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health-care associated pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215171/oral-colonization-by-nosocomial-pathogens-during-hospitalization-in-invasive-care-unit-and-prevention-strategies
#1
Hossein Kazemian, Samane Bourbour, Maryam Beheshti, Abbas Bahador
BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients are very susceptible to a variety of disorders and infections during hospitalization in Intensive Care Units (ICU). Among these problems, nosocomial infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Nosocomial pneumonias, specifically ventilator associated pneumonias have become a major health care issue. The implication of oral care in hospital presents challenges that can prevent or reduce the risk of nosocomial pneumonias in ICU...
February 15, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210638/an-unusual-suspect-causing-hypoxemic-respiratory-failure
#2
Masooma Aqeel, Bjorn Batdorf, Horatiu Olteanu, Jayshil J Patel
Introduction: Antisynthetase syndrome (ASS) is characterized by the presence of anti-Jo-1 antibodies in conjunction with clinical findings of fever, polymyositis-dermatomyositis, and interstitial lung disease (ILD). Inflammatory myopathies carry a high risk of malignancy, but this association is less well outlined in ASS. We present the case of a patient with ASS who developed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Case Presentation: A 44-year-old female with ASS presented with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure...
January 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209197/accuracy-and-generalizability-of-using-automated-methods-for-identifying-adverse-events-from-electronic-health-record-data-a-validation-study-protocol
#3
Christian M Rochefort, David L Buckeridge, Andréanne Tanguay, Alain Biron, Frédérick D'Aragon, Shengrui Wang, Benoit Gallix, Louis Valiquette, Li-Anne Audet, Todd C Lee, Dev Jayaraman, Bruno Petrucci, Patricia Lefebvre
BACKGROUND: Adverse events (AEs) in acute care hospitals are frequent and associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and costs. Measuring AEs is necessary for quality improvement and benchmarking purposes, but current detection methods lack in accuracy, efficiency, and generalizability. The growing availability of electronic health records (EHR) and the development of natural language processing techniques for encoding narrative data offer an opportunity to develop potentially better methods...
February 16, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197738/vaccines-for-staphylococcus-aureus-and-target-populations
#4
Clarissa Pozzi, Reuben Olaniyi, Lassi Liljeroos, Ilaria Galgani, Rino Rappuoli, Fabio Bagnoli
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading pathogen in surgical site, intensive care unit, and skin infections, as well as healthcare-associated pneumonias. These infections are associated with an enormous burden of morbidity, mortality, and increase of hospital length of stay and patient cost. S. aureus is impressively fast in acquiring antibiotic resistance, and multidrug-resistant strains are a serious threat to human health. Due to resistance or insufficient effectiveness, antibiotics and bundle measures leave a tremendous unmet medical need worldwide...
February 15, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181033/clinical-and-microbiological-determinants-of-severe-and-fatal-outcomes-in-patients-infected-with-enterobacteriaceae-producing-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase
#5
L Surgers, A Boyd, P-Y Boelle, V Lalande, P-A Jolivot, P-M Girard, G Arlet, C Cambier, A Homor, D Decre, J-L Meynard
Although extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae have become a worldwide public health concern, little is known regarding the clinical course of colonized or infected individuals. Our objective was to characterize the determinants of fatal outcomes related to ESBL-producing microorganisms at a large hospital in Paris, France. In 2012-2013, all consecutive patients with clinical samples testing positive for ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae at Saint-Antoine Hospital were identified...
February 8, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178979/managed-care-and-inpatient-mortality-in-adults-effect-of-primary-payer
#6
Anika L Hines, Susan O Raetzman, Marguerite L Barrett, Ernest Moy, Roxanne M Andrews
BACKGROUND: Because managed care is increasingly prevalent in health care finance and delivery, it is important to ascertain its effects on health care quality relative to that of fee-for-service plans. Some stakeholders are concerned that basing gatekeeping, provider selection, and utilization management on cost may lower quality of care. To date, research on this topic has been inconclusive, largely because of variation in research methods and covariates. Patient age has been the only consistently evaluated outcome predictor...
February 8, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176888/seasonality-risk-factors-and-burden-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-copd-patients-a-population-database-study-using-linked-health-care-records
#7
Nicholas P Williams, Ngaire A Coombs, Matthew J Johnson, Lynn K Josephs, Lucy A Rigge, Karl J Staples, Mike Thomas, Tom Ma Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is more common in patients with COPD than in the adult general population, with studies of hospitalized CAP patients consistently reporting COPD as a frequent comorbidity. However, despite an increasing recognition of its importance, large studies evaluating the incidence patterns over time, risk factors and burden of CAP in COPD are currently lacking. METHODS: A retrospective observational study using a large UK-based database of linked primary and secondary care records was conducted...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160957/hospital-acquired-infections-current-trends-and-prevention
#8
REVIEW
Christine Boev, Elizabeth Kiss
Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are the primary cause of preventable death and disability among hospitalized patients. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), complications or infections secondary to either device implantation or surgery are referred to as HAIs. Specifically, the CDC monitors surgical site infections, central-line-associated bloodstream infection, catheter-associated urinary tract infections, and ventilator-associated pneumonias. This article explores HAIs specific to pathophysiology, epidemiology, and prevention, and how nurses can work together with other health care providers to decrease the incidence of these preventable complications...
