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Pulmonary circulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922752/abnormal-glucose-metabolism-and-high-energy-expenditure-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#1
Gustavo A Heresi, Steven K Malin, Jarrod W Barnes, Liping Tian, John P Kirwan, Raed A Dweik
RATIONALE: Insulin resistance has emerged as a potential mechanism related to the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). However, direct measurements of insulin and glucose metabolism have not been performed in IPAH patients to date. OBJECTIVES: To perform comprehensive metabolic phenotyping on humans with IPAH. METHODS: We assessed plasma insulin and glucose using an oral glucose tolerance test and estimated insulin resistance and beta-cell function in 14 IPAH patients and 14 controls matched for age, sex, blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI),...
December 6, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920021/venous-and-arterial-air-embolism-a-rare-phenomenon-with-fatal-consequences
#2
Jatan Shah, Nasheena Jiwa, Natasha Mamdani, David Hill
Air embolism is often an iatrogenic complication which may occur in venous or arterial circulation depending on the port of entry. We present two cases in which air embolism occurred in venous and arterial circulation after contrast medium injection (CMI) and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, respectively. In one case, accumulation of air bubbles was observed in the pulmonary artery after CMI. This was attributed to inadvertent injection of air owing to improper connection of the injector and the catheter...
December 5, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915422/state-of-the-art-review-of-the-right-ventricle-in-copd-patients-it-is-time-to-look-closer
#3
REVIEW
Daniela Graner Schuwartz Tannus-Silva, Marcelo Fouad Rabahi
Since the first description of pulmonary circulation in the 16th century, the knowledge of the complex interaction between the heart and lungs has greatly improved. Hypoxemia plays a classical role in the development of complications such as pulmonary hypertension and right ventricle (RV) dysfunction in patients presenting with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, more recent results have revealed the presence of RV vascular structural and functional changes even in patients with mild COPD, without hypoxemia or pulmonary hypertension at rest...
December 3, 2016: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914211/micrornas-in-cardiovascular-disease-clinical-application
#4
Christian Schulte, Mahir Karakas, Tanja Zeller
microRNAs (miRNAs) are well-known, powerful regulators of gene expression, and their potential to serve as circulating biomarkers is widely accepted. In cardiovascular disease (CVD), numerous studies have suggested miRNAs as strong circulating biomarkers with high diagnostic as well as prognostic power. In coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure (HF), miRNAs have been suggested as reliable biomarkers matching up to established protein-based such as cardiac troponins (cT) or natriuretic peptides. Also, in other CVD entities, miRNAs were identified as surprisingly specific biomarkers - with great potential for clinical applicability, especially in those entities that lack specific protein-based biomarkers such as atrial fibrillation (AF) and acute pulmonary embolism (APE)...
December 3, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910061/inhaled-gene-transfer-for-pulmonary-circulation
#5
Jaume Aguero, Lahouaria Hadri, Nadjib Hammoudi, Lauren Leonardson, Roger J Hajjar, Kiyotake Ishikawa
Chronic pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with right ventricular failure and high mortality regardless of the underlying disease. Currently, therapies can improve clinical outcomes in specific subsets of patients, but have little impact on the progression of pulmonary vascular remodeling. Upon new advances in vector development and delivery techniques, gene therapy is a novel strategy in this field with the potential of overcoming the main limitations of approved drug therapies: modulation of novel anti-remodeling targets and selective pulmonary vasculature targeting with minimal systemic effects...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908945/norwood-procedure-for-palliation-of-hypoplastic-left-heart-syndrome-right-ventricle-to-pulmonary-artery-conduit-vs-modified-blalock-taussig-shunt
#6
Dorothy M Beke
Patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome undergo a series of operations to separate the pulmonary and systemic circulations. The first of at least 3 operations occurs in the newborn period, with a stage I palliation. The goal of stage I palliation is to provide pulmonary blood flow and create an unobstructed systemic outflow tract. Advances in surgical techniques and intraoperative and postoperative care have helped decrease morbidity and mortality for patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome who have the stage I Norwood operation, but the patients continue to be at increased risk for hemodynamic collapse and adverse outcomes...
December 2016: Critical Care Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900452/microparticles-from-splenectomized-%C3%AE-thalassemia-hbe-patients-play-roles-on-procoagulant-activities-with-thrombotic-potential
#7
Phatchanat Klaihmon, Kunwadee Phongpao, Wasinee Kheansaard, Egarit Noulsri, Archrob Khuhapinant, Suthat Fucharoen, Noppawan Phumala Morales, Saovaros Svasti, Kovit Pattanapanyasat, Pornthip Chaichompoo
Thromboembolic events including cerebral thrombosis, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism are major complications in β-thalassemia. Damaged red blood cells and chronic platelet activation in splenectomized β-thalassemia/HbE patients were associated with increased microparticles (MPs) releases into blood circulation. MPs are small membrane vesicles, which play important roles on coagulation. However, the role of MP in thalassemia is poorly understood. In this study, the effects of splenectomized-MPs on platelet activation and aggregation were investigated...
