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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447733/stroke-risk-in-patients-with-reduced-ejection-fraction-after-myocardial-infarction-without-atrial-fibrillation
#1
João Pedro Ferreira, Nicolas Girerd, John Gregson, Ichraq Latar, Abhinav Sharma, Marc A Pfeffer, John J V McMurray, Azmil H Abdul-Rahim, Bertram Pitt, Kenneth Dickstein, Patrick Rossignol, Faiez Zannad
BACKGROUND: Stroke can occur after myocardial infarction (MI) in the absence of atrial fibrillation (AF). OBJECTIVES: This study sought to identify risk factors (excluding AF) for the occurrence of stroke and to develop a calibrated and validated stroke risk score in patients with MI and heart failure (HF) and/or systolic dysfunction. METHODS: The datasets included in this pooling initiative were derived from 4 trials: CAPRICORN (Effect of Carvedilol on Outcome After Myocardial Infarction in Patients With Left Ventricular Dysfunction), OPTIMAAL (Optimal Trial in Myocardial Infarction With Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan), VALIANT (Valsartan in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial), and EPHESUS (Eplerenone Post-Acute Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure Efficacy and Survival Study); EPHESUS was used for external validation...
February 20, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438556/physical-performance-trajectories-and-mortality-among-older-mexican-americans
#2
Miriam Mutambudzi, Nai-Wei Chen, Bret Howrey, Marc A Garcia, Kyriakos S Markides
Background: We sought to identify distinct trajectory classes of physical performance in Mexican Americans aged 75 years and older, and to examine whether these trajectories predict mortality. Methods: We used 4 waves of Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (H-EPESE) data for adults 75 years and older from 2004-5 to 2013. Latent growth curve analysis was used to identify distinct trajectory classes. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between baseline characteristics and the newly constructed trajectories...
February 9, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438464/intra-generational-social-mobility-and-changes-in-blood-pressure-longitudinal-analysis-from-the-elsa-brasil-study
#3
J M N Guimarães, R H Griep, P J Clarke, M J M Fonseca, S M Barreto, L Giatti, P A Lotufo, J G Mill, A G Pacheco, D Chor
Background: During the past four decades, the highest worldwide blood pressure (BP) levels have shifted from high-income countries to low- and middle-income countries. We investigated the association of intra-generational social mobility with changes in BP and also with the incidence of hypertension over a 4-year follow-up. Methods: Data for 6529 baseline participants from ELSA-Brasil born between 1938 and 1975 were used. Based on a social mobility matrix, occupational social mobility was defined as the change in occupational social class between participants' first occupation and current occupation (stable high; upward; downward; stable low)...
February 9, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431870/a-quarter-of-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-have-co-existing-non-islet-autoimmunity-the-findings-of-a-uk-population-based-family-study
#4
Aizhan Kozhakhmetova, Rebecca C Wyatt, Claire Caygill, Claire Williams, Anna E Long, Kyla Chandler, Rachel J Aitken, Janet M Wenzlau, Howard W Davidson, Kathleen M Gillespie, Alistair J K Williams
Individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are at increased risk of coeliac disease (CD), autoimmune thyroiditis and autoimmune gastritis, but the absolute risks are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of autoantibodies to tissue transglutaminase (TGA), thyroid peroxidase (TPOA), and gastric H+ /K+ -ATPase (ATPA) and their genetic associations in a well-characterised population-based cohort of individuals with T1D from the Bart's-Oxford family study for whom islet autoantibody prevalence data were already available...
February 12, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415819/a-new-class-of-drugs-for-heart-failure-sglt2-inhibitors-reduce-sympathetic-overactivity
#5
REVIEW
Motoaki Sano
Even in the presence of excess glucose, the proximal renal tubules continue to resorb more glucose. Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are drugs that control this "greed" (H. Ito, Keio University, Japan). Negative feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis for various physiological functions. However, there is no negative feedback mechanism for resorption of glucose by the proximal renal tubules. When food was scarce during human evolution, not limiting nutrient reabsorption was advantageous for survival, but the opposite is true in the era of satiation...
