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Flagellar morphology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812570/independent-evolution-of-shape-and-motility-allows-evolutionary-flexibility-in-firmicutes-bacteria
#1
Fouad El Baidouri, Chris Venditti, Stuart Humphries
Functional morphological adaptation is an implicit assumption across many ecological studies. However, despite a few pioneering attempts to link bacterial form and function, functional morphology is largely unstudied in prokaryotes. One intriguing candidate for analysis is bacterial shape, as multiple lines of theory indicate that cell shape and motility should be strongly correlated. Here we present a large-scale use of modern phylogenetic comparative methods to explore this relationship across 325 species of the phylum Firmicutes...
November 21, 2016: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812258/chromosomal-flhb1-gene-of-the-alphaproteobacterium-azospirillum-brasilense-sp245-is-essential-for-correct-assembly-of-both-constitutive-polar-flagellum-and-inducible-lateral-flagella
#2
Yulia Filip'echeva, Andrei Shelud'ko, Alexei Prilipov, Elizaveta Telesheva, Dmitry Mokeev, Andrei Burov, Lilia Petrova, Elena Katsy
Azospirillum brasilense has the ability of swimming and swarming motility owing to the work of a constitutive polar flagellum and inducible lateral flagella, respectively. The interplay between these flagellar systems is poorly understood. One of the key elements of the flagellar export apparatus is the protein FlhB. Two predicted flhB genes are present in the genome of A. brasilense Sp245 (accession nos. HE577327-HE577333). Experimental evidence obtained here indicates that the chromosomal coding sequence (CDS) AZOBR_150177 (flhB1) of Sp245 is essential for the production of both types of flagella...
August 15, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764892/expression-and-function-of-spineless-orthologs-correlate-with-distal-deutocerebral-appendage-morphology-across-arthropoda
#3
Emily V W Setton, Logan E March, Erik D Nolan, Tamsin E Jones, Holly Cho, Ward C Wheeler, Cassandra G Extavour, Prashant P Sharma
The deutocerebral (second) head segment is putatively homologous across Arthropoda, in spite of remarkable disparity of form and function of deutocerebral appendages. In Mandibulata this segment bears a pair of sensory antennae, whereas in Chelicerata the same segment bears a pair of feeding appendages called chelicerae. Part of the evidence for the homology of deutocerebral appendages is the conserved function of homothorax (hth), which has been shown to specify antennal or cheliceral fate in the absence of Hox signaling, in both mandibulate and chelicerate exemplars...
July 29, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741699/the-flagellar-apparatus-of-the-glaucophyte-cyanophora-cuspidata
#4
Aaron A Heiss, Alaric W Heiss, Kaleigh Lukacs, Eunsoo Kim
Glaucophytes are a kingdom-scale lineage of unicellular algae with uniquely underived plastids. The genus Cyanophora is of particular interest because it is the only glaucophyte that is a flagellate throughout its life cycle, making its morphology more directly comparable than other glaucophytes to other eukaryote flagellates. The ultrastructure of Cyanophora has already been studied, primarily in the 1960s and 1970s. However, the usefulness of that work has been undermined by its own limitations, subsequent misinterpretations, and a recent taxonomic revision of the genus...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686696/morphological-and-transcriptomic-evidence-for-ammonium-induction-of-sexual-reproduction-in-thalassiosira-pseudonana-and-other-centric-diatoms
#5
Eric R Moore, Briana S Bullington, Alexandra J Weisberg, Yuan Jiang, Jeff Chang, Kimberly H Halsey
The reproductive strategy of diatoms includes asexual and sexual phases, but in many species, including the model centric diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana, sexual reproduction has never been observed. Furthermore, the environmental factors that trigger sexual reproduction in diatoms are not understood. Although genome sequences of a few diatoms are available, little is known about the molecular basis for sexual reproduction. Here we show that ammonium reliably induces the key sexual morphologies, including oogonia, auxospores, and spermatogonia, in two strains of T...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552195/biallelic-mutations-in-cfap43-and-cfap44-cause-male-infertility-with-multiple-morphological-abnormalities-of-the-sperm-flagella
