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actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

Cindy Wenke, Janina Pospiech, Tobias Reutter, Bettina Altmann, Uwe Truyen, Stephanie Speck
Biosecurity is defined as the implementation of measures that reduce the risk of disease agents being introduced and/or spread. For pig production, several of these measures are routinely implemented (e.g. cleaning, disinfection, segregation). However, air as a potential vector of pathogens has long been disregarded. Filters for incoming and recirculating air were installed into an already existing ventilation plant at a fattening piggery (3,840 pigs at maximum) in Saxony, Germany. Over a period of three consecutive fattening periods, we evaluated various parameters including air quality indices, environmental and operating parameters, and pig performance...
2018: PloS One
Fangyan Yuan, Jinlin Liu, Wujin You, Weicheng Bei, Chunlai Wang, Jin Zhao, Yiongxiang Tian, Siguo Liu
We inactivated a virulence determinant, ArcA, in an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae quadruple deletion mutant SLW06 (ΔapxICΔapxIICΔorf1ΔcpxAR, serovar 1), and a quintuple deletion mutant SLW07 was generated. SLW07 showed decreased adherence to and invasion of host cells, compared to its parent strain SLW06. SLW07 was more sensitive in RAW264.7 macrophage-mediated phagocytosis and clearance. SLW07 was less virulent in mice. An immunization assay indicated that both SLW07 and SLW06 preferentially stimulated T helper cell type 2 response in mice...
February 24, 2018: Vaccine
Michael T Sweeney, Brian V Lubbers, Stefan Schwarz, Jeffrey L Watts
Standardized definitions for MDR are currently not available in veterinary medicine despite numerous reports indicating that antimicrobial resistance may be increasing among clinically significant bacteria in livestock and companion animals. As such, assessments of MDR presented in veterinary scientific reports are inconsistent. Herein, we apply previously standardized definitions for MDR, XDR and pandrug resistance (PDR) used in human medicine to animal pathogens and veterinary antimicrobial agents in which MDR is defined as an isolate that is not susceptible to at least one agent in at least three antimicrobial classes, XDR is defined as an isolate that is not susceptible to at least one agent in all but one or two available classes and PDR is defined as an isolate that is not susceptible to all agents in all available classes...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Hsing-Chieh Wu, Po-Hsien Yeh, Kai-Jen Hsueh, Wen-Jen Yang, Chun-Yen Chu
AIMS: Available bacterins, commercial or autogenous, for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae disease control have thus far shown debatable protective efficacy, and only in homologous challenges. Our study sought to determine whether the addition of reombinant protein ApxIV to the multi-component vaccine could enhance protection against homologous and heterologous challenge of A. pleuropneumoniae. METHODS AND RESULTS: The virulence of ApxI, ApxII, ApxIV, and OMP were cloned and expressed using a prokaryotic system; these recombinant proteins were combined with inactivated A...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
D Stepien-Pysniak, U Kosikowska, T Hauschild, A Burzynski, J Wilczynski, A Kolinska, A Nowaczek, A Marek
This paper reports on the development and validation of a real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (LAMP) for rapid and specific identification of Gallibacterium anatis. To design a set of 6 primers using the LAMP technique, the conserved region of the G. anatis sodA gene was selected as a target. To evaluate primer specificity we used 120 field strains, the reference strain G. anatis ATCC 43329, and 9 non-G. anatis bacteria. The results confirmed positive reactions for all G. anatis strains tested by LAMP at 63°C for 60 min, with no cross-reactivity observed for the negative control bacteria, i...
January 25, 2018: Poultry Science
S Yee, P J Blackall, C Turni
OBJECTIVE: To explore the diversity among isolates of the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovars most common in Australia (serovars 1, 5, 7 and 15) and to examine the Apx toxin profiles in selected representative isolates. DESIGN: A total of 250 isolates selected from different farms were examined for their genotypic profiles and a subset of 122 isolates for their toxin profiles. METHODS: The isolates of serovars 1, 5, 7 and 15 selected for this study came from different farms and different Australian states and were submitted for serotyping to the reference laboratory...
