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health-care associated pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927163/phenotypic-and-molecular-detection-of-the-bla-kpc-gene-in-clinical-isolates-from-inpatients-at-hospitals-in-s%C3%A3-o-luis-ma-brazil
#1
Patricia Cristina Saldanha Ribeiro, Andrea Souza Monteiro, Sirlei Garcia Marques, Sílvio Gomes Monteiro, Valério Monteiro-Neto, Martina Márcia Melo Coqueiro, Ana Cláudia Garcia Marques, Rosimary de Jesus Gomes Turri, Simone Gonçalves Santos, Maria Rosa Quaresma Bomfim
BACKGROUND: Bacteria that produce Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) are resistant to broad-spectrum β-lactam antibiotics. The objective of this study was to phenotypically and genotypically characterize the antibiotic susceptibility to carbapenems of 297 isolates recovered from clinical samples obtained from inpatients at 16 hospitals in São Luis (Maranhão, Brazil). METHODS: The study was conducted using phenotypic tests and molecular methods, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequencing and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR...
December 7, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922906/patient-outcomes-after-early-versus-late-tracheostomy-in-the-puerto-rico-trauma-hospital
#2
Ana M Romero Vázquez, Omar García Rodríguez, Ediel Ramos Meléndez, Pablo Rodríguez Ortiz
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of early tracheostomy (ET, ≤7 days) versus that of late tracheostomy (LT, >7 days) on outcomes such as hospital length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) days, mechanical ventilation (MV) days, and mortality ratio. METHODS: A historical cohort study was undertaken using charts of patients admitted to the Puerto Rico Trauma Hospital who required MV and underwent tracheostomies, from 2000 to 2013. A logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between timing of tracheostomy and complications and mortality...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920416/re-evaluating-the-inhibition-of-stress-erosions-revise-a-protocol-for-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Waleed Alhazzani, Gordon Guyatt, John C Marshall, Richard Hall, John Muscedere, Francois Lauzier, Lehana Thabane, Mohammed Alshahrani, Shane W English, Yaseen M Arabi, Adam M Deane, Tim Karachi, Bram Rochwerg, Simon Finfer, Nick Daneman, Nicole Zytaruk, Diane Heel-Ansdell, Deborah Cook, On Behalf Of
INTRODUCTION: Clinicians routinely administer stress ulcer prophylaxis to mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), most commonly prescribing proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). However, the incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding from stress ulceration is low and recent observational studies suggest these agents may increase infections. Therefore, a large randomized clinical trial (RCT) is needed to inform modern practice. The aim of this multicenter pilot trial is to determine the feasibility of performing a large RCT to investigate the efficacy and safety of withholding intravenous pantoprazole...
November 2016: Annals of Saudi Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916584/immunological-and-infectious-risk-factors-for-lung-cancer-in-us-veterans-with-hiv-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#4
Keith Sigel, Juan Wisnivesky, Kristina Crothers, Kirsha Gordon, Sheldon T Brown, David Rimland, Maria C Rodriguez-Barradas, Cynthia Gibert, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Roger Bedimo, Lesley S Park, Robert Dubrow
BACKGROUND: HIV infection is independently associated with risk of lung cancer, but few data exist for the relation between longitudinal measurements of immune function and lung-cancer risk in people living with HIV. METHODS: We followed up participants with HIV from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study for a minimum of 3 years between Jan 1, 1998, and Dec 31, 2012, and used cancer registry data to identify incident cases of lung cancer. The index date for each patient was the later of the date HIV care began or Jan 1, 1998...
