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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551908/-involvement-of-epigenetic-regulation-in-cerebral-cell-death-following-traumatic-brain-injury-in-a-rat-model
#1
Mona Shehadeh, Moti Ben-Shabat, Jana Livshits, Eilam Palzur
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are a major cause of mortality and disability among young adults. TBI are characterized by primary injury, the result of a mechanical impact to the cranium and a secondary injury, a series of molecular mechanism processes developing thereafter. Cerebral cells modify their gene and protein expression as a result of the injury. Epigenetic modifications have a key role as regulators of gene transcription and may simultaneously be involved in the regulation of the molecular pathways following TBI...
May 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551903/-against-all-odds-promoting-research-clinical-development-and-medical-services-of-the-conflict-in-the-galilee-medical-center
#2
Jacob Bornstein
The Galilee Medical Center (GMC) is unique in several aspects. Firstly, in the clinical aspect: In recent years, led by the Director of Medical Center, Dr. Masad Barhoum, a considerable momentum of development has taken place to reduce health discrepancies between the center and the periphery. Despite the under- financing of the health system in the Galilee, the GMC opened new clinical departments, introduced advanced medical technology and key staff members were added. This approach is depicted in publications presented in the current issue...
May 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551883/chemical-fractionation-and-mobility-of-traffic-related-elements-in-road-environments
#3
Ewa Adamiec
Due to considerable progress in exhaust control emission technology and extensive regulatory work regarding this issue, non-exhaust sources of air pollution have become a growing concern. This research involved studying three types of road environment samples such as road dust, sludge from storm drains and roadside soil collected from heavily congested and polluted cities in Poland (Krakow, Warszawa, Opole and Wroclaw). Particles below 20 µm were examined since it was previously estimated that this fine fraction of road dust is polluted mostly by metals derived from non-exhaust sources of pollution such as brake linings wear...
May 27, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551865/pearls-and-pitfalls-of-hepatobiliary-and-splenic-trauma-what-every-trauma-radiologist-needs-to-know
#4
REVIEW
Joseph A Graves, Tarek N Hanna, Keith D Herr
With the universal acceptance of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) as the imaging modality of first resort in the assessment of blunt abdominal injury, the trauma radiologist must be able to accurately and rapidly identify the range of CT manifestations of the traumatized abdomen. In this article, we lay out the fundamental principles in CT interpretation of blunt trauma to the hepatobiliary system and spleen, including vascular injury, with a focus on technical and interpretive pearls and pitfalls...
May 27, 2017: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551825/necroptosis-and-ferroptosis-are-alternative-cell-death-pathways-that-operate-in-acute-kidney-failure
#5
Tammo Müller, Christin Dewitz, Jessica Schmitz, Anna Sophia Schröder, Jan Hinrich Bräsen, Brent R Stockwell, James M Murphy, Ulrich Kunzendorf, Stefan Krautwald
Ferroptosis is a recently recognized caspase-independent form of regulated cell death that is characterized by the accumulation of lethal lipid ROS produced through iron-dependent lipid peroxidation. Considering that regulation of fatty acid metabolism is responsible for the membrane-resident pool of oxidizable fatty acids that undergo lipid peroxidation in ferroptotic processes, we examined the contribution of the key fatty acid metabolism enzyme, acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 4 (ACSL4), in regulating ferroptosis...
May 27, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551808/mitochondrial-heteroplasmy
#6
George B Stefano, Christina Bjenning, Fuzhou Wang, Nan Wang, Richard M Kream
Genetic polymorphisms, in concert with well-characterized etiology and progression of major pathologies, plays a significant role in aberrant processes afflicting human populations. Mitochondrial heteroplasmy represents a dynamically determined co-expression of inherited polymorphisms and somatic pathology in varying ratios within individual mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes with repetitive patterns of tissue specificity. The ratios of the MtDNA genomes represent a balance between healthy and pathological cellular outcomes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551804/mechanistic-role-of-kinases-in-the-regulation-of-mitochondrial-fitness
#7
Daniela Sorriento, Jessica Gambardella, Antonella Fiordelisi, Bruno Trimarco, Michele Ciccarelli, Guido Iaccarino, Gaetano Santulli
Mounting evidence indicates that mitochondria contain multiple phosphorylation substrates and that protein kinases translocate into mitochondria, suggesting that protein phosphorylation in this organelle could be fundamental for the regulation of its own function. Here we examine the mechanistic role of cellular kinases in the fine regulation of key mitochondrial activities, including mitochondrial quality control, fission/fusion processes, metabolism, and mitophagy.
