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Laura Cornelsen, Oliver T Mytton, Jean Adams, Antonio Gasparrini, Dalia Iskander, Cecile Knai, Mark Petticrew, Courtney Scott, Richard Smith, Claire Thompson, Martin White, Steven Cummins
BACKGROUND: This study evaluates changes in sales of non-alcoholic beverages in Jamie's Italian, a national chain of commercial restaurants in the UK, following the introduction of a £0.10 per-beverage levy on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and supporting activity including beverage menu redesign, new products and establishment of a children's health fund from levy proceeds. METHODS: We used an interrupted time series design to quantify changes in sales of non-alcoholic beverages 12 weeks and 6 months after implementation of the levy, using itemised electronic point of sale data...
November 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Selina Wallis, Donald C Cole, Oumar Gaye, Blandina T Mmbaga, Victor Mwapasa, Harry Tagbor, Imelda Bates
OBJECTIVES: Research is key to achieving global development goals. Our objectives were to develop and test an evidence-informed process for assessing health research management and support systems (RMSS) in four African universities and for tracking interventions to address capacity gaps. SETTING: Four African universities. PARTICIPANTS: 83 university staff and students from 11 cadres. INTERVENTION/METHODS: A literature-informed 'benchmark' was developed and used to itemise all components of a university's health RMSS...
September 5, 2017: BMJ Open
Rebecca J Bennett, Carly Meyer, Michelle Olaithe, Dunay Schmulian, Robert H Eikelboom
OBJECTIVE: Although clinician administered surveys evaluating hearing aid handling skills exist, the development of a self-administered version may reduce clinical load, save consultation time, and facilitate more frequent use than face-to-face consultations allow. However, there is currently no evidence to support whether hearing aid owners can accurately self-report hearing aid handling skills via self-report survey that systematically evaluates the ability to accurately perform the individual aspects of hearing aid handling required for effective hearing aid management...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
Daniel Hind, Barnaby C Reeves, Sarah Bathers, Christopher Bray, Andrea Corkhill, Christopher Hayward, Lynda Harper, Vicky Napp, John Norrie, Chris Speed, Liz Tremain, Nicola Keat, Mike Bradburn
BACKGROUND: The costs of medical research are a concern. Clinical Trials Units (CTUs) need to better understand variations in the costs of their activities. METHODS: Representatives of ten CTUs and two grant-awarding bodies pooled their experiences in discussions over 1.5 years. Five of the CTUs provided estimates of, and written justification for, costs associated with CTU activities required to implement an identical protocol. The protocol described a 5.5-year, nonpharmacological randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted at 20 centres...
May 2, 2017: Trials
Richard M Gunton, Eline N van Asperen, Andrew Basden, David Bookless, Yoseph Araya, David R Hanson, Mark A Goddard, George Otieno, Gareth O Jones
The ecosystem services framework (ESF) is advantageous and widely used for itemising and quantifying ways in which humans benefit from natural places. However, it suffers from two important problems: (i) incoherence of definitions and (ii) a narrow approach to valuation, inadequate to represent the full range of human motives for conservation and the diverse interests of different stakeholders. These shortcomings can lead to a range of problems including double-counting, blind spots and unintended consequences...
April 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Kah Seng Lee, Yen Wei Lim, Long Chiau Ming
BACKGROUND: The proposed Pharmacy Bill of Malaysia which served to consolidate and harmonise the existing pharmacy legislation which has been used for more than 60 years. This new Pharmacy Bill contains 17 parts and a total of 170 legislative sections covering laws governing pharmacy practice, medicinal products classification, registration, sale, supply, licensing etc. Our article could serve as a case study on pharmacy jurisprudence and drug regulation as well as the governance for medicines...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Lin Wah Goh, Hui Seong Teh, Advincula R Sarmiento
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
Pam McGrath
PURPOSE: This paper responds to the call for more research to fully understand out of pocket (OOP) costs for cancer patients by providing a detailed discussion of such costs for adult haematology patients from Queensland, Australia. METHODS: The descriptive qualitative research was based on in-depth interviews with 45 (n = 45) haematology patients from regional, rural and remote areas. RESULTS: The discussion itemises the OOP costs under four categories including the costs associated with travel and accommodation, the costs associated with family and friends during relocation, the costs associated with diagnosis and treatment, and the costs of parking...
July 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
C H Lo, E McAdam, S Judd
The individual cost contributions to the mechanical components of a small membrane bioreactor (MBR) (100-2,500 m3/d flow capacity) are itemised and collated to generate overall capital and operating costs (CAPEX and OPEX) as a function of size. The outcomes are compared to those from previously published detailed cost studies provided for both very small containerised plants (<40 m3/day capacity) and larger municipal plants (2,200-19,000 m3/d). Cost curves, as a function of flow capacity, determined for OPEX, CAPEX and net present value (NPV) based on the heuristic data used indicate a logarithmic function for OPEX and a power-based one for the CAPEX...
2015: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Andrew Booth, Christopher Carroll
BACKGROUND: In recognising the potential value of theory in understanding how interventions work comes a challenge - how to make identification of theory less haphazard? OBJECTIVES: To explore the feasibility of systematic identification of theory. METHOD: We searched PubMed for published reviews (1998-2012) that had explicitly sought to identify theory. Systematic searching may be characterised by a structured question, methodological filters and an itemised search procedure...
September 2015: Health Information and Libraries Journal
Anwarul Haque, Naveed-ur- Rehman Siddiqui, Raman Kumar, Mehar Hoda, Gulzar Lakahni, Khairunnisa Hooda
OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost of treatment for families of children hospitalised in paediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital. METHODS: The retrospective cohort study was conducted in Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and comprised record of all children admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit from January 1 to June 30, 2013. Demographic data, diagnosis at the time of admission, co-morbidity, length of stay in intensive care and outcome were recorded...