November 29, 2016: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888818/high-altitude-illness
#8
Anna Hartman-Ksycińska, Jolanta Kluz-Zawadzka, Bogumił Lewandowski
High-altitude illness is a result of prolonged high-altitude exposure of unacclimatized individuals. The illness is seen in the form of acute mountain sickness (AMS) which if not treated leads to potentially life-threatening high altitude pulmonary oedema and high-altitude cerebral oedema. Medical problems are caused by hypobaric hypoxia stimulating hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) release. As a result, the central nervous system, circulation and respiratory system function impairment occurs. The most important factor in AMS treatment is acclimatization, withdrawing further ascent and rest or beginning to descent; oxygen supplementation, and pharmacological intervention, and, if available, a portable hyperbaric chamber...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887619/the-prognostic-value-of-measurement-of-high-sensitive-cardiac-troponin-t-for-mortality-in-a-cohort-of-stable-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients
#9
Anke Neukamm, Gunnar Einvik, Arne Didrik Høiseth, Vidar Søyseth, Nils Henrik Holmedahl, Natalia Kononova, Torbjørn Omland
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a common comorbidity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cardiac troponin (cTn) elevation, indicating myocardial injury, is frequent during acute COPD exacerbations and associated with increased mortality. The prognostic value of circulating cTnT among COPD patients in the stable state of the disease is still unknown. The purpose of the present study was to assess the association between circulating cTnT measured by a high sensitive assay (hs-cTnT) and all-cause mortality among patients with stable COPD without overt CVD...
November 25, 2016: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884004/precapillary-pulmonary-hypertension-and-sleep-disordered-breathing-is-there-a-link
#10
Robert Thurnheer, Silvia Ulrich, Konrad E Bloch
Among patients with sleep apnea the reported prevalence of precapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH) has varied largely, depending on patient selection, disease definition, and associated conditions, in particular chronic pulmonary disease. However, in the absence of comorbidities, PH seems to be rare in patients with sleep apnea. Conversely, sleep-related breathing disorders have been commonly found in patients with PH and they have been associated with an impaired quality of life. Since sleep-related breathing disorders may affect the pulmonary circulation and vice versa, patients with sleep-related breathing disorders should be evaluated for risk factors, symptoms and clinical signs of PH and right ventricular heart failure and patients with PH should be evaluated for sleep apnea...
November 25, 2016: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883184/epigenetics-in-reactive-and-reparative-cardiac-fibrogenesis-the-promise-of-epigenetic-therapy
#11
REVIEW
Asish K Ghosh, Rahul Rai, Panagiotis Flevaris, Douglas E Vaughan
Epigenetic changes play a pivotal role in the development of a wide spectrum of human diseases including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, and intellectual disabilities. Cardiac fibrogenesis is a common pathophysiological process seen during chronic and stress-induced accelerated cardiac aging. While adequate production of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins is necessary for post-injury wound healing, excessive synthesis and accumulation of extracellular matrix protein in the stressed or injured hearts causes decreased or loss of lusitropy that leads to cardiac failure...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881557/plasma-metabolomics-implicate-modified-transfer-rnas-and-altered-bioenergetics-in-the-outcome-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#12
Christopher J Rhodes, Pavandeep Ghataorhe, John Wharton, Kevin C Rue-Albrecht, Charaka Hadinnapola, Geoffrey Watson, Marta Bleda, Matthias Haimel, Gerry Coghlan, Paul A Corris, Luke S Howard, David G Kiely, Andrew J Peacock, Joanna Pepke-Zaba, Mark Toshner, Stephen J Wort, J Simon R Gibbs, Allan Lawrie, Stefan Gräf, Nicholas W Morrell, Martin R Wilkins
BACKGROUND: -Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a heterogeneous disorder with high mortality. METHODS: -We conducted a comprehensive study of plasma metabolites using ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry to (1) identify patients at high risk of early death, (2) identify patients who respond well to treatment and (3) provide novel molecular insights into disease pathogenesis. RESULTS: -53 circulating metabolites distinguished well-phenotyped patients with idiopathic or heritable PAH (n=365) from healthy controls (n=121) following correction for multiple testing (p<7...
November 21, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878633/cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-in-fontan-patients-with-and-without-isomerism-heterotaxy-as-compared-to-patients-with-primary-ciliary-dyskinesia-and-subjects-with-structurally-normal-hearts
#13
Rohit S Loomba, Michael Danduran, Kim G Nielsen, Astrid M Ring, Joshua Kovach, Robert H Anderson
Isomerism, also known as heterotaxy, is a clinical entity that impacts multiple organ systems both anatomically and functionally. The airways and lungs are involved in a great number of these patients, leading to increased sinopulmonary symptoms, increased need for oxygenation, and increased postoperative ventilatory support. Additionally, these patients often have congenital heart disease requiring Fontan palliation. What has not been previously described, and is the focus of this study, is the results of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in those who have undergone Fontan palliation with and without isomerism...
