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hydrocephalus with meningitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320186/neurological-complications-after-tuberculous-meningitis-in-a-multi-state-cohort-in-the-united-states
#1
Alexander E Merkler, Alexandra S Reynolds, Gino Gialdini, Nicholas A Morris, Santosh B Murthy, Kiran Thakur, Hooman Kamel
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To assess the rate of neurological complications and mortality after tuberculous meningitis in the United States. METHODS: The authors performed a retrospective cohort study of all patients 18years or older hospitalized for tuberculous meningitis in California between 2005 and 2010, New York between 2006 and 2012, and Florida between 2005 and 2012. Outcomes of interest were mortality and the following neurological complications: stroke, seizure, hydrocephalus requiring a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, vision impairment, and hearing impairment...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320142/ventriculo-peritoneal-shunt-surgery-for-tuberculous-meningitis-a-systematic-review
#2
Imran Rizvi, Ravindra Kumar Garg, Hardeep Singh Malhotra, Neeraj Kumar, Eesha Sharma, Chhitij Srivastava, Ravi Uniyal
BACKGROUND: Ventriculo-peritoneal shunt surgery is one of the most commonly performed surgery for the management of tuberculous hydrocephalus. There is decreased clarity on issues regarding the indication as well as timing of cerebrospinal fluid diversion procedures in tuberculous meningitis. We systematically analysed published literature on this subject with an objective to assess the value of cerebrospinal fluid diversion procedures in tuberculous meningitis. METHODS: A systematic search of literature was performed using PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) for articles published till August 2016...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306420/ventriculo-ureteral-shunt-insertion-using-percutaneous-nephrostomy-a-novel-minimally-invasive-option-in-a-patient-with-chronic-hydrocephalus-complicated-by-multiple-distal-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-failures
#3
Ashok Pillai, Georgie Mathew, Sivasankaran Nachimuthu, Sanjeevan Vasudevan Kalavampara
The management of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt failure is a common problem in neurosurgical practice. On occasion, extraperitoneal sites for CSF diversion are required when shunting to the peritoneal cavity has failed after multiple attempts. The authors report a novel minimally invasive procedure allowing cannulation of the ureter for the purpose of ventriculo-ureteral (VU) shunting. Sixteen years prior to presentation, this 46-year-old woman had contracted tuberculous meningitis and had chronic hydrocephalus, with multiple distal shunt failures in recent months...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304223/metastatic-clival-chordoma-a-case-report-of-multiple-extraneural-metastases-following-resection-and-proton-beam-radiotherapy-in-a-5-year-old-boy
#4
Martin J Rutkowski, Harjus S Birk, Matthew D Wood, Arie Perry, Theodore Nicolaides, Christopher P Ames, Nalin Gupta
The authors report the case of a 5-year-old boy in whom extraneural metastases developed 5 years after he underwent an occipitocervical fusion and transoral approach to treat a clival chordoma without local recurrence. Following primary resection, the patient's postoperative course was complicated by recurrent meningitis secondary to CSF leak, which responded to antibiotics, and communicating hydrocephalus, for which a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was placed. The patient then underwent postoperative proton beam radiotherapy...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298035/effect-of-intrathecal-milrinone-injection-via-lumbar-catheter-on-delayed-cerebral-ischemia-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#5
Masaomi Koyanagi, Hitoshi Fukuda, Benjamin Lo, Minami Uezato, Yoshitaka Kurosaki, Nobutake Sadamasa, Akira Handa, Masaki Chin, Sen Yamagata
OBJECTIVE Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is an important complication after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Although intrathecal milrinone injection via lumbar catheter to prevent DCI has been previously reported to be safe and feasible, its effectiveness remains unknown. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether intrathecal milrinone injection treatment after aSAH significantly reduced the incidence of DCI. METHODS The prospectively maintained aSAH database was used to identify patients treated between January 2010 and December 2015...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281443/central-nervous-system-tuberculosis
#6
John M Leonard
Central nervous system tuberculosis (CNS-TB) takes three clinical forms: meningitis (TBM), intracranial tuberculoma, and spinal arachnoiditis. TBM predominates in the western world and presents as a subacute to chronic meningitis syndrome with a prodrome of malaise, fever, and headache progressing to altered mentation and focal neurologic signs, followed by stupor, coma, and death within five to eight weeks of onset. The CSF formula typically shows a lymphocytic pleocytosis, and low glucose and high protein concentrations...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275563/neonatal-cranial-sonography-ultrasound-findings-in-neonatal-meningitis-a-pictorial-review
#7
REVIEW
Nishant Gupta, Hemal Grover, Itisha Bansal, Kusum Hooda, Joshua M Sapire, Rama Anand, Yogesh Kumar
Neonatal bacterial meningitis is a common manifestation of late onset neonatal sepsis. Cranial sonography (CRS) has a crucial role in assessment of infants with clinical suspicion of bacterial meningitis as well as follows up of its complications. CRS is performed with high frequency transducer through anterior fontanelle in both coronal and sagittal planes. Various sonographic findings range from echogenic and widened sulci, ventriculomegaly, ventriculitis, hydrocephalus, extra-axial fluid collections, cerebritis and brain abscess...
