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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922838/comparative-genomics-of-a-drug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-panel-and-the-challenges-of-antimicrobial-resistance-prediction-from-genomes
#1
J Jeukens, I Kukavica-Ibrulj, J G Emond-Rheault, L Freschi, R C Levesque
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is now recognized as a global threat to human health. The accessibility of microbial whole-genome sequencing offers an invaluable opportunity for resistance surveillance via the resistome, i.e. the genes and mutations underlying AMR. Unfortunately, AMR prediction from genomic data remains extremely challenging, especially for species with a large pan-genome. One such organism, for which multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates are frequently encountered in the clinic, is Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
October 2, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922759/transcriptomic-and-metabolomics-responses-to-elevated-cell-wall-invertase-activity-during-tomato-fruit-set
#2
Lei Ru, Sonia Osorio, Lu Wang, Alisdair R Fernie, John W Patrick, Yong-Ling Ruan
Fruit set is a developmental transition from ovaries to fruitlets that determines yield potential. Cell wall invertase (CWIN) is essential for fruit and seed set, but the underlying molecular basis remains elusive. We addressed this issue by using CWIN-elevated transgenic tomato, focusing on ovaries and fruitlets at 2 d before and after anthesis, respectively. RNAseq analyses revealed that ovaries and fruitlets exhibited remarkable differences in their transcriptomic responses to elevated CWIN activity. Ovaries 2 d before anthesis were far more responsive to elevated CWIN activity compared with the fruitlets...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922594/dose-dependent-response-to-3-nitrobenzanthrone-exposure-in-human-urothelial-cancer-cells
#3
Mario Pink, Nisha Verma, Anna Zerries, Simone Schmitz-Spanke
A product of incomplete combustion of diesel fuel, 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), has been classified as a cancer-causing substance. It first gained attention as a potential urinary bladder carcinogen due to the presence of its metabolite in urine and formation of DNA adducts. The aim of the present study was to characterise the dose-response relationship of 3-NBA in human urothelial cancer cell line (RT4) exposed to concentrations ranging from 0.0003 µM (environmentally relevant) to 80 µM by utilising toxicological and metabolomic approaches...
September 18, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922389/comprehensive-metabolic-characterization-of-serum-osteocalcin-action-in-a-large-non-diabetic-sample
#4
Lukas Entenmann, Maik Pietzner, Anna Artati, Anke Hannemann, Ann-Kristin Henning, Gabi Kastenmüller, Henry Völzke, Matthias Nauck, Jerzy Adamski, Henri Wallaschofski, Nele Friedrich
Recent research suggested a metabolic implication of osteocalcin (OCN) in e.g. insulin sensitivity or steroid production. We used an untargeted metabolomics approach by analyzing plasma and urine samples of 931 participants using mass spectrometry to reveal further metabolic actions of OCN. Several detected relations between OCN and metabolites were strongly linked to renal function, however, a number of associations remained significant after adjustment for renal function. Intermediates of proline catabolism were associated with OCN reflecting the implication in bone metabolism...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922385/metabolomics-analyses-identify-platelet-activating-factors-and-heme-breakdown-products-as-lassa-fever-biomarkers
#5
Trevor V Gale, Timothy M Horton, Donald S Grant, Robert F Garry
Lassa fever afflicts tens of thousands of people in West Africa annually. The rapid progression of patients from febrile illness to fulminant syndrome and death provides incentive for development of clinical prognostic markers that can guide case management. The small molecule profile of serum from febrile patients triaged to the Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Ward at Kenema Government Hospital in Sierra Leone was assessed using untargeted Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. Physiological dysregulation resulting from Lassa virus (LASV) infection occurs at the small molecule level...
September 18, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921945/multiwalled-carbon-nanotubes-dramatically-affect-the-fruit-metabolome-of-exposed-tomato-plants
#6
Diamond L McGehee, Mohamed H Lahiani, Fahmida Irin, Micah J Green, Mariya V Khodakovskaya
Here, we reported that multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) added to hydroponics system can enhance fruit production of exposed tomato plants. We quantified the exact amount of MWCNT accumulated inside of fruits collected by MWCNT-exposed plants using an advanced microwave induced heating technique (MIH). We found that absorption of MWCNT by tomato fruits significantly affected total fruit metabolome as was confirmed by LC-MS. Our data highlight the importance of comprehensive toxicological risk assessment of plants contaminated with carbon nanomaterials...
