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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545784/pro-and-antiarrhythmic-actions-of-sulfonylureas-mechanistic-and-clinical-evidence
#1
REVIEW
Charles E Leonard, Sean Hennessy, Xu Han, David S Siscovick, James H Flory, Rajat Deo
Sulfonylureas are the most commonly used second-line drug class for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). While the cardiovascular safety of sulfonylureas has been examined in several trials and nonrandomized studies, little is known of their specific effects on sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) and related serious arrhythmic outcomes. This knowledge gap is striking, because persons with DM are at increased risk of SCA. In this review, we explore the influence of sulfonylureas on the risk of serious arrhythmias, with specific foci on ischemic preconditioning, cardiac excitability, and serious hypoglycemia as putative mechanisms...
May 22, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544369/american-association-of-clinical-endocrinologists-2017
#2
EDITORIAL
Abigail E Dove, Payal H Marathe, Helen X Gao, Kelly L Close
The 26th annual scientific and clinical sessions of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) gathered in Austin, TX, USA from May 3-7, 2017. The meeting included little in the way of new data, but was rich in commentary from leaders in the diabetes field, particularly with regard to sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonists. In a deep-dive session on the renal effects of SGLT-2 inhibitors, both Dr Ralph DeFronzo and DrMatthew Weir were extremely positive about the renal benefit of these agents and expressed strong confidence that the benefits extend to all members of the class...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515269/effect-of-omega-3-supplementation-on-neuropathy-in-type-1-diabetes-a-12-month-pilot-trial
#3
Evan J H Lewis, Bruce A Perkins, Leif E Lovblom, Richard P Bazinet, Thomas M S Wolever, Vera Bril
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that 12 months of seal oil omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) supplementation will stop the known progression of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSP) in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). METHODS: Individuals with T1DM and evidence of DSP as determined by a Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Score ≥1 were recruited to participate in a single-arm, open-label trial of seal oil ω-3 PUFA supplementation (10 mL·d(-1); 750 mg eicosapentaenoic acid, 560 mg docosapentaenoic acid, and 1,020 mg docosahexaenoic acid) for 1 year...
May 17, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485264/effects-of-nwt-03-an-egg-protein-hydrolysate-on-blood-pressure-in-normotensive-high-normotensive-and-mild-hypertensive-men-and-women-a-dose-finding-study
#4
Jogchum Plat, Nadine Severins, Steve Morrison, Ronald P Mensink
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are important agents in blood pressure (BP) management. It was recently shown that the egg-protein hydrolysate NWT-03 inhibited ACE in Zucker diabetic fatty rats. We therefore designed a dose-finding study to assess the effects of 1, 2 and 5 g NWT-03 on daytime, 36-h, and night-time systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP) in ninety-two generally healthy subjects with normal BP (n 29), high-normal BP (n 34) or mild hypertension (n 29). The study had a cross-over design with six treatment arms (1 g NWT-03 or placebo in period 1 and placebo or 1 g NWT-03 in period 2, 2 g NTW-03 or placebo in period 1 and placebo or 2 g NWT-03 in period 2, or 5 g NTW-03 or placebo in period 1 and placebo or 5 g NTW-03 in period 2)...
May 9, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474736/effect-of-out-of-pocket-cost-on-medication-initiation-adherence-and-persistence-among-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-the-diabetes-study-of-northern-california-distance
#5
Andrew J Karter, Melissa M Parker, Matthew D Solomon, Courtney R Lyles, Alyce S Adams, Howard H Moffet, Mary E Reed
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of out-of-pocket (OOP) cost on nonadherence to classes of cardiometabolic medications among patients with diabetes. DATA SOURCES/SETTING: Electronic health records from a large, health care delivery system for 223,730 patients with diabetes prescribed 842,899 new cardiometabolic medications during 2006-2012. STUDY DESIGN: Observational, new prescription cohort study of the effect of OOP cost on medication initiation and adherence...