December 1, 2016: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902412/the-staff-education-to-reducing-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#5
Gurdal Yilmaz, Hava Aydin, Mustafa Aydin, Sedat Saylan, Hulya Ulusoy, Iftihar Koksal
Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving invasive procedure performed in intensive care units (ICUs) where critical patients are given advanced support. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of personnel training on the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The study, performed prospectively in the ICU, was planned in two periods. In both periods, patient's characteristics were recorded on patient data forms. In the second period, ICU physicians and assistant health personnel were given regular theoretical and practical training...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899227/challenges-to-estimating-vaccine-impact-using-hospitalization-data
#6
Cynthia Schuck-Paim, Robert J Taylor, Lone Simonsen, Roger Lustig, Esra Kürüm, Christian A W Bruhn, Daniel M Weinberger
Because the real-world impact of new vaccines cannot be known before they are implemented in national programs, post-implementation studies at the population level are critical. Studies based on analysis of hospitalization rates of vaccine-preventable outcomes are typically used for this purpose. However, estimates of vaccine impact based on hospitalization data are particularly prone to confounding, as hospitalization rates are tightly linked to changes in the quality, access and use of the healthcare system, which often occur simultaneously with introduction of new vaccines...
November 26, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895127/the-pathogenic-potential-of-proteus-mirabilis-is-enhanced-by-other-uropathogens-during-polymicrobial-urinary-tract-infection
#7
Chelsie E Armbruster, Sara N Smith, Alexandra O Johnson, Valerie DeOrnellas, Kathryn A Eaton, Alejandra Yep, Lona Mody, Weisheng Wu, Harry L T Mobley
Urinary catheter use is prevalent in health care settings, and polymicrobial colonization by urease-positive organisms, such as Proteus mirabilis and Providencia stuartii, commonly occurs with long-term catheterization. We previously demonstrated that coinfection with P. mirabilis and P. stuartii increased overall urease activity in vitro and disease severity in a model of urinary tract infection (UTI). In this study, we expanded these findings to a murine model of catheter-associated UTI (CAUTI), delineated the contribution of enhanced urease activity to coinfection pathogenesis, and screened for enhanced urease activity with other common CAUTI pathogens...
November 28, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885228/factors-associated-with-the-prognosis-of-elderly-patients-with-advanced-dementia-who-receive-palliative-care-from-geriatric-health-services-facilities
#8
Keizo Sakai, Yasuhiko Masuda, Kunio Miyanishi
AIM: The aim of the present study is to identify the factors associated with the prognosis of advanced dementia patients who are newly admitted to a geriatric health services facility. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used data that were obtained on admission in the care-assessment of long-term care facility patients. The 177 participants with advanced dementia were admitted to our facility between 2006 and 2013. The association between the factors in the care-assessment and the three-month-mortality rates were examined throughout the year...
2016: Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885143/intrapulmonary-percussive-ventilation-as-a-lung-recruitment-strategy-in-brain-dead-organ-donors
#9
Geralyn Lerg, Linda Shanta
OBJECTIVE: To determine the strength of the evidence evaluating the effectiveness of intrapulmonary percussive ventilation (IPV) as a safe alternative or adjunctive therapy to traditional chest physiotherapy (CPT) among potential organ donors. DATA SOURCES: Literature search conducted from February 2015 to November 2015 using PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, and bibliographies of pertinent articles. SEARCH TERMS: Intrapulmonary percussive ventilation, chest physiotherapy, chest wall oscillation, organ donors, and ventilation...