January 2018: Australian Veterinary Journal
Kui Xu, Qin Zhao, Xintian Wen, Rui Wu, Yiping Wen, Xiaobo Huang, Yong Huang, Qigui Yan, Xinfeng Han, Xiaoping Ma, Yung-Fu Chang, Sanjie Cao
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) causes serious economic losses in the swine industry, and is the etiologic agent of porcine pleuropneumonia. In this study we have engineered a trivalent Apx fusion protein enclosed in outer membrane vesicles (Apxr-OMV) and studied its immunoprotective efficacy against APP serotypes 1 and 7 challenge in mice. The results showed that the IgG levels in the Apxr-OMVs immune group were significantly higher than those of the negative control (P < 0.05). Up-regulation of both Th1 (IFN-γ, IL-2) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines were detected in splenocytes of Apxr-OMVs immune group...
2018: PloS One
D G S Burch, D Sperling
Amoxicillin has become a major antimicrobial substance in pig medicine for the treatment and control of severe, systemic infections such as Streptococcus suis. The minimum inhibitory concentration 90% (MIC 90) is 0.06 μg amoxicillin/ml, and the proposed epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) is 0.5 μg/ml, giving only 0.7% of isolates above the ECOFF or of reduced susceptibility. Clinical breakpoints have not been set for amoxicillin against porcine pathogens yet, hence the use of ECOFFs. It has also been successfully used for bacterial respiratory infections caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Adina R Bujold, Andrew E Shure, Rui Liu, Andrew M Kropinski, Janet I MacInnes
Actinobacillus spp. are Gram-negative bacteria associated with mucosal membranes. While some are commensals, others can cause important human and animal diseases. A. pleuropneumoniae causes severe fibrinous hemorrhagic pneumonia in swine but not systemic disease whereas other species invade resulting in septicemia and death. To understand the invasive phenotype of Actinobacillus spp., complete genomes of eight isolates were obtained and pseudogenomes of five isolates were assembled and annotated. Phylogenetically, A...
January 6, 2018: Genomics
Fabio Antenucci, Cyrielle Fougeroux, Alannah Deeney, Cathrine Ørskov, Andrew Rycroft, Peter Johannes Holst, Anders Miki Bojesen
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) is a Gram-negative bacterium that represents the main cause of porcine pleuropneumonia in pigs, causing significant economic losses to the livestock industry worldwide. A. pleuropneumoniae, as the majority of Gram-negative bacteria, excrete vesicles from its outer membrane (OM), accordingly defined as outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). Thanks to their antigenic similarity to the OM, OMVs have emerged as a promising tool in vaccinology. In this study we describe the in vivo testing of several vaccine prototypes for the prevention of infection by all known A...
January 9, 2018: Veterinary Research
Bi Li, Jing Fang, Zhicai Zuo, Sirui Yin, Tingting He, Mingxian Yang, Junliang Deng, Liuhong Shen, Xiaoping Ma, Shumin Yu, Ya Wang, Zhihua Ren
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia. Overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines, like interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and resistin, in the lung is an important feature of A. pleuropneumoniae infection. These proinflammatory cytokines enhance inflammatory and immunological responses. However, the mechanism that leads to cytokine production remains unclear. As a major virulence factor of A. pleuropneumoniae , lipopolysaccharide (LPS) may act as a potent stimulator of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), triggering a number of intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines...
March 2018: Infection and Immunity
Hiroya Ito, Sayaka Takahashi, Tetsuo Asai, Yutaka Tamura, Koshi Yamamoto
An atypical urease-negative mutant of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar 2 was isolated in Japan. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the urease gene cluster revealed that the insertion of a short DNA sequence into the cbiM gene was responsible for the urease-negative activity of the mutant. Veterinary diagnostic laboratories should be watchful for the presence of aberrant urease-negative A. pleuropneumoniae isolates.
November 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Z Ling, L Yonghong, L Junfeng, Z Li, L Xianqiang
The combined antibacterial effects of tilmicosin (TIL) and florfenicol (FF) against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) (n = 2), Streptococcus suis (S. suis) (n = 2), and Haemophilus parasuis (HPS) (n = 2) were evaluated by chekerboard test and time-kill assays. The pharmacokinetics (PKs) of TIL- and FF-loaded hydrogenated castor oil (HCO)-solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) were performed in healthy pigs. The results indicated that TIL and FF showed synergistic or additive antibacterial activities against APP, S...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Lu Luo, Ingrid Daniëlle Ellen van Dixhoorn, Inonge Reimert, Bas Kemp, Jantina Elizabeth Bolhuis, Hendrik Karel Parmentier
Housing of pigs in barren, stimulus-poor housing conditions may influence their immune status, including antibody responses to (auto-)antigens, and thus affect immune protection, which will influence the onset and outcome of infection. In the present study, we investigated the effects of environmental enrichment versus barren housing on the level of natural (auto-)antibodies (NA(A)b) and their isotypes (IgM and IgG) binding keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), myelin basic protein (MBP), and phosphorycholine conjugated to bovine serum albumin (PC-BSA) in pigs co-infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A...
