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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346928/diet-and-gut-microbiota-in-health-and-disease
#1
Ting-Chin David Shen
Gut microbiota plays an important role in host health maintenance and disease pathogenesis. The development of a stable and diverse gut microbiota is essential to various host physiologic functions such as immunoregulation, pathogen prevention, energy harvest, and metabolism. At the same time, a dysbiotic gut microbiota associated with disease is altered in structure and function, and often characterized by a decrease in species richness and proliferation of pathogenic bacterial taxa. As a shared substrate between the host and the gut microbiota, diet significantly impacts the health and disease states of the host both directly and through gut microbial metabolite production...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346926/microbiota-and-obesity
#2
Erika Isolauri
Obesity is globally the most prevalent nutritional disorder. Multifaceted therapeutic approaches are called for to halt the cascade from neonatal adiposity/high birth weight to childhood excessive weight gain/adult obesity with comorbidities. Recent experimental and clinical data provide one new target for interventions aiming to close this vicious circle: the microbiota. An aberrant gut microbiota, dysbiosis, induces immune and metabolic disturbances both locally and, consequent upon impaired gut barrier function, also systemic low-grade inflammation, which is causally linked to insulin resistance...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346925/microbiota-and-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#3
Sanjay Patole
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an acquired gastrointestinal inflammatory condition with significant mortality and morbidity in preterm very low birth weight infants. The interplay between toll-like receptors, bacterial endotoxins, developmentally regulated excessive proinflammatory responses of the immature innate immune system, hypoxia, ischemia, reperfusion, free radicals, and the presence of substrates and bacterial endotoxins is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of NEC. The association (cause?) of various microbes (bacteria, viruses, and fungi) with NEC has intrigued researchers for many years...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346921/bacterial-colonization-of-the-newborn-gut-immune-development-and-prevention-of-disease
#4
W Allan Walker
We now know that the fetus does not reside in a sterile intrauterine environment but is exposed to commensal bacteria from the maternal gut which cross the placenta and infiltrate the amniotic fluid. This exposure to colonizing bacteria continues at birth and during the first year of life, and it has a profound influence on lifelong health. Why is this important? Cross talk with colonizing bacteria in the developing neonatal intestine helps in the initial adaptation of the infant to extrauterine life, particularly in acquiring immune homeostasis, and provides protection against disease expression (e...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346920/microbial-composition-of-the-initial-colonization-of-newborns
#5
Samuli Rautava
Early-life interaction with indigenous intestinal microbes is a prerequisite for healthy immune and metabolic maturation. Human infants acquire their gut microbiota predominantly from the mother. A considerable inoculum of microbes is received by the neonate during vaginal delivery. Recent observations suggest that human gut colonization may be initiated prenatally by microbes in amniotic fluid, but the significance of this phenomenon remains unknown. After birth, neonatal gut colonization is guided by human milk factors, which selectively promote the growth of specific microbes, as well as by live microbes present in human milk...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346741/small-molecules-targeting-human-n-acetylmannosamine-kinase
#6
Stephan Hinderlich, Martin Neuenschwander, Paul-Robin Wratil, Andreas Oder, Michael Lisurek, Long D Nguyen, Jens Peter von Kries, Christian Hackenberger
N-Acetylmannosamine kinase (MNK) plays a key role in the biosynthesis of sialic acids and glycosylation of proteins. Sialylated glycoconjugates affect a large number of biological processes, including immune modulation and cancer transformation. For the search of effective inhibitors of MNK we applied high-throughput screening of drug-like small molecules. Applying different orthogonal assays for their validation we identified four potential MNK-specific inhibitors with IC50 values in the low micromolar range...
March 27, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346355/characterization-of-active-anthocyanin-degradation-in-the-petals-of-rosa-chinensis-and-brunfelsia-calycina-reveals-the-effect-of-gallated-catechins-on-pigment-maintenance
#7
Honghui Luo, Shuangfan Deng, Wei Fu, Xin Zhang, Xuelian Zhang, Zhaoqi Zhang, Xuequn Pang
Anthocyanin degradation decreases ornamental or nutritional values of horticultural products. To investigate factors that may influence colour change in flower development, anthocyanin degradation was compared between the flowers of Brunfelsia calycina and Rosa chinensis, which show rapid and slow degradation, respectively. In-gel activity assays, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of tannins, enzyme kinetics measurement and immune-detection of anthocyanin degradation related-perioxidases (PODs) were carried out for the comparison...
March 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346234/outstanding-animal-studies-in-allergy-i-from-asthma-to-food-allergy-and-anaphylaxis
#8
Erika Jensen-Jarolim, Isabella Pali-Schöll, Franziska Roth-Walter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Animal models published within the past 18 months on asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis, all conditions of rising public health concern, were reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: While domestic animals spontaneously develop asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis, in animal models, divergent sensitization and challenge routes, dosages, intervals and antigens are used to induce asthmatic, food allergic or anaphylactic phenotypes. This must be considered in the interpretation of results...