September 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921609/biomarkers-for-equine-joint-injury-and-osteoarthritis
#7
REVIEW
C Wayne McIlwraith, Christopher E Kawcak, David D Frisbie, Christopher B Little, Peter D Clegg, Mandy J Peffers, Morten A Karsdal, Stina Ekman, Sheila Laverty, Richard A Slayden, Linda J Sandell, L Stefan Lohmander, Virginia B Kraus
We report the results of a symposium aimed at identifying validated biomarkers that can be used to complement clinical observations for diagnosis and prognosis of joint injury leading to equine osteoarthritis (OA). Biomarkers might also predict pre-fracture change that could lead to catastrophic bone failure in equine athletes. The workshop was attended by leading scientists in the fields of equine and human musculoskeletal biomarkers to enable cross-disciplinary exchange and improve knowledge in both. Detailed proceedings with strategic planning was written, added to, edited and referenced to develop this manuscript...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920959/targeting-mitochondrial-oxidative-phosphorylation-eradicates-therapy-resistant-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-stem-cells
#8
Elodie M Kuntz, Pablo Baquero, Alison M Michie, Karen Dunn, Saverio Tardito, Tessa L Holyoake, G Vignir Helgason, Eyal Gottlieb
Treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with imatinib mesylate and other second- and/or third-generation c-Abl-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has substantially extended patient survival. However, TKIs primarily target differentiated cells and do not eliminate leukemic stem cells (LSCs). Therefore, targeting minimal residual disease to prevent acquired resistance and/or disease relapse requires identification of new LSC-selective target(s) that can be exploited therapeutically. Considering that malignant transformation involves cellular metabolic changes, which may in turn render the transformed cells susceptible to specific assaults in a selective manner, we searched for such vulnerabilities in CML LSCs...
September 18, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920692/roseochelin-b-an-algaecidal-natural-product-synthesized-by-the-roseobacter-phaeobacter-inhibens-in-response-to-algal-sinapic-acid
#9
Rurun Wang, Mohammad R Seyedsayamdost
The secondary metabolome of the representative Roseobacter, Phaeobacter inhibens, was examined in response to algal sinapic acid. In addition to roseobacticides, sinapic acid induced the production of two new natural products, roseochelin A and B, which were characterized by NMR and X-ray crystallography. Functional assays showed that roseochelin B binds iron and is algaecidal against the algal host Emiliania huxleyi. It appears to be produced by a rarely observed combination of nonenzymatic and enzymatic transformations...
September 18, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920498/an-update-on-biomarker-discovery-and-use-in-axial-spondyloarthritis
#10
Walter P Maksymowych
Evaluation of diagnosis, disease activity, and risk for joint damage all represent important unmet clinical needs in the management of axial spondyloarthritis that have been explored using biomarkers. Areas Covered: This review used the search terms biomarkers, ankylosing spondylitis, spondyloarthritis, spondyloarthropathy, pathogenesis, genetics, diagnostic tools, prognosis, to explore advances in biomarker development relevant to unmet clinical needs. Expert Commentary: Despite major advances in the identification of genetic risk markers, HLA-B*27 remains the only marker with clinical utility for diagnostic purposes...
September 16, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919422/over-expression-of-ppar%C3%AE-in-obese-mice-adipose-tissue-improves-insulin-sensitivity
#11
Haruya Takahashi, Kohei Sanada, Hiroyuki Nagai, Yongjia Li, Yumeko Aoki, Takeshi Ara, Shigeto Seno, Hideo Matsuda, Rina Yu, Teruo Kawada, Tsuyoshi Goto
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is important in the regulation of lipid metabolism and expressed at high levels in the liver. Although PPARα is also expressed in adipose tissue, little is known about the relationship between its activation and the regulation of glucose metabolism. In this study, we developed adipose tissue specific PPARα over-expression (OE) mice. Metabolomics and insulin tolerance tests showed that OE induces branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) profile and improvement of insulin sensitivity...
September 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918937/a-predictive-model-for-selective-targeting-of-the-warburg-effect-through-gapdh-inhibition-with-a-natural-product
#12
Maria V Liberti, Ziwei Dai, Suzanne E Wardell, Joshua A Baccile, Xiaojing Liu, Xia Gao, Robert Baldi, Mahya Mehrmohamadi, Marc O Johnson, Neel S Madhukar, Alexander A Shestov, Iok I Christine Chio, Olivier Elemento, Jeffrey C Rathmell, Frank C Schroeder, Donald P McDonnell, Jason W Locasale
Targeted cancer therapies that use genetics are successful, but principles for selectively targeting tumor metabolism that is also dependent on the environment remain unknown. We now show that differences in rate-controlling enzymes during the Warburg effect (WE), the most prominent hallmark of cancer cell metabolism, can be used to predict a response to targeting glucose metabolism. We establish a natural product, koningic acid (KA), to be a selective inhibitor of GAPDH, an enzyme we characterize to have differential control properties over metabolism during the WE...
September 8, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917945/toxic-responses-of-perna-viridis-hepatopancreas-exposed-to-ddt-benzo-a-pyrene-and-their-mixture-uncovered-by-itraq-based-proteomics-and-nmr-based-metabolomics
#13
Qinqin Song, Hailong Zhou, Qian Han, Xiaoping Diao
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) are environmental estrogens (EEs) that are ubiquitous in the marine environment. In the present study, we integrated isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic approaches to explore the toxic responses of green mussel hepatopancreas exposed to DDT (10μg/L), BaP (10μg/L) and their mixture. The metabolic responses indicated that BaP primarily disturbed energy metabolism and osmotic regulation in the hepatopancreas of the male green mussel P...
