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Fulminant hepatic failure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091407/clinical-characteristics-of-patients-with-drug-induced-liver-injury
#1
Li-Xia Yang, Cheng-Yuan Liu, Lun-Li Zhang, Ling-Ling Lai, Ming Fang, Chong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Drug is an important cause of liver injury and accounts for up to 40% of instances of fulminant hepatic failure. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is increasing while the diagnosis becomes more difficult. Though many drugs may cause DILI, Chinese herbal medicines have recently emerged as a major cause due to their extensive use in China. We aimed to provide drug safety information to patients and health carers by analyzing the clinical and pathological characteristics of the DILI and the associated drug types...
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060213/ursodeoxycholyl-lysophosphatidylethanolamide-protects-against-cd95-fas-induced-fulminant-hepatitis
#2
Tanyarath Utaipan, Ann-Christin Otto, Hongying Gan-Schreier, Warangkana Chunglok, Anita Pathil, Wolfgang Stremmel, Walee Chamulitrat
Increased activation of CD95/Fas by Fas ligand in viral hepatitis and autoimmunity is involved in pathogenesis of fulminant hepatitis and liver failure. We designed a bile-acid phospholipid conjugate ursodeoxycholyl lysophosphatidylethanolamide (UDCA-LPE with LPE containing oleate at the sn-1) as a hepatoprotectant that was shown to protect against fulminant hepatitis induced by endotoxin. We herein further assessed the ability of UDCA-LPE to prevent death receptor CD95/Fas-induced fulminant hepatitis. C57BL/6 mice were intravenously administered with CD95/Fas agonistic monoclonal antibody (Jo-2) with or without 1 h pretreatment with 50 mg/kg UDCA-LPE...
January 4, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024286/taurine-treatment-preserves-brain-and-liver-mitochondrial-function-in-a-rat-model-of-fulminant-hepatic-failure-and-hyperammonemia
#3
Akram Jamshidzadeh, Reza Heidari, Mozhgan Abasvali, Mehdi Zarei, Mohammad Mehdi Ommati, Narges Abdoli, Forouzan Khodaei, Yasaman Yeganeh, Faezeh Jafari, Azita Zarei, Zahra Latifpour, Elnaz Mardani, Negar Azarpira, Behnam Asadi, Asma Najibi
Ammonia-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and energy crisis is known as a critical consequence of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Hence, mitochondria are potential targets of therapy in HE. The current investigation was designed to evaluate the role of taurine treatment on the brain and liver mitochondrial function in a rat model of hepatic encephalopathy and hyperammonemia. The animals received thioacetamide (400mg/kg, i.p, for three consecutive days at 24-h intervals) as a model of acute liver failure and hyperammonemia...
December 23, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018115/dangerous-dietary-supplements-garcinia-cambogia-associated-hepatic-failure-requiring-transplantation
#4
Keri E Lunsford, Adam S Bodzin, Diego C Reino, Hanlin L Wang, Ronald W Busuttil
Commercial dietary supplements are marketed as a panacea for the morbidly obese seeking sustainable weight-loss. Unfortunately, many claims cited by supplements are unsupported and inadequately regulated. Most concerning, however, are the associated harmful side effects, often unrecognized by consumers. Garcinia cambogia extract and Garcinia cambogia containing products are some of the most popular dietary supplements currently marketed for weight loss. Here, we report the first known case of fulminant hepatic failure associated with this dietary supplement...
December 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959298/acute-liver-failure
#5
Ami Grek, Lisa Arasi
Acute liver failure, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, is a rare life-threatening disease that has a high mortality rate and affects many organ systems. Causes of acute liver failure vary-it can be attributed to drugs, viruses, and other uncommon sources. Complications of liver failure can include encephalopathy, cerebral edema, sepsis, renal failure, gastrointestinal bleeding, and respiratory failure. Fortunately, with advances in critical care medicine and emergent liver transplant, mortality rates have decreased in the past decade...
