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Personality theory

Wikum Dinalankara, Qian Ke, Yiran Xu, Lanlan Ji, Nicole Pagane, Anching Lien, Tejasvi Matam, Elana J Fertig, Nathan D Price, Laurent Younes, Luigi Marchionni, Donald Geman
Data collected from omics technologies have revealed pervasive heterogeneity and stochasticity of molecular states within and between phenotypes. A prominent example of such heterogeneity occurs between genome-wide mRNA, microRNA, and methylation profiles from one individual tumor to another, even within a cancer subtype. However, current methods in bioinformatics, such as detecting differentially expressed genes or CpG sites, are population-based and therefore do not effectively model intersample diversity...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Min Yang, Wenting Tu, Qiang Qu, Zhou Zhao, Xiaojun Chen, Jia Zhu
Open-domain conversation is one of the most challenging artificial intelligence problems, which involves language understanding, reasoning, and the utilization of common sense knowledge. The goal of this paper is to further improve the response generation, using personalization criteria. We propose a novel method called PRGDDA (Personalized Response Generation by Dual-learning based Domain Adaptation) which is a personalized response generation model based on theories of domain adaptation and dual learning...
April 5, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Benjamin Chin-Yee, Atara Messinger, L Trevor Young
Medicine in the twenty-first century faces an 'identity crisis,' as it grapples with the emergence of various 'ways of knowing,' from evidence-based and translational medicine, to narrative-based and personalized medicine. While each of these approaches has uniquely contributed to the advancement of patient care, this pluralism is not without tension. Evidence-based medicine is not necessary individualized; personalized medicine may be individualized but is not necessarily person-centered. As novel technologies and big data continue to proliferate today, the focus of medical practice is shifting away from the dialogic encounter between doctor and patient, threatening the loss of humanism that many view as integral to medicine's identity...
April 16, 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Meredith Vanstone, Alexandra Cernat, Jeff Nisker, Lisa Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT) is a technology which provides information about fetal genetic characteristics (including sex) very early in pregnancy by examining fetal DNA obtained from a sample of maternal blood. NIPT is a morally complex technology that has advanced quickly to market with a strong push from industry developers, leaving many areas of uncertainty still to be resolved, and creating a strong need for health policy that reflects women's social and ethical values...
April 16, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
Ritu Tripathi, Daniel Cervone, Krishna Savani
In Western theories of motivation, autonomy is conceived as a universal motivator of human action; enhancing autonomy is expected to increase motivation panculturally. Using a novel online experimental paradigm that afforded a behavioral measure of motivation, we found that, contrary to this prevailing view, autonomy cues affect motivation differently among American and Indian corporate professionals. Autonomy-supportive instructions increased motivation among Americans but decreased motivation among Indians...
April 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Caroline Sanner, Marilyn Coleman, Lawrence Ganong
Increases in stepfamily formation and longevity suggest that more children have stepgrandparent relationships than ever before. Because remarriages end in divorce more often than first marriages, many children experience the involuntary dissolution of stepgrandparent ties. Little is known about stepgrandparent relationships in general, and even less is known about how these relationships are affected by remarriage dissolution. Guided by symbolic interaction theory, the purpose of this study was to understand how stepgrandchildren make sense of their relationships with former stepgrandparents...
March 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Carsten Wrosch, Meaghan A Barlow, Ute Kunzmann
This longitudinal study examined the experience of sadness and anger in a sample of older adults. Based on the discrete emotion theory of affective aging, it was expected that sadness, but not anger, would increase in older adulthood over time. In addition, we hypothesized that inter- and intraindividual differences in low perceptions of control would be more strongly associated with sadness than anger. The 10-year study followed 187 community-dwelling older adults (Mage = 72.25, SDage = 5.81). At each of six waves, participants' levels of sadness, anger, perceived control, and sociodemographic characteristics were assessed...
March 2018: Psychology and Aging
Katherine Stringer, Amanda L Terry, Bridget L Ryan, Andrea Pike
OBJECTIVE: To explore the process of the development of the patient-physician relationship in adult patients with severe or profound intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), from the perspective of the patients' caregivers. DESIGN: Constructivist grounded theory. SETTING: St John's, NL. PARTICIPANTS: Thirteen primary caregivers (5 males, 8 females) of 1 or more adults with severe or profound IDD. METHODS: Data were collected via in-depth, semistructured interviews conducted in person or by telephone...
April 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Gerardo Flórez, Ventura Ferrer, Luis S García, María R Crespo, Manuel Pérez, Pilar A Saíz, David J Cooke
The Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP) is a concept map of psychopathic personality disorder (PPD). The CAPP- Institutional Rating Scale (IRS) is a tool designed to assess CAPP symptoms in institutional settings. The CAPP contains 33 personality traits organized in six domains: attachment, behavioural, cognitive, dominance, emotional and self. Until now, much of the CAPP research has been conducted out of clinical, forensic and correctional settings using self-ratings. In the current study, the psychometric properties and construct validity of the CAPP-IRS were evaluated in a non-convenience sample of 204 Spanish convicts...
2018: PloS One
L Cruz-Jiménez, G Torres-Mejía, A Mohar-Betancourt, L Campero, A Ángeles-Llerenas, C Ortega-Olvera, L Martínez-Matsushita, N Reynoso-Noverón, C Duggan, B O Anderson
Objective: To evaluate facilitators and barriers influencing mammography screening participation among women. Design: Mixed methods study. Setting: Three hospital catchment areas in Hidalgo, Mexico. Participants: Four hundred and fifty-five women aged 40-69 years. Intervention: Three hundred and eighty women completed a survey about knowledge, beliefs and perceptions about breast cancer screening, and 75 women participated in semi-structured, in-person interviews...
