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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749627/acute-kidney-injury-in-pediatric-patients-diagnosis-and-management-in-the-emergency-department-digest
#1
Daniel Mohrer, Melissa Langhan, Pradip Chaudhari
Pediatric acute kidney injury is a condition that is underdiagnosed among children seen in the emergency department, and it has been associated with significant morbidity and mortality, including increased risk for chronic kidney disease. The most common etiologies in pediatric patients are now known to be due to hypovolemia, sepsis, shock, and cardiac dysfunction. This issue compares 3 classification systems for the diagnosis and staging of acute kidney injury and reviews the etiologies that lead to kidney injury in children...
May 22, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749614/dissecting-the-dynamics-of-trans-generational-immune-priming
#2
Joachim Kurtz, Sophie A O Armitage
The transfer of immunity from mother to offspring is a central way to endow the offspring with increased protection against pathogens. This phenomenon is not only found within the vertebrate domain: in some circumstances, invertebrate mothers can also give their offspring an immune kick-start, which is termed trans-generational immune priming (TGIP). TGIP has been uncovered for a number of invertebrate species, but it is not ubiquitously evident. The reasons for which are not known. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Tate, Andolfatto, Demuth, and Graham () probe the molecular underpinnings of TGIP in concert with the temporal dynamics of the response in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, infected with the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Figure )...
August 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749608/prone-position-ventilation-ppv-support-for-acute-exacerbation-of-interstitial-lung-disease-ild
#3
Yuanda Xu, Qingwen Sun, Yuheng Yu, Weibo Liang, Xuesong Liu, Chun Yang, Yonghao Xu, Lingbo Nong, Sibei Chen, Weiqun He, Xiaoqing Liu, Yimin Li, Nanshan Zhong
INTRODUCTION: Prone position ventilation (PPV) has been shown to improve oxygenation and decrease pulmonary vascular resistance and mortality in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Whether these benefits of PPV occur similarly in acute exacerbations of interstitial lung disease (ILD) is not clear. We retrospectively explored the use of PPV in acute exacerbation with ILD versus those with severe ARDS. METHODS: Retrospective study of the application of PPV in 17 patients with acute exacerbations of ILD and in 19 patients with severe ARDS...
July 27, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749565/melatonin-suppresses-platelet-activation-and-function-against-cardiac-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-ppar%C3%AE-fundc1-mitophagy-pathways
#4
Hao Zhou, Dandan Li, Pingjun Zhu, Shunying Hu, Nan Hu, Sai Ma, Ying Zhang, Tianwen Han, Jun Ren, Feng Cao, Yundai Chen
Platelet activation is a major (patho-) physiological mechanism that underlies ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. In this study, we explored the molecular signals for platelet hyperactivity and investigated the beneficial effects of melatonin on platelet reactivity in response to I/R injury. After reperfusion, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) was progressively downregulated in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery and in mice with I/R injury model...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749559/recombinant-cccdna-of-hepatitis-b-virus-induces-long-term-viral-persistence-with-chronic-hepatitis-in-a-mouse-model
#5
Gaiyun Li, Yuanfei Zhu, Dianhui Shao, Hao Chang, Xiaoming Zhang, Dongming Zhou, Yueqiu Gao, Ke Lan, Qiang Deng
Covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is critical for viral persistence in vivo. We recently reported a technique involving recombinant (r) cccDNA of HBV by site-specific DNA recombination. Using hydrodynamic injection, rcccDNA induces a temporarily prolonged HBV anigenemia in immunocompetent mice, similar to acute resolving HBV infection. In this study, we simulated the pathophysiological impact of chronic hepatitis by which to reproduce (r)cccDNA persistence in mouse models. We showed that rcccDNA achieved long-lasting persistence in the presence of a compromised immune response or when transcriptional activity was repressed...
July 27, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749553/myelopathy-in-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease-the-bagel-sign
#6
Ugur Uygunoglu, Burcu Zeydan, Yesim Ozguler, Serdal Ugurlu, Emire Seyahi, Naci Kocer, Civan Islak, Kejal Kantarci, Sabahattin Saip, Aksel Siva, Orhun H Kantarci
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and distinctive imaging features of myelopathy associated with Behçet's disease. METHODS: We evaluated the records of patients meeting the following criteria: a) fulfillment of the International Study Group criteria for Behçet's disease; b) clinically suggestive of myelopathy; c) simultaneous spinal cord and brain MRIs within 1 month of acute worsening of myelopathy; d) follow-up duration ≥1 year after initial MRI evaluation...
July 27, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749537/sodium-channels-and-pain-from-toxins-to-therapies
#7
REVIEW
Fernanda C Cardoso, Richard J Lewis
Voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV ) are essential to initiation and propagation of action potentials that critically influence our ability to respond to a diverse range of stimuli. Physiological and pharmacological studies have linked abnormal function of Nav channels to many human disorders, including chronic neuropathic pain. These findings, along with the description of the functional properties and expression pattern of NaV channels subtypes, are helping to uncover subtype specific roles in acute and chronic pain, and revealing potential opportunities to target these with selective inhibitors...