October 2016: AACN Advanced Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936480/treatment-of-fulminant-acute-hepatitis-b-with-nucles-t-id-analogues-is-safe-and-does-not-lead-to-secondary-chronification-of-hepatitis-b
#6
C Jochum, F Maischack, O E Anastasiou, J Verheyen, J Timm, L Bechmann, G Gerken, A Canbay
Background: Acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is still a major cause of acute liver failure (ALF), necessitating a high rate of emergency liver transplantation (LTx). Acute infection is followed by high viral replication rates leading to hepatocyte death and, ultimately, ALF. The objective of treating HBV-induced ALF thus is to eliminate, or significantly suppress, HBV replication and therefore reduce cell death and support regeneration. Objective: In this retrospective study, we want to evaluate the timing, the safety, and the long-term virological outcome of this approach...
December 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932130/acute-liver-failure-caused-by-primary-non-hodgkin-s-lymphoma-of-the-liver
#7
L Romacho López, F J León Díaz, B Sánchez Pérez, J A Pérez Daga, J L Fernández Aguilar, M C Montiel Casado, J M Aranda Narváez, M A Suárez Muñoz, J Santoyo Santoyo
INTRODUCTION: Acute liver failure (ALF) is a rare syndrome involving maximum liver dysfunction. This disease is characterized by a less than 26-week history of coagulopathy (INR ≥1.5) and hepatic encephalopathy and generally occurs in patients without any previously known disease. METHODS: We report the case of a healthy 25-year-old subject who presented with fulminant liver failure caused by a primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the liver that required emergency liver transplantation...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930723/fourteen-years-of-experience-of-liver-transplantation-for-wilson-s-disease-a-report-on-107-cases-from-shiraz-iran
#8
Kamran B Lankarani, Seyed Ali Malek-Hosseini, Saman Nikeghbalian, Mohsen Dehghani, Mohammad Pourhashemi, Kourosh Kazemi, Parisa Janghorban, Maryam Akbari, Sulmaz Ghahramani, Bijan Eghtesad, Maryam Moini, Abbas Rahmi Jaberi, Alireza Shamsaifar, Siavosh Gholami, Fatemeh Rahmanian, Bita Geramizadeh
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Liver transplantation is a potential cure for liver damage from Wilson's disease but the course of neuropsychiatric manifestations after transplantation remains undetermined. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study, data on all patients who'd received a liver transplant for Wilson's disease at the Shiraz Organ Transplantation Center between December 2000 and March 2014 were reviewed and compared to data on a control group who'd received a liver transplant over the same period but due to other causes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927037/clinical-hepatotoxicity-associated-with-antifungal-agents
#9
Ioannis Kyriakidis, Athanasios Tragiannidis, Silke Munchen, Andreas H Groll
Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients with bone marrow failure syndromes, hematological malignancies, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), those admitted in intensive care units (ICUs) and those with prolonged febrile neutropenia. IFDs occur in a setting of multiple morbidities and are associated with case fatality rates between 30 and 70%. Along with the development of classes and compounds, the last two decades have seen substantial improvements in the prevention and management of these infections and an overall increased use of antifungal agents...
December 16, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920641/severe-de-novo-hepatitis-b-recovered-from-late-onset-liver-insufficiency-with-prolonged-ascites-and-hypoalbuminemia-due-to-hepatitis-b-virus-genotype-bj-with-precore-mutation
#10
Akira Sato, Toshiya Ishii, Fumiaki Sano, Takayuki Yamada, Hideaki Takahashi, Nobuyuki Matsumoto
De novo hepatitis B is associated with a high risk of hepatic failure often resulting in fatal fulminant hepatitis even when nucleotide analogues are administered. A 77-year-old female developed de novo hepatitis B after R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) treatment for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) isolated from the patient was of genotype Bj, with a precore mutation (G1896A) exhibiting an extremely high viral load at the onset of hepatitis...
