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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710769/the-biophysical-properties-of-plasmalogens-originating-from-their-unique-molecular-architecture
#1
REVIEW
Artturi Koivuniemi
Plasmalogens are a unique class of phospholipids that are present in many organisms. Their presence in cell membranes has intrigued researchers for decades due to their unique molecular structure, namely the vinyl-ether bond at the sn-1 position, and their association with brain related disorders. Apparently, based on their amount in the cell membranes, their function is to provide exclusive structural and dynamical properties to these complex molecular assemblies. Yet, many of their physiological roles manifested through their biophysical properties have been challenging to identify...
July 15, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686302/plasmalogen-homeostasis-regulation-of-plasmalogen-biosynthesis-and-its-physiological-consequence-in-mammals
#2
REVIEW
Masanori Honsho, Yukio Fujiki
Plasmalogens, mostly ethanolamine-containing alkenyl ether phospholipids, are a major sub-class of glycerophospholipids. Plasmalogen synthesis is initiated in peroxisomes and completed in endoplasmic reticulum. The absence of plasmalogens in several organs of peroxisome biogenesis-defective patients suggests that the de novo synthesis of plasmalogens plays a pivotal role in its homeostasis in tissues. Plasmalogen synthesis is regulated by modulating the stability of fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1 on peroxisomal membranes, a rate-limiting enzyme in plasmalogen synthesis, by sensing plasmalogens in the inner leaflet of plasma membranes...
July 7, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641979/sexual-dimorphism-in-the-fetal-cardiac-response-to-maternal-nutrient-restriction
#3
Sribalasubashini Muralimanoharan, Cun Li, Ernesto S Nakayasu, Cameron P Casey, Thomas O Metz, Peter W Nathanielsz, Alina Maloyan
Poor maternal nutrition causes intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR); however, its effects on fetal cardiac development are unclear. We have developed a baboon model of moderate maternal undernutrition, leading to IUGR. We hypothesized that the IUGR affects fetal cardiac structure and metabolism. Six control pregnant baboons ate ad-libitum (CTRL)) or 70% CTRL from 0.16 of gestation (G). Fetuses were euthanized at C-section at 0.9G under general anesthesia. Male but not female IUGR fetuses showed left ventricular fibrosis inversely correlated with birth weight...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617934/the-anaerobic-biosynthesis-of-plasmalogens
#4
REVIEW
Howard Goldfine
The biosynthesis of plasmalogens in anaerobic bacteria differs fundamentally from that in animal cells. Firstly, the formation of the alk-1'-enyl ether bond in animal cells is oxygen-dependent. Secondly, the first step in plasmalogen formation in animal cells is an acylation of dihydroxyacetonephosphate (DHAP), which has been ruled out as a precursor in anaerobes. In bacteria the alk-1'-enyl ether bond is formed after the fully formed acyl glycerolipids are synthesized. Evidence will be presented for the conversion of the sn-1 acyl-linked chain to an O-alk-1'-enyl ether by an as yet unknown mechanism...
June 15, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583708/prefrontal-fatty-acid-composition-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-association-with-reelin-expression
#5
Clare L Beasley, William G Honer, Alfredo Ramos-Miguel, Fidel Vila-Rodriguez, Alasdair M Barr
OBJECTIVE: The extracellular matrix protein reelin regulates early brain development and synaptic plasticity in adulthood. Reelin is decreased in the postmortem brain in schizophrenia patients. Reelin's two receptors, ApoER2 and VLDLR, are also substrates for ApoE - a key lipoprotein that regulates phospholipid homeostasis in the brain. The goal of the present study was therefore to examine phospholipids and their constituent fatty acids, and determine whether there is an association between reelin, its receptors and phospholipids in the brain...
June 2, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551706/oral-administration-of-ethanolamine-glycerophospholipid-containing-a-high-level-of-plasmalogen-improves-memory-impairment-in-amyloid-%C3%AE-infused-rats
#6
Shinji Yamashita, Michio Hashimoto, Abdul Md Haque, Kiyotaka Nakagawa, Mikio Kinoshita, Osamu Shido, Teruo Miyazawa
Ethanolamine plasmalogen (PlsEtn), a major phospholipid in neuronal membranes [60-90 mol% of ethanolamine glycerophospholipid (EtnGpl)], is specifically decreased in brains from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study investigated how PlsEtn administration affects cognitive deficits and lipid composition in an animal model of AD. AD model rats were infused with amyloid-β (Aβ) into the cerebral ventricle and divided into three groups. Control, Egg, and Ascidian groups were then orally administered vehicle, egg yolk EtnGpl (260 μmol as EtnGpl/kg BW/day; 10 μmol as PlsEtn/kg BW/day), or ascidian viscera EtnGpl (260 μmol as EtnGpl/kg BW/day; 209 μmol as PlsEtn/kg BW/day), respectively...
