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Food safety

Lis Alban
Free movement of safe and wholesome food is an essential aspect of any society. This article contains an updated description of the regulatory issues associated with preharvest food safety within the European Union. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Trichinella, antimicrobial resistance, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy are dealt with in detail. Moreover, Cysticercus bovis/Taenia saginata, Toxoplasma, Yersinia, verotoxigenic/shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli, Listeria, and foodborne viruses are briefly covered. The article describes how the focus in the European Union is changing to involve a supply chain view with a focus on cost-effectiveness...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Jan M Sargeant, Annette M O'Connor
Meta-analysis, the statistical combination of results from multiple studies, can be used to summarize all of the available research on an intervention, etiology, descriptive, or diagnostic test accuracy question. Meta-analysis should be conducted as a component of a systematic review, to increase transparency in the selection of studies and to incorporate an evaluation of the risk of bias in the individual studies included in the meta-analysis. The process of meta-analysis may include a forest plot to graphically display the study results and the calculation of a weighted average summary effect size...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Tianran Lin, Yarong Wu, Zhihong Li, Zhiping Song, Liangqia Guo, FengFu Fu
Colorimetric detection of biogenic amines, well-known indicators of food spoilage, plays an important role for monitoring of food safety. However, common colorimetric sensors for biogenic amines suffer from low color resolution or complicated design and intricate output for the end-users. Herein, we explored a simple but effective strategy for visual monitoring of biogenic amines with multiple color change based on hydrolysis-induced silver metallization reaction to tune the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) adsorption of Au nanorods (NRs)...
October 25, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Stacy Cooper Bailey, Michael K Paasche-Orlow, William G Adams, Samantha A Brokenshire, Ryan P Hickson, Christine U Oramasionwu, Laura M Curtis, Mary J Kwasny, Michael S Wolf
BACKGROUND: Adverse drug events (ADEs) affect millions of patients annually and place a significant burden on the healthcare system. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has developed patient safety information for high-risk medications that pose serious public health concerns. However, there are currently few assurances that patients receive this information or are able to identify or respond correctly to ADEs. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of the Electronic Medication Complete Communication (EMC(2)) Strategy to promote safe medication use and reporting of ADEs in comparison to usual care...
October 21, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Marlies Decleer, Andreja Rajkovic, Benedikt Sas, Annemieke Madder, Sarah De Saeger
Rapid and accurate UPLC-MS/MS methods for the simultaneous determination of beauvericin and the related enniatins (A, A1, B, B1), together with cereulide were successfully developed and validated in cereal and cereal-based food matrices such as wheat, maize, rice and pasta. Although these emerging foodborne toxins are of different microbial origin, the similar structural, toxicological and food safety features provided rationale for their concurrent detection in relevant food matrices. A Waters Acquity UPLC system coupled to a Waters Quattro Premier XE™ Mass Spectrometer operating in ESI+ mode was employed...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Samuel M Cohen, Shoji Fukushima, Nigel J Gooderham, F Peter Guengerich, Stephen S Hecht, Ivonne M C M Rietjens, Robert L Smith, Maria Bastaki, Christie L Harman, Margaret M McGowen, Sean V Taylor
p-Mentha-1,8-dien-7-al is a naturally occurring cyclic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde that is used as a flavoring substance throughout the world. Due to the chemical structure and the potential DNA reactivity of the alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl moiety, a battery of genotoxicity assays was requested by the European Food Safety Authority. Previous genotoxicity studies on the substance gave mixed results, but both positive and negative results were hampered by not always being performed to any standard guideline...
October 20, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Varish Ahmad, Mohd Sajid Khan, Qazi Mohammad Sajid Jamal, Mohammad A Alzohairy, Mohammad A Al Karaawi, Mughees Uddin Siddiqui
Due to the appearance of antibiotic resistance and the toxicity associated with currently used antibiotics, peptide antibiotics are the need of the hour. Thus, demand for new antimicrobial agents has brought great interest in new technologies to enhance safety. One such antimicrobial molecule is bacteriocin, synthesised by various micro-organisms. Bacteriocins are widely used in agriculture, veterinary medicine as a therapeutic, and as a food preservative agent to control various infectious and food-borne pathogens...