September 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912738/hepatoprotective-activity-of-lepidium-sativum-seeds-against-d-galactosamine-lipopolysaccharide-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-animal-model
#11
Mohammad Raish, Ajaz Ahmad, Khalid M Alkharfy, Syed Rizwan Ahamad, Kazi Mohsin, Fahad I Al-Jenoobi, Abdullah M Al-Mohizea, Mushtaq Ahmad Ansari
BACKGROUND: Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is clinical syndrome with very poor prognosis and high mortality there is urgent need for the development of safe and non-toxic hepatoprotective agents for the adequate management of hepatitis. Hepatoprotective effect of the Lepidium sativum ethanolic extract (LSEE) was assessed by D-galactosamine-induced/lipopolysaccharide (400 mg/kg and 30 μg/kg) liver damage model in rats. METHODS: Hepatoprotective activity of LSEE (150 and 300 mg/kg) and silymarin on D-GalN/LPS induced FHF in rat was assessed using several liver function enzyme parameters...
December 3, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906824/selection-of-patients-for-initial-clinical-trials-of-solid-organ-xenotransplantation
#12
David K C Cooper, Martin Wijkstrom, Sundaram Hariharan, Joshua L Chan, Avneesh Singh, Keith Horvath, Muhammad Mohiuddin, Arielle Cimeno, Rolf N Barth, John C LaMattina, Richard N Pierson
Several groups have reported extended survival of genetically-engineered pig organs in nonhuman primates, varying from almost 10 months for life-supporting kidney grafts and >2 years for nonlife-supporting heart grafts to less than 1 month for life-supporting liver and lung grafts. We have attempted to define groups of patients who may not have an option to wait for an allograft. These include kidney, heart, and lung candidates who are highly-allosensitized. In addition, some kidney candidates (who have previously lost at least 2 allografts from rapid recurrence of native kidney disease) have a high risk of further recurrence and will not be offered a repeat allotransplant...
December 1, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881614/performance-characteristics-of-a-new-consensus-commercial-kit-for-hepatitis-d-virus-rna-viral-load-quantification
#13
Frédéric Le Gal, Samira Dziri, Athenaïs Gerber, Chakib Alloui, Zahia Ben Abdesselam, Dominique Roulot, Ségolène Brichler, Emmanuel Gordien
Hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) is responsible for fulminant hepatitis and liver failure, and accelerates evolution towards cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis B virus-infected patients. To date treatment relies upon long-term administration of pegylated alpha-interferon with sustained virological response in 30% of the patients. Very recently, new promising anti HDV therapies have been developed and are already used in clinical trials. HDV-RNA viral load (HDVL) monitoring must be an integral part of the management of the infected-patients...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876602/genistein-attenuates-d-galn-induced-liver-fibrosis-chronic-liver-damage-in-rats-by-blocking-the-tgf-%C3%AE-smad-signaling-pathways
#14
Ajaz Ahmad Ganai, Mohammad Husain
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Genistein is a major isoflavonoid abundantly found in soy. Earlier genistein has been reported to possess protective effect against a multitude of disorders including cancer. Previously we demonstrated the protective effects of Genistein in d-Galactosamine (D-GalN) induced fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) in rats. In present study, we evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of Genistein in rat model of chronic liver damage and liver fibrosis. METHODS: Liver fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of D-GalN (250 mg/kg BW) twice a week for 12 weeks...
