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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914923/alloantigen-gene-transfer-to-hepatocytes-promotes-tolerance-to-pancreatic-islet-graft-by-inducing-cd8-regulatory-t-cells
#1
Valentin Le Guen, Jean-Paul Judor, Françoise Boeffard, Vanessa Gauttier, Nicolas Ferry, Jean-Paul Soulillou, Sophie Brouard, Sophie Conchon
BACKGROUND & AIM: Induction of donor-specific immune tolerance is a good alternative to chronic life-long immunosuppression for transplant patients. Donor major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules represent the main targets of the allogeneic immune response of transplant recipients. Liver-targeted gene transfer with viral vectors induces tolerance toward the encoded antigen. The aim of this work was to determine whether alloantigen gene transfer to hepatocytes induces tolerance and promotes graft acceptance...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867889/liraglutide-effect-and-action-in-diabetes-in-lead-in-a-prospective-observational-study-assessing-safety-and-effectiveness-of-liraglutide-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-treated-under-routine-clinical-practice-conditions-in-india
#2
Subhash Kumar Wangnoo, Surender Kumar, Arpandev Bhattacharyya, Sudhir Tripathi, Shahid Akhtar, Raman Shetty, Samit Ghosal
BACKGROUND: This 26-week, open-label observational study assessed the incidence and type of adverse events (AEs) associated with liraglutide use according to the standard clinical practice settings and the local label in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1416 adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) treated with liraglutide in 125 sites across India were included in the study. Participants were newly diagnosed or already receiving antidiabetic medications. Safety and efficacy data were collected at baseline and at approximately weeks 13 and 26...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866064/incretin-based-therapy-for-type-2-diabetes-a-real-class-effect
#3
Gianluigi Savarese, Lars H Lund, Giuseppe M C Rosano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843569/conceptual-model-for-early-health-technology-assessment-of-current-and-novel-heart-valve-interventions
#4
Simone A Huygens, Maureen P M H Rutten-van Mölken, Jos A Bekkers, Ad J J C Bogers, Carlijn V C Bouten, Steven A J Chamuleau, Peter P T de Jaegere, Arie Pieter Kappetein, Jolanda Kluin, Nicolas M D A van Mieghem, Michel I M Versteegh, Maarten Witsenburg, Johanna J M Takkenberg
OBJECTIVE: The future promises many technological advances in the field of heart valve interventions, like tissue-engineered heart valves (TEHV). Prior to introduction in clinical practice, it is essential to perform early health technology assessment. We aim to develop a conceptual model (CM) that can be used to investigate the performance and costs requirements for TEHV to become cost-effective. METHODS: After scoping the decision problem, a workgroup developed the draft CM based on clinical guidelines...
2016: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835062/class-i-restricted-t-cell-associated-molecule-is-a-marker-for-ifn-%C3%AE-producing-inkt-cells-in-healthy-subjects-and-patients-with-type-1-diabetes
#5
Nonantzin Beristain-Covarrubias, Elsy B Canche-Pool, Carlos Ramirez-Velazquez, Juan Carlos Barragan-Galvez, Rita A Gomez-Diaz, Vianney Ortiz-Navarrete
Class I-restricted T cell-associated molecule (CRTAM) is an activation marker expressed on the cell surface of activated invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, CD8(+) T cells, and a small subset of CD4(+) T cells. CRTAM has also been associated with a proinflammatory profile in murine CD4(+) T cells. However, CRTAM has not been thoroughly explored in human cells. This work focused on evaluating CRTAM expression in human iNKT lymphocytes after activation with α-galactosylceramide, its widely used specific glycolipid antigen...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817160/novel-anti-glycemic-drugs-and-reduction-of-cardiovascular-risk-in-diabetes-expectations-realized-promises-unmet
#6
REVIEW
James H Flory, Jenny K Ukena, James S Floyd
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose is to review evidence on cardiovascular risks and benefits of new treatments for type 2 diabetes mellitus. RECENT FINDINGS: In response to guidance issued by the Food and Drug Administration, thousands of patients have been enrolled in large randomized trials evaluating the cardiovascular effects of the three newest diabetes drug classes: glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors...
