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K Somasundram, H Spence, A J Colquhoun, C Mcilhenny, C S Biyani, S Jain
OBJECTIVE: We have designed an exercise to train newly appointed Urology trainees in non-technical skills on ward rounds as a part of a simulation 'boot camp'. This paper reports our experience, including a qualitative analysis of participant feedback on the utility of this method of training. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The simulations took place in a high-fidelity simulated ward bay. Forty-eight doctors with formal Urology training ranging between 2-60 months (mean 19...
May 19, 2018: BJU International
Richard D Smith, Laura Cornelsen, Diana Quirmbach, Susan A Jebb, Theresa M Marteau
OBJECTIVES: Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is now advocated, and implemented, in many countries as a measure to reduce the purchase and consumption of sugar to tackle obesity. To date, there has been little consideration of the potential impact that such a measure could have if extended to other sweet foods, such as confectionery, cakes and biscuits that contribute more sugar to the diet than SSBs. The objective of this study is to compare changes in the demand for sweet snacks and SSBs arising from potential price increases...
April 26, 2018: BMJ Open
Adeleye D Omisore, Morenikeji A Komolafe, Oluwaseun T Esan, Bukunmi M Idowu, Adeniyi S Aderibigbe, Abdul-Majeed K Abidoye, Stephen O Onigbinde
OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost burden of Neuroimaging and its contribution to direct total hospitalization costs (HCs) during one-time admission for first-ever stroke. METHODS: The clinical characteristics, direct itemised costs and total HCs for 170 consecutive patients with first-ever stroke, admitted at our public tertiary health facility over a 15-month period were evaluated. RESULTS: The records of 170 stroke subjects were reviewed...
April 2018: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
Mairead Murphy, Sandra Hollinghurst, Chris Salisbury
BACKGROUND: Patients attend primary care with many types of problems and to achieve a range of possible outcomes. There is currently a lack of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) designed to capture these diverse outcomes. The objective of this systematic review was to identify, describe and appraise generic PROMs suitable for measuring outcomes from primary care. METHODS: We carried out a systematic Medline search, supplemented by other online and hand-searches...
March 15, 2018: BMC Family Practice
Lars H Breimer, Torbjörn K Nilsson, Michael E Breimer
Declaration of conflicts of interest (COI, understood mainly as financial) in medical publications is long established. Most journals refer only to the guidelines of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) but not to those of the WAME (World Association of Medical Editors). We surveyed 17 journals and found only one (BJOG), which explicitly mentioned "religious interest" as an example of a possible COI and one other journal included "personal belief" (Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India) as a COI...
February 7, 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
Laura Cornelsen, Oliver T Mytton, Jean Adams, Antonio Gasparrini, Dalia Iskander, Cecile Knai, Mark Petticrew, Courtney Scott, Richard Smith, Claire Thompson, Martin White, Steven Cummins
BACKGROUND: This study evaluates changes in sales of non-alcoholic beverages in Jamie's Italian, a national chain of commercial restaurants in the UK, following the introduction of a £0.10 per-beverage levy on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and supporting activity including beverage menu redesign, new products and establishment of a children's health fund from levy proceeds. METHODS: We used an interrupted time series design to quantify changes in sales of non-alcoholic beverages 12 weeks and 6 months after implementation of the levy, using itemised electronic point of sale data...
November 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Selina Wallis, Donald C Cole, Oumar Gaye, Blandina T Mmbaga, Victor Mwapasa, Harry Tagbor, Imelda Bates
OBJECTIVES: Research is key to achieving global development goals. Our objectives were to develop and test an evidence-informed process for assessing health research management and support systems (RMSS) in four African universities and for tracking interventions to address capacity gaps. SETTING: Four African universities. PARTICIPANTS: 83 university staff and students from 11 cadres. INTERVENTION/METHODS: A literature-informed 'benchmark' was developed and used to itemise all components of a university's health RMSS...
September 5, 2017: BMJ Open
Rebecca J Bennett, Carly Meyer, Michelle Olaithe, Dunay Schmulian, Robert H Eikelboom
OBJECTIVE: Although clinician administered surveys evaluating hearing aid handling skills exist, the development of a self-administered version may reduce clinical load, save consultation time, and facilitate more frequent use than face-to-face consultations allow. However, there is currently no evidence to support whether hearing aid owners can accurately self-report hearing aid handling skills via self-report survey that systematically evaluates the ability to accurately perform the individual aspects of hearing aid handling required for effective hearing aid management...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
Daniel Hind, Barnaby C Reeves, Sarah Bathers, Christopher Bray, Andrea Corkhill, Christopher Hayward, Lynda Harper, Vicky Napp, John Norrie, Chris Speed, Liz Tremain, Nicola Keat, Mike Bradburn
BACKGROUND: The costs of medical research are a concern. Clinical Trials Units (CTUs) need to better understand variations in the costs of their activities. METHODS: Representatives of ten CTUs and two grant-awarding bodies pooled their experiences in discussions over 1.5 years. Five of the CTUs provided estimates of, and written justification for, costs associated with CTU activities required to implement an identical protocol. The protocol described a 5.5-year, nonpharmacological randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted at 20 centres...
