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class H Diabetes

H Malmström, P E Wändell, M J Holzmann, J Ärnlöv, I Jungner, N Hammar, G Walldius, A C Carlsson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Both high and low fasting glucose has been associated with an increased mortality among individuals without diabetes. This J-shaped association has also been shown for HbA1c in relation to all-cause mortality. High fructosamine is associated with increased mortality. In this study we aim to evaluate if low fructosamine is also associated with increased mortality in non-diabetic subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 215,011 subjects from the AMORIS cohort undergoing occupational health screening or primary care in Stockholm, Sweden...
September 2, 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Steffi Kopprasch, Srirangan Dheban, Kai Schuhmann, Aimin Xu, Klaus-Martin Schulte, Charmaine J Simeonovic, Peter E H Schwarz, Stefan R Bornstein, Andrej Shevchenko, Juergen Graessler
OBJECTIVE: Glucolipotoxicity is a major pathophysiological mechanism in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). We aimed to detect subtle changes in the circulating lipid profile by shotgun lipidomics analyses and to associate them with four different insulin sensitivity indices. METHODS: The cross-sectional study comprised 90 men with a broad range of insulin sensitivity including normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n = 33), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, n = 32) and newly detected T2D (n = 25)...
2016: PloS One
Tory J Andrews, Robert D Cox, Christina Parker, James Kolb
BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor medications are a class of antihyperglycemic agents that increase urinary glucose excretion by interfering with the reabsorption of glucose in the proximal renal tubules. In May of 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration released a warning concerning a potential increased risk of ketoacidosis and ketosis in patients taking these medications. CASE REPORT: We present a case of a 57-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus taking a combination of canagliflozin and metformin who presented with progressive altered mental status over the previous 2 days...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Adam Hulman, Rebecca K Simmons, Dorte Vistisen, Adam G Tabák, Jacqueline M Dekker, Marjan Alssema, Femke Rutters, Anitra D M Koopman, Thomas P J Solomon, John P Kirwan, Torben Hansen, Anna Jonsson, Anette Prior Gjesing, Hans Eiberg, Arne Astrup, Oluf Pedersen, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Daniel R Witte, Kristine Færch
We aimed to examine heterogeneity in glucose response curves during an oral glucose tolerance test with multiple measurements and to compare cardiometabolic risk profiles between identified glucose response curve groups. We analyzed data from 1,267 individuals without diabetes from five studies in Denmark, the Netherlands and the USA. Each study included between 5 and 11 measurements at different time points during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test, resulting in 9,602 plasma glucose measurements. Latent class trajectories with a cubic specification for time were fitted to identify different patterns of plasma glucose change during the oral glucose tolerance test...
October 3, 2016: Endocrine
Vinicius G Maltarollo, Sheila C Araujo, Gustavo H G Trossini, Kathia M Honorio
AIM: Type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome are two diseases related to disorders of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and insulin resistance. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a class of nuclear receptors that control the metabolism of lipids/carbohydrates and are considered targets for both diseases. PPAR affinity and selectivity are critical points to design drug candidates with appropriated pharmacodynamic/kinetic profiles. MATERIALS & METHODS: Hologram quantitative structure-activity relationships studies were conducted, as well molecular docking and molecular interaction field calculations, in order to explain affinity and selectivity of selected compounds...
October 2016: Future Medicinal Chemistry
Juan P Frías, Cristian Guja, Elise Hardy, Azazuddin Ahmed, Fang Dong, Peter Öhman, Serge A Jabbour
BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce glycaemia and weight, and improve cardiovascular risk factors via different mechanisms. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of co-initiation of the GLP-1 receptor agonist exenatide and the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin with exenatide or dapagliflozin alone in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by metformin. METHODS: DURATION-8 was a 28 week, multicentre, double-blind, randomised, active-controlled phase 3 trial done at 109 sites in six countries...
September 15, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
K H Mikkelsen, F K Knop, T Vilsbøll, M Frost, J Hallas, A Pottegård
AIMS: To investigate whether the use of antibiotics from infancy to adolescence influences the risk of Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study, including all Type 1 diabetes cases in Denmark among children born between 1997 and 2012 (n = 1578). Odds ratios associating Type 1 diabetes with use of antibiotics were calculated using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall, we found no association between the use of antibiotics and risk of Type 1 diabetes...
September 20, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Jennifer H Han, Kirsha Gordon, Julie A Womack, Cynthia L Gibert, David A Leaf, David Rimland, Maria C Rodriguez-Barradas, Gregory P Bisson
OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes is increasingly common in HIV-infected individuals. The objective of this study was to compare the glycemic effectiveness of oral diabetic medications among patients with and without HIV infection. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study was conducted among HIV-infected and uninfected veterans with type 2 diabetes initiating diabetic medications between 1999 and 2010. Generalized estimating equations were used to compare changes in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) through the year after medication initiation, adjusting for baseline HbA1c level and clinical covariates...
