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Immune development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227102/a-flexible-parylene-probe-for-in-vivo-recordings-from-multiple-subregions-of-the-rat-hippocampus
#1
Huijing Xu, Ahuva Weltman, Min-Chi Hsiao, Kee Scholten, Ellis Meng, Theodore W Berger, Dong Song, Huijing Xu, Ahuva Weltman, Min-Chi Hsiao, Kee Scholten, Ellis Meng, Theodore W Berger, Dong Song, Ellis Meng, Dong Song, Min-Chi Hsiao, Theodore W Berger, Ahuva Weltman, Kee Scholten, Huijing Xu
The hippocampus is crucial to the formation of long-term memory and declarative memory. It is divided into three sub-fields the CA1, the CA3 and the DG. To understand the neuronal circuitry within the hippocampus and to study the role of the hippocampus in memory function requires the collection of neural activities from multiple subregions of the hippocampus simultaneously. Micro-wire electrode arrays are commonly used as an interface with neural systems. However, recording from multiple deep brain regions with curved anatomical structures such as the thin cell body layers of the hippocampus requires the micro-wires to be arranged into a highly accurate, complex layout that is difficult to fabricated manually...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226323/immune-complex-membranoproliferative-glomerulonephritis-associated-with-transjugular-intrahepatic-portosystemic-shunts-in-alcohol-cirrhosis-two-case-reports
#2
Julio Hernández-Jaras, Jordi Espí-Reig, Rafael Alis, Ana-Maria García-Martínez, Diego Rodríguez-Ortega, Lourdes Roca-Argente, Jose-Luis Moll-Guillen
OBJECTIVE: To report two cases with alcoholic cirrhosis, that were treated with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement. CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND INTERVENTION: The two patients had a history of alcoholic cirrhosis and TIPS surgery was performed on them. In both cases, 4 months after TIPS placement, proteinuria was observed along with histological alterations characteristic of immune complex-MPGN. CONCLUSION: The TIPS in one patient was successful without immediate complication while the other patient was referred for combined liver-kidney transplant...
February 22, 2017: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226225/thymic-epithelial-cells
#3
Jakub Abramson, Graham Anderson
IntrathymicTcell development is a complex process that depends upon continuous guidance from thymus stromal cell microenvironments. The thymic epithelium within the thymic stroma comprises highly specialized cells with a high degree of anatomic, phenotypic, and functional heterogeneity. These properties are collectively required to bias thymocyte development toward production of self-tolerant and functionally competent T cells. The importance of thymic epithelial cells (TECs) is evidenced by clear links between their dysfunction and multiple diseases where autoimmunity and immunodeficiency are major components...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226216/overcoming-immune-dysregulation-with-immunoengineered-nanobiomaterials
#4
Evan A Scott, Nicholas B Karabin, Punn Augsornworawat
The immune system is governed by an immensely complex network of cells and both intracellular and extracellular molecular factors. It must respond to an ever-growing number of biochemical and biophysical inputs by eliciting appropriate and specific responses in order to maintain homeostasis. But as with any complex system, a plethora of false positives and false negatives can occur to generate dysregulated responses. Dysregulated immune responses are essential components of diverse inflammation-driven pathologies, including cancer, heart disease, and autoimmune disorders...
February 9, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225900/chronic-chagas-cardiomyopathy-a-review-of-the-main-pathogenic-mechanisms-and-the-efficacy-of-aetiological-treatment-following-the-benznidazole-evaluation-for-interrupting-trypanosomiasis-benefit-trial
#5
Anis Rassi, José Antonio Marin, Anis Rassi
Chagas cardiomyopathy is the most frequent and most severe manifestation of chronic Chagas disease, and is one of the leading causes of morbidity and death in Latin America. Although the pathogenesis of Chagas cardiomyopathy is incompletely understood, it may involve several mechanisms, including parasite-dependent myocardial damage, immune-mediated myocardial injury (induced by the parasite itself and by self-antigens), and microvascular and neurogenic disturbances. In the past three decades, a consensus has emerged that parasite persistence is crucial to the development and progression of Chagas cardiomyopathy...