June 2015: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
M S Weaver, A J J Yao, L A Renner, M Harif, C G Lam
BACKGROUND: Given the burden of childhood cancer and palliative care need in Africa, this paper investigated the paediatric and palliative care elements in cancer control plans. METHODS: We conducted a comparative content analysis of accessible national cancer control plans in Africa, using a health systems perspective attentive to context, development, scope, and monitoring/evaluation. Burden estimates were derived from World Bank, World Health Organisation, and Worldwide Palliative Care Alliance...
June 9, 2015: British Journal of Cancer
Jack Kelly, William Knottenbelt
Many countries are rolling out smart electricity meters. These measure a home's total power demand. However, research into consumer behaviour suggests that consumers are best able to improve their energy efficiency when provided with itemised, appliance-by-appliance consumption information. Energy disaggregation is a computational technique for estimating appliance-by-appliance energy consumption from a whole-house meter signal. To conduct research on disaggregation algorithms, researchers require data describing not just the aggregate demand per building but also the 'ground truth' demand of individual appliances...
2015: Scientific Data
Michael N Marsh, Matt W Johnson, Kamran Rostami
Individuals with particular genetic backgrounds develop immune responses to wheat proteins and become 'gluten-sensitised'. Mucosal pathology arises through activated mucosal T lymphocytes, resulting in a graded, adverse reaction between particular genes and wheat proteins. Given these varied influences, the Marsh Classification broadly itemises those stages through which a normal mucosa (Marsh 0) evolves in becoming 'flat' (Marsh I, II, III). Recently, Oberhuber and colleagues suggested that Marsh III lesions required subdividing into a, b, c categories...
2015: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
Andrew C Newby
Atherosclerotic plaque rupture provokes most myocardial infarctions. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have counteracting roles in intimal thickening, which stabilizes plaques, on the one hand and extracellular matrix destruction that leads to plaque rupture on the other. This review briefly summarizes the key points supporting the involvement of individual MMPs in provoking plaque rupture and discusses the barriers that stand in the way of clinical translation, which can be itemised as follows: structural and functional complexity of the MMP family; lack of adequate preclinical models partly owing to different expression patterns of MMPs and TIMPs in mouse and human macrophages; the need to target individual MMPs selectively; the difficulties in establishing causality in human studies; and the requirement for surrogate markers of efficacy...
May 2015: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Mickaël Hiligsmann, Cyrus Cooper, Francis Guillemin, Marc C Hochberg, Peter Tugwell, Nigel Arden, Francis Berenbaum, Maarten Boers, Annelies Boonen, Jaime C Branco, Brandi Maria-Luisa, Olivier Bruyère, Andrea Gasparik, John A Kanis, Tore K Kvien, Johanne Martel-Pelletier, Jean-Pierre Pelletier, Rafael Pinedo-Villanueva, Daniel Pinto, Susanne Reiter-Niesert, René Rizzoli, Lucio C Rovati, Johan L Severens, Stuart Silverman, Jean-Yves Reginster
BACKGROUND: General recommendations for a reference case for economic studies in rheumatic diseases were published in 2002 in an initiative to improve the comparability of cost-effectiveness studies in the field. Since then, economic evaluations in osteoarthritis (OA) continue to show considerable heterogeneity in methodological approach. OBJECTIVES: To develop a reference case specific for economic studies in OA, including the standard optimal care, with which to judge new pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions...
December 2014: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
Terry Jones
It is commonly believed that all that is required to effect PET based molecular imaging to support drug development is a cyclotron and a PET scanner. This review itemises the many additional technologies needed to enable the full exploitation of PET for pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic measurements of normal and diseased tissues. There are ongoing developments in each area which when integrated add up to significant advances in the quality and value of the resulting data.:
2005: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
Sarah McGrory, Susan D Shenkin, Elizabeth J Austin, John M Starr
BACKGROUND: impairment of functional abilities represents a crucial component of dementia diagnosis. Current functional measures rely on the traditional aggregate method of summing raw scores. While this summary score provides a quick representation of a person's ability, it disregards useful information on the item level. OBJECTIVE: to use item response theory (IRT) methods to increase the interpretive power of the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scale by establishing a hierarchy of item 'difficulty' and 'discrimination'...
July 2014: Age and Ageing
Ezio Riggi, Giovanni Avola, Laura Siracusa, Giuseppe Ruberto
"Cipolla di Giarratana", a locally cultivated white onion landrace, is listed as an item in the 'List of Traditional Agro-food Products' of the Italian Department for Agriculture and itemised as 'slow food presidium' by the Slow Food Foundation. Ten local accessions were investigated for their biomorphological and biochemical characteristics in five experimental locations. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electron spray-mass spectrometry (HPLC/DAD/ESI-MS) was used to identify the phenolic profile and quantify phenolic content in bulbs: quercetin, quercetin 3,4' di-O-glucoside and quercetin 4'-O-glucoside were detected as major components...
October 15, 2013: Food Chemistry
Melanie Wakefield, Meghan Zacher, Michelle Scollo, Sarah Durkin
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore how cigarette brands are arranged on boards listing tobacco products and/or prices following the 1 January 2011 ban on point-of-sale tobacco displays in Victoria, Australia. METHODS: An audit undertaken in late 2011 gathered information on the prevalence and contents of tobacco product information displays ('price boards'). We examined how often all or most of the brands listed at the top of price boards were owned by the same tobacco company, and whether premium, mainstream and value brands were listed in prominent positions more frequently in different store types and socio-economic areas (SES)...
November 2012: Tobacco Control
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