September 29, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Martí Nadal, Joaquim Rovira, Jordi Díaz-Ferrero, Marta Schuhmacher, José L Domingo
In May 2016, a fire occurred in one of the largest landfills in Europe (Seseña, Toledo, Spain), where 70,000-90,000tons of tires had been illegally accumulated for >15years. Because of the proximity of population nuclei and the duration of the episode (>20days), we conducted a preliminary human health risk assessment study just after the tire fire. Samples of air and soil were collected in 3 areas surrounding the landfill (El Quiñón, at only 500m, and Seseña Nuevo and Seseña Viejo, both at 4km), as well as in background sites...
October 20, 2016: Environment International
Campana Raffaella, Luca Casettari, Laura Fagioli, Marco Cespi, Giulia Bonacucina, Wally Baffone
Food safety is a fundamental concern for both consumers and the food industry, especially as the numbers of reported cases of food-associated infections continue to increase. Industrial surfaces can provide a suitable substrate for the development and persistence of bacterial organized in biofilms that represent a potential source of food contamination. The negative consumer perception of chemical disinfectants has shifted the attention to natural substances, such as plant extracts. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using the essential oils (EOs) in the fight against S...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Remedios Guzmán-Guillén, Alexandre Campos, Joana Machado, Marisa Freitas, Joana Azevedo, Edgar Pinto, Agostinho Almeida, Ana M Cameán, Vitor Vasconcelos
Natural toxins produced by freshwater cyanobacteria, such as cylindrospermopsin, have been regarded as an emergent environmental threat. Despite the risks for food safety, the impact of these water contaminants in agriculture is not yet fully understood. Carrots (Daucus carota) are root vegetables, extensively consumed worldwide with great importance for human nourishment and economy. It is, therefore, important to evaluate the possible effects of using water contaminated with cyanotoxins on carrot cultivation...
October 21, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Jennifer C Cook, Richard H Tran, J Herbert Patterson, Jo E Rodgers
PURPOSE: The pharmacology, clinical efficacy, and safety profiles of evolving therapies for the management of chronic heart failure (HF) and acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) are described. SUMMARY: HF confers a significant financial burden despite the widespread use of traditional guideline-directed medical therapies such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, β-blockers, and aldosterone receptor antagonists, and the rates of HF-related mortality and hospitalization have remained unacceptably high...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Dimosthenis A Sarigiannis, Spyros P Karakitsios, Evangelos Handakas, Konstantina Simou, Ermioni Solomou, Alberto Gotti
The current study aims at a comprehensive risk characterization of bisphenol A (BPA) supported by an integrated exposure modelling framework that comprises far field and near field exposure modelling coupled to a dynamic lifetime PBTK model. Exposure analysis was done on European data of BPA food residues and human biomonitoring (HBM). The latter were further assimilated through an advanced exposure reconstruction modelling framework to estimate the corresponding external and internal systemic dose of BPA and its metabolites...
October 18, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Uma Mahadevan, Ryan A McConnell, Christina Chambers
The management of the pregnant patient with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is complicated by multiple providers, misinformation and a disease entity that, particularly when active, can adversely affect pregnancy outcomes. This paper seeks to frame the debate on medication safety in pregnancy and lactation using the Food and Drug Administration's new Pregnancy and Lactation Labeling Rule (PLLR) and the most up to date safety information to discuss the risks and benefits of using each class of IBD medication...