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551800/high-density-lipoprotein-regulation-of-mitochondrial-function
#8
C Roger White, Geeta Datta, Samantha Giordano
Lipoproteins play a key role in regulating plasma and tissue levels of cholesterol. Apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins, including chylomicrons, very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), serve as carriers of triglycerides and cholesterol and deliver these metabolites to peripheral tissues. In contrast, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) mediates Reverse Cholesterol Transport (RCT), a process by which excess cholesterol is removed from the periphery and taken up by hepatocytes where it is metabolized and excreted...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551792/mechanistic-role-of-thioredoxin-2-in-heart-failure
#9
Chaofei Chen, Haixuan Chen, Huanjiao Jenny Zhou, Weidong Ji, Wang Min
Thioredoxin 2 (Trx2) is a pivotal mitochondrial protein that regulates redox signaling. The mitochondrial Trx2 is expressed ubiquitously, but it is found at the highest levels in metabolically active tissues like the heart. Global gene knockout of Trx2 results in embryonic lethality, likely due to the increased cellular oxidative stress. Moreover, mice with cardiac-specific Trx2 deletion develop spontaneous dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), correlating with increased apoptosis stress kinase-1 (ASK1) signaling and increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551782/mitochondrial-bioenergetics-and-dysfunction-in-failing-heart
#10
Freya L Sheeran, Salvatore Pepe
Energy insufficiency has been recognized as a key feature of systolic heart failure. Although mitochondria have long been known to sustain myocardial work energy supply, the capacity to therapeutically target mitochondrial bioenergetics dysfunction is hampered by a complex interplay of multiple perturbations that progressively compound causing myocardial failure and collapse. Compared to non-failing human donor hearts, activity rates of complexes I and IV, nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NADPH-transhydrogenase, Nnt) and the Krebs cycle enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and aconitase are markedly decreased in end-stage heart failure...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551780/mitochondrial-calcium-handling-in-physiology-and-disease
#11
Veronica Granatiero, Diego De Stefani, Rosario Rizzuto
Calcium (Ca(2+)) accumulation inside mitochondria represents a pleiotropic signal controlling a wide range of cellular functions, including key metabolic pathways and life/death decisions. This phenomenon has been first described in the 1960s, but the identity of the molecules controlling this process remained a mystery until just few years ago, when both mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and release systems were genetically dissected. This finally opened the possibility to develop genetic models to directly test the contribution of mitochondrial Ca(2+) homeostasis to cellular functions...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551755/the-role-of-the-oxytocin-arginine-vasopressin-system-in-animal-models-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Rong Zhang, Xin-Jie Xu, Hong-Feng Zhang, Song-Ping Han, Ji-Sheng Han
The nonapeptides oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are two key mediators in regulating various aspects of mammalian social behaviours. There are several lines of evidence that genetic variants of the OXT/AVP system exist in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and that this system is dysfunctional at least in some ASD entities. These findings have stimulated the interest to perform studies testing the potential therapeutic application of OXT/AVP in ASD. In this respect animal models are critical for investigating the pathophysiology and for compound screening leading to new therapeutic approaches...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551748/anatomy-and-cell-biology-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-lessons-from-human-genetics
#13
Kristel T E Kleijer, Guillaume Huguet, Julie Tastet, Thomas Bourgeron, J P H Burbach
Until recently autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was regarded as a neurodevelopmental condition with unknown causes and pathogenesis. In the footsteps of the revolution of genome technologies and genetics, and with its high degree of heritability, ASD became the first neuropsychiatric disorder for which clues towards molecular and cellular pathogenesis were uncovered by genetic identification of susceptibility genes. Currently several hundreds of risk genes have been assigned, with a recurrence below 1% in the ASD population...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551713/atomoxetine-effects-on-attentional-bias-to-drug-related-cues-in-cocaine-dependent-individuals
#14
Luca Passamonti, M Luijten, H Ziauddeen, I T S Coyle-Gilchrist, T Rittman, S A E Brain, R Regenthal, I H A Franken, B J Sahakian, E T Bullmore, T W Robbins, K D Ersche
RATIONALE: Biased attention towards drug-related cues and reduced inhibitory control over the regulation of drug-intake characterize drug addiction. The noradrenaline system has been critically implicated in both attentional and response inhibitory processes and is directly affected by drugs such as cocaine. OBJECTIVES: We examined the potentially beneficial effects of the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine in improving cognitive control during two tasks that used cocaine- and non-cocaine-related stimuli...
