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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655143/air-pollution-and-cardiometabolic-disease-an-update-and-call-for-clinical-trials
#1
Robert D Brook, David E Newby, Sanjay Rajagopalan
Fine particulate matter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) air pollution is a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. The largest portion of deaths is now known to be due to cardiovascular disorders. Several air pollutants can trigger acute events (e.g., myocardial infarctions, strokes, heart failure). However, mounting evidence additionally supports that longer-term exposures pose a greater magnified risk to cardiovascular health. One explanation may be that PM2.5 has proven capable of promoting the development of chronic cardiometabolic conditions including atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus...
June 24, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655078/-updates-and-analyzation-of-postoperative-pancreatic-fistula-system-of-consensus-statement-on-the-diagnosis-treatment-and-prevention-of-common-complications-after-pancreatic-surgery-2017
#2
L Zhang, W H Lou
In 2017, following many thorough discussions, considering Chinese actual situation, more than 20 distinguished pancreatic surgeons brought about an update of the previous 2010 Chinese experts' consensus on the prevention and treatment of common complications after pancreatic surgery. Referred to the latest update of the postoperative pancreatic fistula consensus statement by the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery, the postoperative pancreatic fistula system of 2017 version Chinese consensus divided pancreatic fistula into pure fistula and mixed fistula based on whether other digestive fluid is mixed or not...
July 1, 2017: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655069/delivery-of-parasite-cdg7_flc_0990-rna-transcript-into-intestinal-epithelial-cells-during-cryptosporidium-parvum-infection-suppresses-host-cell-gene-transcription-through-epigenetic-mechanisms
#3
Yang Wang, Ai-Yu Gong, Shibin Ma, Xiqiang Chen, Juliane K Strauss-Soukup, Xian-Ming Chen
Cryptosporidial infection causes dysregulated transcription of host genes key to intestinal epithelial homeostasis, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Previous studies demonstrate that several C. parvum RNA transcripts are selectively delivered into epithelial cells during host cell invasion and may modulate gene transcription in infected cells. We report here that C. parvum infection suppresses the transcription of LRP5, SLC7A8, and IL33 genes in infected intestinal epithelium. Trans-suppression of these genes in infected host cells is associated with promoter enrichment of suppressive epigenetic markers (i...
June 27, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655068/potential-impact-of-screening-for-fatty-liver-disease-by-transient-elastography-with-liver-stiffness-and-controlled-attenuation-parameter-measurements-a-pilot-study
#4
Moritz Peiseler, Anna Creutzfeldt, Insa Cassens, Claudia Glaubke, Claudia Kroll, Ansgar W Lohse, Christina Weiler-Normann
Background The prevalence of chronic liver diseases is high in developed countries, and the leading causes are amenable to prevention. The German Lebertag is to increase awareness of the burden of chronic liver diseases in the general public. We performed a pilot study using transient elastography with liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and the controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) as a screening tool for previously unrecognized liver diseases. Patients and methods LSM and CAP was performed in 60 individuals, and participants filled in a questionnaire reporting basic characteristics and past medical history...
June 27, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655060/biomarkers-and-surrogate-endpoints-in-uveitis-the-impact-of-quantitative-imaging
#5
Alastair K Denniston, Pearse A Keane, Sunil K Srivastava
Purpose: Uveitis is a major cause of sight loss across the world. The reliable assessment of intraocular inflammation in uveitis ('disease activity') is essential in order to score disease severity and response to treatment. In this review, we describe how 'quantitative imaging', the approach of using automated analysis and measurement algorithms across both standard and emerging imaging modalities, can develop objective instrument-based measures of disease activity. Methods: This is a narrative review based on searches of the current world literature using terms related to quantitative imaging techniques in uveitis, supplemented by clinical trial registry data, and expert knowledge of surrogate endpoints and outcome measures in ophthalmology...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654901/20-s-rg3-blocked-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-through-dnmt3a-mir-145-fscn1-in-ovarian-cancer
#6
Jie Li, Jiaojiao Lu, Zhongxue Ye, Xi Han, Xia Zheng, Huilian Hou, Wei Chen, Xu Li, Le Zhao
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one of the key mechanisms mediating cancer progression. MicroRNAs (miRs) are essential regulators of gene expression by suppressing translation or causing degradation of target mRNA. Growing evidence illustrates the crucial roles of miRs dysregulation in cancer development and progression. Here, we have found for the first time that the ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3, a pharmacologically active component of Panax ginseng, potently increases miR-145 expression by downregulating methyltransferase DNMT3A to attenuate the hypermethylation of the promoter region in the miR-145 precursor gene...