#6
Shuyan Tang, Xiong Wang, Weiyu Li, Xiaoyu Yang, Zheng Li, Wangjie Liu, Caihua Li, Zijue Zhu, Lingxiang Wang, Jiaxiong Wang, Ling Zhang, Xiaoling Sun, Erlei Zhi, Hongyan Wang, Hong Li, Li Jin, Yang Luo, Jian Wang, Shenmin Yang, Feng Zhang
Sperm motility is vital to human reproduction. Malformations of sperm flagella can cause male infertility. Men with multiple morphological abnormalities of the flagella (MMAF) have abnormal spermatozoa with absent, short, coiled, bent, and/or irregular-caliber flagella, which impair sperm motility. The known human MMAF-associated genes, such as DNAH1, only account for fewer than 45% of affected individuals. Pathogenic mechanisms in the genetically unexplained MMAF remain to be elucidated. Here, we conducted genetic analyses by using whole-exome sequencing and genome-wide comparative genomic hybridization microarrays in a multi-center cohort of 30 Han Chinese men affected by MMAF...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487689/cj0440c-affects-flagella-formation-and-in-vivo-colonization-of-erythromycin-susceptible-and-resistant-campylobacter-jejuni
#7
Haihong Hao, Xia Fang, Jing Han, Steven L Foley, Yulian Wang, Guyue Cheng, Xu Wang, Lingli Huang, Menghong Dai, Zhenli Liu, Zonghui Yuan
Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common foodborne pathogen worldwide. A putative transcriptional regulator, Cj0440c, was up-regulated in the erythromycin-resistant C. jejuni, however, the precise role of Cj0440c is yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to determine the biological functions of Cj0440c. The Cj0440c isogenic mutants were constructed from erythromycin-susceptible C. jejuni NCTC 11168 (S) and -resistant C. jejuni 68-ER (R), designating as SM and RM, respectively. The isogenic Cj0440c mutants (SM and RM) and parental strains (S and R) were subjected to microarray and qRT-PCR analysis to examine the transcriptional profile changes contributed by Cj0440c...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482935/nerolidol-the-main-constituent-of-piper-aduncum-essential-oil-has-anti-leishmania-braziliensis-activity
#8
Ligia Fernanda Ceole, Maria DAS Graças Cardoso, Maurilio José Soares
Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is a protozoan that causes mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, which is an infectious disease that affects more than 12 million people worldwide. The available treatment is limited, has side-effects or is inefficient. In a search for alternative compounds of natural origin, we tested the microbicidal activity of Piper aduncum essential oil (PaEO) on this parasite. Our data showed that PaEO had an inhibitory effect on the growth of L. braziliensis promastigotes with an IC50/24 h=77·9 µg mL-1...
May 9, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444418/role-of-flagella-in-the-pathogenesis-of-helicobacter-pylori
#9
REVIEW
Haiying Gu
This review aimed to investigate the role of Helicobacter pylori flagella on the pathogenicity of this bacterium in humans. Helicobacter pylori is a flagellated pathogen that colonizes the human gastroduodenal mucosa and produces inflammation, and is responsible for gastrointestinal disease. Its pathogenesis is attributed to colonization and virulence factors. The primary function of H. pylori flagella is to provide motility. We believe that H. pylori flagella play an important role in the colonization of the gastrointestinal mucosa...
July 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430876/ift25-an-intraflagellar-transporter-protein-dispensable-for-ciliogenesis-in-somatic-cells-is-essential-for-sperm-flagella-formation
#10
Hong Liu, Wei Li, Yong Zhang, Zhengang Zhang, Xuejun Shang, Ling Zhang, Shiyang Zhang, Yanwei Li, Andres V Somoza, Brandon Delpi, George L Gerton, James A Foster, Rex A Hess, Gregory J Pazour, Zhibing Zhang
Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is a conserved mechanism essential for the assembly and maintenance of most eukaryotic cilia and flagella. However, IFT25, a component of the IFT complex is not required for the formation of cilia in somatic tissues. In mice, the gene is highly expressed in the testis, and its expression is up-regulated during the final phase when sperm flagella are formed. To investigate the role of IFT25 in sperm flagella formation, the gene was specifically disrupted in male germ cells. All homozygous knockout mice survived to adulthood and did not show any gross abnormalities...