November 23, 2016: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873231/atherosclerotic-renal-artery-stenosis
#14
Robert Schoepe, Stephen McQuillan, Debbie Valsan, Geoffrey Teehan
Atherosclerotic Renal Artery Stenosis is a form or peripheral arterial disease that tends to affect older subjects with hyperlipidemia, history of tobacco use, and who have other coexistent forms of vascular insufficiency. An abdominal bruit on physical exam can be a helpful clue. Slowly progressive, it can lead to critical narrowing of the renal arteries which creates a cascade of events such as renin-angiotensin-aldosterone activation (RAAS), hypertension, acute pulmonary edema, and renal fibrosis. The hypertension is considered a secondary form and can even be resistant to multiple antihypertensives...
November 22, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871277/pulmonary-endothelial-activation-caused-by-extracellular-histones-contributes-to-neutrophil-activation-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#15
Yanlin Zhang, Li Guan, Jie Yu, Zanmei Zhao, Lijun Mao, Shuqiang Li, Jinyuan Zhao
BACKGROUND: During the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), neutrophils play a central role in the pathogenesis, and their activation requires interaction with the endothelium. Extracellular histones have been recognized as pivotal inflammatory mediators. This study was to investigate the role of pulmonary endothelial activation during the extracellular histone-induced inflammatory response in ARDS. METHODS: ARDS was induced in male C57BL/6 mice by intravenous injection with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or exogenous histones...
November 21, 2016: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870387/primary-myelofibrosis-2017-update-on-diagnosis-risk-stratification-and-management
#16
Ayalew Tefferi
: Disease overview: Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) characterized by stem cell-derived clonal myeloproliferation that is often but not always accompanied by JAK2, CALR or MPL mutation, abnormal cytokine expression, bone marrow fibrosis, anemia, splenomegaly, extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH), constitutional symptoms, cachexia, leukemic progression and shortened survival. DIAGNOSIS: Diagnosis is based on bone marrow morphology...
December 2016: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865378/development-of-immune-biomarkers-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-a-rabbit-model
#17
Ali Dehnad, Resmi Ravindran, Selvakumar Subbian, Imran H Khan
Tuberculosis (TB) causes extensive morbidity and mortality worldwide with approximately 10 million new cases of active disease emerging mostly from a pool of two billion individuals latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) every year. The underlying host immune responses that drive M. tb infection to active disease or latency are not well understood. We propose that identification and characterization of host immune biomarkers will be helpful to better understand the mechanisms that drive this process, and may, in addition, lead to the development of better diagnostic tools for TB...
December 2016: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865192/effect-of-targeted-therapy-on-circulating-progenitor-cells-in-precapillary-pulmonary-hypertension
#18
Jéssica García-Lucio, Olga Tura-Ceide, Roberto Del Pozo, Isabel Blanco, Sandra Pizarro, Elisabet Ferrer, Marta Díez, Núria Coll-Bonfill, Lucilla Piccari, Víctor I Peinado, Joan Albert Barberà
BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction is key in the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and is associated with reduced number of circulating progenitor cells. Studies to date evaluating levels of circulating progenitor cells in PH have provided conflicting results. Current treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and medical treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) targets endothelium dependent signalling pathways. The effect of PAH-targeted therapy on circulating progenitor cells has not been clearly established...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865054/biodistribution-of-carbon-nanotubes-in-animal-models
#19
Nicklas Raun Jacobsen, Peter Møller, Per Axel Clausen, Anne Thoustrup Saber, Christian Micheletti, Keld Alstrup Jensen, Håkan Wallin, Ulla Vogel
The many physical and chemical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT) make it one of the most commercially attractive materials in the era of nanotechnology. Here, we review the recent publications on in vivo biodistribution of pristine and functionalized forms of single-walled and multi-walled CNT. Pristine CNT remains in the lung for months or even years following pulmonary deposition. If cleared, the majority of CNT move to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract via the mucociliary escalator. However, there appears to be no uptake of CNT from the GI tract, with a possible exception of the smallest functionalized SWCNT...
November 16, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861290/pathophysiological-trends-during-withdrawal-of-life-support-implications-for-organ-donation-after-circulatory-death
#20
Arjun Iyer, Hong Chee Chew, Ling Gao, Jeanette Villanueva, Mark Hicks, Aoife Doyle, Gayathri Kumarasinghe, Andrew Jabbour, Paul Cassius Jansz, Michael P Feneley, Richard P Harvey, Robert M Graham, Kumud K Dhital, Peter S Macdonald
BACKGROUND: Donation after circulatory death (DCD) provides an alternative pathway to deceased organ transplantation. Although clinical DCD lung, liver, and kidney transplantation are well established, transplantation of hearts retrieved from DCD donors has reached clinical translation only recently. Progress has been limited by concern regarding the viability of DCD hearts. The aim of this study was to document the pathophysiological changes that occur in the heart and circulation during withdrawal of life (WLS) support...
December 2016: Transplantation
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