May 2, 2017: Trials
Richard M Gunton, Eline N van Asperen, Andrew Basden, David Bookless, Yoseph Araya, David R Hanson, Mark A Goddard, George Otieno, Gareth O Jones
The ecosystem services framework (ESF) is advantageous and widely used for itemising and quantifying ways in which humans benefit from natural places. However, it suffers from two important problems: (i) incoherence of definitions and (ii) a narrow approach to valuation, inadequate to represent the full range of human motives for conservation and the diverse interests of different stakeholders. These shortcomings can lead to a range of problems including double-counting, blind spots and unintended consequences...
April 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Kah Seng Lee, Yen Wei Lim, Long Chiau Ming
BACKGROUND: The proposed Pharmacy Bill of Malaysia which served to consolidate and harmonise the existing pharmacy legislation which has been used for more than 60 years. This new Pharmacy Bill contains 17 parts and a total of 170 legislative sections covering laws governing pharmacy practice, medicinal products classification, registration, sale, supply, licensing etc. Our article could serve as a case study on pharmacy jurisprudence and drug regulation as well as the governance for medicines...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Lin Wah Goh, Hui Seong Teh, Advincula R Sarmiento
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
Pam McGrath
PURPOSE: This paper responds to the call for more research to fully understand out of pocket (OOP) costs for cancer patients by providing a detailed discussion of such costs for adult haematology patients from Queensland, Australia. METHODS: The descriptive qualitative research was based on in-depth interviews with 45 (n = 45) haematology patients from regional, rural and remote areas. RESULTS: The discussion itemises the OOP costs under four categories including the costs associated with travel and accommodation, the costs associated with family and friends during relocation, the costs associated with diagnosis and treatment, and the costs of parking...
July 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
C H Lo, E McAdam, S Judd
The individual cost contributions to the mechanical components of a small membrane bioreactor (MBR) (100-2,500 m3/d flow capacity) are itemised and collated to generate overall capital and operating costs (CAPEX and OPEX) as a function of size. The outcomes are compared to those from previously published detailed cost studies provided for both very small containerised plants (<40 m3/day capacity) and larger municipal plants (2,200-19,000 m3/d). Cost curves, as a function of flow capacity, determined for OPEX, CAPEX and net present value (NPV) based on the heuristic data used indicate a logarithmic function for OPEX and a power-based one for the CAPEX...
2015: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Andrew Booth, Christopher Carroll
BACKGROUND: In recognising the potential value of theory in understanding how interventions work comes a challenge - how to make identification of theory less haphazard? OBJECTIVES: To explore the feasibility of systematic identification of theory. METHOD: We searched PubMed for published reviews (1998-2012) that had explicitly sought to identify theory. Systematic searching may be characterised by a structured question, methodological filters and an itemised search procedure...
September 2015: Health Information and Libraries Journal
Anwarul Haque, Naveed-ur- Rehman Siddiqui, Raman Kumar, Mehar Hoda, Gulzar Lakahni, Khairunnisa Hooda
OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost of treatment for families of children hospitalised in paediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital. METHODS: The retrospective cohort study was conducted in Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and comprised record of all children admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit from January 1 to June 30, 2013. Demographic data, diagnosis at the time of admission, co-morbidity, length of stay in intensive care and outcome were recorded...
June 2015: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
M S Weaver, A J J Yao, L A Renner, M Harif, C G Lam
BACKGROUND: Given the burden of childhood cancer and palliative care need in Africa, this paper investigated the paediatric and palliative care elements in cancer control plans. METHODS: We conducted a comparative content analysis of accessible national cancer control plans in Africa, using a health systems perspective attentive to context, development, scope, and monitoring/evaluation. Burden estimates were derived from World Bank, World Health Organisation, and Worldwide Palliative Care Alliance...
June 9, 2015: British Journal of Cancer
Jack Kelly, William Knottenbelt
Many countries are rolling out smart electricity meters. These measure a home's total power demand. However, research into consumer behaviour suggests that consumers are best able to improve their energy efficiency when provided with itemised, appliance-by-appliance consumption information. Energy disaggregation is a computational technique for estimating appliance-by-appliance energy consumption from a whole-house meter signal. To conduct research on disaggregation algorithms, researchers require data describing not just the aggregate demand per building but also the 'ground truth' demand of individual appliances...
2015: Scientific Data
Michael N Marsh, Matt W Johnson, Kamran Rostami
Individuals with particular genetic backgrounds develop immune responses to wheat proteins and become 'gluten-sensitised'. Mucosal pathology arises through activated mucosal T lymphocytes, resulting in a graded, adverse reaction between particular genes and wheat proteins. Given these varied influences, the Marsh Classification broadly itemises those stages through which a normal mucosa (Marsh 0) evolves in becoming 'flat' (Marsh I, II, III). Recently, Oberhuber and colleagues suggested that Marsh III lesions required subdividing into a, b, c categories...
2015: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
Andrew C Newby
Atherosclerotic plaque rupture provokes most myocardial infarctions. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have counteracting roles in intimal thickening, which stabilizes plaques, on the one hand and extracellular matrix destruction that leads to plaque rupture on the other. This review briefly summarizes the key points supporting the involvement of individual MMPs in provoking plaque rupture and discusses the barriers that stand in the way of clinical translation, which can be itemised as follows: structural and functional complexity of the MMP family; lack of adequate preclinical models partly owing to different expression patterns of MMPs and TIMPs in mouse and human macrophages; the need to target individual MMPs selectively; the difficulties in establishing causality in human studies; and the requirement for surrogate markers of efficacy...
May 2015: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
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