March 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225894/chronic-chagas-cardiomyopathy-a-review-of-the-main-pathogenic-mechanisms-and-the-efficacy-of-aetiological-treatment-following-the-benznidazole-evaluation-for-interrupting-trypanosomiasis-benefit-trial
#6
Anis Rassi, José Antonio Marin, Anis Rassi
Chagas cardiomyopathy is the most frequent and most severe manifestation of chronic Chagas disease, and is one of the leading causes of morbidity and death in Latin America. Although the pathogenesis of Chagas cardiomyopathy is incompletely understood, it may involve several mechanisms, including parasite-dependent myocardial damage, immune-mediated myocardial injury (induced by the parasite itself and by self-antigens), and microvascular and neurogenic disturbances. In the past three decades, a consensus has emerged that parasite persistence is crucial to the development and progression of Chagas cardiomyopathy...
February 16, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225652/dna-vaccination-partially-protects-muskellunge-against-viral-hemorrhagic-septicemia-virus-vhsv-ivb
#7
Elena V Millard, Ashley M Bourke, Scott E LaPatra, Travis O Brenden, Scott D Fitzgerald, Mohamed Faisal
A DNA vaccine containing the glycoprotein (G) gene of the North American viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVb was developed to evaluate the immune response of fish following vaccination and evaluate its efficacy in protecting a susceptible species, the Muskellunge Esox masquinongy, against VHSV-IVb challenge. Seven weeks (539 degree-days) following vaccination with 10 μg of either pVHSivb-G or a control plasmid, Muskellunge were challenged by immersion with 10(5) plaque-forming units (pfu)/mL of VHSV-IVb...
March 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225338/potential-biomarkers-associated-with-discrimination-between-latent-and-active-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#8
R Kamakia, S Kiazyk, J Waruk, A Meyers, J Ochanda, T B Ball, J Oyugi
SETTING: A third of the world's population has latent tuberculous infection (LTBI). Current TB diagnostics used in developing countries are ineffective and are unable to distinguish LTBI from active TB. Identifying biomarkers that could aid in the early detection of TB and in distinguishing TB states could be a major breakthrough in global TB control. OBJECTIVE: To identify potential immune biomarkers to distinguish active TB from LTBI. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 19 active TB patients, 8 TB-negative individuals (controls) and 16 LTBI non-human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals in Nairobi, Kenya...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225193/human-neural-progenitor-transplantation-rescues-behavior-and-reduces-%C3%AE-synuclein-in-a-transgenic-model-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#9
Natalie R S Goldberg, Samuel E Marsh, Joseph Ochaba, Brandon C Shelley, Hayk Davtyan, Leslie M Thompson, Joan S Steffan, Clive N Svendsen, Mathew Blurton-Jones
Synucleinopathies are a group of neurodegenerative disorders sharing the common feature of misfolding and accumulation of the presynaptic protein α-synuclein (α-syn) into insoluble aggregates. Within this diverse group, Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) is characterized by the aberrant accumulation of α-syn in cortical, hippocampal, and brainstem neurons, resulting in multiple cellular stressors that particularly impair dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission and related motor and cognitive function. Recent studies show that murine neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation can improve cognitive or motor function in transgenic models of Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease, and DLB...
February 22, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225165/the-contrasting-role-of-th17-immunity-in-human-health-and-disease
#10
Edwin Hoe, Jeremy Anderson, Jordan Nathanielsz, Zheng Quan Toh, Rachel Marimla, Anne Balloch, Paul V Licciardi
The human immune system is a tightly regulated network that protects the host from disease. An important aspect of this is the balance between pro-inflammatory Th17 cells and anti-inflammatory Treg cells in maintaining immune homeostasis. Foxp3+ Treg are critical for sustaining immune tolerance through IL-10 and TGF-β while RORγt+ Th17 cells promote immunopathology and auto-inflammatory diseases through the actions of IL-17A, IL-21 and IL-22. Therefore, the imbalance between Treg and Th17 cells can result in serious pathology in many organs and tissues in the body...