February 4, 2018: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412819/gut-hormone-polyagonists-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#6
Sara J Brandt, Anna Götz, Matthias H Tschöp, Timo D Müller
Chemical derivatives of the gut-derived peptide hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are among the best-in-class pharmacotherapies to treat obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, GLP-1 analogs have modest weight lowering capacity, in the range of 5-10%, and the therapeutic window is hampered by dose-dependent side effects. Over the last few years, a new concept has emerged: combining the beneficial effects of several key metabolic hormones into a single molecular entity. Several unimolecular GLP-1-based polyagonists have shown superior metabolic action compared to GLP-1 monotherapies...
February 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412816/tissue-expression-of-dpp-iv-in-obesity-diabetes-and-modulatory-effects-on-peptide-regulation-of-insulin-secretion
#7
Aine M McKillop, Claire L Stevenson, Brian M Moran, Yasser H A Abdel-Wahab, Peter R Flatt
Dipeptidyl peptidase type 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors represent an important class of glucose-lowering drug for type 2 diabetes. DPP-4 enzyme activity has been observed to be significantly altered in type 2 diabetes. Here, the role of DPP-4 was examined in a high fat fed (HFF) mouse model of insulin resistance. HFF mice had an increased bodyweight (p < .01), were hyperglycaemic (p < .01) and hyperinsulinaemic (p < .05). Compared to normal diet, HFF mice exhibited increased plasma DPP-4 activity (p < .01)...
February 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395811/can-persistent-organic-pollutants-distinguish-between-two-opposite-metabolic-phenotypes-in-lean-koreans
#8
K H Ha, S A Kim, Y M Lee, D J Kim, D H Lee
AIMS: This study investigated the association of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), an emerging new risk factor for type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome, with the presence of opposite phenotypes of glucose and lipid metabolism among normal-weight Koreans of similar body composition. METHODS: Fifty subjects, randomly selected from an ongoing community-based cohort study, from two opposite phenotype groups - metabolically unhealthy normal weight (MUHNW) and metabolically healthy normal weight (MHNW) - were matched for waist circumference, visceral fat mass and demographic variables, then compared for serum concentrations of POPs...
January 6, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370308/semaphorin3a-induces-nerve-regeneration-in-the-adult-cornea-a-switch-from-its-repulsive-role-in-development
#9
Min Zhang, Qiang Zhou, Yuncin Luo, Tara Nguyen, Mark I Rosenblatt, Victor H Guaiquil
The peripheral sensory nerves that innervate the cornea can be easily damaged by trauma, surgery, infection or diabetes. Several growth factors and axon guidance molecules, such as Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) are upregulated upon cornea injury. Nerves can regenerate after injury but do not recover their original density and patterning. Sema3A is a well known axon guidance and growth cone repellent protein during development, however its role in adult cornea nerve regeneration remains undetermined. Here we investigated the neuro-regenerative potential of Sema3A on adult peripheral nervous system neurons such as those that innervate the cornea...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367262/early-deaths-from-ischaemic-heart-disease-in-childhood-onset-type-1-diabetes
#10
Trina C Evans-Cheung, H Jonathan Bodansky, Roger C Parslow, Richard G Feltbower
AIMS: The risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) death in early type 1 diabetes onset was assessed using death certification data. METHODS: The Yorkshire Register of type 1 Diabetes in Children and Young People was linked to clinically validated death certification data for those diagnosed under 15 years. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated using the England and Wales population and IHD death rates between 1978 and 2014 by 5-year age group and sex...