December 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816544/low-health-literacy-flashcards-mobile-video-reinforcement-to-improve-medication-adherence-in-patients-on-oral-diabetes-heart-failure-and-hypertension-medications
#7
Denise L Yeung, Kristin S Alvarez, Marissa E Quinones, Christopher A Clark, George H Oliver, Carlos A Alvarez, Adeola O Jaiyeola
OBJECTIVE: To design and investigate a pharmacist-run intervention using low health literacy flashcards and a smartphone-activated quick response (QR) barcoded educational flashcard video to increase medication adherence and disease state understanding. DESIGN: Prospective, matched, quasi-experimental design. SETTING: County health system in Dallas, Texas. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-eight primary care patients prescribed targeted heart failure, hypertension, and diabetes medications INTERVENTION: Low health literacy medication and disease specific flashcards, which were also available as QR-coded online videos, were designed for the intervention patients...
November 2, 2016: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776561/prenatal-exposure-to-very-severe-maternal-obesity-is-associated-with-adverse-neuropsychiatric-outcomes-in-children
#8
T H Mina, M Lahti, A J Drake, K Räikkönen, H Minnis, F C Denison, J E Norman, R M Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Prenatal maternal obesity has been linked to adverse childhood neuropsychiatric outcomes, including increased symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), internalizing and externalizing problems, affective disorders and neurodevelopmental problems but few studies have studied neuropsychiatric outcomes among offspring born to very severely obese women or assessed potential familial confounding by maternal psychological distress. METHOD: We evaluated neuropsychiatric symptoms in 112 children aged 3-5 years whose mothers had participated in a longitudinal study of obesity in pregnancy (50 very severe obesity, BMI ⩾40 kg/m2, obese class III and 62 lean, BMI 18...
October 25, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751668/low-fructosamine-and-mortality-a-long-term-follow-up-of-215-011-non-diabetic-subjects-in-the-swedish-amoris-study
#9
H Malmström, P E Wändell, M J Holzmann, J Ärnlöv, I Jungner, N Hammar, G Walldius, A C Carlsson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Both high and low fasting glucose has been associated with an increased mortality among individuals without diabetes. This J-shaped association has also been shown for HbA1c in relation to all-cause mortality. High fructosamine is associated with increased mortality. In this study we aim to evaluate if low fructosamine is also associated with increased mortality in non-diabetic subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 215,011 subjects from the AMORIS cohort undergoing occupational health screening or primary care in Stockholm, Sweden...
December 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736893/detection-of-independent-associations-of-plasma-lipidomic-parameters-with-insulin-sensitivity-indices-using-data-mining-methodology
#10
Steffi Kopprasch, Srirangan Dheban, Kai Schuhmann, Aimin Xu, Klaus-Martin Schulte, Charmaine J Simeonovic, Peter E H Schwarz, Stefan R Bornstein, Andrej Shevchenko, Juergen Graessler
OBJECTIVE: Glucolipotoxicity is a major pathophysiological mechanism in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). We aimed to detect subtle changes in the circulating lipid profile by shotgun lipidomics analyses and to associate them with four different insulin sensitivity indices. METHODS: The cross-sectional study comprised 90 men with a broad range of insulin sensitivity including normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n = 33), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, n = 32) and newly detected T2D (n = 25)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717592/euglycemic-diabetic-ketoacidosis-with-elevated-acetone-in-a-patient-taking-a-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-sglt2-inhibitor
#11
Tory J Andrews, Robert D Cox, Christina Parker, James Kolb
BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor medications are a class of antihyperglycemic agents that increase urinary glucose excretion by interfering with the reabsorption of glucose in the proximal renal tubules. In May of 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration released a warning concerning a potential increased risk of ketoacidosis and ketosis in patients taking these medications. CASE REPORT: We present a case of a 57-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus taking a combination of canagliflozin and metformin who presented with progressive altered mental status over the previous 2 days...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699707/heterogeneity-in-glucose-response-curves-during-an-oral-glucose-tolerance-test-and-associated-cardiometabolic-risk
#12
Adam Hulman, Rebecca K Simmons, Dorte Vistisen, Adam G Tabák, Jacqueline M Dekker, Marjan Alssema, Femke Rutters, Anitra D M Koopman, Thomas P J Solomon, John P Kirwan, Torben Hansen, Anna Jonsson, Anette Prior Gjesing, Hans Eiberg, Arne Astrup, Oluf Pedersen, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Daniel R Witte, Kristine Færch
We aimed to examine heterogeneity in glucose response curves during an oral glucose tolerance test with multiple measurements and to compare cardiometabolic risk profiles between identified glucose response curve groups. We analyzed data from 1,267 individuals without diabetes from five studies in Denmark, the Netherlands and the USA. Each study included between 5 and 11 measurements at different time points during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test, resulting in 9,602 plasma glucose measurements. Latent class trajectories with a cubic specification for time were fitted to identify different patterns of plasma glucose change during the oral glucose tolerance test...
