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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909971/gastrodin-attenuates-pentylenetetrazole-induced-seizures-by-modulating-the-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-associated-inflammatory-responses-in-mice
#1
Liming Chen, Xinan Liu, Hua Wang, Min Qu
Gastrodin, the major component isolated from the rhizome of the Chinese traditional medicinal herb Gastrodia elata ("Tianma"), has a long history in the treatment of epilepsy and other neurological disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms are not clear. Here, we found that gastrodin ameliorated pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced epileptic seizures with improvement of the electroencephalographic pattern in mice. Further studies demonstrated that gastrodin decreased the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α while increasing interleukin-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine in the brain...
December 1, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893285/recent-advances-in-subtyping-tumors-of-the-central-nervous-system-using-molecular-data
#2
Jens Schittenhelm
Primary brain tumors account for substantial morbidity and mortality. They often infiltrate the brain diffusely, continue growing, and cause adverse events, such as headaches, seizures, and neurological deficits. The classification of primary brain tumors, based for decades on histology, has been fundamentally changed by the World Health Organization in 2016 by incorporation of molecular data. Areas covered: Literature from glioblastomas, high- and low-grade astrocytic, oligodendroglial, glioneuronal and ependymal tumors from the last five years were reviewed...
November 28, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889023/supratentorial-tumors-in-pediatric-patients
#3
REVIEW
Carlos Zamora, Thierry A G M Huisman, Izlem Izbudak
The breadth of tumors that can arise in the supratentorial brain in children is extensive. With the exception of those that result in seizures and the highly malignant histologies, supratentorial tumors may come to medical attention later compared with infratentorial tumors, as they are less commonly associated with ventricular obstruction. This article presents an overview of the neuroimaging characteristics of these entities, with particular attention to relevant features that may aid in narrowing the differential diagnosis, including correlation with demographics and clinical presentation...
February 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876089/rapid-onset-obesity-hypoventilation-hypothalamic-dysfunction-autonomic-dysregulation-and-neuroendocrine-tumor-syndrome-with-a-homogenous-enlargement-of-the-pituitary-gland-a-case-report
#4
Lama Aljabban, Lina Kassab, Nour Alhuda Bakoura, Mohammad Fayez Alsalka, Ismaeil Maksoud
BACKGROUND: Rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, and autonomic dysregulation syndrome is a rare pediatric disorder with a variable sequence of clinical presentations, undefined etiology, and high risk of mortality. Our patient presented an unusual course of the disease accompanied by a homogenous mild enlargement of her pituitary gland with an intact pituitary-endocrine axis which, to the best of our knowledge, represents a new finding in rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, and autonomic dysregulation syndrome...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870400/sex-differences-in-the-anticonvulsant-activity-of-neurosteroids
#5
REVIEW
Doodipala Samba Reddy
Epilepsy is one of the leading causes of chronic neurological morbidity worldwide. Acquired epilepsy may result from a number of conditions, such as brain injury, anoxia, tumors, stroke, neurotoxicity, and prolonged seizures. Sex differences have been observed in many seizure types; however, some sex-specific seizure disorders are much more prevalent in women. Despite some inconsistencies, substantial data indicates that sensitivity to seizure stimuli differs between the sexes. Men generally exhibit greater seizure susceptibility than women, whereas many women with epilepsy experience a cyclical occurrence of seizures that tends to center around the menstrual period, which has been termed catamenial epilepsy...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867925/a-stable-secondary-gliosarcoma-with-extensive-systemic-metastases-a-case-report
#6
Tae-Min Choi, Young-Jun Cheon, Tae-Young Jung, Kyung-Hwa Lee
A 63-year-old man complained of intermittent motor weakness of his arm. The magnetic resonance image (MRI) of his brain displayed a high signal lesion in right cingulate gyrus on T2 weighted image. One year later, he showed a stuporous mental status with repeated seizures, and the follow-up brain MRI showed heterogeneously enhanced mass associated with bleeding. He was treated with surgery and radiotherapy for secondary glioblastomas in right cingulate gyrus. One year more later, a mass recurred on the left frontal base, and gliosarcoma was diagnosed...
October 2016: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863278/neoplasm-study-real-life-use-of-lacosamide-in-patients-with-brain-tumor-related-epilepsy
#7
Vicente Villanueva, Rosana Saiz-Diaz, Manuel Toledo, Ana Piera, Jose Angel Mauri, Juan Jesús Rodriguez-Uranga, Francisco Javier López-González, Asier Gómez-Ibáñez, Mercedes Garcés, Jesús González de la Aleja, Xiana Rodríguez-Osorio, Susana Palao-Duarte, Ascensión Castillo, Macarena Bonet, Jesús Ruiz-Giménez, Juan Palau, Alberto Arcediano, Maria Toledo, Ana Gago
BACKGROUND: The choice of antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy in patients with brain tumor-related epilepsy (BTRE) is complicated, and there are a lack of robust clinical trial data to date. METHODS: The NEOPLASM (Neuroncologic Patients treated with LAcoSaMide) study was a 6-month, multicenter, retrospective, observational study in patients with BTRE treated with lacosamide. Patients were started on lacosamide because of a lack of efficacy or adverse events (AEs) with prior AEDs or suitability versus other AEDs, according to clinical practice...