April 18, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398840/the-ntry-ntrx-system-of-sinorhizobium-meliloti-gr4-regulates-motility-eps-i-production-and-nitrogen-metabolism-but-is-dispensable-for-symbiotic-nitrogen-fixation
#11
Nieves Calatrava-Morales, Joaquina Nogales, Kinia Ameztoy, Bart van Steenbergen, María J Soto
Sinorhizobium meliloti can translocate over surfaces. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms that control this trait and its relevance for establishing symbiosis with alfalfa plants. To gain insights into this field, we isolated Tn5 mutants of S. meliloti GR4 with impaired surface motility. In mutant strain GRS577, the transposon interrupted the ntrY gene encoding the sensor kinase of the NtrY/NtrX two-component regulatory system. GRS577 is impaired in flagella synthesis and overproduces succinoglycan, which is responsible for increased biofilm formation...
July 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357612/the-tailored-sperm-cell
#12
Luis Alvarez
Sperm are ubiquitous and yet unique. Genes involved in sexual reproduction are more divergent than most genes expressed in non-reproductive tissues. It has been argued that sperm have been altered during evolution more than any somatic cell. Profound variations are found at the level of morphology, motility, search strategy for the egg, and the underlying signalling mechanisms. Sperm evolutionary adaptation may have arisen from sperm competition (sperm from rival males compete within the female's body to fertilize eggs), cryptic female choice (the female's ability to choose among different stored sperm), social cues tuning sperm quality or from the site of fertilization (internal vs...
May 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256234/vancomycin-reduces-cell-wall-stiffness-and-slows-swim-speed-of-the-lyme-disease-bacterium
#13
Michael W Harman, Alex E Hamby, Ross Boltyanskiy, Alexia A Belperron, Linda K Bockenstedt, Holger Kress, Eric R Dufresne, Charles W Wolgemuth
Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochete that causes Lyme disease, is a tick-transmitted pathogen that requires motility to invade and colonize mammalian and tick hosts. These bacteria use a unique undulating flat-wave shape to penetrate and propel themselves through host tissues. Previous mathematical modeling has suggested that the morphology and motility of these spirochetes depends crucially on the flagellar/cell wall stiffness ratio. Here, we test this prediction using the antibiotic vancomycin to weaken the cell wall...
February 28, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208212/the-function-of-the-ocelloid-and-piston-in-the-dinoflagellate-erythropsidinium-gymnodiniales-dinophyceae
#14
Fernando Gómez
The marine dinoflagellate Erythropsidinium possesses an ocelloid, the most elaborate photoreceptor organelle known in a unicellular organism, and a piston, a fast contractile appendage unknown in any other organism. The ocelloid is able to rotate, often before the cell swims. The ocelloid contains lenses that function to concentrate light. The flagellar propulsion is atrophied, and the piston is responsible for locomotion through successive extensions and contractions. During the "locomotion mode", the contraction is ~4 times faster than the extension...
June 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073072/life-cycle-of-blastocrithidia-papi-sp-n-kinetoplastea-trypanosomatidae-in-pyrrhocoris-apterus-hemiptera-pyrrhocoridae
#15
Alexander O Frolov, Marina N Malysheva, Anna I Ganyukova, Vyacheslav Yurchenko, Alexei Y Kostygov
Blastocrithidia papi sp. n. is a cyst-forming trypanosomatid parasitizing firebugs (Pyrrhocoris apterus). It is a member of the Blastocrithidia clade and a very close relative of B. largi, to which it is almost identical through its SSU rRNA gene sequence. However, considering the SL RNA gene these two species represent quite distinct, not even related typing units. Morphological analysis of the new species revealed peculiar or even unique features, which may be useful for future taxonomic revision of the genus Blastocrithidia...