May 5, 2017: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461573/genetic-and-small-molecule-disruption-of-the-aid-rad51-axis-similarly-protects-nonobese-diabetic-mice-from-type-1-diabetes-through-expansion-of-regulatory-b-lymphocytes
#6
Jeremy J Ratiu, Jeremy J Racine, Muneer G Hasham, Qiming Wang, Jane A Branca, Harold D Chapman, Jing Zhu, Nina Donghia, Vivek Philip, William H Schott, Clive Wasserfall, Mark A Atkinson, Kevin D Mills, Caroline M Leeth, David V Serreze
B lymphocytes play a key role in type 1 diabetes (T1D) development by serving as a subset of APCs preferentially supporting the expansion of autoreactive pathogenic T cells. As a result of their pathogenic importance, B lymphocyte-targeted therapies have received considerable interest as potential T1D interventions. Unfortunately, the B lymphocyte-directed T1D interventions tested to date failed to halt β cell demise. IgG autoantibodies marking humans at future risk for T1D indicate that B lymphocytes producing them have undergone the affinity-maturation processes of class switch recombination and, possibly, somatic hypermutation...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452063/risk-factors-of-adverse-health-outcomes-after-hospital-discharge-modifiable-by-clinical-pharmacist-interventions-a-review-with-a-systematic-approach
#7
REVIEW
B Morath, T Mayer, A F J Send, T Hoppe-Tichy, W E Haefeli, H M Seidling
AIM: This review assessed the evidence on risk factors for the occurrence of adverse health outcomes after discharge (i.e. unplanned readmission or adverse drug event after discharge) that are potentially modifiable by clinical pharmacist interventions. The findings were compared with patient characteristics reported in guidelines that supposedly indicate a high risk of drug-related problems. METHODS: First, guidelines and risk assessment tools were searched for patient characteristics indicating a high risk of drug-related problems...
April 27, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434472/tai-chi-with-mental-imagery-theory-improves-soleus-h-reflex-and-nerve-conduction-velocity-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#8
Abdulrahman Alsubiheen, Jerrold Petrofsky, Noha Daher, Everett Lohman, Edward Balbas, Haneul Lee
OBJECTIVES: Diabetes is a disease that leads to damage to the peripheral nerves which may eventually cause balance instability. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks of Tai Chi (TC) training combined with mental imagery (MI) on soleus H-reflex and nerve conduction velocity (NCV) of the sural and superficial peroneal nerves in people with diabetes. DESIGNS: Quasi-experimental, one group pretest-posttest design. SETTING: Human Research Laboratory...
April 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431776/gliclazide
#9
Fatmah A M Al-Omary
Gliclazide is a second-generation oral hypoglycemic drug used for the treatment of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. It belongs to the sulfonylurea class that stimulates insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells by inhibiting ATP-dependent potassium channels. Gliclazide also possesses unique antioxidant properties and other beneficial hemobiological effects. This profile represents a comprehensive description of the physical properties, chemical synthesis, spectroscopic characterization (FTIR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, UV, and single-crystal X-ray), methods of analysis, pharmacological actions, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the title drug...
2017: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426886/risk-of-stroke-in-chronic-heart-failure-patients-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-but-without-atrial-fibrillation-analysis-of-the-charm-preserved-and-i-preserve-trials
#10
Azmil H Abdul-Rahim, Ana-Cristina Perez, Rachael L MacIsaac, Pardeep S Jhund, Brian L Claggett, Peter E Carson, Michel Komajda, Robert S McKelvie, Michael R Zile, Karl Swedberg, Salim Yusuf, Marc A Pfeffer, Scott D Solomon, Gregory Y H Lip, Kennedy R Lees, John J V McMurray
Aims: The incidence and predictors of stroke in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HF-PEF), but without atrial fibrillation (AF), are unknown. We described the incidence of stroke in HF-PEF patients with and without AF and predictors of stroke in those without AF. Methods and results: We pooled data from the CHARM-Preserved and I-Preserve trials. Using Cox regression, we derived a model for stroke in patients without AF in this cohort and compared its performance with a published model in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF)-predictive variables: age, body mass index, New York Heart Association class, history of stroke, and insulin-treated diabetes...