November 15, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858578/severe-cerebral-edema-following-nivolumab-treatment-for-pediatric-glioblastoma-case-report
#8
Xiao Zhu, Michael M McDowell, William C Newman, Gary E Mason, Stephanie Greene, Mandeep S Tamber
Nivolumab is an immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) currently undergoing Phase III clinical trials for the treatment of glioblastoma. The authors present the case of a 10-year-old girl with glioblastoma treated with nivolumab under compassionate-use guidelines. After the first dose of nivolumab the patient developed hemiparesis, cerebral edema, and significant midline shift due to severe tumor necrosis. She was managed using intravenous dexamethasone and discharged on a dexamethasone taper. The patient's condition rapidly deteriorated after the second dose of nivolumab, demonstrating hemiplegia, seizures, and eventually unresponsiveness with a fixed and dilated left pupil...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854111/the-risk-of-hypotension-and-seizures-in-patients-receiving-prophylactic-anti-epileptic-drugs-for-supratentorial-craniotomy
#9
Julius Höhne, Karl M Schebesch, Christian Ott, Alexander Brawanski, Max Lange
BACKGROUND: Perioperative seizure prophylaxis with antiepileptic drugs (AED) has been advocated in patients undergoing supratentorial craniotomy. The practice remains controversial. The reasoning presupposes that the possibility of an adverse drug reaction from the AED is lower than the probability of harm from a seizure. Even short periods of hypotension during the operation can lead to acute kidney and myocardial injury. We retrospectively evaluated cardiovascular effects and tolerability of Levetiracetam (LEV) alone, LEV and Lacosamid (LCM) as compared to Phenytoin (PHT)...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849336/durability-of-single-dose-intra-arterial-bevacizumab-after-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-for-recurrent-glioblastoma
#10
Shamik Chakraborty, Christopher G Filippi, Jan-Karl Burkhardt, Sherese Fralin, Ashley Ray, Tamika Wong, Rafael Ortiz, David J Langer, John A Boockvar
BACKGROUND: Bevacizumab (BV) has been used to treat recurrent glioblastoma with a progression free survival of approximately 3-3.5 months. Typically, it is administered intravenously every 2-3 weeks at dosages ranging from 5-15 mg/kg. Serious side effects include GI tract perforations, hematologic disorders, intracranial hemorrhage, and malignant hypertension. We hypothesized that selective intracranial intra-arterial infusion (SIACI) of BV following blood/brain barrier disruption (BBBD) with mannitol may allow for reduced dosage, lower toxicity, and equivalent or superior progression free survival (PFS)...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836704/perioperative-risk-assessment-of-patients-with-gliomatosis-cerebri
#11
Nir Shimony, Ben Shofty, Zvi Ram, Rachel Grossman
BACKGROUND: Gliomatosis-cerebri (GC) is a rare diffusely infiltrating malignant glial neoplasm. Presenting symptoms may include seizures, neurological deficits, and not infrequently, symptoms related to increased intra-cranial pressure(ICP). Surgical intervention, including brain biopsy may induce worsening of these neurological symptoms. We reviewed our database to identify prognostic and risk factors for peri-operative deterioration specifically associated with elevated ICP. METHODS: Between 2006-2014 seventy-eight patients were treated for GC...
November 8, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777152/prophylactic-antiepileptic-drug-use-in-brain-tumor-patients-undergoing-craniotomy
#12
Dennis T Lockney, Sasha Vaziri, Frank Walch, Paul Kubilis, Dan Neal, Gregory J A Murad, Maryam Rahman
BACKGROUND: Prophylactic use of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) for patients undergoing brain tumor surgery is common practice despite lack of clear evidence. We hypothesized that prophylactic AED (pAED) use did not affect seizure rates in brain tumor patients who underwent craniotomy for tumor resection. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of 606 patients who underwent surgery for brain tumors from 2006-2013 at the University of Florida, excluding patients with pre-existing seizure condition prior to tumor diagnosis...
October 21, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740984/imaging-for-adults-with-seizures-and-epilepsy
#13
Samuel Lapalme-Remis, Gregory D Cascino
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article discusses structural and functional neuroimaging findings in patients with seizures and epilepsy. The indications for neuroimaging in these patients and the potential diagnostic utility of these studies are presented. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients presenting with new seizures typically require urgent imaging to rule out a critical underlying cause. MRI is the structural neuroimaging procedure of choice in individuals with epilepsy. Specific epilepsy protocols should be considered to increase the diagnostic yield of neuroimaging in patients with structural lesions associated with focal or generalized seizures...
