than that of the general community. The context of this study was the implementation of a "smoke-free prisons" policy, which imposed forced smoking cessation onto the Queensland, Australian prison population. The study asked the question: "What are the psychosocial processes in which male prisoners engage during smoking cessation in a smoke-free environment?" Design/methodology/approach Qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 prisoners in South-east Queensland smoke-free correctional centres...
December 19, 2016: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921197/counselees-perspectives-of-genomic-counseling-following-online-receipt-of-multiple-actionable-complex-disease-and-pharmacogenomic-results-a-qualitative-research-study
#5
Kevin Sweet, Shelly Hovick, Amy C Sturm, Tara Schmidlen, Erynn Gordon, Barbara Bernhardt, Lisa Wawak, Karen Wernke, Joseph McElroy, Laura Scheinfeldt, Amanda E Toland, J S Roberts, Michael Christman
Genomic applications raise multiple challenges including the optimization of genomic counseling (GC) services as part of the results delivery process. More information on patients' motivations, preferences, and informational needs are essential to guide the development of new, more efficient practice delivery models that capitalize on the existing strengths of a limited genetic counseling workforce. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with a subset of counselees from the Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative following online receipt of multiple personalized genomic test reports...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920744/attitudes-of-older-adults-in-a-group-based-exercise-program-toward-a-blended-intervention-a-focus-group-study
#6
Sumit Mehra, Tessa Dadema, Ben J A Kröse, Bart Visser, Raoul H H Engelbert, Jantine Van Den Helder, Peter J M Weijs
Ageing is associated with a decline in daily functioning and mobility. A physically active life and physical exercise can minimize the decline of daily functioning and improve the physical-, psychological- and social functioning of older adults. Despite several advantages of group-based exercise programs, older adults participating in such interventions often do not meet the frequency, intensity or duration of exercises needed to gain health benefits. An exercise program that combines the advantages of group-based exercises led by an instructor with tailored home-based exercises can increase the effectiveness...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919750/mapping-the-functional-connectome-in-traumatic-brain-injury-what-can-graph-metrics-tell-us
#7
Karen Caeyenberghs, Helena Verhelst, Adam Clemente, Peter H Wilson
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with cognitive and motor deficits, and poses a significant personal, societal, and economic burden. One mechanism by which TBI is thought to affect cognition and behaviour is through changes in functional connectivity. Graph theory is a powerful framework for quantifying topological features of neuroimaging-derived functional networks. The objective of this paper is to review studies examining functional connectivity in TBI with an emphasis on graph theoretical analysis that is proving to be valuable in uncovering network abnormalities in this condition...
December 2, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917586/a-qualitative-perspectival-review-of-the-australian-and-new-zealand-urology-education-and-training-program
#8
Prem Rashid
INTRODUCTION: The Australian and New Zealand (ANZ) urology training program was assessed via a prospective, qualitative review to explore the challenges facing the delivery of high quality urological training now and into the future. AIM: To report the reflective considerations and opinions of leaders in the ANZ urological surgical training program. METHODS: Ethics approved semi-structured, template-based, qualitative interview techniques were employed to evaluate key aspects of the current urology training program...
December 5, 2016: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917147/a-qualitative-inquiry-of-the-lived-experiences-of-music-therapists-who-have-survived-cancer-who-are-working-with-medical-and-hospice-patients
#9
Jin Hyung Lee
Cancer is a debilitating illness that affects more than one in every three Americans at sometime in their life time regardless of their social, cultural, ethnic, religious, or economic status. A few studies in the psychotherapy literature have investigated the impact of cancer on the personal and professional lives of psychotherapists. However, such investigations are yet unknown in medical or music therapy literature. In this descriptive phenomenological study, the researcher interviewed five American music therapists who have survived cancer and also work with patients in medical hospitals or hospice settings...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916383/disentangling-interactions-in-the-microbiome-a-network-perspective
#10
REVIEW
Mehdi Layeghifard, David M Hwang, David S Guttman
Microbiota are now widely recognized as being central players in the health of all organisms and ecosystems, and subsequently have been the subject of intense study. However, analyzing and converting microbiome data into meaningful biological insights remain very challenging. In this review, we highlight recent advances in network theory and their applicability to microbiome research. We discuss emerging graph theoretical concepts and approaches used in other research disciplines and demonstrate how they are well suited for enhancing our understanding of the higher-order interactions that occur within microbiomes...
December 1, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914918/epigenetic-game-theory-how-to-compute-the-epigenetic-control-of-maternal-to-zygotic-transition
#11
REVIEW
Qian Wang, Kirk Gosik, Sujuan Xing, Libo Jiang, Lidan Sun, Vernon M Chinchilli, Rongling Wu
Epigenetic reprogramming is thought to play a critical role in maintaining the normal development of embryos. How the methylation state of paternal and maternal genomes regulates embryogenesis depends on the interaction and coordination of the gametes of two sexes. While there is abundant research in exploring the epigenetic interactions of sperms and oocytes, a knowledge gap exists in the mechanistic quantitation of these interactions and their impact on embryo development. This review aims at formulating a modeling framework to address this gap through the integration and synthesis of evolutionary game theory and the latest discoveries of the epigenetic control of embryo development by next-generation sequencing...