April 10, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
Jiemin Zhu, Lyn Ebert, Dongmei Guo, Sumei Yang, Qiuying Han, Sally Wai-Chi Chan
BACKGROUND: Women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy experience difficulty in accessing adequate cancer care in China. Mobile apps have the potential to provide easily accessible support for these women. However, there remains a paucity of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effectiveness of app-based programs targeting specifically women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Moreover, women's perceptions and experiences related to using and interacting within the app-based program have rarely been reported...
April 11, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Sara Santarossa, Deborah Kane, Charlene Y Senn, Sarah J Woodruff
The growth of the digital environment provides tremendous opportunities to revolutionize health behavior change efforts. This paper explores the use of Web-based, mobile, and social media health behavior change interventions and determines whether there is a need for a face-to-face or an in-person component. It is further argued that that although in-person components can be beneficial for online interventions, a digital person-to-person component can foster similar results while dealing with challenges faced by traditional intervention approaches...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Rachael Hernandez
Sorority women are at risk for engaging in unsafe sexual behavior. Fortunately, the positive influence of peer communication about condom use can mitigate the risk these women face. To better understand this communication, this article investigates sorority women's communication about condom use through focus groups, using the lens of the theory of Communication Privacy Management. The results revealed the criteria for privacy rules sorority women use to negotiate privacy and engage in comfortable communication with other women in the sorority...
April 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Cassandra D'Amore, Stephanie L Martin, Karen Wood, Carolyn Brooks
Research on the effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) on women demonstrates the significant physical, emotional, psychological, and spiritual consequences of this form of interpersonal trauma. It is well documented that experiencing IPV can have devastating consequences to women's physical and mental health, overall well-being, and quality of life, as well as that of their children's. However, a small, predominantly qualitative body of research exists on women's experience of and capacity for healing from the effects of IPV, but more research is needed to advance theory and practice in this important area...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Jari Kuosmanen, Annelie de Cabo
The purpose of this study is to examine how men who sell sex to men perceive the risks in this activity and what experiences they have of actual denigration, threats, and violence in their relations with customers. We also discuss the self-defense strategies they have used to protect themselves. The study is based on an Internet survey on Swedish websites. Statistical analyses have been carried out, and in interpreting the results, Finkelhor and Asdigian's revised routine activities theory has been used. The results show that the vulnerability of sellers of sex is greatest during the time when the sexual act is being performed, and that this is primarily linked to the customer's antagonism and seeking gratification by overstepping agreed boundaries, particularly with regard to sexual services including BDSM...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Christian Gostečnik, Tanja Repič Slavič, Tanja Pate, Robert Cvetek
Psychoanalysis has always been full of diversity and controversy, in the theoretical field and especially in the plasticity and variety of its modalities and approaches. Yet all these theories are based on the premise that individuals compulsively repeat their old psycho-organic content, both in their personal lives and in analysis; the premise of Relational Family Therapy is that old emotional, behavioral and bodily complications must first be repeated before being fully processed so that something new can be created...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
Taeksang Lee, Elbert E Vaca, Joanna K Ledwon, Hanah Bae, Jolanta M Topczewska, Sergey Y Turin, Ellen Kuhl, Arun K Gosain, Adrian Buganza Tepole
Tissue expansion is a common technique in reconstructive surgery used to grow skin in vivo for correction of large defects. Despite its popularity, there is a lack of quantitative understanding of how stretch leads to growth of new skin. This has resulted in several arbitrary expansion protocols that rely on the surgeon's personal training and experience rather than on accurate predictive models. For example, choosing between slow or rapid expansion, or small or large inflation volumes remains controversial...
March 29, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Lena Ansmann, Holger Pfaff
In their 2017 article, Mannion and Exworthy provide a thoughtful and theory-based analysis of two parallel trends in modern healthcare systems and their competing and conflicting logics: standardization and customization. This commentary further discusses the challenge of treatment decision-making in times of evidence-based medicine (EBM), shared decision-making and personalized medicine. From the perspective of systems theory, we propose the concept of individualized standardization as a solution to the problem...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Johnmarshall Reeve, Woogul Lee
OBJECTIVE: Self-determination theory's (SDT) most basic propositions are, first, that all people possess an inherent set of psychological needs and, second, that autonomy, competence, and relatedness are the three critical psychological satisfactions needed to maintain and promote personal growth and well-being. In this paper, we identify the neural basis of the psychological needs and, in doing so, seek to advance the integration of SDT and neuroscience. METHOD: We examine the neural underpinnings of SDT-based motivational states and traits for autonomy, competence, and relatedness...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Personality
Tyler M Moore, Monica E Calkins, Steven P Reise, Ruben C Gur, Raquel E Gur
One of the most widely used measures of psychosis-related symptoms and characteristics is the 74-item Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). Using multidimensional Item Response Theory (bifactor 2-parameter model), we calibrated SPQ items in a sample of 375 youths aged 9-24 years and constructed a fully functional computerized adaptive form of the SPQ on an open-source platform for public use. To assess validity, we used the above parameters to simulate CAT sessions in a separate validation sample (N = 100) using three test-length-based stopping rules: 8 items, 16 items, and 32 items...
February 8, 2018: Psychiatry Research
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