June 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654870/twenty-years-of-take-home-naloxone-for-the-prevention-of-overdose-deaths-from-heroin-and-other-opioids-conception-and-maturation
#7
REVIEW
Rebecca McDonald, Nancy D Campbell, John Strang
BACKGROUND: Opioid overdose is a major cause of mortality, but injury and fatal outcomes can be prevented by timely administration of the opioid antagonist naloxone. Pre-provision of naloxone to opioid users and family members (take-home naloxone, THN) was first proposed in 1996, and WHO Guidelines were issued in 2014. While widespread in some countries, THN is minimally available or absent elsewhere. This review traces the development of THN over twenty years, from speculative harm reduction proposal to public health strategy...
May 25, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654864/wolf-hirschhorn-syndrome-candidate-1-whsc1-functions-as-a-tumor-suppressor-by-governing-cell-differentiation
#8
Chuan Yu, Xiaomin Yao, Linjie Zhao, Ping Wang, Qian Zhang, Chengjian Zhao, Shaohua Yao, Yuquan Wei
Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome candidate 1 (WHSC1) is a histone 3 lysine 36 (H3K36) specific methyltransferase that is frequently deleted in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS). Whsc1 is also found mutated in a subgroup of B-cell derived malignant diseases by genomic translocation or point mutation, both of which resulted in hyperactivity of WHSC1 mediated H3K36 methylation and uncontrolled cell proliferation, suggesting that whsc1 functions as an oncogene. However, here we provided evidences to show that whsc1 also has tumor suppressor functions...
June 24, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654853/association-of-matrix-%C3%AE-carboxyglutamic-acid-protein-levels-with-insulin-resistance-and-lp-a-in-diabetes-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Stavros Antonopoulos, Maria Mylonopoulou, Angeliki M Angelidi, Antonis A Kousoulis, Nicholas Tentolouris
AIMS: The risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality is increased in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), with a background role of vascular calcification in the development of CVD also reported. Studies have demonstrated that high lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) levels accelerate the development of atherosclerolsis and are potentially involved in the vascular calcification. Matrix Gla Protein (MGP) seems to play an important role in vascular calcification. The aim of the study was to examine the potential association of MGP concentrations with Lp(a) and insulin resistance...
June 19, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654823/supporting-the-role-of-community-members-employed-as-research-staff-perspectives-of-community-researchers-working-in-addiction-research
#10
Gala True, Leslie B Alexander, Celia B Fisher
Community researchers are laypersons who conduct research activities in their own communities. In addiction and HIV research, community researchers are valued for their insider status and knowledge. At the same time, their presence on the research team raises concerns about coercion and confidentiality when community researchers and participants know each other personally, and the work of navigating between the worlds of research and community leads to moral distress and burnout for some community researchers...
June 20, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654789/utilization-of-zn-containing-electric-arc-furnace-dust-for-multi-metal-doped-ferrite-with-enhanced-magnetic-property-from-hazardous-solid-waste-to-green-product
#11
Hui-Gang Wang, Mei Zhang, Min Guo
One-step solid state reaction method was proposed for the first time to realize the transformation of the Zn-containing EAFD from hazardous solid waste to multi-metal doped ferrite with enhanced magnetic property. The effect of Zn-containing EAFD to NiCl2·6H2O mass ratio (RZE/N, g·g(-1)) on the phases transformation was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The as-synthesized samples were treated by toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP)...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654755/decoding-the-mechanism-of-intramolecular-cu-directed-hydroxylation-of-sp-3-c-h-bonds
#12
Rachel Trammell, Yi Yang See, Aaron T Herrmann, Nan Xie, Daniel E Díaz, Maxime A Siegler, Phil S Baran, Isaac Garcia-Bosch
The use of copper in directed C-H oxidation has been relatively underexplored. In a seminal example, Schönecker showed that copper and O2 promoted the hydroxylation of steroid-containing ligands. Recently, Baran (J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2015, 137, 13776) improved the reaction conditions to oxidize similar substrates with excellent yields. In both reports, the involvement of Cu2O2 intermediates was suggested. In this collaborative article, we study the hydroxylation mechanism in great detail, resulting in the overhaul of the previously accepted mechanism and the development of improved reaction conditions...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654754/potential-strategies-to-target-protein-protein-interactions-in-the-dna-damage-response-and-repair-pathways
#13
Naoaki Fujii
This review article discusses some insights about generating novel mechanistic inhibitors of the DNA damage response and repair (DDR) pathways by focusing on protein-protein interactions (PPIs) of the key DDR components. General requirements for PPI strategies, such as selecting the target PPI site on the basis of its functionality, are discussed first. Next, based on functional rationale and biochemical feasibility to identify a PPI inhibitor, 26 PPIs in DDR pathways (BER, MMR, NER, NHEJ, HR, TLS, and ICL repair) are specifically discussed for inhibitor discovery to benefit cancer therapies using a DNA-damaging agent...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654751/substrate-recognition-mechanism-of-the-putative-yeast-carnosine-n-methyltransferase
#14
Xiwen Liu, Jialiang Wu, Yujie Sun, Wei Xie
Anserine (β-alanyl-N(Pi) -methyl-L-histidine) is a natural metabolite present in skeletal muscle and the central nervous system of vertebrates, and plays important physiological roles in living organisms. The production of anserine is catalyzed by carnosine N-methyltransferases, which transfer a methyl group to carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine). However, the structural basis of the substrate recognition for the enzymes is unknown. We present the crystal structure of the putative carnosine N-methyltransferase from yeast named YNL092W in complex with SAH, solved by the single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) method...