July 27, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749409/host-response-comparison-of-h1n1-and-h5n1-infected-mice-identifies-two-potential-death-mechanisms
#8
Olivier Leymarie, Léa Meyer, Pierre-Louis Hervé, Bruno Da Costa, Bernard Delmas, Christophe Chevalier, Ronan Le Goffic
Highly pathogenic influenza A viruses (IAV) infections represent a serious threat to humans due to their considerable morbidity and mortality capacities. A good understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the acute lung injury observed during this kind of infection is essential to design adapted therapies. In the current study, using an unbiased transcriptomic approach, we compared the host-responses of mice infected with two different subtypes of IAV: H1N1 vs. H5N1. The host-response comparison demonstrated a clear difference between the transcriptomic profiles of H1N1- and H5N1-infected mice despite identical survival kinetics and similar viral replications...
July 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749400/a-novel-approach-for-characterizing-variations-in-serum-peptides-in-rheumatic-heart-disease
#9
Xiaochen Wu, Qin Yue, Weikun Jia, Jinbao Zhang, Hui Ouyang, Dong Xin, Yingbin Xiao
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) are important public health problems in developing countries. In this study, peptidomic analyses on RHD patients and healthy individuals were performed to characterize variations in serum peptide levels using label-free quantitation approaches. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from 160 healthy controls and 160 RHD patients. Of the 448 identified peptides, 272 were analyzed by two label-free mass spectrometry methods, the spectral count and spectral index...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749391/variations-in-herpes-zoster-manifestation
#10
REVIEW
Uwe Wollina
Herpes zoster (HZ) is a neurocutaneous disorder due to endogenous reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). The typical clinical manifestation is an acute segmental eruption of herpetiform umbilicated vesicles associated with malaise, pain, dysaesthesia, allodynia and probably fever. This review focuses on other possible clinical manifestations of the disease to sensitize physicians not to overlook HZ since only an early antiviral treatment can reduce the risk of post-zosteric neuralgia.
March 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749303/gastric-dilatation-volvulus-in-adult-maned-wolves-chrysocyon-brachyurus
#11
Jenna D Hinton, Luis R Padilla, Priscilla H Joyner, Rodney Schnellbacher, Timothy F Walsh, Copper Aitken-Palmer
Gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV) was identified in six adult maned wolves ( Chrysocyon brachyurus ) housed at the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute in Front Royal, Virginia, and the Dickerson Park Zoo in Springfield, Missouri. Four individuals were found dead in their enclosures, and GDV was diagnosed postmortem based on radiographic and necropsy findings. Two individuals were diagnosed with GDV antemortem, with one wolf surviving following surgical intervention and supportive management. A concurrent splenic torsion was identified in three of six cases...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749298/successful-management-of-cecal-perforation-and-focal-peritonitis-in-a-gorilla-gorilla-gorilla-gorilla
#12
Sarah R Therio, Liza I Dadone, Michael M Garner, Jason Arble, Charles J Lalonde, Thomas J Baesl, Mindy Siegel, John A Marta, Dirk P Pikaart, Matthew S Johnston
An 18-yr-old female Western lowland gorilla ( Gorilla gorilla gorilla) presented with acute-onset severe lethargy, bloody vaginal discharge, decreased appetite, and an abnormal posture. The gorilla was diagnosed with a ruptured cecal blind sac with severe adhesions to the right ovary. A typhlectomy and unilateral ovariectomy were performed. Histologic examination identified a severe transmural circumferential typhlitis with rupture and adhesions to the infundibulum and chronic typhlitis. Postoperative management included antibiotics, analgesics, short-term dietary modifications, and probiotics for suspect oral candidiasis...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749266/epidemiologic-evaluation-of-elephant-endotheliotropic-herpesvirus-3b-infection-in-an-african-elephant-loxodonta-africana
#13
Ellen Bronson, Michael McClure, Jennifer Sohl, Ellen Wiedner, Sherry Cox, Erin M Latimer, Virginia R Pearson, Gary S Hayward, Angela Fuery, Paul D Ling
This epidemiologic study follows a 5-yr-old male African elephant ( Loxodonta africana ) during an episode of hemorrhagic disease (HD) due to elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus 3B (EEHV3B) utilizing data from complete blood counts, electrophoresis and acute phase protein analysis, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of multiple body fluids during and after the clinical episode. The elephant presented with sudden onset of marked lethargy and inappetence followed by hypersalivation, hyperemia of the conjunctivae and focally on the tongue, and swellings on the head and ventrum...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749260/pigmented-villonodular-synovitis-in-a-reticulated-giraffe-giraffa-camelopardalis
#14
Elizabeth A Ihms, Anne Rivas, Ellen Bronson, Lisa M Mangus
: A 17-yr-old, female, captive-born reticulated giraffe ( Giraffa camelopardalis ) presented with acute-onset lameness of the right metacarpophalangeal (fetlock) joint. Despite multiple courses of treatment, the lameness and swelling progressively worsened over a 3.5-yr period, and the giraffe was euthanized. At necropsy, gross and microscopic changes in the right, front fetlock and associated flexor tendon sheath included villous synovial hyperplasia and the formation of discrete pigmented nodules within synovial membranes...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749249/an-autopsy-verified-case-of-steroid-responsive-encephalopathy-with-convulsion-and-a-false-positive-result-from-the-real-time-quaking-induced-conversion-assay
#15
Yuichi Hayashi, Yasushi Iwasaki, Nobuaki Yoshikura, Takahiko Asano, Maya Mimuro, Akio Kimura, Katsuya Satoh, Tetsuyuki Kitamoto, Mari Yoshida, Takashi Inuzuka
We report an autopsy-verified case of steroid-responsive encephalopathy with convulsion and a false-positive result from the real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QUIC) assay. A 61-year-old Japanese man presented with acute onset of consciousness disturbance, and convulsions, but without a past medical or family history of progressive dementia, epilepsy, or prion disease. Brain diffusion and fluid-attenuated inverted recovery MR images revealed edematous cortical hyper-intensity, which diminished after the acute phase...
