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Immune development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637327/effect-of-simvastatin-on-baboon-endometriosis
#1
Hugh S Taylor, Myles Alderman, Thomas M D'Hooghe, Asgerally T Fazleabas, Duleba J Antoni
Endometriosis, a common disorder affecting women of reproductive age is characterized by ectopic growth of the endometrial tissues, altered steroid hormone response and inflammation. Previous studies revealed that statins, selective inhibitors of the key step of mevalonate pathway, inhibit growth of endometrial stromal cells in vitro and reduce endometriotic lesions in murine models of endometriosis. This study evaluated the effects of simvastatin on the development of endometriosis in a baboon model of this disease...
June 16, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637300/commercial-rodent-diets-differentially-regulate-autoimmune-glomerulonephritis-epigenetics-and-microbiota-in-mrl-lpr-mice
#2
Michael R Edwards, Rujuan Dai, Bettina Heid, Thomas E Cecere, Deena Khan, Qinghui Mu, Catharine Cowan, Xin M Luo, S Ansar Ahmed
The course and severity of lupus in spontaneous murine lupus models varies among laboratories, which may be due to variations in diet, housing and/or local environmental conditions. In this study, we investigated the influence of common rodent diets while keeping other factors constant. Female lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice were subjected to the same housing conditions and given one of the three diets: Teklad 7013 containing isoflavone rich soy and alfalfa, Harlan 2018 isoflavone rich soy-based diet, or ResearchDiets Inc...
June 15, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637238/chlamydia-trachomatis-seroprevalence-and-ultrasound-diagnosed-uterine-fibroids-in-a-large-population-of-young-african-american-women
#3
Kristen R Moore, Jennifer S Smith, Stephen R Cole, Dirk P Dittmer, Victor J Schoenbach, Donna D Baird
Reproductive tract infections have long been hypothesized to increase fibroid risk. Few studies have been conducted, even for the common infection, genital Chlamydia trachomatis (gCT), and only with self-reported gCT data. Our investigation used micro-immunofluorescence serology for gCT to characterize past exposure. We used cross-sectional enrollment data from a prospective fibroid study in the Detroit, Michigan area; ultrasound examinations systematically screened for fibroids. Participants were African-American women ages 23-34 (recruited 2010-2012)...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637024/tumor-location-impacts-immune-response-in-mouse-models-of-colon-cancer
#4
Xianda Zhao, Lihua Li, Timothy K Starr, Subbaya Subramanian
Existing preclinical models of human colorectal cancer (CRC) that rely on syngeneic subcutaneous grafts are problematic, because of increasing evidence that the immune microenvironment in subcutaneous tissue is significantly different from the gastrointestinal tract. Similarly, existing orthotopic models that use a laparotomy for establishing grafts are also problematic, because the surgical procedure results in extensive inflammation, thereby creating a nonphysiologic tumor microenvironment. To facilitate the bench-to-bedside translation of CRC immunotherapy strategies, we developed a novel orthotopic model in mice that uses endoscopy-guided microinjection of syngeneic cancer cells...
June 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637001/a-novel-method-to-generate-salmonella-typhi-ty21a-ghosts-exploiting-the-%C3%AE-phage-holin-endolysin-system
#5
Gayeon Won, Boram Kim, John Hwa Lee
Human typhoid fever caused by Salmonella Typhi still poses a severe global disease burden in developing countries despite the availability of commercial vaccines. In this study, we constructed a non-living S. Typhi Ty21a vaccine candidate by employing a lambda (λ) phage-derived holin-endolysin system to efficiently construct bacterial ghosts. The lysis plasmid pJHL464 harbors an R lysis cassette that is stringently regulated by dual promoters containing cI857/λPR and ParaBAD/araC components. The plasmid was introduced into an asd gene-deleted S...