June 27, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654737/the-problem-of-elimination-of-hcv-infections-in-poland
#15
Andrzej Zieliński, Magdalena Rosińska
The article concerns abbreviated presentation of the results obtained in the Project KIK / 35 “Prevention of HCV infection,” sponsored by the Government of the Swiss Federation and the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Poland. The Project concerned the analysis of the prevalence of HCV infection in the adult population in Poland, the risk factors and groups at risk of these infections. Two sub-projects were related to separate subpopulations: pregnant women and drug users. Research in one sub-project focused on the hazards of HCV infections in medical institutions and non-medical facilities, where the procedures are performed with the interruption of tissue...
2017: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654718/building-connectomes-using-diffusion-mri-why-how-and-but
#16
Stamatios N Sotiropoulos, Andrew Zalesky
Why has diffusion MRI become a principal modality for mapping connectomes in vivo? How do different image acquisition parameters, fiber tracking algorithms and other methodological choices affect connectome estimation? What are the main factors that dictate the success and failure of connectome reconstruction? These are some of the key questions that we aim to address in this review. We provide an overview of the key methods that can be used to estimate the nodes and edges of macroscale connectomes, and we discuss open problems and inherent limitations...
June 27, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654714/reactions-of-donor-acceptor-cyclopropanes-with-naphthoquinones-by-an-in-situ-umpolung
#17
Daniel B Werz, Alexander Lücht, Lukas J Patalag, Peter G Jones, André U Augustin
Reactions of 2-aryl cyclopropane dicarboxylates with naphthoquinones are reported. The key feature was the use of catalytic amounts of SnCl2, which acts as both electron donor and Lewis acid. By an in-situ umpolung of naphthoquinone the formerly electrophilic species is converted into a nucleophile that is able to trigger the ring-opening of the three-membered ring with formation of a new C-C bond. Treatment of these products with base under oxidative conditions resulted - by losing methyl formate - in cyclopentannulated products with fully conjugated π systems exhibiting intensive absorptions in the visible range...
June 27, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654704/2-5-hexanedione-downregulates-nerve-growth-factor-and-induces-neuron-apoptosis-in-the-spinal-cord-of-rats-via-inhibition-of-the-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#18
Zhemin Wang, Zewen Qiu, Chenxue Gao, Yijie Sun, Wei Dong, Yan Zhang, Ruolin Chen, Yuan Qi, Shuangyue Li, Yanjie Guo, Yongjun Piao, Sheng Li, Fengyuan Piao
2,5-hexanedione (2,5-HD) is the main active metabolite of n-hexane and induces apoptosis in nerve tissue, however, the mechanism of which remains unclear. In the present study, neuropathic animal models were successfully constructed in rats by injecting 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg 2,5-HD intraperitoneally for 5 weeks. Rats exposed to 2,5-HD exhibited progressive gait abnormalities and slower motor neural response in a dose-dependent manner. TUNEL analysis and immunofluorescence dual labeling revealed that the spinal cord of the 2,5-HD treated rats underwent significantly more apoptosis in the cells of spinal cord than that of the control group...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654683/a-data-analysis-framework-for-biomedical-big-data-application-on-mesoderm-differentiation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#19
Benjamin Ulfenborg, Alexander Karlsson, Maria Riveiro, Caroline Améen, Karolina Åkesson, Christian X Andersson, Peter Sartipy, Jane Synnergren
The development of high-throughput biomolecular technologies has resulted in generation of vast omics data at an unprecedented rate. This is transforming biomedical research into a big data discipline, where the main challenges relate to the analysis and interpretation of data into new biological knowledge. The aim of this study was to develop a framework for biomedical big data analytics, and apply it for analyzing transcriptomics time series data from early differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells towards the mesoderm and cardiac lineages...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654664/functional-group-diversity-is-key-to-southern-ocean-benthic-carbon-pathways
#20
David K A Barnes, Chester J Sands
High latitude benthos are globally important in terms of accumulation and storage of ocean carbon, and the feedback this is likely to have on regional warming. Understanding this ecosystem service is important but difficult because of complex taxonomic diversity, history and geography of benthic biomass. Using South Georgia as a model location (where the history and geography of benthic biology is relatively well studied) we investigated whether the composition of functional groups were critical to benthic accumulation, immobilization and burial pathway to sequestration-and also aid their study through simplification of identification...
2017: PloS One
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