October 18, 2016: Gastroenterology
Panagiotis Tsakanikas, Dimitris Pavlidis, Efstathios Panagou, George-John Nychas
Recently, imaging and machine vision are gaining attention to food stakeholders since these are considered to be the emerging tools for food safety and quality assessment throughout the whole food chain. Herein, multispectral imaging, a surface chemistry sensor type, has been evaluated in terms of monitoring aerobically packaged beef filet spoilage at different storage temperatures (2, 8, and 15°C) and storage time. Spectral data acquired from the surface of meat samples (with/without background flora; +BF/-BF respectively) along with microbiological analysis...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Yong Zhao, Xiao Liu, Xiaochen Wang, Chongyun Sun, Xinrui Wang, Pingping Zhang, Jingfu Qiu, Ruifu Yang, Lei Zhou
Contamination of grains and other crops by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a highly toxic aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, poses a serious threat to human health and is an important food safety issue. In this study, a competitive up-converting phosphor technology-based lateral flow (AFB1-UPT-LF) assay was developed for rapid detection of AFB1. Detection sensitivity of the proposed assay can reach 0.03ngmL(-1) for standard AFB1 solutions, with the coefficients of variation (CV) less than 10% (from 1...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Elena Benito-Peña, Mayra Granda Valdés, Bettina Glahn-Martínez, Maria C Moreno-Bondi
The application of optical biosensors, specifically those that use optical fibers and planar waveguides, has escalated throughout the years in many fields, including environmental analysis, food safety and clinical diagnosis. Fluorescence is, without doubt, the most popular transducer signal used in these devices because of its higher selectivity and sensitivity, but most of all due to its wide versatility. This paper focuses on the working principles and configurations of fluorescence-based fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors and will review biological recognition elements, sensing schemes, as well as some major and recent applications, published in the last ten years...
November 2, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Lanfang Tian, Siyuan Chen, Haiyan Liu, Mingzhang Guo, Wentao Xu, Xiaoyun He, Yunbo Luo, Xiaozhe Qi, Hongxia Luo, Kunlun Huang
Hepcidin, one kind of antimicrobial peptides, is one of the promising alternatives to antibiotics with broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Hepcidins cloned from different kinds of fishes have been produced using exogenous expression systems, and their in vitro antimicrobial effects have been verified. However their in vivo effects on gut microbiota and gut health of hosts remain unclear. Here we performed a safety study of hepcidin so that it can be used to reduce microbial contaminations in the food and feed...
2016: PloS One
Aaron S Kesselheim, Wesley Eddings, Tara Raj, Eric G Campbell, Jessica M Franklin, Kathryn M Ross, Lisa A Fulchino, Jerry Avorn, Joshua J Gagne
BACKGROUND: Generic drugs are cost-effective versions of brand-name drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) following proof of pharmaceutical equivalence and bioequivalence. Generic drugs are widely prescribed by physicians, although there is disagreement over the clinical comparability of generic drugs to brand-name drugs within the physician community. The objective of this survey was to assess physicians' perceptions of generic drugs and the generic drug approval process...
2016: PloS One
Nathan R Unger, Marylee V Worley, Jamie J Kisgen, Elizabeth M Sherman, Lindsey M Childs-Kean
Current antiretrovirals (ARVs) have demonstrated the ability to prolong the life of an HIV infected individual via suppression of the virus and subsequent restoration of immune function. Despite significant advancement, there remains an opportunity for improvement. One ARV that attempts to fill global HIV therapeutic needs by balancing convenience, safety, and efficacy is elvitegravir (EVG). Areas covered: Using MEDLINE/PubMed, a literature search was conducted for published articles on the safety and efficacy of EVG in the treatment of HIV infection...
October 21, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Mahboob Nemati, Aliasghar Hamidi, Solmaz Maleki Dizaj, Vahid Javaherzadeh, Farzaneh Lotfipour
Traditional microbiological methods tend to be labor-intensive and time-consuming. Rapid and novel methods in microbiological tests provide more sensitive, precise and reproducible results compared with conventional methods. In microbiology, the most rapid testing methods belong to the field of biotechnology such as PCR, ELISA, ATP bioluminescence and etc. Nevertheless impedance microbiology, biosensors and analytical procedures to determine microbial constituents are of significance. The present review article was conducted using internet databases and related scientific literatures and articles that provide information on developments in the rapid methods in microbiology...
September 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
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