February 22, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224922/multiple-garlic-allium-sativum-l-micrornas-regulate-the-immunity-against-the-basal-rot-fungus-fusarium-oxysporum-f-sp-cepae
#11
Subodh Kumar Chand, Satyabrata Nanda, Rukmini Mishra, Raj Kumar Joshi
The basal plate rot fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC), is the most devastating pathogen posing a serious threat to garlic (Allium sativum L.) production worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key modulators of gene expression related to development and defense responses in eukaryotes. However, the miRNA species associated with garlic immunity against FOC are yet to be explored. In the present study, a small RNA library developed from FOC infected resistant garlic line was sequenced to identify immune responsive miRNAs...
April 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224902/a-quartz-crystal-microbalance-sensor-for-endotoxin-assay-by-monitoring-limulus-amebocyte-lysate-protease-reaction
#12
Tao Liu, Wei Zhang, Lianqun Zhou, Zhen Guo, Yuguo Tang, Peng Miao
Endotoxin is able to trigger strong innate immune responses by interacting with specific receptors on immune cells. Therefore, accurate and rapid detection of endotoxin is of primary importance. In this study, endotoxin induced viscosity variation of limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) reagent is monitored by a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor with enhanced signal. Based on the analysis of the relationship between endotoxin concentration and QCM frequency shift with time, an effective sensing strategy is developed for endotoxin assay, which shows excellent sensitivity and specificity in the linear detection range from 0...
April 8, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224776/clinical-usefulness-of-monitoring-cytomegalovirus-specific-immunity-by-quantiferon-cmv-in-pediatric-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-recipients
#13
Sae Mi Lee, Yae Jean Kim, Keon Hee Yoo, Ki Woong Sung, Hong Hoe Koo, Eun Suk Kang
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a well-established cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). CD8⁺ T-cells are important for controlling CMV infection. We conducted a prospective pilot study to investigate the clinical utility of measuring the CMV-specific T-cell immune response using the QuantiFERON-CMV assay (QF-CMV) in pediatric allo-HSCT recipients. Overall, 16 of 25 (64%) patients developed CMV infection. QF-CMV was evaluated in these 16 patients during the early and late phases of the first CMV infection post allo-HSCT...
May 2017: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224733/nk1-1-cd4-nkg2d-t-cells-suppress-dss-induced-colitis-in-mice-through-production-of-tgf-%C3%AE
#14
Xingxing Qian, Chunxia Hu, Sen Han, Zhijie Lin, Weiming Xiao, Yanbing Ding, Yu Zhang, Li Qian, Xiaoqing Jia, Guoqiang Zhu, Weijuan Gong
CD4(+) NKG2D(+) T cells are associated with tumour, infection and autoimmune diseases. Some CD4(+) NKG2D(+) T cells secrete IFN-γ and TNF-α to promote inflammation, but others produce TGF-β and FasL to facilitate tumour evasion. Here, murine CD4(+) NKG2D(+) T cells were further classified into NK1.1(-) CD4(+) NKG2D(+) and NK1.1(+) CD4(+) NKG2D(+) subpopulations. The frequency of NK1.1(-) CD4(+) NKG2D(+) cells decreased in inflamed colons, whereas more NK1.1(+) CD4(+) NKG2D(+) cells infiltrated into colons of mice with DSS-induced colitis...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224631/development-and-application-of-monoclonal-antibodies-against-igm-of-black-rockfish-sebastes-schlegeli
#15
W Zhang, X Q Tang, X Z Sheng, J Xing, W B Zhan
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against black rockfish Sebastes schlegeli serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) were developed, which showed a specific reaction with the heavy chain of S. schlegeli IgM in Western blotting and with surface IgM positive (sIgM(+) ) lymphocytes in indirect immunofluorescence. mAb 2A6 was employed to investigate the antibody and sIgM(+) lymphocyte responses of S. schlegeli injected with inactivated Edwardsiella tarda, by ELISA and flow cytometry. Compared with controls, the level of specific antibodies and the percentage of sIgM(+) lymphocytes both increased in the immunized fish and simultaneously reached their peaks at day 35 after immunization...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224237/attempts-to-overcome-remyelination-failure-toward-opening-new-therapeutic-avenues-for-multiple-sclerosis
#16
REVIEW
Mahsa Motavaf, Majid Sadeghizadeh, Mohammad Javan
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic immune-mediated disorder of the central nervous system that results in destruction of the myelin sheath wrapped around the axons and eventual axon degeneration. The disease is pathologically heterogeneous; however, perhaps its most frustrating aspect is the lack of efficient regenerative response for remyelination. Current treatment strategies are based on anti-inflammatory or immunomodulatory medications that have the potential to reduce the numbers of newly evolving lesions...