October 3, 2016: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689854/understanding-ppar-%C3%AE-affinity-and-selectivity-using-hologram-quantitative-structure-activity-modeling-molecular-docking-and-grid-calculations
#13
Vinicius G Maltarollo, Sheila C Araujo, Gustavo H G Trossini, Kathia M Honorio
AIM: Type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome are two diseases related to disorders of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and insulin resistance. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a class of nuclear receptors that control the metabolism of lipids/carbohydrates and are considered targets for both diseases. PPAR affinity and selectivity are critical points to design drug candidates with appropriated pharmacodynamic/kinetic profiles. MATERIALS & METHODS: Hologram quantitative structure-activity relationships studies were conducted, as well molecular docking and molecular interaction field calculations, in order to explain affinity and selectivity of selected compounds...
October 2016: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651331/exenatide-once-weekly-plus-dapagliflozin-once-daily-versus-exenatide-or-dapagliflozin-alone-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-inadequately-controlled-with-metformin-monotherapy-duration-8-a-28-week-multicentre-double-blind-phase-3-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Juan P Frías, Cristian Guja, Elise Hardy, Azazuddin Ahmed, Fang Dong, Peter Öhman, Serge A Jabbour
BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce glycaemia and weight, and improve cardiovascular risk factors via different mechanisms. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of co-initiation of the GLP-1 receptor agonist exenatide and the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin with exenatide or dapagliflozin alone in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by metformin. METHODS: DURATION-8 was a 28 week, multicentre, double-blind, randomised, active-controlled phase 3 trial done at 109 sites in six countries...
December 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646695/use-of-antibiotics-in-childhood-and-risk-of-type-1-diabetes-a-population-based-case-control-study
#15
K H Mikkelsen, F K Knop, T Vilsbøll, M Frost, J Hallas, A Pottegård
AIMS: To investigate whether the use of antibiotics from infancy to adolescence influences the risk of Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study, including all Type 1 diabetes cases in Denmark among children born between 1997 and 2012 (n = 1578). Odds ratios associating Type 1 diabetes with use of antibiotics were calculated using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall, we found no association between the use of antibiotics and risk of Type 1 diabetes...
September 20, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634393/comparative-effectiveness-of-diabetic-oral-medications-among-hiv-infected-and-hiv-uninfected-veterans
#16
Jennifer H Han, Kirsha Gordon, Julie A Womack, Cynthia L Gibert, David A Leaf, David Rimland, Maria C Rodriguez-Barradas, Gregory P Bisson
OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes is increasingly common in HIV-infected individuals. The objective of this study was to compare the glycemic effectiveness of oral diabetic medications among patients with and without HIV infection. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study was conducted among HIV-infected and uninfected veterans with type 2 diabetes initiating diabetic medications between 1999 and 2010. Generalized estimating equations were used to compare changes in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) through the year after medication initiation, adjusting for baseline HbA1c level and clinical covariates...