March 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346229/clinical-efficacy-of-gene-modified-stem-cells-in-adenosine-deaminase-deficient-immunodeficiency
#9
Kit L Shaw, Elizabeth Garabedian, Suparna Mishra, Provaboti Barman, Alejandra Davila, Denise Carbonaro, Sally Shupien, Christopher Silvin, Sabine Geiger, Barbara Nowicki, E Monika Smogorzewska, Berkley Brown, Xiaoyan Wang, Satiro de Oliveira, Yeong Choi, Alan Ikeda, Dayna Terrazas, Pei-Yu Fu, Allen Yu, Beatriz Campo Fernandez, Aaron R Cooper, Barbara Engel, Greg Podsakoff, Arumugam Balamurugan, Stacie Anderson, Linda Muul, G Jayashree Jagadeesh, Neena Kapoor, John Tse, Theodore B Moore, Ken Purdy, Radha Rishi, Kathey Mohan, Suzanne Skoda-Smith, David Buchbinder, Roshini S Abraham, Andrew Scharenberg, Otto O Yang, Kenneth Cornetta, David Gjertson, Michael Hershfield, Rob Sokolic, Fabio Candotti, Donald B Kohn
BACKGROUND: Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) of gene-modified cells is an alternative to enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and allogeneic HSCT that has shown clinical benefit for adenosine deaminase-deficient (ADA-deficient) SCID when combined with reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) and ERT cessation. Clinical safety and therapeutic efficacy were evaluated in a phase II study. METHODS: Ten subjects with confirmed ADA-deficient SCID and no available matched sibling or family donor were enrolled between 2009 and 2012 and received transplantation with autologous hematopoietic CD34+ cells that were modified with the human ADA cDNA (MND-ADA) γ-retroviral vector after conditioning with busulfan (90 mg/m2) and ERT cessation...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346055/a-to-i-editing-in-disease-is-not-fake-news
#10
Prajakta Bajad, Michael F Jantsch, Liam Keegan, Mary O'Connell
Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are zinc-containing enzymes that deaminate adenosine bases to inosines within dsRNA regions in transcripts. In short, structured dsRNA hairpins individual adenosine bases may be targeted specifically and edited with up to one hundred percent efficiency, leading to the production of alternative protein variants. However, the majority of editing events occur within longer stretches of dsRNA formed by pairing of repetitive sequences. Here, many different adenosine bases are potential targets but editing efficiency is usually much lower...
March 27, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346031/chromogranin-a-cell-density-in-the-large-intestine-of-asian-and-european-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#11
Magdy El-Salhy, Tanisa Patcharatrakul, Jan Gunnar Hatlebakk, Trygve Hausken, Odd Helge Gilja, Sutep Gonlachanvit
OBJECTIVE: Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in Asia show distinctive differences from those in the western world. The gastrointestinal endocrine cells appear to play an important role in the pathophysiology of IBS. The present study aimed at studying the density of chromogranin A (CgA) cells in the large intestine of Thai and Norwegian IBS patients. METHODS: Thirty Thai IBS patients and 20 control subjects, and 47 Norwegian IBS patients and 20 control subjects were included...
March 27, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346024/increased-il-4-and-il-17-producing-cd8-cells-are-related-to-decreased-cd39-cd4-foxp3-cells-in-allergic-asthma
#12
Li Ping, Zhen Yang, Qin Zhang, Wei Wang, Jiong Yang
OBJECTIVE: In allergic asthma, regulatory T cell (Treg) number and function are decreased. Antigen primed CD8(+) T cells play an indispensable role in the full development of airway inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) occurring in asthma. In this study, we investigated the relationship between subpopulations of CD8(+) T cells and CD39(+) Tregs. METHODS: Female C57BL/6 mice were used to develop the model of allergic asthma. Experimental mice were immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) by intra-peritoneal (i...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345868/immune-system-activation-and-depression-roles-of-serotonin-in-the-central-nervous-system-and-periphery
#13
Matthew James Robson, Meagan A Quinlan, Randy D Blakely
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) has long been recognized as a key contributor to the regulation of mood and anxiety and is strongly associated with the etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Although more known for its roles within the central nervous system (CNS), 5-HT is recognized to modulate several key aspects of immune system function that may contribute to the development of MDD. Copious amounts of research have outlined a connection between alterations in immune system function, inflammation status and MDD...
