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Immune development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922741/genomic-and-biochemical-characterization-of-sialic-acid-acetylesterase-siae-in-zebrafish
#1
Viola Ravasio, Eufemia Damiati, Daniela Zizioli, Flavia Orizio, Edoardo Giacopuzzi, Marta Manzoni, Roberto Bresciani, Giuseppe Borsani, Eugenio Monti
Sialic acid acetylesterase (SIAE) removes acetyl moieties from the carbon 9 and 4 hydroxyl groups of sialic acid and recently a debate has been opened on its association to autoimmunity. Trying to get new insights on this intriguing enzyme we have studied siae in zebrafish (Danio rerio). In this teleost siae encodes for a polypeptide with a high degree of sequence identity to human and mouse counterparts. Zebrafish Siae behavior upon transient expression in COS7 cells is comparable to human enzyme concerning pH optimum of enzyme activity, subcellular localization and glycosylation...
October 1, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922613/the-etiology-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-children-under-5%C3%A2-years-of-age-in-mainland-china-2001-2015-a-systematic-review
#2
Guijun Ning, Xuxia Wang, Dan Wu, Zundong Yin, Yixing Li, Huaqing Wang, Weizhong Yang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among Chinese children younger than 5 years and provide evidence for further cost-effectiveness analyses for vaccine development, diagnostic strategies and empirical treatments. METHODS: The literature review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Data were obtained by searching PubMed, Embase, Web-of Science, and the Chinese databases Wanfang Data and China National Knowledge Infrastructure...
September 18, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922578/identification-of-a-tetanus-toxin-specific-epitope-in-single-amino-acid-resolution
#3
Andrea Palermo, Laura K Weber, Simone Rentschler, Awale Isse, Martyna Sedlmayr, Karin Herbster, Volker List, Jürgen Hubbuch, Felix F Löffler, Alexander Nesterov-Müller, Frank Breitling
Vaccinations are among the most potent tools to fight infectious diseases. However, cross-reactions are an ongoing problem and there is an urgent need to fully understand the mechanisms of the immune response. For the development of a methodological workflow, the linear epitopes in the immune response to the tetanus toxin is investigated in sera of 19 vaccinated Europeans applying epitope mapping with peptide arrays. The most prominent epitope, appearing in nine different sera (923 IHLVNNESSEVIVHK937 ), is investigated in a substitution analysis to identify the amino acids that are crucial for the binding of the corresponding antibody species - the antibody fingerprint...
September 18, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922553/programmable-nucleic-acid-based-polygons-with-controlled-neuroimmunomodulatory-properties-for-predictive-qsar-modeling
#4
Morgan Brittany Johnson, Justin R Halman, Emily Satterwhite, Alexey V Zakharov, My N Bui, Kheiria Benkato, Victoria Goldsworthy, Taejin Kim, Enping Hong, Marina A Dobrovolskaia, Emil F Khisamutdinov, Ian Marriott, Kirill A Afonin
In the past few years, the study of therapeutic RNA nanotechnology has expanded tremendously to encompass a large group of interdisciplinary sciences. It is now evident that rationally designed programmable RNA nanostructures offer unique advantages in addressing contemporary therapeutic challenges such as distinguishing target cell types and ameliorating disease. However, to maximize the therapeutic benefit of these nanostructures, it is essential to understand the immunostimulatory aptitude of such tools and identify potential complications...