March 2017: Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148226/trends-in-antimicrobial-resistance-and-empiric-antibiotic-therapy-of-bloodstream-infections-at-a-general-hospital-in-mid-norway-a-prospective-observational-study
#9
Arne Mehl, Bjørn Olav Åsvold, Angela Kümmel, Stian Lydersen, Julie Paulsen, Ingvild Haugan, Erik Solligård, Jan Kristian Damås, Stig Harthug, Tom-Harald Edna
BACKGROUND: The occurrence of bloodstream infection (BSI) and antimicrobial resistance have been increasing in many countries. We studied trends in antimicrobial resistance and empiric antibiotic therapy at a medium-sized general hospital in Mid-Norway. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2013, 1995 prospectively recorded episodes of BSI in 1719 patients aged 16-99 years were included. We analyzed the antimicrobial non-susceptibility according to place of acquisition, site of infection, microbe group, and time period...
February 2, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146340/serum-clara-cell-protein-and-atopic-phenotype-in-children-up-to-2%C3%A2-years-of-age
#10
Nevenka Ilic, Natasa Mihailovic
BACKGROUND: Low value of serum Clara cell protein (CC16) is associated with bronchial hyperreactivity in children. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the serum CC16 in relation to atopy and previously manifested LRTD. METHODS: In the population of 163 healthy 5- to 24-month-old children, atopy was determined by Phadiatop-infant (serum-specific IgE≥0.35 kUA/L), serum CC16 by ELISA, while data on previously manifested low respiratory tract diseases (LRTD) were collected from the Health Care Center database...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143414/impact-of-oral-hygiene-involving-toothbrushing-versus-chlorhexidine-in-the-prevention-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-a-randomized-study
#11
Claudia Fernanda de Lacerda Vidal, Aurora Karla de Lacerda Vidal, José Gildo de Moura Monteiro, Aracele Cavalcanti, Ana Paula Trindade Henriques, Márcia Oliveira, Michele Godoy, Mirella Coutinho, Pollyanna Dutra Sobral, Claudia Ângela Vilela, Bárbara Gomes, Marta Amorim Leandro, Ulisses Montarroyos, Ricardo de Alencar Ximenes, Heloísa Ramos Lacerda
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial pneumonia has correlated to dental plaque and to oropharynx colonization in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. The interruption of this process, by preventing colonization of pathogenic bacteria, represents a potential procedure for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). METHODS: The study design was a prospective, randomized trial to verify if oral hygiene through toothbrushing plus chlorhexidine in gel at 0.12% reduces the incidence of ventilatior-associated pneumonia, the duration of mechanical ventilation, the length of hospital stay and the mortality rate in ICUs, when compared to oral hygiene only with chlorhexidine, solution of 0...
January 31, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134768/unexpectedly-higher-morbidity-and-mortality-of-hospitalized-elderly-patients-associated-with-rhinovirus-compared-with-influenza-virus-respiratory-tract-infection
#12
Ivan F N Hung, Anna Jinxia Zhang, Kelvin K W To, Jasper F W Chan, Shawn H S Zhu, Ricky Zhang, Tuen-Ching Chan, Kwok-Hung Chan, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Rhinovirus is a common cause of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in adults, especially among the elderly and immunocompromised. Nevertheless, its clinical characteristics and mortality risks have not been well described. A retrospective analysis on a prospective cohort was conducted in a single teaching hospital center over a one-year period. We compared adult patients hospitalized for pneumonia caused by rhinovirus infection with those hospitalized for influenza infection during the same period...
January 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129510/factors-influencing-the-provision-of-oral-hygiene-care-following-stroke-an-application-of-the-theory-of-planned-behaviour
#13
Normaliza Ab Malik, Saari Mohamad Yatim, Otto L T Lam, Lijian Jin, Colman McGrath
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine "intention to" and "performance of" oral hygiene care to stroke patients using the Theory of Planned Behavior. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A large scale survey of 13 centers in Malaysia was conducted involving 806 nurses in relation to oral hygiene care intentions and practices. In addition, information on personal and environmental factors was collected. RESULTS: The response rate was 95.6% (778/806). The domains of the Theory of Planned Behavior were significantly associated with general intention to perform oral hygiene care: attitudes (β = 0...