June 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636997/an-optimized-hmgb1-expressed-by-recombinant-rabies-virus-enhances-immunogenicity-through-activation-of-dendritic-cells-in-mice
#6
Zhao Wang, Qian Liang, Yajing Zhang, Jie Yang, Mingming Li, Kunlun Wang, Min Cui, Huanchun Chen, Zhen F Fu, Ling Zhao, Ming Zhou
Rabies remains an important public health threat, killing approximately 59,000 people worldwide annually, most of which are from the developing countries of Africa and Asia where dog rabies are endemic. Therefore, developing an affordable and efficacious vaccine for dog-mediated rabies control is needful in these countries. Our previous studies indicated that over-expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1α or CCL3) by recombinant rabies virus (rRABV) could enhance the immunogenicity by activating dendritic cells (DCs)...
June 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636962/reactive-astrocytes-production-function-and-therapeutic-potential
#7
REVIEW
Shane A Liddelow, Ben A Barres
Astrocytes constitute approximately 30% of the cells in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). They are integral to brain and spinal-cord physiology and perform many functions important for normal neuronal development, synapse formation, and proper propagation of action potentials. We still know very little, however, about how these functions change in response to immune attack, chronic neurodegenerative disease, or acute trauma. In this review, we summarize recent studies that demonstrate that different initiating CNS injuries can elicit at least two types of "reactive" astrocytes with strikingly different properties, one type being helpful and the other harmful...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636956/elicitation-of-robust-tier-2-neutralizing-antibody-responses-in-nonhuman-primates-by-hiv-envelope-trimer-immunization-using-optimized-approaches
#8
Matthias Pauthner, Colin Havenar-Daughton, Devin Sok, Joseph P Nkolola, Raiza Bastidas, Archana V Boopathy, Diane G Carnathan, Abishek Chandrashekar, Kimberly M Cirelli, Christopher A Cottrell, Alexey M Eroshkin, Javier Guenaga, Kirti Kaushik, Daniel W Kulp, Jinyan Liu, Laura E McCoy, Aaron L Oom, Gabriel Ozorowski, Kai W Post, Shailendra K Sharma, Jon M Steichen, Steven W de Taeye, Talar Tokatlian, Alba Torrents de la Peña, Salvatore T Butera, Celia C LaBranche, David C Montefiori, Guido Silvestri, Ian A Wilson, Darrell J Irvine, Rogier W Sanders, William R Schief, Andrew B Ward, Richard T Wyatt, Dan H Barouch, Shane Crotty, Dennis R Burton
The development of stabilized recombinant HIV envelope trimers that mimic the virion surface molecule has increased enthusiasm for a neutralizing antibody (nAb)-based HIV vaccine. However, there is limited experience with recombinant trimers as immunogens in nonhuman primates, which are typically used as a model for humans. Here, we tested multiple immunogens and immunization strategies head-to-head to determine their impact on the quantity, quality, and kinetics of autologous tier 2 nAb development. A bilateral, adjuvanted, subcutaneous immunization protocol induced reproducible tier 2 nAb responses after only two immunizations 8 weeks apart, and these were further enhanced by a third immunization with BG505 SOSIP trimer...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636936/strong-tcr%C3%AE-%C3%AE-signaling-prohibits-thymic-development-of-il-17a-secreting-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells
#9
Nital Sumaria, Capucine L Grandjean, Bruno Silva-Santos, Daniel J Pennington
Despite a growing appreciation of γδ T cell contributions to numerous immune responses, the mechanisms that underpin their thymic development remain poorly understood. Here, using precursor/product relationships, we identify thymic stages in two distinct developmental pathways that generate γδ T cells pre-committed to subsequent secretion of either IL-17A or IFNγ. Importantly, this framework for tracking γδ T cell development has permitted definitive assessment of TCRγδ signal strength in commitment to γδ T cell effector fate; increased TCRγδ signal strength profoundly prohibited the development of all IL-17A-secreting γδ T cells, regardless of Vγ usage, but promoted the development of γδ progenitors along the IFNγ pathway...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636635/microrna-144-3p-inhibits-autophagy-activation-and-enhances-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-infection-by-targeting-atg4a-in-raw264-7-macrophage-cells