March 7, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422144/risk-and-prediction-of-sudden-cardiac-death-and-ventricular-arrhythmias-for-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#11
Tze-Fan Chao, Chia-Jen Liu, Ta-Chuan Tuan, Su-Jung Chen, Tzeng-Ji Chen, Gregory Y H Lip, Shih-Ann Chen
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the most devastating manifestation of ventricular arrhythmias (VAs), and is the leading cause of mortality among atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. The goal of the present study was to investigate the incidence of SCD/VAs amongst patients with and without AF. We also aimed to identify important risk factors of SCD/VAs among AF patients. Using the "National Health Insurance Research Database" in Taiwan, a total of 352,656 AF and 352,656 non-AF patients without antecedent SCD/VAs were identified...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406239/cmd-05-a-novel-promising-clinical-anti-diabetic-drug-candidate-in-vivo-and-vitro-studies
#12
Jie Ma, Huan Li, Xiangnan Hu, Lu Yang, Qi Chen, Congli Hu, Zhihao Chen, Xiaoyan Tian, Yang Yang, Ying Luo, Run Gan, Junqing Yang
Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitor has been expected to be a new class of anti-diabetic agent. The present study was designed to characterize the pharmacological profiles of CMD-05, a novel DPP-IV inhibitor discovered in our laboratory, in vitro and in vivo. The IC50 of CMD-05 on DPP-IV inhibitory activity was approximately 12 nM while vildagliptin was 3.5 nM in vitro. In diabetes rat model established by high fat diet/low dose streptozotocin, CMD-05 inhibited DPP-IV activity, significantly improved glucose tolerance, increased GLP-1 and insulin levels in plasma...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396662/the-role-of-dendritic-cell-maturation-in-the-induction-of-insulin-dependent-diabetes-mellitus
#13
REVIEW
Jacques C Mbongue, Hector A Nieves, Timothy W Torrez, William H R Langridge
Dendritic cells (DCs) are the dominant class of antigen-presenting cells in humans and are largely responsible for the initiation and guidance of innate and adaptive immune responses involved in maintenance of immunological homeostasis. Immature dendritic cells (iDCs) phagocytize pathogens and toxic proteins and in endosomal vesicles degrade them into small fragments for presentation on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II receptor molecules to naïve cognate T cells (Th0). In addition to their role in stimulation of immunity, DCs are involved in the induction and maintenance of immune tolerance toward self-antigens...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381095/improving-chronic-disease-outcomes-through-medication-therapy-management-in-federally-qualified-health-centers
#14
Jennifer L Rodis, Alexa Sevin, Magdi H Awad, Brianne Porter, Kyle Glasgow, Carrie Hornbeck Fox, Barbara Pryor
INTRODUCTION: Appropriate management of chronic diseases, including proper use of medications, can lead to better disease control, decrease disease-related complications, and improve overall health. Pharmacists have been shown to positively affect chronic disease outcomes through medication therapy management (MTM). The primary objectives of this project are to increase the number of patients with (1) A1c in control and (2) blood pressure in control; secondary objectives are to (3) describe number and type of medication-related problems identified and resolved by pharmacists providing MTM in Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs), (4) identify potential (pADEs) and actual adverse drug events (ADEs), and refer patients to diabetes self-management education classes, as needed...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Primary Care & Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327441/structure-based-design-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-amino-phosphonate-derivatives-as-human-glucokinase-activators
#15
Nanda Kumar Yellapu, Ravendra Babu Kilaru, Nagaraju Chamarthi, Sarma Pvgk, Bhaskar Matcha
Glucokinase (GK) is a potential therapeutic target of type 2 diabetes and GK activators (GKAs) represent a promising class of small organic molecules which enhance GK activity. Based on the configuration and conformation of the allosteric site of GK, we have designed a novel class of amino phosphonate derivatives in order to develop potent GKAs. The QSAR model developed using numerous descriptors revealed its potential with the best effective statistical values of RMSE=1.52 and r(2)=0.30. Moreover, application of this model on the present test set GKAs proved to be worthy to predict their activities as a better linear relationship was observed with RMSE=0...