January 27, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126327/serotype-specific-effectiveness-of-23-valent-pneumococcal-polysaccharide-vaccine-against-pneumococcal-pneumonia-in-adults-aged-65-years-or-older-a-multicentre-prospective-test-negative-design-study
#14
Motoi Suzuki, Bhim Gopal Dhoubhadel, Tomoko Ishifuji, Michio Yasunami, Makito Yaegashi, Norichika Asoh, Masayuki Ishida, Sugihiro Hamaguchi, Masahiro Aoshima, Koya Ariyoshi, Konosuke Morimoto
BACKGROUND: The serotype-specific effectiveness of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) against pneumococcal pneumonia has not been established in people aged 65 years or older. We assessed the effectiveness of PPV23 in this population. METHODS: For this multicentre, prospective study, we enrolled all individuals aged 65 years or older with community-onset pneumonia who visited four study hospitals in Japan between Sept 28, 2011, and Aug 23, 2014...
January 23, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125817/participation-of-necroptosis-in-the-host-response-to-acute-bacterial-pneumonia
#15
Danielle Ahn, Alice Prince
Common pulmonary pathogens, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus, as well as the host-adapted pathogens responsible for health care-associated pneumonias, such as the carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Serratia marcecsens, are able to activate cell death through the RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL cascade that causes necroptosis. Necroptosis can influence the pathogenesis of pneumonia through several mechanisms. Activation of this pathway can result in the loss of specific types of immune cells, especially macrophages, and, in so doing, contribute to host pathology through the loss of their critical immunoregulatory functions...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096867/nasal-nosocomial-myiasis-infection-caused-by-chrysomya-bezziana-diptera-calliphoridae-following-the-septicemia-a-case-report
#16
Seyed Farzin Mircheraghi, Seyed Farzam Mircheraghi, Hamed Ramezani Awal Riabi, Arezoo Parsapour
A 74 yr old woman from Gonabad, southern part of Khorasan Razavi Province of Iran was admitted to a Hospital of Gonabad, because of respiratory distress, exertional dyspnea and fever. Close contact with domestic animals, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and completely resolved pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in remote past, were notable parts of her past medical history. Due to clinical, paraclinical and radiographic findings and because of recent hospitalization, she was admitted to internal medicine ward with the diagnosis of health care associated pneumonia (HCAP)...
April 2016: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096000/effects-of-oral-care-with-glutamine-in-preventing-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-neurosurgical-intensive-care-unit-patients
#17
Hatice Kaya, Yüksel Turan, Yusuf Tunalı, Gülsün Özdemir Aydın, Neslihan Yüce, Şengül Gürbüz, Keziban Tosun
PURPOSE: The study was designed as a randomized, controlled, experimental study aiming to determine the effects of oral care with glutamine in preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients admitted to neurosurgical intensive care unit. METHODS: The universe consisted of patients who are admitted to neurosurgical intensive care unit between January 2014 and August 2015, while the sample consisted of 88 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were randomly selected...
February 2017: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093812/factors-predicting-incidence-of-post-operative-delirium-in-older-people-following-hip-fracture-surgery-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
T O Smith, A Cooper, G Peryer, R Griffiths, C Fox, J Cross
OBJECTIVE: Delirium is one of the most common complications following hip fracture surgery in older people. This study identified pre- and peri-operative factors associated with the development of post-operative delirium following hip fracture surgery. METHODS: Published and unpublished literature were searched to identify all evidence reporting variables on patient characteristics, on-admission, intra-operative and post-operative management assessing incident delirium in older people following hip fracture surgery...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092309/microbiota-targeted-therapies-on-the-intensive-care-unit
#19
Bastiaan W Haak, Marcel Levi, W Joost Wiersinga
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The composition and diversity of the microbiota of the human gut, skin, and several other sites is severely deranged in critically ill patients on the ICU, and it is likely that these disruptions can negatively affect outcome. We here review new and ongoing studies that investigate the use of microbiota-targeted therapeutics in the ICU, and provide recommendations for future research. RECENT FINDINGS: Practically every intervention in the ICU as well as the physiological effects of critical illness itself can have a profound impact on the gut microbiota...
January 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077751/performance-of-health-workers-using-an-electronic-algorithm-for-the-management-of-childhood-illness-in-tanzania-a-pilot-implementation-study
#20
Clotilde Rambaud-Althaus, Amani Shao, Josephine Samaka, Ndeniria Swai, Seneca Perri, Judith Kahama-Maro, Marc Mitchell, Valérie D'Acremont, Blaise Genton
In low-resource settings, where qualified health workers (HWs) are scarce and childhood mortality high, rational antimicrobial prescription for childhood illnesses is a challenge. To assess whether smartphones running guidelines, as compared with paper support, improve consultation process and rational use of medicines for children, a pilot cluster-randomized controlled study was conducted in Tanzania. Nine primary health-care facilities (HFs) were randomized into three arms: 1) paper algorithm, 2) electronic algorithm on a smartphone, and 3) control...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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