July 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528321/omega-3-fatty-acids-lipids-and-apoe-lipidation-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-rationale-for-multi-nutrient-dementia-prevention
#7
Marcus O Grimm, Daniel Michaelson, Tobias Hartmann
In the last decade it has become obvious that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is closely linked to changes in lipids or lipid metabolism. One of the main pathological hallmarks of AD is amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition. Aβ is derived from sequential proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Interestingly, both, the APP and all APP secretases are transmembrane proteins which cleave APP close to and in the lipid bilayer. Moreover, apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4) has been identified as the most prevalent genetic risk factor for AD...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528274/angiopoietin-like-8-angptl8-controls-adipocyte-lipolysis-and-phospholipid-composition
#8
Raghavendra Mysore, Gerhard Liebisch, You Zhou, Vesa M Olkkonen, P A Nidhina Haridas
Angiopoietin-like 8 (Angptl8) inhibits lipolysis in the circulation together with Angplt3 and controls post-prandial fat storage in white adipose tissue (WAT). It is strongly induced by insulin in vivo in WAT and in vitro in adipocytes. In this study we addressed the function of Angptl8 in adipocytes by its stable lentivirus-mediated knock-down in 3T3-L1 cells, followed by analyses of triglyceride (TG) storage, lipid droplet (LD) morphology, the cellular lipidome, lipolysis, and gene expression. Depletion of Angptl8 did not drastically affect the adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells but resulted in a moderate (18-19%) reduction of stored TGs...
May 18, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523433/structural-and-functional-roles-of-ether-lipids
#9
REVIEW
John M Dean, Irfan J Lodhi
Ether lipids, such as plasmalogens, are peroxisome-derived glycerophospholipids in which the hydrocarbon chain at the sn-1 position of the glycerol backbone is attached by an ether bond, as opposed to an ester bond in the more common diacyl phospholipids. This seemingly simple biochemical change has profound structural and functional implications. Notably, the tendency of ether lipids to form non-lamellar inverted hexagonal structures in model membranes suggests that they have a role in facilitating membrane fusion processes...
May 18, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494428/shotgun-lipidomics-in-substantiating-lipid-peroxidation-in-redox-biology-methods-and-applications
#10
REVIEW
Changfeng Hu, Miao Wang, Xianlin Han
Multi-dimensional mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomics (MDMS-SL) has made profound advances for comprehensive analysis of cellular lipids. It represents one of the most powerful tools in analyzing lipids directly from lipid extracts of biological samples. It enables the analysis of nearly 50 lipid classes and thousands of individual lipid species with high accuracy/precision. The redox imbalance causes oxidative stress, resulting in lipid peroxidation, and alterations in lipid metabolism and homeostasis...
August 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474568/lipid-biomarkers-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Amira Zarrouk, Meryam Debbabi, Maryem Bezine, El Mostafa Karym, Asmaa Badreddine, Olivier Rouaud, Thibault Moreau, Mustapha Cherkaoui-Malki, Mohamed El Ayeb, Boubker Nasser, Mohamed Hammami, Gérard Lizard
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent form of dementia. It is characterized by three successive stages (preclinical, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia), which are determined with a panel of complementary tests including behavioral and biochemical tests and imaging methods. Currently accepted biomarkers of AD include levels of brain chemicals related to amyloid or tau, and imaging-derived estimates of the size and metabolic activity of specific brain regions. At the moment, the pathogenesis of AD is still poorly understood but some studies support a link between lipid metabolism disorders and AD...
May 4, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439746/plasma-phosphatidylethanolamine-and-triacylglycerol-fatty-acid-concentrations-are-altered-in-major-depressive-disorder-patients-with-seasonal-pattern
#12
Yurika Otoki, Marie Hennebelle, Anthony J Levitt, Kiyotaka Nakagawa, Walter Swardfager, Ameer Y Taha
Disturbances in peripheral and brain lipid metabolism, including the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been reported in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, these changes have yet to be confirmed in MDD with seasonal pattern (MDD-s), a subtype of recurrent MDD. The present exploratory study quantified plasma plasmalogen and diacyl-phospholipid species, and fatty acids within total phospholipids, cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols and free fatty acids in non-medicated MDD-s participants (n = 9) during euthymia in summer or fall, and during depression in winter in order to screen for potential high sensitivity lipid biomarkers...