September 15, 2016: Diabetes Care
Chris de Graaf, Dan Donnelly, Denise Wootten, Jesper Lau, Patrick M Sexton, Laurence J Miller, Jung-Mo Ahn, Jiayu Liao, Madeleine M Fletcher, Dehua Yang, Alastair J H Brown, Caihong Zhou, Jiejie Deng, Ming-Wei Wang
The glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is a class B G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that mediates the action of GLP-1, a peptide hormone secreted from three major tissues in humans, enteroendocrine L cells in the distal intestine, α cells in the pancreas, and the central nervous system, which exerts important actions useful in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity, including glucose homeostasis and regulation of gastric motility and food intake. Peptidic analogs of GLP-1 have been successfully developed with enhanced bioavailability and pharmacological activity...
October 2016: Pharmacological Reviews
Francesco Rubino, David M Nathan, Robert H Eckel, Philip R Schauer, K George M M Alberti, Paul Z Zimmet, Stefano Del Prato, Linong Ji, Shaukat M Sadikot, William H Herman, Stephanie A Amiel, Lee M Kaplan, Gaspar Taroncher-Oldenburg, David E Cummings
BACKGROUND: Despite growing evidence that bariatric/metabolic surgery powerfully improves type 2 diabetes (T2D), existing diabetes treatment algorithms do not include surgical options. AIM: The 2nd Diabetes Surgery Summit (DSS-II), an international consensus conference, was convened in collaboration with leading diabetes organizations to develop global guidelines to inform clinicians and policymakers about benefits and limitations of metabolic surgery for T2D. METHODS: A multidisciplinary group of 48 international clinicians/scholars (75% nonsurgeons), including representatives of leading diabetes organizations, participated in DSS-II...
July 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Matthew J Kolar, Siddhesh S Kamat, William H Parsons, Edwin A Homan, Tim Maher, Odile D Peroni, Ismail Syed, Karianne Fjeld, Anders Molven, Barbara B Kahn, Benjamin F Cravatt, Alan Saghatelian
A recently discovered class of endogenous mammalian lipids, branched fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs), possesses anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we identified and validated carboxyl ester lipase (CEL), a pancreatic enzyme hydrolyzing cholesteryl esters and other dietary lipids, as a FAHFA hydrolase. Variants of CEL have been linked to maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 8 (MODY8), and to chronic pancreatitis. We tested the FAHFA hydrolysis activity of the CEL MODY8 variant and found a modest increase in activity as compared with that of the normal enzyme...
August 23, 2016: Biochemistry
E Castillo-Gómez, B Oliveira, D Tapken, S Bertrand, C Klein-Schmidt, H Pan, P Zafeiriou, J Steiner, B Jurek, R Trippe, H Prüss, W-H Zimmermann, D Bertrand, H Ehrenreich, M Hollmann
Autoantibodies of the IgG class against N-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor subunit NR1 (NMDAR1) were first described in anti-NMDAR encephalitis and seen as disease indicators. Recent work on together over 5000 individuals challenged this exclusive view by showing age-dependently up to >20% NMDAR1-autoantibody seroprevalence with comparable immunoglobulin class and titer distribution across health and disease. The key question therefore is to understand the properties of these autoantibodies, also in healthy carriers, in order to assess secondary complications and possible contributions to neuropsychiatric disease...
August 9, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Daniel S Nuyujukian, Janette Beals, Haixiao Huang, Ann Johnson, Ann Bullock, Spero M Manson, Luohua Jiang
STUDY OBJECTIVES: We examine the association between self-reported sleep duration and diabetes incidence in a national sample of American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) with prediabetes. METHODS: Data were derived from the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention demonstration project. This longitudinal analysis included 1,899 participants with prediabetes recruited between January 1, 2006 and July 31, 2009 who reported sleep duration and completed all 16 classes of the lifestyle intervention consisting of diet, exercise, and behavior modification sessions to promote weight loss...
July 19, 2016: Sleep
Paul L Hess, Daniel M Wojdyla, Sana M Al-Khatib, Yuliya Lokhnygina, Lars Wallentin, Paul W Armstrong, Matthew T Roe, E Magnus Ohman, Robert A Harrington, John H Alexander, Harvey D White, Frans Van de Werf, Jonathan P Piccini, Claes Held, Philip E Aylward, David J Moliterno, Kenneth W Mahaffey, Pierluigi Tricoci
IMPORTANCE: In the current therapeutic era, the risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD) after non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE ACS) has not been characterized completely. OBJECTIVE: To determine the cumulative incidence of SCD during long-term follow-up after NSTE ACS, to develop a risk model and risk score for SCD after NSTE ACS, and to assess the association between recurrent events after the initial ACS presentation and the risk for SCD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This pooled cohort analysis merged individual data from 48 286 participants in 4 trials: the Apixaban for Prevention of Acute Ischemic Events 2 (APPRAISE-2), Study of Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO), Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome (TRACER), and Targeted Platelet Inhibition to Clarify the Optimal Strategy to Medically Manage Acute Coronary Syndromes (TRILOGY ACS) trials...