January 5, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874233/induction-of-hepatocyte-like-cells-from-human-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-defined-micrornas
#15
Xia Zhou, Lina Cui, Xinmin Zhou, Qiong Yang, Lu Wang, Guanya Guo, Yu Hou, Weile Cai, Zheyi Han, Yongquan Shi, Ying Han
Generating functional hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is of great urgency for bio-artificial liver support system (BALSS). Previously, we obtained HLCs from human umbilical cord-derived MSCs by overexpressing seven microRNAs (HLC-7) and characterized their liver functions in vitro and in vivo. Here, we aimed to screen out the optimal miRNA candidates for hepatic differentiation. We sequentially removed individual miRNAs from the pool and examined the effect of transfection with remainder using RT-PCR, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake assays and by assessing their function in liver injury models...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861739/afzelin-ameliorates-d-galactosamine-and-lipopolysaccharide-induced-fulminant-hepatic-failure-by-modulating-mitochondrial-quality-control-and-dynamics
#16
Sang-Bin Lee, Jung-Woo Kang, So-Jin Kim, Jongmin Ahn, Jinwoong Kim, Sun-Mee Lee
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is a fatal clinical syndrome that results in excessive inflammation and hepatocyte death. Mitochondrial dysfunction is considered to be a possible mechanism of FHF. Afzelin, a flavonol glycoside found in Houttuynia cordata Thunberg, has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The present study elucidated the cytoprotective mechanisms of afzelin against D-galactosamine (GalN)/LPS induced FHF, particularly focusing on mitochondrial quality control and dynamics...
January 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848147/hepatitis-a-virus-genotype-ia-infected-patient-with-marked-elevation-of-aspartate-aminotransferase-levels
#17
Yoshifumi Miura, Tatsuo Kanda, Shin Yasui, Koji Takahashi, Yuki Haga, Reina Sasaki, Masato Nakamura, Shuang Wu, Shingo Nakamoto, Makoto Arai, Tsutomu Nishizawa, Hiroaki Okamoto, Osamu Yokosuka
We describe a case of acute liver failure (ALF) without hepatic encephalopathy with marked elevation of aminotransferase due to hepatitis A, according to the revised Japanese criteria of ALF. This liver biopsy of the patient showed compatible to acute viral hepatitis and she immediately recovered without intensive care. She had no comorbid disorders. Of interest, phylogenetic tree analysis using almost complete genomes of hepatitis A virus (HAV) demonstrated that the HAV isolate from her belonged to the HAV subgenotype IA strain and was similar to the HAJFF-Kan12 strain (99% nucleotide identity) or FH1 strain (98% nucleotide identity), which is associated with severe or fulminant hepatitis A...
November 15, 2016: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843081/hepatitis-e-virus-emerging-from-the-shadows-in-developed-countries
#18
REVIEW
Harry R Dalton, Jerard Seghatchian
Following the discovery of HEV in the 1980s, it became apparent that HEV is endemic in a number of developing countries in Asia, Africa and Mexico. In these geographical settings HEV is spread oral faecally by HEV genotypes (gt) 1 and 2, which are obligate human pathogens. Infection occurs oro-faecally, often as a result in the breakdown of fragile sanitary infrastructure allowing drinking water supplies to become contaminated with human sewage. Hepatitis E usually causes a self-limiting hepatitis in young adults with sporadic cases and occasional dramatic outbreaks involving hundreds or thousands of cases...
December 2016: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842768/herbal-and-dietary-supplement-induced-liver-injury
#19
REVIEW
Ynto S de Boer, Averell H Sherker
The increase in the use of herbal and dietary supplements (HDSs) over the last decades has been accompanied by an increase in the reports of HDS-associated hepatotoxicity. The spectrum of HDS-induced liver injury is diverse and the outcome may vary from transient liver test increases to fulminant hepatic failure resulting in death or requiring liver transplant. There are no validated standardized tools to establish the diagnosis, but some HDS products have a typical clinical signature that may help to identify HDS-induced liver injury...
February 2017: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836788/regression-of-fibrosis-cirrhosis-by-glycine-propionyl-l-carnitine-treatment-in-d-galactosamine-induced-chronic-liver-damage
#20
Ajaz Ahmad Ganai, Ishfaq Ahmad Ganaie, Nishika Verma, Humaira Farooqi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Liver fibrosis and cirrhosis are leading causes of morbidity and mortality, with majority of preventable cases attributed to excessive alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis, or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We previously reported the hepatoprotective effect of Glycine propionyl-l-carnitine (GPLC) against the fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) induced by d-Galactosamine (D-GalN). In this study we evaluated the protective effect of GPLC against D-GalN induced chronic liver damage...
December 25, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
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