November 24, 2016: Progress in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882866/the-performance-of-community-health-workers-in-the-management-of-multiple-childhood-infectious-diseases-in-lira-northern-uganda-a-mixed-methods-cross-sectional-study
#10
Phillip Wanduru, Moses Tetui, Doreen Tuhebwe, Michael Ediau, Monica Okuga, Christine Nalwadda, Elizabeth Ekirapa-Kiracho, Peter Waiswa, Elizeus Rutebemberwa
BACKGROUND: Community health workers (CHWs) have the potential to reduce child mortality by improving access to care, especially in remote areas. Uganda has one of the highest child mortality rates globally. Moreover, rural areas bear the highest proportion of this burden. The optimal performance of CHWs is critical. In this study, we assess the performance of CHWs in managing malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhea in the rural district of Lira, in northern Uganda. DESIGNS: A cross-sectional mixed methods study was undertaken to investigate the performance of 393 eligible CHWs in the Lira district of Uganda...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876075/chlorhexidine-bathing-and-health-care-associated-infections-among-adult-intensive-care-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Steven A Frost, Mari-Cris Alogso, Lauren Metcalfe, Joan M Lynch, Leanne Hunt, Ritesh Sanghavi, Evan Alexandrou, Kenneth M Hillman
BACKGROUND: Health care-associated infections (HAI) have been shown to increase length of stay, the cost of care, and rates of hospital deaths (Kaye and Marchaim, J Am Geriatr Soc 62(2):306-11, 2014; Roberts and Scott, Med Care 48(11):1026-35, 2010; Warren and Quadir, Crit Care Med 34(8):2084-9, 2006; Zimlichman and Henderson, JAMA Intern Med 173(22):2039-46, 2013). Importantly, infections acquired during a hospital stay have been shown to be preventable (Loveday and Wilson, J Hosp Infect 86:S1-70, 2014)...
November 23, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869620/safety-and-outcomes-of-inpatient-compared-with-outpatient-surgical-procedures-for-ankle-fractures
#12
Charles Qin, Robert G Dekker, Jordan T Blough, Anish R Kadakia
BACKGROUND: As the cost of health-care delivery rises in the era of bundled payments for care, there is an impetus toward minimizing hospitalization. Evidence to support the safety of open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of ankle fractures in the outpatient setting is largely anecdotal. METHODS: Patients who underwent ORIF from 2005 to 2013 were identified via postoperative diagnoses of ankle fracture and Current Procedural Terminology codes; patients with open fractures and patients who were emergency cases were excluded...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863592/nursing-interventions-in-stroke-care-delivery-an-evidence-based-clinical-review
#13
Dimitrios Theofanidis, Bernard Gibbon
INTRODUCTION: Generally, nursing interventions during the acute stages following a stroke aim at preventing secondary brain injury (intracranial hypertension), maintaining the airways (due to paralysis of the pharynx muscles), providing general body support (vital signs, fluid and electrolyte balance), and anticipating the occurrence of complications (atelectasis and pneumonia). AIM: This literature review is to prioritize nursing interventions for acute stroke and to update nursing roles and input considering recommended levels of evidence of care to date...
December 2016: Journal of Vascular Nursing: Official Publication of the Society for Peripheral Vascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856954/coolist-cooling-for-ischemic-stroke-trial-a-multicenter-open-randomized-phase-ii-clinical-trial
#14
Marjolein Geurts, Jesper Petersson, Marco Brizzi, Stefan Olsson-Hau, Gert-Jan Luijckx, Ale Algra, Diederik W J Dippel, L Jaap Kappelle, H Bart van der Worp
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Animal studies suggest that cooling improves outcome after ischemic stroke. We assessed the feasibility and safety of surface cooling to different target temperatures in awake patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: A multicenter, randomized, open, phase II, clinical trial, comparing standard treatment with surface cooling to 34.0°C, 34.5°C, or 35.0°C in awake patients with acute ischemic stroke and an National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of ≥6, initiated within 4...
November 17, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856076/hospital-wide-comparison-of-health-care-associated-infection-among-8-intensive-care-units-a-retrospective-analysis-for-2010-2015
#15
DongMei Yue, Caiping Song, Bo Zhang, Zhiyong Liu, Jin Chai, Yang Luo, Hao Wu
BACKGROUND: Exploring the distribution of nosocomial pathogens among different categories of intensive care units (ICUs) is critical to improving the management of health care-associated infection (HAI). Despite both single- and multicenter studies, the nature of the variations of HAIs within various ICUs remains inadequately evaluated. METHODS: Data on HAIs at our hospital during the period January 2010-December 2015 were collected from 8 ICUs, namely, respiratory, cardiovascular, neurology, neonatal, hematology, emergency, cardiothoracic surgery, and neurosurgery ICUs, at a tertiary hospital...