#10
Le Guo, Linlin Zhou, Qian Gao, Aijun Zhang, Jun Wei, Dantong Hong, Yuankui Chu, Xiangguo Duan, Ying Zhang, Guangxian Xu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding nucleotides that play major roles in the response of host immune cells. Autophagy plays a key role in activating the antimicrobial host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Whether miRNAs specifically influence the activation of macrophage autophagy during M. tuberculosis infection is largely unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) infection of macrophages leads to increased expression of miR-144-3p, which targets autophagy-related gene 4a (ATG4a), to inhibit autophagy activation and antimicrobial responses to BCG...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636613/in-vivo-immune-signatures-of-healthy-human-pregnancy-inherently-inflammatory-or-anti-inflammatory
#11
Caroline Graham, Rishma Chooniedass, William P Stefura, Allan B Becker, Malcolm R Sears, Stuart E Turvey, Piush J Mandhane, Padmaja Subbarao, Kent T HayGlass
Changes in maternal innate immunity during healthy human pregnancy are not well understood. Whether basal immune status in vivo is largely unaffected by pregnancy, is constitutively biased towards an inflammatory phenotype (transiently enhancing host defense) or exhibits anti-inflammatory bias (reducing potential responsiveness to the fetus) is unclear. Here, in a longitudinal study of healthy women who gave birth to healthy infants following uncomplicated pregnancies within the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) cohort, we test the hypothesis that a progressively altered bias in resting innate immune status develops...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636592/quantifiable-predictive-features-define-epitope-specific-t-cell-receptor-repertoires
#12
Pradyot Dash, Andrew J Fiore-Gartland, Tomer Hertz, George C Wang, Shalini Sharma, Aisha Souquette, Jeremy Chase Crawford, E Bridie Clemens, Thi H O Nguyen, Katherine Kedzierska, Nicole L La Gruta, Philip Bradley, Paul G Thomas
T cells are defined by a heterodimeric surface receptor, the T cell receptor (TCR), that mediates recognition of pathogen-associated epitopes through interactions with peptide and major histocompatibility complexes (pMHCs). TCRs are generated by genomic rearrangement of the germline TCR locus, a process termed V(D)J recombination, that has the potential to generate marked diversity of TCRs (estimated to range from 10(15) (ref. 1) to as high as 10(61) (ref. 2) possible receptors). Despite this potential diversity, TCRs from T cells that recognize the same pMHC epitope often share conserved sequence features, suggesting that it may be possible to predictively model epitope specificity...
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636585/microbiome-a-potential-component-in-the-origin-of-mental-disorders
#13
George B Stefano, Radek Ptacek, Jiri Raboch, Richard M Kream
It is not surprising to find microbiome abnormalities present in psychiatric disorders such as depressive disorders, bipolar disorders, etc. Evolutionary pressure may provide an existential advantage to the host eukaryotic cells in that it survives in an extracellular environment containing non-self cells (e.g., bacteria). This phenomenon is both positive and negative, as with other intercellular processes. In this specific case, the phenomenal amount of information gained from combined bacterial genome could enhance communication between self and non-self cells...
June 21, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636484/bezlotoxumab-anti-toxin-b-monoclonal-antibody-to-prevent-recurrence-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#14
Javier A Villafuerte Gálvez, Ciarán P Kelly
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common nosocomial infection in the U.S. 25% of CDI patients go on to develop recurrent CDI (rCDI) following current standard of care (SOC) therapy, leading to morbidity, mortality and economic loss. The first passive immunotherapy drug targeting C.difficile toxin B (bezlotoxumab) has been approved recently by the FDA and EMA for prevention of rCDI. Areas covered: A body of key studies was selected and reviewed by the authors. The unmet needs in CDI care were ascertained with emphasis in rCDI, including the epidemiology, pathophysiology and current management...