February 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257339/symri-of-the-brain-rapid-quantification-of-relaxation-rates-and-proton-density-with-synthetic-mri-automatic-brain-segmentation-and-myelin-measurement
#8
Akifumi Hagiwara, Marcel Warntjes, Masaaki Hori, Christina Andica, Misaki Nakazawa, Kanako Kunishima Kumamaru, Osamu Abe, Shigeki Aoki
Conventional magnetic resonance images are usually evaluated using the image signal contrast between tissues and not based on their absolute signal intensities. Quantification of tissue parameters, such as relaxation rates and proton density, would provide an absolute scale; however, these methods have mainly been performed in a research setting. The development of rapid quantification, with scan times in the order of 6 minutes for full head coverage, has provided the prerequisites for clinical use. The aim of this review article was to introduce a specific quantification method and synthesis of contrast-weighted images based on the acquired absolute values, and to present automatic segmentation of brain tissues and measurement of myelin based on the quantitative values, along with application of these techniques to various brain diseases...
March 3, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247152/magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-of-cryptococcal-neuroradiological-lesions-in-hiv-negative-cryptococcal-meningitis
#9
Y Zhong, Z Zhou, X Fang, F Peng, W Zhang
Magnetic resonance (MR) scanning has become an important diagnostic and management tool in cryptococcal meningitis (CM). However, there are only isolated case reports documenting neuroradiological findings in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients with CM and none has clearly addressed the relationship between cerebral lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and prognosis. The MR brain images available from 114 HIV-negative patients with CM were retrospectively analysed. Patients were divided into Group I with one or more CM-related lesions and Group II without CM-related lesions...
February 28, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195509/reduced-subarachnoid-fluid-diffusion-in-enlarged-subarachnoid-spaces-of-infancy
#10
Matthew T Whitehead, Bonmyong Lee, Audrey McCarron, Stanley T Fricke, Gilbert Vezina
Background and purpose Enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces in infancy (ESSI) is a common cause of macrocephaly without proven explanation. We have observed subarachnoid diffusion to be decreased in these patients. We aim to quantify the diffusivity of ventricular and subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid in ESSI patients, to determine if diffusion characteristics deviate from normocephalic infants, and to propose a unique mechanism for ESSI. Materials and methods 227 consecutive brain magnetic resonance exams from different macrocephalic children were retrospectively reviewed after institutional review board waiver...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184323/congenital-tuberculosis-a-newborn-case-report-with-rare-manifestation
#11
Hadi Khorsand Zak, Shahin Mafinezhad, Ali Haghbin
INTRODUCTION: Congenital tuberculosis is an infrequently encountered condition and only 300 cases were reported in the literature till 1989. There are no specific signs and symptoms pathognomonic for congenital TB, and the devastating consequences in the absence of early therapy signify the importance of early diagnosis and treatment during the neonatal period. CASE PRESENTATION: In this paper we report on a case of congenital TB in a newborn who was admitted to our clinic with seizures and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) due to TB meningitis...
October 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168619/pure-endoscopic-management-of-epileptogenic-hypothalamic-hamartomas
#12
S Chibbaro, H Cebula, J Scholly, J Todeschi, I Ollivier, A Timofeev, M Ganau, P Di Emidio, M P Valenti, A M Staack, T Bast, B J Steinhoff, E Hirsch, P Kehrli, F Proust
Hypothalamic hamartomas (HH) are rare congenital malformations located in the region of the tuber cinereum and third ventricle. Their usual clinical presentation is characterized by gelastic/dacrystic seizures which often become pharmaco-resistant and progress to secondary focal/generalized intractable epilepsy causing mostly in children cognitive and behavioral problems (particularly in cases of progressive epileptic encephalopathy) and precocious puberty. Whereas gelastic seizures can be surgically controlled either by resection of the lesion or disconnection (tissue-destructive) procedures, aimed at functionally prevent the spreading of the epileptic burst; generalized seizures tend to respond better to HH excision rather than isolated neocortical resections, which generally fail to control them...
February 7, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127435/dementia-gait-disturbance-and-urinary-incontinence-in-a-patient-with-pulmonary-sarcoidosis
#13
Gonzalo Labarca, Romina Ramirez, Ximena Monsalve, Isabel Mira-Avendano
Hydrocephalus is an uncommon presentation of neurosarcoidosis. We discuss the case of a 67-year-old woman with a prior diagnosis of hypothyroidism, systemic hypertension, and lung sarcoidosis who presented with a 1-month history of progressive impairment of consciousness leading to prostration and loss of sphincter control. At admission, patient was febrile with altered speech and without focalization. Laboratory results showed leucocytosis and mild anaemia. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis was characterized by mild elevated protein level, increased cell count, normal glucose and adenosine deaminase (ADA), negative cytology, and no bacterial isolations...