September 18, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922472/mirna-506-promotes-primary-biliary-cholangitis-like-features-in-cholangiocytes-and-immune-activation
#5
Oihane Erice, Patricia Munoz-Garrido, Javier Vaquero, Maria J Perugorria, Maite G Fernandez-Barrena, Elena Saez, Alvaro Santos-Laso, Ander Arbelaiz, Raul Jimenez-Agüero, Joaquin Fernandez-Irigoyen, Enrique Santamaria, Verónica Torrano, Arkaitz Carracedo, Meenakshisundaram Ananthanarayanan, Marco Marzioni, Jesus Prieto, Ulrich Beuers, Ronald P Oude Elferink, Nicholas F LaRusso, Luis Bujanda, Jose J G Marin, Jesus M Banales
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease associated with autoimmune phenomena targeting intrahepatic bile duct cells (cholangiocytes). Although PBC etiopathogenesis still remains obscure, development of anti-mitochondrial auto-antibodies against pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2 (PDC-E2) is a common feature. MicroRNA (miR) dysregulation occurs in liver and immune cells of PBC patients, but their functional relevance is largely unknown. We previously reported that miR-506 is overexpressed in PBC cholangiocytes and directly targets both Cl(-) /HCO3(-) anion exchanger 2 (AE2) and type III inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R3), leading to cholestasis...
September 18, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922469/one-pot-synthesis-of-gdp-mannose-by-a-multi-enzyme-cascade-for-enzymatic-assembly-of-lipid-linked-oligosaccharides
#6
Thomas F T Rexer, Anna Schildbach, Jan Klapproth, Angelika Schierhorn, Reza Mahour, Markus Pietzsch, Erdmann Rapp, Udo Reichl
Glycosylation of proteins is a key function of the biosynthetic-secretory pathway in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus. Glycosylated proteins play a crucial role in cell trafficking and signaling, cell-cell adhesion, blood-group antigenicity, and immune response. In addition, the glycosylation of proteins is an important parameter in the optimization of many glycoprotein-based drugs such as monoclonal antibodies. In vitro glycoengineering of proteins requires glycosyltransferases as well as expensive nucleotide sugars...
September 18, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922426/a-dna-vaccine-for-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-protects-against-disease-and-death-in-two-lethal-mouse-models
#7
Aura R Garrison, Charles J Shoemaker, Joseph W Golden, Collin J Fitzpatrick, John J Suschak, Michelle J Richards, Catherine V Badger, Carolyn M Six, Jacqueline D Martin, Drew Hannaman, Marko Zivcec, Eric Bergeron, Jeffrey W Koehler, Connie S Schmaljohn
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne virus capable of causing a severe hemorrhagic fever disease in humans. There are currently no licensed vaccines to prevent CCHFV-associated disease. We developed a DNA vaccine expressing the M-segment glycoprotein precursor gene of CCHFV and assessed its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in two lethal mouse models of disease: type I interferon receptor knockout (IFNAR-/-) mice; and a novel transiently immune suppressed (IS) mouse model. Vaccination of mice by muscle electroporation of the M-segment DNA vaccine elicited strong antigen-specific humoral immune responses with neutralizing titers after three vaccinations in both IFNAR-/- and IS mouse models...
September 18, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922413/exploitation-of-stable-nanostructures-based-on-the-mouse-polyomavirus-for-development-of-a-recombinant-vaccine-against-porcine-circovirus-2
#8
Martin Fraiberk, Michaela Hájková, Magdaléna Krulová, Martina Kojzarová, Alena Drda Morávková, Ivan Pšikal, Jitka Forstová
The aim of this study was to develop a suitable vaccine antigen against porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), the causative agent of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome, which causes significant economic losses in swine breeding. Chimeric antigens containing PCV2b Cap protein sequences based on the mouse polyomavirus (MPyV) nanostructures were developed. First, universal vectors for baculovirus-directed production of chimeric MPyV VLPs or pentamers of the major capsid protein, VP1, were designed for their exploitation as vaccines against other pathogens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922370/ileocolic-resection-is-associated-with-increased-susceptibility-to-injury-in-a-murine-model-of-colitis
#9