November 14, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824876/understanding-the-role-of-accredited-drug-dispensing-outlets-in-tanzania-s-health-system
#16
Martha Embrey, Catherine Vialle-Valentin, Angel Dillip, Bernard Kihiyo, Romuald Mbwasi, Innocent A Semali, John C Chalker, Jafary Liana, Rachel Lieber, Keith Johnson, Edmund Rutta, Suleiman Kimatta, Elizabeth Shekalaghe, Richard Valimba, Dennis Ross-Degnan
INTRODUCTION: People in many low-income countries access medicines from retail drug shops. In Tanzania, a public-private partnership launched in 2003 used an accreditation approach to improve access to quality medicines and pharmaceutical services in underserved areas. The government scaled up the accredited drug dispensing outlet (ADDO) program nationally, with over 9,000 shops now accredited. This study assessed the relationships between community members and their sources of health care and medicines, particularly antimicrobials, with a specific focus on the role ADDOs play in the health care system...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809338/cost-effectiveness-of-histamine2-receptor-antagonists-versus-proton-pump-inhibitors-for-stress-ulcer-prophylaxis-in-critically-ill-patients
#17
Drayton A Hammond, Niranjan Kathe, Anuj Shah, Bradley C Martin
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of stress ulcer prophylaxis with histamine2 receptor antagonists (H2RA) versus proton pump inhibitors (PPI) in critically ill and mechanically ventilated adults. DESIGN: A decision analytic model estimating the costs and effectiveness of stress ulcer prophylaxis (with H2RAs and PPIs) from a health care institutional perspective. PATIENTS: Adult, mixed intensive care unit (ICU) population who received an H2RA or PPI for up to 9 days...
November 3, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806553/a-survey-of-acute-q-fever-among-patients-with-brucellosis-like-and-atypical-pneumonia-symptoms-who-are-referred-to-qaemshahr-razi-hospital-in-northern-iran-2014-2015
#18
Roya Ghasemian, Ehsan Mostafavi, Saber Esmaeili, Narges Najafi, Sara Arabsheybani
INTRODUCTION: Coxiella burnetii is the etiologic agent of the zoonotic disease of Q fever which causes lots of morbidities and mortalities every year. The main route of human infection is inhalation of contaminated aerosols; however, consumption of contaminated dairy products is the second cause. Mazandaran province is one of the main livestock centers of the country and consumption of raw dairy in the region is quite common. There isn't any data about Q fever incidence in this region...
August 26, 2016: Global Journal of Health Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805520/association-between-preoperative-pulmonary-risk-scores-and-postoperative-complications-in-renal-transplant-recipients
#19
Elif Küpeli, Balam Er Dedekargınoğlu, Gaye Ulubay, Mehmet Haberal
OBJECTIVES: Patients who are being considered for renal transplant must undergo thorough preoperative pulmonary evaluation to determine risk of postoperative pulmonary complications. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between the preoperative pulmonary risk factor score and pulmonary complications in patients undergoing renal transplant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of patients who underwent renal transplant at our institution between 2004 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed...
November 2016: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788179/mpneumonia-an-innovation-for-diagnosing-and-treating-childhood-pneumonia-in-low-resource-settings-a-feasibility-usability-and-acceptability-study-in-ghana
#20
Amy Sarah Ginsburg, Charlotte Tawiah Agyemang, Gwen Ambler, Jaclyn Delarosa, Waylon Brunette, Shahar Levari, Clarice Larson, Mitch Sundt, Sam Newton, Gaetano Borriello, Richard Anderson
Pneumonia is the leading cause of infectious disease mortality in children. Currently, health care providers (HCPs) are trained to use World Health Organization Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) paper-based protocols and manually assess respiratory rate to diagnose pneumonia in low-resource settings (LRS). However, this approach of relying on clinical signs alone has proven problematic. Hypoxemia, a diagnostic indicator of pneumonia severity associated with an increased risk of death, is not assessed because pulse oximetry is often not available in LRS...
2016: PloS One
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