January 24, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349216/family-of-origin-and-educational-inequalities-in-mortality-results-from-1-7-million-swedish-siblings
#11
Laust H Mortensen, Jenny Torssander
Circumstances in the family of origin have short- and long-term consequences for people's health. Family background also influences educational achievements - achievements that are clearly linked to various health outcomes. Utilizing population register data, we compared Swedish siblings with different levels of education (1,732,119 individuals within 662,095 sibships) born between 1934 and 1959 and followed their death records until the end of 2012 (167,932 deaths). The educational gradient in all-cause mortality was lower within sibships than in the population as a whole, an attenuation that was strongest at younger ages (< 50 years of age) and for those with a working class or farmer background...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338381/effect-of-the-diabetic-state-on-islet-engraftment-and-function-in-a-large-animal-model-of-islet-kidney-transplantation
#12
Prashanth Vallabhajosyula, Atsushi Hirakata, Matthew Weiss, Adam Griesemer, Akira Shimizu, Hanzhou Hong, Andreas Habertheuer, Vaja Tchipashvili, Kazuhiko Yamada, David H Sachs
In islet transplantation, in addition to immunologic and ischemic factors, the diabetic/hyperglycemic state of the recipient has been proposed, although not yet validated, as a possible cause of islet toxicity, contributing to islet loss during the engraftment period. Using a miniature swine model of islet transplantation, we have now assessed the effect of a persistent state of hyperglycemia on islet engraftment and subsequent function. An islet-kidney (IK) model previously described by our laboratory was utilized...
November 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305768/pharmacological-prevention-of-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-diabetes-mellitus-established-and-emerging-agents
#13
REVIEW
David R Saxon, Neda Rasouli, Robert H Eckel
Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. For this reason, there is a great deal of interest in determining how therapies commonly used to treat patients with diabetes impact cardiovascular outcomes. Results from recently completed cardiovascular outcomes trials of diabetes agents from several medication classes are leading to a sea change in how we think about diabetes treatment. The primary focus of this paper is to review recently completed and ongoing diabetes medication cardiovascular outcomes trials...
January 5, 2018: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305625/ifn-%C3%AE-induces-a-preferential-long-lasting-expression-of-mhc-class-i-in-human-pancreatic-beta-cells
#14
Alexandra Coomans de Brachène, Reinaldo S Dos Santos, Laura Marroqui, Maikel L Colli, Lorella Marselli, Raghavendra G Mirmira, Piero Marchetti, Decio L Eizirik
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: IFN-α, a cytokine expressed in human islets from individuals affected by type 1 diabetes, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetes by upregulating inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and MHC class I overexpression, three hallmarks of islet histology in early type 1 diabetes. We tested whether expression of these mediators of beta cell loss is reversible upon IFN-α withdrawal or IFN-α pathway inhibition. METHODS: IFN-α-induced MHC class I overexpression, ER stress and inflammation were evaluated by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and real-time PCR in human EndoC-βH1 cells or human islets exposed to IFN-α with or without the presence of Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors...
January 5, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301371/the-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitor-dapagliflozin-prevents-renal-and-liver-disease-in-western-diet-induced-obesity-mice
#15
Dong Wang, Yuhuan Luo, Xiaoxin Wang, David J Orlicky, Komuraiah Myakala, Pengyuan Yang, Moshe Levi
Obesity and obesity related kidney and liver disease have become more prevalent over the past few decades, especially in the western world. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of antidiabetic agents with promising effects on cardiovascular and renal function. Given SGLT2 inhibitors exert both anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects by promoting urinary excretion of glucose and subsequent caloric loss, we investigated the effect of the highly selective renal SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin in mice with Western diet (WD) induced obesity...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208860/high-wall-motion-score-index-after-acute-myocardial-infarction-is-associated-with-worse-in-hospital-outcome
#16
H Pandit, M N Islam, M A Bari, P Pandit, M S Bari, A S Bhuiyan, R K Talukder, M A Rouf, M S Islam, S S Shakil, M S Islam, H Akhter
Myocardial Infarction is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. The incidence of coronary heart disease is high and second most cause of death after cancer. This prospective study conducted on 100 patients admitted with first attack of acute myocardial infarction in the department of Cardiology in Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from July 2012 to June 2013 who were observed 3 to 8 days of hospital stay without doing further echocardiography and evaluated the relationship between echocardiographic wall motion score index (WMSI) assessed within 24 hours of admission and in-hospital outcomes...