September 2016: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114658/a-woman-in-her-60s-with-chronic-meningitis
#14
Michael R Pichler, Joseph E Parisi, James P Klaas
A renal transplant recipient in her 60s presented with a history of chronic headaches and progressive encephalopathy. Serial cerebrospinal fluid examinations were consistent with chronic lymphocytic meningitis, but no definitive cause was identified. Imaging studies showed the development of an enhancing suprasellar mass lesion and hydrocephalus. Symptoms progressed despite empiric antimicrobial therapy, and the patient died after an acute large-volume subarachnoid hemorrhage. A complete autopsy was performed...
March 1, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068915/comparison-of-clinical-features-and-prognostic-factors-in-hiv-negative-adults-with-cryptococcal-meningitis-and-tuberculous-meningitis-a-retrospective-study
#15
Junyan Qu, Taoyou Zhou, Cejun Zhong, Rong Deng, Xiaoju Lü
BACKGROUND: The incidence of cryptococcal meningitis (CM) and tuberculous meningitis (TBM) have gradually increased in recent years. These two types of meningitis are easily misdiagnosed which leads to a poor prognosis. In this study we compared differences of clinical features and prognostic factors in non-HIV adults with CM and TBM. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of CM and TBM patients from January 2008 to December 2015 in our university hospital in China...
January 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028683/muckle-wells-syndrome-in-chinese-patients-a-single-center-case-series
#16
REVIEW
Di Wu, Min Shen
Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS) is a rare autoinflammatory disease. This study aimed to report the clinical features and gene variations of the first case series of MWS patients in Chinese population. Four Han Chinese patients were diagnosed with MWS and followed up at our adult clinic for autoinflammatory diseases. All relevant phenotypes and genotypes were collected. All patients were adult male. The median age of disease onset was 4.5 years, and one patient had adult-onset disease. No positive family history was observed...
December 27, 2016: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024134/-acute-mastoiditis-with-retroauricular-abscess-a-report-of-two-cases
#17
Andrzej Misiak
Otogenic complications may occur as a result of both acute and chronic otitis media. The purpose of the diagnostic process and treatment of patients with otogenic complications is to identify and eliminate focal points of the infection. Due to general application of antibiotics, these complications are rarely observed. Retroauricular abscess may be the first symptom associated with the development of acute mastoiditis in patients with communication disturbances. Intravenous antibiotics and surgery have been successfully used for treatment in the two described cases...
December 22, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920793/cognitive-decline-in-patients-with-chronic-hydrocephalus-and-normal-aging-growing-into-deficits
#18
Marlijn H de Beer, Philip Scheltens
BACKGROUND/AIM: To explore the theory of 'growing into deficits', a concept known from developmental neurology, in a series of cases with chronic hydrocephalus (CH). METHODS: Patients were selected from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort and underwent extensive dementia screening. RESULTS: Twelve patients with CH were selected, in whom Alzheimer's disease was considered unlikely, based on biomarker information and follow-up. Mean Mini-Mental State Examination score was 24 (range 7-30)...
September 2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909631/a-nonoperative-approach-for-neurosurgical-management-of-a-sylvian-fissure-dermoid-cyst
#19
Ali S Haider, Clarence Kee, Danielle L DeBacker, Ian T Watson, Eliel N Arrey, Tijani Osumah, Dean Leonard, Chen Chen, Maryam Alam, L Gerard Toussaint Iii
The nonoperative management of sylvian fissure dermoid/epidermoid cysts presents a risk that is difficult to quantify. With rupture, potentially fatal complications such as chemical meningitis, hydrocephalus, fever, seizure, or meningeal irritation may occur. In this paper, we present an asymptomatic case of such a cyst with imaging evidence of prior rupture, and we review the literature for the likelihood of future complications. We use for illustration a case of a 68-year-old woman with imaging features of a sylvian fissure epithelial inclusion cyst who refused surgical intervention and review the literature for further investigation...
October 24, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903119/the-learning-curve-in-endoscopic-endonasal-resection-of-craniopharyngiomas
#20
Varun R Kshettry, Hyunwoo Do, Khaled Elshazly, Christopher J Farrell, Gurston Nyquist, Marc Rosen, James J Evans
OBJECTIVE There is a paucity of literature regarding the learning curve associated with performing endoscopic endonasal cranial base surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent a learning curve might exist for endoscopic endonasal resection in cases of craniopharyngiomas. METHODS A retrospective review was performed for all endoscopic endonasal craniopharyngioma resections performed at Thomas Jefferson University from 2005 to 2015. To assess for a learning curve effect, patients were divided into an early cohort (2005-2009, n = 20) and a late cohort (2010-2015, n = 23)...
December 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
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