September 11, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917787/gas-chromatographic-mass-spectrometric-analysis-of-urinary-volatile-organic-metabolites-optimization-of-the-hs-spme-procedure-and-sample-storage-conditions
#14
Tanja Živković Semren, Irena Brčić Karačonji, Toni Safner, Nataša Brajenović, Blanka Tariba Lovaković, Alica Pizent
Non-targeted metabolomics research of human volatile urinary metabolome can be used to identify potential biomarkers associated with the changes in metabolism related to various health disorders. To ensure reliable analysis of urinary volatile organic metabolites (VOMs) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), parameters affecting the headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) procedure have been evaluated and optimized. The influence of incubation and extraction temperatures and times, coating fibre material and salt addition on SPME efficiency was investigated by multivariate optimization methods using reduced factorial and Doehlert matrix designs...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916932/informatics-for-nutritional-genetics-and-genomics
#15
Yuan Gao, Jiajia Chen
While traditional nutrition science is focusing on nourishing population, modern nutrition is aiming at benefiting individual people. The goal of modern nutritional research is to promote health, prevent diseases, and improve performance. With the development of modern technologies like bioinformatics, metabolomics, and molecular genetics, this goal is becoming more attainable. In this chapter, we will discuss the new concepts and technologies especially in informatics and molecular genetics and genomics, and how they have been implemented to change the nutrition science and lead to the emergence of new branches like nutrigenomics, nutrigenetics, and nutritional metabolomics...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916823/digging-into-the-low-molecular-weight-peptidome-with-the-oligonet-web-server
#16
Youzhong Liu, Sara Forcisi, Marianna Lucio, Mourad Harir, Florian Bahut, Magali Deleris-Bou, Sibylle Krieger-Weber, Régis D Gougeon, Hervé Alexandre, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin
Bioactive peptides play critical roles in regulating many biological processes. Recently, natural short peptides biomarkers are drawing significant attention and are considered as "hidden treasure" of drug candidates. High resolution and high mass accuracy provided by mass spectrometry (MS)-based untargeted metabolomics would enable the rapid detection and wide coverage of the low-molecular-weight peptidome. However, translating unknown masses (<1 500 Da) into putative peptides is often limited due to the lack of automatic data processing tools and to the limit of peptide databases...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916333/human-plasma-metabolomics-study-across-all-stages-of-age-related-macular-degeneration-identifies-potential-lipid%C3%A2-biomarkers
#17
Inês Laíns, Rachel S Kelly, John B Miller, Rufino Silva, Demetrios G Vavvas, Ivana K Kim, Joaquim N Murta, Jessica Lasky-Su, Joan W Miller, Deeba Husain
PURPOSE: To characterize the plasma metabolomic profile of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using mass spectrometry (MS). DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. PARTICIPANTS: We prospectively recruited participants with a diagnosis of AMD and a control group (>50 years of age) without any vitreoretinal disease. METHODS: All participants underwent color fundus photography, used for AMD diagnosis and staging, according to the Age-Related Eye Disease Study classification scheme...
August 31, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916042/urinary-intermediates-of-tryptophan-as-indicators-of-the-gut-microbial-metabolism
#18
Tereza Pavlova, Veronika Vidova, Julie Bienertova-Vasku, Petr Janku, Martina Almasi, Jana Klanova, Zdenek Spacil
While over 10% of the human metabolome is directly associated with the gut microbial metabolism, specific metabolites are largely uncharacterized. Therefore, methods for the identification and quantification of microbiota-associated metabolites in biological fluids such as urine or plasma are necessary in order to elucidate the molecular basis of host-microbiota interaction. In this study, we focused on the tryptophan metabolism, employing quantitative assays by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) and tandem mass spectrometry, specifically selected reaction monitoring (SRM)...
September 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915943/derivatization-enhanced-separation-and-sensitivity-of-long-chain-free-fatty-acids-application-to-asthma-using-targeted-and-non-targeted-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-approach
#19
Xiqing Bian, Baoqing Sun, Peiyan Zheng, Na Li, Jian-Lin Wu
Long chain-free fatty acids (LCFFAs) play pivotal roles in various physiological functions, like inflammation, insulin resistance, hypertension, immune cell behavior and other biological activities. However, the detection is obstructed by the low contents, structural diversity, high structural similarity, and matrix interference. Herein, a fast cholamine-derivatization, within 1 min at room temperature, coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approach was developed to determine LCFFAs in complex samples...
October 9, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915922/recent-urbanization-in-china-is-correlated-with-a-westernized-microbiome-encoding-increased-virulence-and-antibiotic-resistance-genes
#20
Kathryn Winglee, Annie Green Howard, Wei Sha, Raad Z Gharaibeh, Jiawu Liu, Donghui Jin, Anthony A Fodor, Penny Gordon-Larsen
BACKGROUND: Urbanization is associated with an increased risk for a number of diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and cancer, which all also show associations with the microbiome. While microbial community composition has been shown to vary across continents and in traditional versus Westernized societies, few studies have examined urban-rural differences in neighboring communities within a single country undergoing rapid urbanization. In this study, we compared the gut microbiome, plasma metabolome, dietary habits, and health biomarkers of rural and urban people from a single Chinese province...
September 15, 2017: Microbiome
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