July 27, 2017: Prion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749244/radiation-protection-and-mitigation-potential-of-phenylbutyrate-delivered-via-oral-administration
#16
Alexandra C Miller, Rafael Rivas, Robert McMahon, Karvelisse Miller, Leonard Tesoro, Vilmar Villa, Daminik Yanushkevich, Paul Lison
PURPOSE: Phenylbutyrate (PB), a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) has demonstrated radiation protection in both in vitro and in vivo models. Studies previously demonstrated that PB and other HDAC inhibitors could inhibit radiation lethality in vivo by subcutaneous (s.c) injection. The objective of this study was to test the ability of oral PB treatment to protect against or to mitigate acute gamma radiation-induced lethality in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human osteoblasts cells were used to evaluate radiation survival when PB was delivered pre- or post-radiation...
July 27, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749186/correlation-between-cat-polymorphism-and-susceptibility-to-dmac-induced-abnormal-liver-function-a-case-control-study-of-chinese-population
#17
Xianping Song, Wei Gong, Huanxi Shen, Xiuting Li, Lu Ding, Lei Han, Hengdong Zhang, Baoli Zhu, Xin Liu
CONTEXT: Acute or chronic exposure of N,N-Dimethylacetamide (DMAc) is responsible for abnormal liver function. It appears that DMAc is mainly metabolized by cytochrome P450 in the liver and thereby produces reactive oxygen species (ROS). The elimination of ROS and the repairing of ROS-induced DNA damage are relevant to the ultimate toxicity of DMAc. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the polymorphisms in the CAT (rs564250, rs769214 and rs7943316), hOGG1 (rs2072668 and rs159153) and XRCC1 (rs25487 and rs1799782) genes are associated with susceptibility to DMAc-induced abnormal liver function in Chinese population...
July 27, 2017: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749177/sprint-trial-it-s-not-just-the-blood-pressure
#18
Gijs Fn Berkelmans, Frank Lj Visseren, Nicole Em Jaspers, Wilko Spiering, Yolanda van der Graaf, Jannick An Dorresteijn
Background The SPRINT trial showed a beneficial effect of systolic blood pressure treatment targets of 120 mmHg on cardiovascular risk compared to targets of 140 mmHg. However, differences in medication use, most importantly diuretics, are suggested as an alternative explanation. This post-hoc analysis aimed to determine whether the reduced event rate can be attributed to changes in systolic blood pressure (ΔSBP) . Methods Analyses were based on all 9361 participants of the SPRINT trial. ΔSBP was defined as the change between baseline and 6-month follow-up systolic blood pressure...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749172/no-differences-in-radiological-changes-after-3d-conformal-vs-vmat-based-stereotactic-radiotherapy-for-early-stage-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#19
Serena Badellino, Jacopo Di Muzio, Giulia Schivazappa, Alessia Guarneri, Riccardo Ragona, Sara Bartoncini, Elisabetta Trino, Andrea Riccardo Filippi, Paolo Fonio, Umberto Ricardi
OBJECTIVES: To compare patterns of acute and late radiological lung injury following either 3D or image-guided VMAT stereotactic radiotherapy for stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: We included 148 patients from a prospective mono-institutional SBRT series (time interval 2004-2014), treated with prescription BED10 Gy (at 80%) in the range 100-120 Gy. The first 95 patients (2004-2010) were planned with 3D-CRT, with a stereotactic body frame. The second cohort (2010-2014) included 53 patients, planned with volumetric IMRT on a smaller PTV generated from a patient's specific ITV, with a frameless approach through cone-beam CT guidance...
July 27, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749114/characteristics-and-outcomes-of-patients-with-hematological-malignancies-admitted-for-intensive-care-a-single-centre-experience
#20
Shafaq Maqsood, Farhana Badar, Abdul Hameed
Background and Purpose: Patients with hematological malignancies admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) generally have a high mortality rate. The aim of our study was to assess the characteristics and outcomes of such patients and to identify factors predicting ICU mortality. Material and Methods: This retrospective chart review was conducted in the intensive care unit (ICU) of Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre over a period of 5 years, from January 2010 to January 2015. Results: Characteristics :A total of 213 patients were included in this study...
July 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
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