November 10, 2017: Veterinary Research
Fabio Antenucci, Cyrielle Fougeroux, Janine T Bossé, Zofia Magnowska, Camille Roesch, Paul Langford, Peter Johannes Holst, Anders Miki Bojesen
Despite numerous actions to prevent disease, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) remains a major cause of porcine pleuropneumonia, resulting in economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. In this paper, we describe the utilization of a reverse vaccinology approach for the selection and in vitro testing of serovar-independent A. pleuropneumoniae immunogens. Potential immunogens were identified in the complete genomes of three A. pleuropneumoniae strains belonging to different serovars using the following parameters: predicted outer-membrane subcellular localization; ≤ 1 trans-membrane helices; presence of a signal peptide in the protein sequence; presence in all known A...
November 9, 2017: Veterinary Research
Skander Hathroubi, Abraham Loera-Muro, Alma L Guerrero-Barrera, Yannick D N Tremblay, Mario Jacques
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium that belongs to the family Pasteurellaceae. It is the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, a highly contagious respiratory disease that is responsible for major economic losses in the global pork industry. The disease may present itself as a chronic or an acute infection characterized by severe pathology, including hemorrhage, fibrinous and necrotic lung lesions, and, in the worst cases, rapid death. A. pleuropneumoniae is transmitted via aerosol route, direct contact with infected pigs, and by the farm environment...
November 7, 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
E L Sassu, J T Bossé, T J Tobias, M Gottschalk, P R Langford, I Hennig-Pauka
Porcine pleuropneumonia, caused by the bacterial porcine respiratory tract pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, leads to high economic losses in affected swine herds in most countries of the world. Pigs affected by peracute and acute disease suffer from severe respiratory distress with high lethality. The agent was first described in 1957 and, since then, knowledge about the pathogen itself, and its interactions with the host, has increased continuously. This is, in part, due to the fact that experimental infections can be studied in the natural host...
October 30, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Kaho Teshima, Jina Lee, Ho To, Takashi Kamada, Akihiro Tazumi, Haruna Hirano, Minoru Maruyama, Torata Ogawa, Shinya Nagai, Conny Turni, Nobuyuki Tsutsumi
An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using lipopolysaccharide extract as antigen was evaluated for detection of antibodies to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar 15. The serovar 15 ELISA had a higher sensitivity and specificity than latex agglutination test for 63 and 80 sera from pigs experimentally infected and not infected with A. pleuropneumoniae, respectively. When the serovar 15 ELISA was applied to 454 field sera, high rates of seropositivity were found in pigs from farms infected with A...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Biruk Tesfaye Birhanu, Seung-Jin Lee, Na-Hye Park, Ju-Beom Song, Seung-Chun Park
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a gram-negative bacterium residing in the respiratory tract of pigs that causes porcine respiratory disease complex, which leads to significant losses in the pig industry worldwide. The incidence of drug resistance in this bacterium is increasing; thus, identifying new protein/gene targets for drug and vaccine development is critical. In this study, we used an in silico approach, utilizing several databases, including Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), the database of essential genes (DEG), DrugBank, and Swiss-Prot, to identify non-homologous essential genes and prioritize these proteins for their druggability...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
Yinghui Li, Yanwen Li, Roberto Fernandez Crespo, Leon G Leanse, Paul R Langford, Janine T Bossé
Objectives: To characterize ICEApl2, an SXT-related integrative and conjugative element (ICE) found in a clinical isolate of the porcine pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and analyse the functional nature of the encoded FloR. Methods: ICEApl2 was identified in the genome of A. pleuropneumoniae MIDG3553. Functional analysis was done using conjugal transfer experiments. MIDG3553 was tested for susceptibility to the antimicrobials for which resistance genes are present in ICEApl2...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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