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Personality theory

Richard Ramsey
The perception of other people is instrumental in guiding social interactions. For example, the appearance of the human body cues a wide range of inferences regarding sex, age, health, and personality, as well as emotional state and intentions, which influence social behavior. To date, most neuroscience research on body perception has aimed to characterize the functional contribution of segregated patches of cortex in the ventral visual stream. In light of the growing prominence of network architectures in neuroscience, the current article reviews neuroimaging studies that measure functional integration between different brain regions during body perception...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Karen Carroll
Telehealth utilizes technology that connects nurses and persons receiving healthcare services. Rather than focusing on telehealth as a financial burden or a disruptive technology, telehealth nursing should be considered an opportunity to operationalize and transform the art of care, especially when it is guided by nursing theory.
July 2018: Nursing Science Quarterly
Mario R Ortiz
There has been much written about the importance of care that is centered on persons and their loved ones. Patient-centered care has been central to nursing practice and unique nursing knowledge. This central focus provides an opportunity for nurses to develop policies that may affect practice so that practice is consistent with a distinctive knowledge base. The purpose of this paper is to discuss patient-centered care and nursing theory.
July 2018: Nursing Science Quarterly
Holly Gwyther, Elzbieta Bobrowicz Campos, João Apóstolo, Maura Marcucci, Antonio Cano, Carol Holland
Interventions to minimise, reverse or prevent the progression of frailty in older adults represent a potentially viable route to improving quality of life and care needs in older adults. Intervention methods used across European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP-AHA) collaborators were analysed, along with findings from literature reviews to determine "what works for whom in what circumstances". A realist review of FOCUS study literature reviews, 'real world' studies and grey literature was conducted according to RAMESES standards, and used to populate a framework analysis of theories of why frailty interventions worked, and theories of why frailty interventions did not work...
June 19, 2018: Health Psychology Review
Grace E Rice, Paul Hoffman, Richard J Binney, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
The anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) play a key role in conceptual knowledge representation. The hub-and-spoke theory suggests that the contribution of the ATLs to semantic representation is (a) transmodal, i.e. integrating information from multiple sensorimotor and verbal modalities, and (b) pan-categorical, representing concepts from all categories. Another literature, however, suggests that this region's responses are modality- and category-selective; prominent examples include category selectivity for socially relevant concepts and face recognition...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
John Michael Madonna
The following is a discussion of the issue of religious faith on the part of the analyst, in terms of how it comes to bear on the psychological treatment of patients who have faith and some who do not. A consideration, and refutation, of Freud's position on religion and his belief in a supreme being as an illusion will be conducted, along with subsequent analytic thinking on this matter. The author's personal experience will be described, and how he is affirmed and sometimes challenged by the various clinical situations in which he finds himself...
June 2018: Journal of Pastoral Care & Counseling: JPCC
Berit Björkman, Staffan Arnér, Iréne Lund, Lars-Christer Hydén
Background Phantom phenomena - pain or other sensations appearing to come from amputated body parts - are frequent consequences of amputation and can cause considerable suffering. Also, stump pain, located in the residual limb, is in the literature often related to the phantom phenomena. The condition is not specific to amputated limbs and has, to a lesser extent, been reported to be present after radical surgery in other body parts such as breast, rectum and teeth. Multi-causal theories are used when trying to understand these phenomena, which are recognized as the result of complex interaction among various parts of the central nervous system confirmed in studies using functional brain imaging techniques...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Helen Richardson, Stephen Morley
Background and aims We explore the relationship between behaviour and cognition in chronic pain by applying Action Identification Theory (AIT). AIT holds that every action may be construed in several ways. High level construals confer greater meaning than lower level construals. When an action is interrupted a lower level, more concrete identity with reduced meaning is elicited. We hypothesized that interference of activity by chronic pain affects the meaning ascribed to activity and thus a person's overall sense of meaning in life...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Camilla Gleeson Mead, Sally F Kelty
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a prevalent problem worldwide. Friends of perpetrators may be in a unique position to support or affect change. However, little is known about the influence of friendship with a perpetrator on responses to IPV. Social identity theory describes an ingroup bias whereby ingroup perpetrators of violence are viewed as less personally responsible than outgroup perpetrators. This bias has been consistently found for impersonal ingroup relationships, but there is limited research in relation to friends of perpetrators...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Abeedah Hendricks-Lalla, Chrisma Pretorius
The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of male familial caregivers of persons with Alzheimer's disease from low socio-economic status using the ecological systems theory perspective. The data were obtained from 11 semi-structured interviews that were conducted with the familial caregivers of persons with Alzheimer's disease. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis, where four main themes emerged, namely, relationship difficulties, understanding Alzheimer's disease, support networks, and finding meaning and satisfaction in the caregiving role...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
Alexandra Hantzi, Fotios Anagnostopoulos, Eva Alexiou
Based on intergroup contact theory, a proposed comprehensive model of attitudes towards seeking professional psychological help was tested, including both potential barriers to mental health help-seeking (i.e., public stigma and self-stigma of seeking help, prejudicial and essentialist beliefs about mental illness, intergroup anxiety) and potential facilitators (i.e., direct and extended contact with persons with mental illness). Relevant measures were completed by 119 community-dwelling participants. Path analysis showed that direct (but not extended) contact with mental illness, by reducing intergroup anxiety, led to less negative beliefs about mental illness and weaker essentialist beliefs about mental illness (the latter being directly and positively associated with negative beliefs about mental illness)...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
Stephen J Guastello, David E Marra, Anthony F Peressini, Julian Castro, Maribeth Gomez
The synchronization of autonomic arousal levels within dyads and larger teams has become a potentially important variable in the explanation of team performance and group processes. Synchronization research with groups of three or more members has been challenging because of limited means for quantifying relationships that are more extensive than dyads. This article presents an empirical investigation of group performance and participation using a new synchronization coefficient that is grounded in nonlinear dynamical systems theory...