March 27, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345771/effect-of-intra-cellular-trafficking-on-flow-cytometric-measurement-of-neutrophil-s-oxidative-status-in-iron-deficient-pregnant-females
#14
Soha R Youssef, Sherif F Hendawy, Noha H Boshnak, Mariana S Sedhom
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia are prevalent among pregnant women particularly in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate the iron status among Egyptian pregnant women and its impact on their neutrophil's count and antimicrobial functions. METHOD: Ninety pregnant females underwent complete blood count, iron profile, flow cytometric studies for neutrophil myeloperoxidase expression & oxidative burst using dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR) after phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) stimulation as well as neutrophil phagocytic and lytic indices...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345768/mycophenolate-mofetil-and-rapamycin-induce-apoptosis-in-the-human-monocytic-u937-cell-line-through-two-different-pathways
#15
Maxime Nowak, Sylviane Tardivel, Thao Nguyen-Khoa, Sonia Abreu, Fatima Allaoui, Natalie Fournier, Pierre Chaminade, Jean-Louis Paul, Bernard Lacour
Transplant vasculopathy may be considered as an accelerated form of atherosclerosis resulting in chronic rejection of vascularized allografts. After organ transplantation, a diffuse intimal thickening is observed, leading to the development of an atherosclerosis plaque due to a significant monocyte infiltration. This results from a chronic inflammatory process induced by the immune response. In this study, we investigated the impact of two immunosuppressive drugs used in therapy initiated after organ transplantation, mycophenolate mofetil and rapamycin, on the apoptotic response of monocytes induced or not by oxidized LDL...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345638/lectin-like-oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-1-facilitates-metastasis-of-gastric-cancer-through-driving-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-pi3k-akt-gsk3%C3%AE-activation
#16
Can Li, Jie Zhang, Hao Wu, Lili Li, Caiting Yang, Shushu Song, Peike Peng, Miaomiao Shao, Mingming Zhang, Junjie Zhao, Ran Zhao, Weicheng Wu, Yuanyuan Ruan, Lan Wang, Jianxin Gu
Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is a pattern recognition receptor that plays a critical role in vascular diseases and host immune response. Recently, our research discovered that LOX-1 could facilitate the uptake of dying cells and cross-presentation of cellular antigen via binding with heat shock proteins, which have a close relationship with gastric neoplasia. Therefore, we speculated that LOX-1 may serve as an oncogene in gastric cancer (GC) development and progression. In this study, through immunohistochemistry staining assay and cancer-related databases, we found that LOX-1 expression was up-regulated in GC tissues and correlated with a poor prognosis in GC patients...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345602/a-primary-human-macrophage-enteroid-co-culture-model-to-investigate-mucosal-gut-physiology-and-host-pathogen-interactions
#17
Gaelle Noel, Nicholas W Baetz, Janet F Staab, Mark Donowitz, Olga Kovbasnjuk, Marcela F Pasetti, Nicholas C Zachos
Integration of the intestinal epithelium and the mucosal immune system is critical for gut homeostasis. The intestinal epithelium is a functional barrier that secludes luminal content, senses changes in the gut microenvironment, and releases immune regulators that signal underlying immune cells. However, interactions between epithelial and innate immune cells to maintain barrier integrity and prevent infection are complex and poorly understood. We developed and characterized a primary human macrophage-enteroid co-culture model for in-depth studies of epithelial and macrophage interactions...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345261/antibodies-from-plants-for-bionanomaterials
#18
REVIEW
Gueven Edgue, Richard M Twyman, Veronique Beiss, Rainer Fischer, Markus Sack
Antibodies are produced as part of the vertebrate adaptive immune response and are not naturally made by plants. However, antibody DNA sequences can be introduced into plants, and together with laboratory technologies that allow the design of antibodies recognizing any conceivable molecular structure, plants can be used as 'green factories' to produce any antibody at all. The advent of plant-based transient expression systems in particular allows the rapid, convenient, and safe production of antibodies, ranging from laboratory-scale expression to industrial-scale manufacturing...
March 27, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345259/the-role-of-complement-inhibitors-beyond-controlling-inflammation
#19
REVIEW
A M Blom
The complement system is an arm of innate immunity that aids in the removal of pathogens and dying cells. Due to its harmful, pro-inflammatory potential, complement is controlled by several soluble and membrane-bound inhibitors. This family of complement regulators has been recently extended by the discovery of several new members, and it is becoming apparent that these proteins harbour additional functions. In this review, the current state of knowledge of the physiological functions of four complement regulators will be described: cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), CUB and sushi multiple domains 1 (CSMD1), sushi domain-containing protein 4 (SUSD4) and CD59...
March 26, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344887/pd-l1-galectin-9-and-cd8-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-are-associated-with-survival-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#20
Kostandinos Sideras, Katharina Biermann, Joanne Verheij, Bart R Takkenberg, Shanta Mancham, Bettina E Hansen, Hannah M Schutz, Robert A de Man, Dave Sprengers, Sonja I Buschow, Maddy C M Verseput, Patrick P C Boor, Qiuwei Pan, Thomas M van Gulik, Turkan Terkivatan, Jan N M Ijzermans, Ulrich H W Beuers, Stefan Sleijfer, Marco J Bruno, Jaap Kwekkeboom
Novel systemic treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are strongly needed. Immunotherapy is a promising strategy that can induce specific antitumor immune responses. Understanding the mechanisms of immune resistance by HCC is crucial for development of suitable immunotherapeutics. We used immunohistochemistry on tissue-microarrays to examine the co-expression of the immune inhibiting molecules PD-L1, Galectin-9, HVEM and IDO, as well as tumor CD8(+) lymphocyte infiltration in HCC, in two independent cohorts of patients...
2017: Oncoimmunology
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