Troy Perry, Michael Laffin, Richard N Fedorak, Aducio Thiesen, Bryan Dicken, Karen L Madsen
Ileocolic resection (ICR) is the most common intestinal resection performed for Crohn's disease, with recurrences commonly occurring at the site of the anastomosis. This study used an animal model of ICR in wild-type mice to examine immunologic changes that developed around the surgical anastomosis and how these changes impacted gut responses to minor acute injury. ICR was performed in adult 129S1/SvlmJ mice and results compared with mice receiving sham or no surgery. Dextran sodium sulfate was given either on post-operative day 9 or day 24 to evaluate immune responses in the intestine both immediately following surgery and after a period of healing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922045/monomeric-m2e-antigen-in-vesivax%C3%A2-liposomes-stimulates-protection-against-type-a-strains-of-influenza-comparable-to-liposomes-with-multimeric-forms-of-m2e
#10
J P Adler-Moore, W Ernst, H Kim, N Ward, S M Chiang, T Do, G Fujii
Given the interest in the ectodomain of the matrix 2 (M2e) channel protein as a target for development of a universal influenza vaccine, we examined the role of the antigen configuration of M2e in generating a protective immune response. A series of M2e mutations and a truncated M2e segment were prepared as a means of controlling the formation of monomer, dimer, and higher order multimeric forms of M2e. Each of these M2e peptides was incorporated into a liposome-based vaccine technology platform previously shown to stimulate a protective response to influenza A infection using M2e as a mixture of monomers, dimers and multimers (L-M2e1-HD/MPL)...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Liposome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921781/valganciclovir-vgcv-followed-by-cytomegalovirus-cmv-hyperimmune-globulin-compared-to-vgcv-for-200-days-in-abdominal-organ-transplant-recipients-at-high-risk-for-cmv-infection-a-prospective-randomized-pilot-study
#11
James N Fleming, David J Taber, Nicole A Weimert, Satish Nadig, John W McGillicuddy, Charles F Bratton, Prabhakar K Baliga, Kenneth D Chavin
BACKGROUND: With the advent of effective antivirals against cytomegalovirus (CMV), use of CMV hyperimmune globulin has decreased. Although antiviral prophylaxis in patients at high risk for CMV is effective, many patients still have late infection, never developing antibodies sufficient to achieve immunity. Utilizing a combination of antiviral and CMV immunoglobulin G may allow patients to achieve immunity and decrease late CMV infections. METHODS: This was a prospective randomized, open-label, pilot study comparing valganciclovir (VGCV) prophylaxis for 200 days vs VGCV for 100 days followed by CMV HIG in abdominal transplant recipients at high risk for CMV...
September 16, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921644/clinical-pharmacology-considerations-for-the-development-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#12
Jennifer Sheng, Shivani Srivastava, Kinjal Sanghavi, Zheng Lu, Brian J Schmidt, Akintunde Bello, Manish Gupta
Immuno-oncology works through activation of the patient's immune system against cancer, with several advantages over other treatment approaches, including cytotoxic agents and molecular-targeted therapies. The most notable feature of immuno-oncology treatments is the nature of the patient responses achieved, which can be more durable and sustained than with other modalities. Increased understanding of immune system complexity has provided a number of opportunities to advance several strategies for the development of immuno-oncology therapies...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921566/pegylation-of-cationic-liposomes-encapsulating-soluble-leishmania-antigens-sla-reduces-the-adjuvant-efficacy-of-liposomes-in-murine-model
#13
Hadi Naseri, Faezeh Eskandari, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari, Ali Khamesipour, Azam Abbasi, Ali Badiee
Although there have been several attempts to develop a vaccine against leishmaniasis; no vaccine in human has been developed yet. Liposomes consisting of 1, 2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) encapsulating soluble Leishmania antigens (SLA) enhance protective immunity of SLA against L. major infection in mice. However, they immobilized at the injection site because of their positive charge. To overcome the problem, shielding the surface charge with polyethylene glycol (PEGylation) was chosen in this study...