July 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Daniel Alcalá-López, Kai Vogeley, Ferdinand Binkofski, Danilo Bzdok
During the past decade, novel approaches to study social interaction have expanded and questioned long-standing knowledge about how humans understand each other. We aim to portray and reconcile the key psychological processes and neural mechanisms underlying navigation of the social environment. Theoretical accounts mostly revolved around either abstract inferences or embodied simulations, whereas experimental studies mostly focused on theory of mind or mentalizing, empathy, and action imitation. The tension between theories of and experiments on social cognition is systematically revisited to foster new theoretical and empirical studies in the fields...
May 14, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Judith Osok, Pius Kigamwa, Keng-Yen Huang, Nancy Grote, Manasi Kumar
BACKGROUND: Adolescent pregnancies present a great public health burden in Kenya and Sub-Saharan Africa (UNFPA, Motherhood in Childhood: Facing the challenge of Adolescent Pregnancy, 2013). The disenfranchisement from public institutions and services is further compounded by cultural stigma and gender inequality creating emotional, psychosocial, health, and educational problems in the lives of vulnerable pregnant adolescents (Int J Adolesc Med Health 15(4):321-9, 2003; BMC Public Health 8:83, 2008)...
June 15, 2018: BMC Women's Health
Antonella Somma, Robert F Krueger, Kristian E Markon, Serena Borroni, Andrea Fossati
To assess the psychometric properties of the Italian translation of the 100-item short form of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5-SF), 2,143 community-dwelling adults (59.6% female), and 706 adult clinical participants (52.4% female) were administered the Italian translation of the PID-5. Clinical participants were also administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-II), and the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+ (PDQ-4+). Item response theory analysis showed that all proposed PID-5-SF items showed adequate item discrimination parameters in both community-dwelling adults and clinical adults...
June 1, 2018: Assessment
Jacqueline Schmidt-Busby, Janine Wiles, Daniel Exeter, Timothy Kenealy
OBJECTIVE: To identify contextual factors that affect self-management of diabetes with comorbidities, and to evaluate in what way these factors affect self-management effectiveness. METHODS: A systematic review of literature considered English language articles published within Medline, PsycINFO, Pubmed, CINAHL Plus, and Scopus databases that focussed on individuals' experiences of type 2 diabetes from primary intervention or observational studies. A realist evaluation approach was used to analyse themes identified within the literature...
June 11, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Abby L Mulay, Nicole M Cain, Mark H Waugh, Christopher J Hopwood, Jonathan M Adler, Darren J Garcia, John E Kurtz, Katherine A Lenger, Rebecca Skadberg
The DSM-5 Section III alternative model for personality disorders (AMPD) is a personality disorder (PD) nosology based on severity of personality dysfunction and pathological traits. We examined the degree to which the personality constructs identified by McAdams and Pals (2006; dispositional traits, characteristic adaptations, narrative identity) and the paradigms of personality assessment described by Wiggins (2003; psychodynamic, interpersonal, personological, multivariate, empirical) are represented within the AMPD...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
Sara L Buckingham, M Cecilia Suarez-Pedraza
The wellbeing of Latinx immigrants in the United States varies widely. Immigrants' changes and maintenance of their cultures, a process known as acculturation, has been postulated to explain differences in wellbeing. However, the mechanisms by which acculturation impacts wellbeing are not fully understood. This study sought to understand the relation between acculturation and wellbeing through a person-environment fit lens, with the hypothesis that the better immigrants can acculturate in ways they prefer (e...
June 14, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Pauline Georgees Poless, Linda Torstveit, Ricardo Gregorio Lugo, Marita Andreassen, Stefan Sütterlin
Narcissists are described as individuals with dysfunctional personality traits such as lack of psychological awareness and empathy. Theories of ethical behaviour assume that unethical actions trigger moral emotions of guilt and shame. Currently, there is a lack of knowledge on moral emotions as dispositional traits and their potential influences on behaviour in individuals with narcissistic traits. The present study examined vulnerable and grandiose narcissism's differences in the propensity to experience guilt and shame as a proneness, across a range of personal transgressions...
March 2018: Europe's Journal of Psychology
Hal S Shorey, Jason S Chaffin
As a life-span theory of personality that is supported by more than 40 years of empirical research, attachment theory and associated measures have contributed immensely to our understanding of emotion regulation, social dynamics, and behavior. Nevertheless, little attention has been given to how attachment dynamics influence relationships at work or the extent to which adult attachment patterns are mirrored in leaders' perceptions and behaviors toward their direct reports. Moreover, attachment measures that use romantic relationships as their referent might not be appropriate for use in organizational settings with executive clients...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
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