February 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821444/penicillin-binding-protein-3-is-essential-for-growth-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#16
Wei Chen, Yong-Mei Zhang, Christopher Davies
Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) function as transpeptidases, carboxypeptidases, or endopeptidases during peptidoglycan synthesis in bacteria. As the well-known drug targets for β-lactam antibiotics, the physiological functions of PBPs and whether they are essential for growth are of significant interest. The pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa poses a particular risk to immunocompromised and cystic fibrosis patients, and infections caused by this pathogen are difficult to treat due to antibiotic resistance...
January 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816016/comparative-ultrastructure-of-fornicate-excavates-including-a-novel-free-living-relative-of-diplomonads-aduncisulcus-paluster-gen-et-sp-nov
#17
Naoji Yubuki, Sam S C Huang, Brian S Leander
The Fornicata (Excavata) is a group of microbial eukaryotes consisting of both free-living lineages (e.g., Carpediemonas) and parasitic lineages (e.g. Giardia and Retortamonas) that share several molecular and ultrastructural traits. Carpediemonas-like organisms (CLOs) are free-living lineages that diverged early within the Fornicata, making them important for inferring the early evolutionary history of the group. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of free-living fornicates, including sequences from environmental PCR surveys, have demonstrated that CLOs form six different lineages...
December 2016: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803076/mutational-analysis-and-overproduction-effects-of-motx-an-essential-component-for-motor-function-of-na-driven-polar-flagella-of-vibrio
#18
Norihiro Takekawa, Seiji Kojima, Michio Homma
The bacterial flagellar motor is a rotary motor complex composed of various proteins. The motor contains a central rod, multiple ring-like structures and stators. The Na(+)-driven polar flagellar motor of the marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus has a specific ring, called the 'T-ring', which consists of two periplasmic proteins, MotX and MotY. The T-ring is essential for assembly of the torque-generating unit, the PomA/PomB stator complex, into the motor. To investigate the role of the T-ring for motor function, we performed random mutagenesis of the motX gene on a plasmid...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798045/whole-exome-sequencing-of-familial-cases-of-multiple-morphological-abnormalities-of-the-sperm-flagella-mmaf-reveals-new-dnah1-mutations
#19
Amir Amiri-Yekta, Charles Coutton, Zine-Eddine Kherraf, Thomas Karaouzène, Pauline Le Tanno, Mohammad Hossein Sanati, Marjan Sabbaghian, Navid Almadani, Mohammad Ali Sadighi Gilani, Seyedeh Hanieh Hosseini, Salahadin Bahrami, Abbas Daneshipour, Maurizio Bini, Christophe Arnoult, Roberto Colombo, Hamid Gourabi, Pierre F Ray
STUDY QUESTION: Can whole-exome sequencing (WES) of patients with multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella (MMAF) identify causal mutations in new genes or mutations in the previously identified dynein axonemal heavy chain 1 (DNAH1) gene? SUMMARY ANSWER: WES for six families with men affected by MMAF syndrome allowed the identification of DNAH1 mutations in four affected men distributed in two out of the six families but no new candidate genes were identified...
October 26, 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686865/the-architecture-of-the-cytoplasmic-region-of-type-iii-secretion-systems
#20
Fumiaki Makino, Dakang Shen, Naoko Kajimura, Akihiro Kawamoto, Panayiota Pissaridou, Henry Oswin, Maria Pain, Isabel Murillo, Keiichi Namba, Ariel J Blocker
Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are essential devices in the virulence of many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. They mediate injection of protein effectors of virulence from bacteria into eukaryotic host cells to manipulate them during infection. T3SSs involved in virulence (vT3SSs) are evolutionarily related to bacterial flagellar protein export apparatuses (fT3SSs), which are essential for flagellar assembly and cell motility. The structure of the external and transmembrane parts of both fT3SS and vT3SS is increasingly well-defined...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
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