September 16, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921469/microbial-factors-in-inflammatory-diseases-and-cancers
#14
Hong Sheng Ong, Howard Chi Ho Yim
The intestinal microbes form a symbiotic relationship with their human host to harvest energy for themselves and their host and to shape the immune system of their host. However, alteration of this relationship, which is named as a dysbiosis, has been associated with the development of different inflammatory diseases and cancers. It is found that metabolites, cellular components, and virulence factors derived from the gut microbiota interact with the host locally or systemically to modulate the dysbiosis and the development of these diseases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921467/mir-155-dysregulation-and-therapeutic-intervention-in-multiple-sclerosis
#15
Claire E McCoy
microRNAs play a fundamental role in the immune system. One particular microRNA, miR-155 plays a critical role in hematopoietic cell development and tightly regulates innate and adaptive immune responses in response to infection. However, its dysregulation, more specifically its overexpression, is closely associated with various inflammatory disorders. The purpose of this review is to consolidate how miR-155 underpins a variety of processes that contribute to the pathology of multiple sclerosis (MS). In particular, the impact of miR-155 is discussed with respect to human pathology and animal models...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921466/roles-of-hdacs-in-the-responses-of-innate-immune-cells-and-as-targets-in-inflammatory-diseases
#16
Yiqun Hu, Bandar Ali Suliman
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are an emerging class of molecules involved in the epigenetic regulation of innate immune responses through Toll-like receptor (TLR) and interferon (IFN) signaling pathways. HDACs are also key drivers of inflammatory diseases via epigenetic regulation through chromatin DNA and histone modification by methylation and acetylation, among other mechanisms, which control innate immune cell gene expression. Importantly, these epigenetic changes are reversible, and HDACs may also be targeted by small-molecule HDAC inhibitors, which have been used in clinical settings for cancer therapy...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921465/emerging-roles-for-epigenetic-programming-in-the-control-of-inflammatory-signaling-integration-in-heath-and-disease
#17
Yiqun Hu, Feng Yan, Le Ying, Dakang Xu
Macrophages and dendritic cells initiate the innate immune response to infection and injury and contribute to inflammatory signaling to maintain the homeostasis of various tissues, which includes resident macrophages for the elimination of invading microorganisms and tissue damage. Inappropriate inflammatory signaling can lead to persistent inflammation and further develop into autoimmune and inflammation-associated diseases. Inflammatory signaling pathways have been well characterized, but how these signaling pathways are converted into sustained and diverse patterns of expression of cytokines, chemokines, and other genes in response to environmental challenges is unclear...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921447/structure-pharmacology-and-roles-in-physiology-of-the-p2y12-receptor
#18
Ivar von Kügelgen
P2Y receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for extracellular nucleotides. The platelet ADP-receptor which has been denominated P2Y12 receptor is an important target in pharmacotherapy. The receptor couples to Gαi2 mediating an inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation and additional downstream events including the activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and Rap1b proteins. The nucleoside analogue ticagrelor and active metabolites of the thienopyridine compounds ticlopidine, clopidogrel and prasugrel block P2Y12 receptors and, thereby, inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation...
September 12, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921437/expression-of-glycosylated-proteins-in-bacterial-system-and-purification-by-affinity-chromatography
#19
Carlos Alexandre Breyer, Marcos Antonio de Oliveira, Adalberto Pessoa
The bacterial expression of glycoproteins has experienced significant progress in recent years, particularly in regard to the production of conjugate vaccines against pathogens. In this case, a protein carrier conjugated with glycosides is used to produce intense stimulation of the immune system. Glycoconjugate vaccines account for 35% of the global vaccine market, and consequently, several biotechnological companies have developed products for the purification of glycosylated proteins to attain homogeneity...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921125/exogenous-cannabinoid-efficacy-merely-a-pharmacokinetic-interaction
#20
Jennifer H Martin, Jennifer Schneider, Catherine J Lucas, Peter Galettis
Endocannabinoid pharmacology is now relatively well understood with a number of endocannabinoids and endogenous cannabinoid neurotransmitters identified and the pharmacokinetics relatively well ascertained. Further, the cannabinoid receptors are now molecularly and pharmacologically characterised and the cell processes involved in endocannabinoid transcription, synthesis, post-translational modification and protein expression are reported. Endogenous cannabinoids have been shown to have key roles in immune and pain pathways and neuro-behavioural signalling including appetite regulation...
September 18, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
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