March 2, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325589/all-cause-mortality-in-patients-with-diabetes-under-glucagon-like-peptide-1-agonists-a-population-based-open-cohort-study
#16
K A Toulis, W Hanif, P Saravanan, B H Willis, T Marshall, B Kumarendran, K Gokhale, S Ghosh, K K Cheng, P Narendran, G N Thomas, K Nirantharakumar
AIM: The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP1a) liraglutide has been described to benefit patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at high cardiovascular risk. However, there are still uncertainties relating to these cardiovascular benefits: whether they also apply to an unselected diabetic population that includes low-risk patients, represent a class-effect, and could be observed in a real-world setting. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, retrospective open cohort study using data derived from The Health Improvement Network database between Jan 2008 to Sept 2015...
March 18, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299616/promise-of-sglt2-inhibitors-in-heart-failure-diabetes-and-beyond
#17
REVIEW
Pieter Martens, Chantal Mathieu, Frederik H Verbrugge
This review provides mechanistic insight in the pleiotropic effects of sodium-glucose transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors with particular interest to the pathophysiology of heart failure. The SGLT-2 inhibitor empagliflozin has recently demonstrated an unprecedented 38% reduction in cardiovascular mortality in patients with diabetes. Despite modest effects on long-term glycemic control, highly significant reductions in heart failure admissions and end-stage kidney disease were observed. SGLT-2 inhibitors are the latest approved class of glucose-lowering agents...
March 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295962/improving-glycemic-control-in-type-2-diabetes-stimulate-insulin-secretion-or-provide-beta-cell-rest
#18
REVIEW
Daniël H van Raalte, C Bruce Verchere
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by a gradual decline of pancreatic beta cell function that determines the progressive course of the disease. While beta-cell failure is an important contributor to hyperglycemia, chronic hyperglycemia itself is also detrimental for beta-cell function, likely by inducing prolonged secretory stress on the beta cell as well as through direct glucotoxic mechanisms that have not been fully defined. For years, research has been carried out in search of therapies targeting hyperglycemia that preserve long-term beta-cell function in T2D, a quest that is still ongoing...
March 14, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294635/maintenance-of-weight-loss-or-stability-in-subjects-with-obesity-a-retrospective-longitudinal-analysis-of-a-real-world-population
#19
Maral DerSarkissian, Rachel H Bhak, Joanna Huang, Sarah Buchs, Francis Vekeman, B Gabriel Smolarz, Jason Brett, Rahul Ganguly, Mei Sheng Duh
OBJECTIVES: Characterize patterns of weight change among subjects with obesity. METHODS: A retrospective observational longitudinal study of subjects with obesity was conducted using the General Electric Centricity electronic medical record database. Subjects who were ≥18 years old with BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) (first defining index BMI), had no medical conditions associated with unintentional weight loss, and had ≥4 BMI measurements/year for ≥2.5 years were included and categorized into groups (stable weight: within <5% of index BMI; modest weight loss: ≥5 to <10% of index BMI lost; moderate weight loss: ≥10 to <15% of index BMI lost; and high weight loss: ≥15% of index BMI lost) based on weight change during 6 months following index...
June 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259008/glucose-patterns-during-the-ogtt-and-risk-of-future-diabetes-in-an-urban-indian-population-the-carrs-study
#20
Adam Hulman, Unjali P Gujral, K M Venkat Narayan, Rajendra Pradeepa, Deepa Mohan, Ranjit Mohan Anjana, Viswanathan Mohan, Kristine Færch, Daniel R Witte
AIMS: Traditionally, fasting and 2-hour post challenge plasma glucose have been used to diagnose diabetes. However, evidence indicates that clinically relevant pathophysiological information can be obtained by adding intermediate time-points to a standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). METHODS: We studied a population-based sample of 3666 Asian Indians without diabetes from the CARRS-Chennai Study, India. Participants underwent a three-point (fasting, 30-min, and 2-h) OGTT at baseline...
April 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
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