April 1, 2016: JAMA Cardiology
H Dai, J L Ellis, D A Sinclair, B P Hubbard
The NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 plays key roles in numerous cellular processes including DNA repair, gene transcription, cell differentiation, and metabolism. Overexpression of SIRT1 protects against a number of age-related diseases including diabetes, cancer, and Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, overexpression of SIRT1 in the murine brain extends lifespan. A number of small-molecule sirtuin-activating compounds (STACs) that increase SIRT1 activity in vitro and in cells have been developed. While the mechanism for how these compounds act on SIRT1 was once controversial, it is becoming increasingly clear that they directly interact with SIRT1 and enhance its activity through an allosteric mechanism...
2016: Methods in Enzymology
Celine Q F Klessens, Malu Zandbergen, Ron Wolterbeek, Jan A Bruijn, Ton J Rabelink, Ingeborg M Bajema, Daphne H T IJpelaar
BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays a role in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in type 2 diabetes. Although macrophages have been found in experimental models of DN, little is known regarding the presence of macrophages in patients with DN. Therefore, we investigated the presence and phenotype of glomerular and interstitial macrophages in relation to clinical and histopathological parameters in patients with DN. METHODS: Renal autopsy samples were obtained from 88 type 2 diabetic patients with histologically proven DN and stained for CD68 and CD163 as general and M2/anti-inflammatory markers of macrophages...
July 14, 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Alicia Sánchez-de-la-Torre, Jorge Abad, Joaquín Durán-Cantolla, Olga Mediano, Valentín Cabriada, María José Masdeu, Joaquín Terán, Juan Fernando Masa, Mónica de la Peña, Albina Aldomá, Fernando Worner, Joan Valls, Ferran Barbé, Manuel Sánchez-de-la-Torre
BACKGROUND: The cardiovascular consequences of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) differ by sex. We hypothesized that sex influences the severity of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in patients with OSA. OSA was defined as an apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI)>15 events·h-1. We evaluated the severity of ACS according to the ejection fraction, Killip class, number of diseased vessels, number of stents implanted and plasma peak troponin level. METHODS: We included 663 men (mean±SD, AHI 37±18 events·h-1) and 133 women (AHI 35±18 events·h-1) with OSA...
2016: PloS One
Priyesh A Patel, Li Liang, Prateeti Khazanie, Bradley G Hammill, Gregg C Fonarow, Clyde W Yancy, Deepak L Bhatt, Lesley H Curtis, Adrian F Hernandez
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus, heart failure (HF), and chronic kidney disease are common comorbidities, but overall use and safety of antihyperglycemic medications (AHMs) among patients with these comorbidities are poorly understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using Get With the Guidelines-Heart Failure and linked Medicare Part D data, we assessed AHM use within 90 days of hospital discharge among HF patients with diabetes mellitus discharged from Get With the Guidelines-Heart Failure hospitals between January 1, 2006, and October 1, 2011...
July 2016: Circulation. Heart Failure
Matthias H Tschöp, Brian Finan, Christoffer Clemmensen, Vasily Gelfanov, Diego Perez-Tilve, Timo D Müller, Richard D DiMarchi
Many complex diseases have historically proven to be defiant to the best mono-therapeutic approaches. Several examples of combination therapies have largely overcome such challenges, notably for the treatment of severe hypertension and tuberculosis. Obesity and its consequences, such as type 2 diabetes, have proven to be equally resistant to therapeutic approaches based on single medicines. Proper management of type 2 diabetes often requires adjunctive medications, and the recent registration of a few compound mixtures has set the precedent for combinatorial treatment of obesity...
July 12, 2016: Cell Metabolism
Rita A Gómez-Díaz, Elisa Nishimura-Meguro, Eulalia Garrido-Magaña, Lorena Lizárraga-Paulin, Blanca E Aguilar-Herrera, Carolina Bekker-Méndez, Roberto Medina-Santillán, Rodrigo Barquera, Rafael Mondragón-González, Niels H Wacher
BACKGROUND: Certain HLA class II haplotypes have long been related with the risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The presence of the HLA haplotype DRB1*04/DQA1*03/DQB1*03:02, together with specific β-cell autoantibodies, contributes to the development and/or severity of insulin deficiency in type 1 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of HLA risk haplotype HLA-DRB1/-DQA1/-DQB1 with β-cell function and antibody markers in recent-onset type 1 diabetes patients, their siblings, and controls...
May 2016: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
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