February 21, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224235/oral-mucosal-changes-induced-by-anticancer-targeted-therapies-and-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#17
REVIEW
Emmanuelle Vigarios, Joel B Epstein, Vincent Sibaud
Development of biological targeted therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors has redefined the treatment for many cancers; however, the increasing use of new protocols has led to physicians observing a new spectrum of toxicities. To date, oral adverse events induced by these new anticancer therapies have been mainly reported using nonspecific terminology ("stomatitis," "mucosal inflammation," "mucositis") and remain poorly characterized, with the exception of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor-associated stomatitis...
February 22, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224211/mechanisms-overseeing-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cell-production-in-neoplastic-disease
#18
REVIEW
Colleen S Netherby, Scott I Abrams
Perturbations in myeloid cell differentiation are common in neoplasia, culminating in immature populations known as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). MDSCs favor tumor progression due to their ability to suppress host immunity or promote invasion and metastasis. They are thought to originate from the bone marrow as a result of exposure to stromal- or circulating tumor-derived factors (TDFs). Although great interest has been placed on understanding how MDSCs function, less is known regarding how MDSCs develop at a transcriptional level...
February 21, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224203/nucleic-acid-sensing-pattern-recognition-receptors-in-the-development-of-colorectal-cancer-and-colitis
#19
REVIEW
Liangmei He, Yayun Chen, Yuanbing Wu, Ying Xu, Zixiang Zhang, Zhiping Liu
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths that is often associated with inflammation initiated by activation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Nucleic acid sensing PRRs are one of the major subsets of PRRs that sense nucleic acid (DNA and RNA), mainly including some members of Toll-like receptors (TLR3, 7, 8, 9), AIM2-like receptors (AIM2, IFI16), STING, cGAS, RNA polymerase III, and DExD/H box nucleic acid helicases (such as RIG-I like receptors (RIG-I, MDA5, LPG2), DDX1, 3, 5, 7, 17, 21, 41, 60, and DHX9, 36)...
February 21, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224137/hmgb1-anti-hmgb1-antibodies-define-a-molecular-signature-of-early-stages-of-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-isorders-hand
#20
Marie-Lise Gougeon, Béatrice Poirier-Beaudouin, Jacques Durant, Christine Lebrun-Frenay, Héla Saïdi, Valérie Seffer, Michel Ticchioni, Stephane Chanalet, Helene Carsenti, Alexandra Harvey-Langton, Muriel Laffon, Jacqueline Cottalorda, Christian Pradier, Pierre Dellamonica, Matteo Vassallo
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) persist in the post-HAART era, characterized by asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) and mild neurocognitive disorders (MND). High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a non-histone chromosomal protein widely expressed in the nucleus of all eukaryotic cells, including brain cells, which acts as a potent proinflammatory cytokine when actively secreted from immune cells. Recent reports suggested that HMGB1 acts on microglial cells to promote neuroinflammation...
February 2017: Heliyon
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