October 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197997/class-effects-of-sglt2-inhibitors-in-mouse-cardiomyocytes-and-hearts-inhibition-of-na-h-exchanger-lowering-of-cytosolic-na-and-vasodilation
#17
Laween Uthman, Antonius Baartscheer, Boris Bleijlevens, Cees A Schumacher, Jan W T Fiolet, Anneke Koeman, Milena Jancev, Markus W Hollmann, Nina C Weber, Ruben Coronel, Coert J Zuurbier
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors (SGLT2i) constitute a novel class of glucose-lowering (type 2) kidney-targeted agents. We recently reported that the SGLT2i empagliflozin (EMPA) reduced cardiac cytosolic Na+ ([Na+]c) and cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c) concentrations through inhibition of Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE). Here, we examine (1) whether the SGLT2i dapagliflozin (DAPA) and canagliflozin (CANA) also inhibit NHE and reduce [Na+]c; (2) a structural model for the interaction of SGLT2i to NHE; (3) to what extent SGLT2i affect the haemodynamic and metabolic performance of isolated hearts of healthy mice...
December 2, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196938/the-hemodynamic-and-pain-impact-of-peripheral-nerve-block-versus-spinal-anesthesia-in-diabetic-patients-undergoing-diabetic-foot-surgery
#18
Hou Yee Lai, Li Lian Foo, Siu Min Lim, Chen Fei Yong, Pui San Loh, Sook Hui Chaw, Mohd Shahnaz Hasan, Chew Yin Wang
PURPOSE: Comparison of hemodynamic profiles and pain scores in diabetic patients undergoing diabetic foot surgery receiving peripheral nerve block (PNB) or spinal anesthesia [subarachnoid block (SAB)]. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomised controlled trial. We recruited diabetic patients aged > 18 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists class II-III, who were scheduled for unilateral diabetic foot surgery below the knee. All patients were assessed for autonomic dysfunction using the Survey of Autonomic Symptoms score...
December 1, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175281/predicting-survival-in-heart-failure-patients-with-an-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator-the-heart-failure-meta-score
#19
Ana C Alba, Stephen D Walter, Gordon H Guyatt, Wayne C Levy, Jiming Fang, Heather J Ross, Douglas S Lee
BACKGROUND: Prognostic evaluation in heart failure (HF) is important to predict future events and decide timely management. Many HF patients are treated with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). This study aimed to validate a meta-analytically-derived prognostic score to predict survival in ICD-HF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: The HF Meta-Score includes 14 independent mortality predictors identified in a meta-analysis, including age, sex, ethnicity, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, peripheral vascular disease, atrial fibrillation, ischemic cardiomyopathy, history of heart failure admission, NYHA class, left ventricular ejection fraction, renal function, QRS duration, secondary prevention indication and ICD shocks...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171848/a-pilot-study-on-clinical-pharmacokinetics-and-preclinical-pharmacodynamics-of-epicatechin-on-cardiometabolic-endpoints
#20
Aldo Moreno-Ulloa, Nayelli Nájera-García, Marcela Hernández, Israel Ramírez-Sánchez, Pam R Taub, Yongxuan Su, Ernesto Beltrán-Partida, Guillermo Ceballos, Sundeep Dugar, George Schreiner, Brookie M Best, Theodore P Ciaraldi, Robert R Henry, Francisco Villarreal
We reported that (-)-epicatechin can stimulate mitochondria biogenesis and improve metabolism. However, preliminary studies indicate that the (+) stereoisomer form may be more potent. We evaluated in a preliminary manner, the pharmacokinetics (PK) and initial safety analysis of (+)-epicatechin ((+)-Epi) in healthy and pre-diabetic subjects. Using a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance, we also evaluated the metabolic effects of (+)-Epi vs. (+)-catechin (Cat) to determine class effects...
November 24, 2017: Food & Function
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