November 9, 2016: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914487/factors-affecting-job-satisfaction-of-aboriginal-mental-health-workers-working-in-community-mental-health-in-rural-and-remote-new-south-wales
#12
Catherine Cosgrave, Myfanwy Maple, Rafat Hussain
Objective The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the job satisfaction and subsequent retention of Aboriginal mental health workers (AMHWs).Methods Five AMHWs working in New South Wales (NSW) for NSW Health in rural and remote community mental health (CMH) services participated in in-depth, semi-structured interviews to understand how employment and rural living factors affected workers' decisions to stay or leave their CMH positions.Results Using a constructivist grounded theory analysis, three aspects negatively impacting the job satisfaction of AMHWs were identified: (1) difficulties being accepted into the team and organisation; (2) culturally specific work challenges; and (3) professional differences and inequality...
December 5, 2016: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914357/moving-toward-heutagogical-learning-illuminating-undergraduate-nursing-students-experiences-in-a-flipped-classroom
#13
Rebecca D Green, Maura C Schlairet
BACKGROUND: Nurse educators rely on the tenets of educational theory and evidence-based education to promote the most effective curriculum and facilitate the best outcomes. The flipped classroom model, in which students assume personal responsibility for knowledge acquisition in a highly engaging and interactive environment, supports self-directed learning and the unique needs of clinical education. OBJECTIVE: To understand how students perceived their experiences in the flipped classroom and how students' learning dispositions were affected by the flipped classroom experience...
November 25, 2016: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913987/a-moral-normative-framework-for-the-judgment-of-actions-and-decisions-in-the-construction-industry-and-engineering-part-ii
#14
Omar J Alkhatib
The construction industry is typically characterized as a fragmented, multi-organizational setting in which members from different technical backgrounds and moral values join together to develop a particular business or project. The most challenging obstacle in the construction process is to achieve a successful practice and to identify and apply an ethical framework to manage the behavior of involved specialists and contractors and to ensure the quality of all completed construction activities. The framework should reflect a common moral ground for myriad people involved in this process to survive and compete ethically in today's turbulent construction market...
December 2, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909417/defining-contemplative-science-the-metacognitive-self-regulatory-capacity-of-the-mind-context-of-meditation-practice-and-modes-of-existential-awareness
#15
Dusana Dorjee
The term 'contemplative' is now frequently used in the fast growing field of meditation research. Yet, there is no consensus regarding the definition of contemplative science. Meditation studies commonly imply that contemplative practices such as mindfulness or compassion are the subject of contemplative science. Such approach, arguably, contributes to terminological confusions in the field, is not conducive to the development of an overarching theory in contemplative science, and overshadows its unique methodological features...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909414/personality-traits-and-training-initiation-process-intention-planning-and-action-initiation
#16
Mariola Laguna, Ewelina Purc
The article aims at investigating the role of personality traits in relation to training initiation. Training initiation is conceptualized as a goal realization process, and explained using goal theories. There are three stages of the process analyzed: intention to undertake training, plan formulation, and actual training undertaking. Two studies tested the relationships between five personality traits, defined according to the five factor model, and the stages of the goal realization process. In Study 1, which explains training intention and training plans' formulation, 155 employees participated...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906996/reach-the-person-behind-the-dementia-physical-therapists-reflections-and-strategies-when-composing-physical-training
#17
Anncristine Fjellman-Wiklund, Ellinor Nordin, Dawn A Skelton, Lillemor Lundin-Olsson
Dementia is a disease characterized by cognitive impairment and physical decline that worsens over time. Exercise is one lifestyle factor that has been identified as a potential means of reducing or delaying progression of the symptoms of dementia, maximizing function and independence. The purpose of this study was to explore physical therapists' (PTs) experiences and reflections on facilitating high-intensity functional exercise with older people living with dementia, in residential care home settings. The study used a qualitative design based on interviews, individually or in small groups, with seven PTs engaged as leaders in the training of older people with dementia...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905959/development-of-a-metric-for-tracking-and-comparing-population-health-based-on-the-minimal-generic-set-of-domains-of-functioning-and-health
#18
Cornelia Oberhauser, Somnath Chatterji, Carla Sabariego, Alarcos Cieza
BACKGROUND: The following minimal set of valid health domains for tracking the health of both clinical and general populations has recently been proposed: 1) energy and drive functions, 2) emotional functions, 3) sensation of pain, 4) carrying out daily routine, 5) walking and moving around, and 6) remunerative employment. This study investigates whether these domains can be integrated into a sound psychometric measure to adequately assess, compare, and monitor the health of populations...
May 12, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904812/predictor-effect-of-locus-of-control-loc-on-self-care-activities-and-metabolic-control-in-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes
#19
Dilek Büyükkaya Besen, Neslihan Günüşen, Hamdiye Arda Sürücü, Cansu Koşar
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have examined the role of individuals' personal characteristics in diabetes management and used the locus of control theory to assess adherence to a diabetes management regimen. These studies have emphasized that having internal locus of control may be a protective factor in diabetes management. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine the predictor effect of locus of control on self-care activities and A1c level. METHOD: The study is descriptive and relational...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903936/operationalising-cognitive-fatigability-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-gordian-knot-that-can-be-cut
#20
Anthony Mark Harrison, Roshan das Nair, Rona Moss-Morris
BACKGROUND: Researchers have attempted to operationalise objective measures of cognitive fatigability in multiple sclerosis (MS) to overcome the perceived subjectivity of patient-reported outcomes of fatigue (PROs). Measures of cognitive fatigability examine decrements in performance during sustained neurocognitive tasks. OBJECTIVE: This personal viewpoint briefly summarises available evidence for measures of cognitive fatigability in MS and considers their overall utility...
November 30, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
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