June 21, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636222/recent-progress-in-immunotherapy-for-urological-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Wataru Obara, Renpei Kato, Yoichiro Kato, Mitsugu Kanehira, Ryo Takata
Cancer immunotherapy for urological tumors had made progress for several decades, but recent advances in immunotherapy, as therapeutic vaccines or immune checkpoint inhibitors, have drastically changed the present treatment strategy. Recently, nivolumab and atezolizumab have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of urological cancers. Additional immune checkpoint inhibitors and vaccines are being tested in clinical trials. Despite advances in these therapeutic modalities, benefits are limited to a subset of patients...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636142/clinical-development-of-immunotherapy-for-prostate-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Masanori Noguchi, Noriko Koga, Tsukasa Igawa, Kyogo Itoh
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men, and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in Western countries. Prostate cancer-related death occurs in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Although several new drugs for castration-resistant prostate cancer have been approved, each of these has prolonged survival by just a few months. Consequently, new therapies are sorely needed. Recently, it has been recognized that immunotherapy is an effective treatment for prostate cancer patients...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635957/itk-signalling-via-the-ras-irf4-pathway-regulates-the-development-and-function-of-tr1-cells
#17
Weishan Huang, Sabrina Solouki, Nicholas Koylass, Song-Guo Zheng, Avery August
Type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells differentiate in response to signals engaging the T cell receptor (TCR), express high levels of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10, but not Foxp3, and can suppress inflammation and promote immune tolerance. Here we show that ITK, an important modulator of TCR signalling, is required for the TCR-induced development of Tr1 cells in various organs, and in the mucosal system during parasitic and viral infections. ITK kinase activity is required for mouse and human Tr1 cell differentiation...
June 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635668/the-role-of-cccdna-in-hbv-maintenance
#18
REVIEW
Lena Allweiss, Maura Dandri
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection continues to be a major health burden worldwide; it can cause various degrees of liver damage and is strongly associated with the development of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The molecular mechanisms determining HBV persistence are not fully understood, but these appear to be multifactorial and the unique replication strategy employed by HBV enables its maintenance in infected hepatocytes. Both the stability of the HBV genome, which forms a stable minichromosome, the covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in the hepatocyte nucleus, and the inability of the immune system to resolve chronic HBV infection are believed to be key mechanisms of HBV chronicity...
June 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635660/diverse-regulation-of-vitamin-d-receptor-gene-expression-by-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d-and-atra-in-murine-and-human-blood-cells-at-early-stages-of-their-differentiation
#19
Sylwia Janik, Urszula Nowak, Agnieszka Łaszkiewicz, Anastasiia Satyr, Michał Majkowski, Aleksandra Marchwicka, Łukasz Śnieżewski, Klaudia Berkowska, Marian Gabryś, Małgorzata Cebrat, Ewa Marcinkowska
Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is present in multiple blood cells, and the hormonal form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) is essential for the proper functioning of the immune system. The role of retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) in hematopoiesis is very important, as the fusion of RARα gene with PML gene initiates acute promyelocytic leukemia where differentiation of the myeloid lineage is blocked, followed by an uncontrolled proliferation of leukemic blasts. RARα takes part in regulation of VDR transcription, and unliganded RARα acts as a transcriptional repressor to VDR gene in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635647/virulence-genes-of-s-aureus-from-dairy-cow-mastitis-and-contagiousness-risk
#20
Giada Magro, Stefano Biffani, Giulietta Minozzi, Ralf Ehricht, Stefan Monecke, Mario Luini, Renata Piccinini
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a major agent of dairy cow intramammary infections: the different prevalences of mastitis reported might be related to a combination of S. aureus virulence factors beyond host factors. The present study considered 169 isolates from different Italian dairy herds that were classified into four groups based on the prevalence of S. aureus infection at the first testing: low prevalence (LP), medium-low (MLP), medium-high (MHP) and high (HP). We aimed to correlate the presence of virulence genes with the prevalence of intramammary infections in order to develop new strategies for the control of S...
June 21, 2017: Toxins
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