October 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698899/is-mtor-inhibitor-good-enough-for-treatment-all-tumors-in-tsc-patients
#14
Samy L Habib, Noor Y Al-Obaidi, Maciej Nowacki, Katarzyna Pietkun, Barbara Zegarska, Tomasz Kloskowski, Wojciech Zegarski, Tomasz Drewa, Edward A Medina, Zhenze Zhao, Sitai Liang
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant and multi-system genetic disorder in humans. TSC affects around 25,000 to 40,000 individuals in the United States and about 1 to 2 million individuals worldwide, with an estimated prevalence of one in 6,000 newborns. TSC occurs in all races and ethnic groups, and in both genders. TSC is caused by defects or mutations in two genes, TSC1 and TSC2. Loss of TSC1/TSC2 leads to dysregulation of mTOR, resulting in aberrant cell differentiation and development, and abnormal enlargement of cells...
2016: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690656/stereotactic-laser-ablation-for-hypothalamic-and-deep-intraventricular-lesions
#15
Robert T Buckley, Anthony C Wang, John W Miller, Edward J Novotny, Jeffrey G Ojemann
OBJECTIVE Laser ablation is a novel, minimally invasive procedure that utilizes MRI-guided thermal energy to treat epileptogenic and other brain lesions. In addition to treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, laser ablation is increasingly being used to target deep or inoperable lesions, including hypothalamic hamartoma (HH), subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA), and exophytic intrinsic hypothalamic/third ventricular tumors. The authors reviewed their early institutional experience with these patients to characterize clinical outcomes in patients undergoing this procedure...
October 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686505/fatal-superior-sagittal-sinus-and-torcular-thrombosis-after-vestibular-schwannoma-surgery-report-of-a-rare-complication-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
Dattaraj Paramanand Sawarkar, Satish Kumar Verma, Pankaj Kumar Singh, Ramesh Doddamani, Amandeep Kumar, Bhawani Shanker Sharma
BACKGROUND: Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a rare condition with the potential to cause severe morbidity and mortality. CVST can also occur after vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery with the thrombosis of transverse and sigmoid sinus. However, there is not a single report of superior sagittal sinus (SSS) thrombosis after VS surgery reported in the literature. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 45-year-old woman presented to our center with large left-sided solid cystic VS...
September 28, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662561/global-and-cerebral-metabolism-and-systemic-and-cerebral-oxygenation-during-and-after-intraoperative-seizures-in-a-patient-undergoing-brain-tumor-surgery
#17
Mariana M Cunha, Lúcia Cordeiro, Ana D Ferreira, Pedro Amorim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659835/preoperative-neurocognitive-evaluation-as-a-predictor-of-brain-tumor-grading-in-pediatric-patients-with-supratentorial-hemispheric-tumors
#18
D Chieffo, Gianpiero Tamburrini, P Frassanito, V Arcangeli, M Caldarelli, C Di Rocco
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate the relationship between tumor grading and a selective evaluation of neurocognitive and behavioral functions in children with supratentorial hemispheric brain tumors. METHODS: Children admitted with a diagnosis of supratentorial hemispheric tumors involving the cerebral hemispheres or the thalamus at the Pediatric Neurosurgery Unit of the Catholic University of Rome between January 2008 and January 2014 were considered for the present study...
October 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651754/selective-neuronal-pten-deletion-can-we-take-the-brakes-off-of-growth-without-losing-control
#19
REVIEW
Erin A Gutilla, Oswald Steward
The limited ability for injured adult axons to regenerate is a major cause for limited functional recovery after injury to the nervous system, motivating numerous efforts to uncover mechanisms capable of enhancing regeneration potential. One promising strategy involves deletion or knockdown of the phosphatase and tensin (PTEN) gene. Conditional genetic deletion of PTEN before, immediately following, or several months after spinal cord injury enables neurons of the corticospinal tract (CST) to regenerate their axons across the lesion, which is accompanied by enhanced recovery of skilled voluntary motor functions mediated by the CST...
August 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651472/seizure-control-as-a-new-metric-in-assessing-efficacy-of-tumor-treatment-in-low-grade-glioma-trials
#20
Edward K Avila, Marc Chamberlain, David Schiff, Jaap C Reijneveld, Terri S Armstrong, Roberta Ruda, Patrick Y Wen, Michael Weller, Johan A F Koekkoek, Sandeep Mittal, Yoshiki Arakawa, Ali Choucair, Jorge Gonzalez-Martinez, David R MacDonald, Ryo Nishikawa, Aashit Shah, Charles J Vecht, Paula Warren, Martin J van den Bent, Lisa M DeAngelis
Patients with low-grade glioma frequently have brain tumor-related epilepsy, which is more common than in patients with high-grade glioma. Treatment for tumor-associated epilepsy usually comprises a combination of surgery, anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Response to tumor-directed treatment is measured primarily by overall survival and progression-free survival. However, seizure frequency has been observed to respond to tumor-directed treatment with chemotherapy or radiotherapy...
September 20, 2016: Neuro-oncology
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