September 15, 2016: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630114/glucagon-like-peptide-1-and-its-class-b-g-protein-coupled-receptors-a-long-march-to-therapeutic-successes
#17
REVIEW
Chris de Graaf, Dan Donnelly, Denise Wootten, Jesper Lau, Patrick M Sexton, Laurence J Miller, Jung-Mo Ahn, Jiayu Liao, Madeleine M Fletcher, Dehua Yang, Alastair J H Brown, Caihong Zhou, Jiejie Deng, Ming-Wei Wang
The glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is a class B G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that mediates the action of GLP-1, a peptide hormone secreted from three major tissues in humans, enteroendocrine L cells in the distal intestine, α cells in the pancreas, and the central nervous system, which exerts important actions useful in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity, including glucose homeostasis and regulation of gastric motility and food intake. Peptidic analogs of GLP-1 have been successfully developed with enhanced bioavailability and pharmacological activity...
October 2016: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568469/metabolic-surgery-in-the-treatment-algorithm-for-type-2-diabetes-a-joint-statement-by-international-diabetes-organizations
#18
Francesco Rubino, David M Nathan, Robert H Eckel, Philip R Schauer, K George M M Alberti, Paul Z Zimmet, Stefano Del Prato, Linong Ji, Shaukat M Sadikot, William H Herman, Stephanie A Amiel, Lee M Kaplan, Gaspar Taroncher-Oldenburg, David E Cummings
BACKGROUND: Despite growing evidence that bariatric/metabolic surgery powerfully improves type 2 diabetes (T2D), existing diabetes treatment algorithms do not include surgical options. AIM: The 2nd Diabetes Surgery Summit (DSS-II), an international consensus conference, was convened in collaboration with leading diabetes organizations to develop global guidelines to inform clinicians and policymakers about benefits and limitations of metabolic surgery for T2D. METHODS: A multidisciplinary group of 48 international clinicians/scholars (75% nonsurgeons), including representatives of leading diabetes organizations, participated in DSS-II...
July 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509211/branched-fatty-acid-esters-of-hydroxy-fatty-acids-are-preferred-substrates-of-the-mody8-protein-carboxyl-ester-lipase
#19
Matthew J Kolar, Siddhesh S Kamat, William H Parsons, Edwin A Homan, Tim Maher, Odile D Peroni, Ismail Syed, Karianne Fjeld, Anders Molven, Barbara B Kahn, Benjamin F Cravatt, Alan Saghatelian
A recently discovered class of endogenous mammalian lipids, branched fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs), possesses anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we identified and validated carboxyl ester lipase (CEL), a pancreatic enzyme hydrolyzing cholesteryl esters and other dietary lipids, as a FAHFA hydrolase. Variants of CEL have been linked to maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 8 (MODY8), and to chronic pancreatitis. We tested the FAHFA hydrolysis activity of the CEL MODY8 variant and found a modest increase in activity as compared with that of the normal enzyme...
August 23, 2016: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502473/all-naturally-occurring-autoantibodies-against-the-nmda-receptor-subunit-nr1-have-pathogenic-potential-irrespective-of-epitope-and-immunoglobulin-class
#20
E Castillo-Gómez, B Oliveira, D Tapken, S Bertrand, C Klein-Schmidt, H Pan, P Zafeiriou, J Steiner, B Jurek, R Trippe, H Prüss, W-H Zimmermann, D Bertrand, H Ehrenreich, M Hollmann
Autoantibodies of the IgG class against N-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor subunit NR1 (NMDAR1) were first described in anti-NMDAR encephalitis and seen as disease indicators. Recent work on together over 5000 individuals challenged this exclusive view by showing age-dependently up to >20% NMDAR1-autoantibody seroprevalence with comparable immunoglobulin class and titer distribution across health and disease. The key question therefore is to understand the properties of these autoantibodies, also in healthy carriers, in order to assess secondary complications and possible contributions to neuropsychiatric disease...
August 9, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
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