May 27, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551687/recent-highlights-of-research-on-androgen-receptors-in-women
#15
Kamil Zaręba, Iwona Sidorkiewicz
In this brief review we present an outline of the current state of research on examples of hyperandrogenism that can be strongly associated with diverse modifications in the androgen signaling pathway. We discuss the most prominent clinical features of androgen excess and correlate them with studies on androgen receptor (AR) alterations. For the first time we summarize the confirmed localizations of all known AR receptors in women. The knowledge of ARs may be the basis for AR-targeted therapies of androgenic disorders in women, including malignancy, as it has recently been demonstrated for triple-negative breast cancer...
2017: Developmental Period Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551686/human-rad52-interactions-with-replication-protein-a-and-the-rad51-presynaptic-complex
#16
Chu Jian Ma, YoungHo Kwon, Patrick Sung, Eric C Greene
Rad52 is a highly-conserved protein involved in the repair of DNA damage. Human RAD52 has been shown to mediate ssDNA annealing and is synthetic lethal with mutations in other key recombination proteins. Here, we use single-molecule imaging and ssDNA curtains to examine the binding interactions of human RAD52 with RPA-coated ssDNA, and we monitor the fate of RAD52 during assembly of the presynaptic complex. We show that RAD52 binds tightly to the RPA-ssDNA complex and imparts an inhibitory effect on RPA turnover...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551624/immunoregulatory-function-of-lymphatic-endothelial-cells-in-tumor-draining-lymph-nodes-of-human-gastric-cancer
#17
Mao Tokumoto, Hiroaki Tanaka, Yukie Tauchi, Tatsuro Tamura, Takahiro Toyokawa, Kenjiro Kimura, Kazuya Muguruma, Masakazu Yashiro, Kiyoshi Maeda, Kosei Hirakawa, Masaichi Ohira
BACKGROUND/AIM: Lymph node metastasis is the most important prognostic factor for patients with gastric cancer. Increasing evidence suggests that lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) regulate immune responses. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of LECs on the activation of CD4(+) T cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined the impact of cancer cells on the phenotype and production of cytokines of LECs derived from tumor-draining lymph nodes. RESULTS: We showed that LECs inhibited CD4(+) T cell production of cytokines, such as IL-2, IL-10, and INF-γ...
June 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551569/investigation-of-interfacial-properties-of-pure-and-mixed-poloxamers-for-surfactant-mediated-shear-protection-of-mammalian-cells
#18
David Chang, Ryan Fox, Ethan Hicks, Rachel Ferguson, Kevin Chang, Douglas Osborne, Weiwei Hu, Orlin D Velev
The Poloxamer family of surfactants are commonly used in the biopharmaceutical industry as cell culture media additives to protect cells from the turbulent environment of sparged bioreactors. Despite the widespread use of poloxamers in cell culture, their performance as cell protectants varies depending on their physical structure, molecular weight, and batch-to-batch composition. In this study, the interfacial properties of Poloxamer 188 (P188), Poloxamer 407 (P407), and a mixture of P188 and P407 were characterized to investigate the mechanism of surfactant-mediated shear protection of mammalian cells...
May 16, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551495/capsular-specific-igm-enhances-complement-mediated-phagocytosis-and-killing-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-by-methamphetamine-treated-j774-16-macrophage-like-cells
#19
Lilit Aslanyan, Vaibhav V Ekhar, Carlos M DeLeon-Rodriguez, Luis R Martinez
Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful and highly addictive stimulant that affects the central nervous system of users in the United States and worldwide, and its consumption is associated to the acquisition of HIV and AIDS-related infections. METH enhances cryptococcosis in mice, an opportunistic infection caused by the encapsulated fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. Due to its ability to survive within macrophages, C. neoformans is an ideal model to study pathogen-macrophage interactions. METH abrogates normal macrophage function, which might contribute to the higher rate and more rapid progression of infections in drug abusers...
May 25, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551460/barriers-and-facilitators-to-disclosing-sexual-abuse-in-childhood-and-adolescence-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Charlotte Lemaigre, Emily P Taylor, Claire Gittoes
Children and young people often choose not to disclose sexual abuse, thus preventing access to help and allowing perpetrators to continue undetected. A nuanced understanding of the barriers (and facilitators) to disclosure is therefore of great relevance to practitioners and researchers. The literature was systematically searched for studies related to child and adolescent disclosures of sexual abuse. Thirteen studies were reviewed and assessed for methodological quality. Results of the review illustrate the heterogeneous nature of these empirical studies...
May 25, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
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