April 24, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409773/the-making-of-a-mammalian-peroxisome-version-2-0-mitochondria-get-into-the-mix
#13
Michael Schrader, Luca Pellegrini
A recent report from the Laboratory of Heidi McBride (McGill University) presents a role for mitochondria in the de novo biogenesis of peroxisomes in mammalian cells. Peroxisomes are essential organelles responsible for a wide variety of biochemical functions, from the generation of bile to plasmalogen synthesis, reduction of peroxides, and the oxidation of very-long-chain fatty acids. Like mitochondria, peroxisomes proliferate primarily through growth and division of pre-existing peroxisomes. However, unlike mitochondria, peroxisomes do not fuse; further, and perhaps most importantly, they can also be born de novo, a process thought to occur through the generation of pre-peroxisomal vesicles that originate from the endoplasmic reticulum...
April 14, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409465/peroxisomal-membrane-and-matrix-protein-import-using-a-semi-intact-mammalian-cell-system
#14
Kanji Okumoto, Masanori Honsho, Yuqiong Liu, Yukio Fujiki
Peroxisomes are essential intracellular organelles that catalyze a number of essential metabolic pathways including β-oxidation of very long chain fatty acids, synthesis of plasmalogen, bile acids, and generation and degradation of hydrogen peroxide. These peroxisomal functions are accomplished by strictly and spatiotemporally regulated compartmentalization of the enzymes catalyzing these reactions. Defects in peroxisomal protein import result in inherited peroxisome biogenesis disorders in humans. Peroxisomal matrix and membrane proteins are synthesized on free ribosomes and transported to peroxisomes in a manner dependent on their specific targeting signals and their receptors...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409451/analysis-of-plasmalogen-synthesis-in-cultured-cells
#15
Masanori Honsho, Yukio Fujiki
Plasmalogen synthesis can be analyzed by metabolic labeling, followed by the separation of ethanolamine plasmalogens from glycerophospholipids on one-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. The vinyl-ether bond of plasmalogens is acid-labile, which allows separating plasmalogens as 2-acyl-glycerophospholipids from diacyl-glycerophospholipids.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389203/preferential-binding-of-inorganic-mercury-to-specific-lipid-classes-and-its-competition-with-cadmium
#16
Evan Kerek, Mohamed Hassanin, Wenzhou Zhang, Elmar J Prenner
Upon uptake of Hg and Cd into living systems, possible targets for metal induced toxicity include the membranes surrounding nervous, cardiovascular and renal cells. To further our understanding of the interactions of Hg and Cd with different lipid structures under physiologically relevant chloride and pH conditions (100 mM NaCl pH 7.4), we used fluorescence spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering to monitor changes in membrane fluidity and phase transition and liposome size. The metal effects were studied on zwitterionic, cationic and anionic lipids to elucidate electrostatically driven metal-lipid interactions...
July 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370438/differential-activities-of-peroxisomes-along-the-mouse-intestinal-epithelium
#17
Petruta L Morvay, Myriam Baes, Paul P Van Veldhoven
The presence of peroxisomes in mammalian intestine has been revealed formerly by catalase staining combined with electron microscopy. Despite the central role of intestine in lipid uptake and the established importance of peroxisomes in different lipid-related pathways, few data are available on the physiological role of peroxisomes in intestinal metabolism, more specifically, α-, β-oxidation, and etherlipid synthesis. Hence, the peroxisomal compartment was analyzed in more detail in mouse intestine. On the basis of immunohistochemistry, the organelles are mainly confined to the epithelial cells...
April 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323950/breaking-up-prolonged-sitting-alters-the-postprandial-plasma-lipidomic-profile-of-adults-with-type-2-diabetes
#18
Megan S Grace, Paddy C Dempsey, Parneet Sethi, Piyushkumar A Mundra, Natalie A Mellett, Jacquelyn M Weir, Neville Owen, David W Dunstan, Peter J Meikle, Bronwyn A Kingwell
Context: Postprandial dysmetabolism in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is exacerbated by prolonged sitting and may trigger inflammation and oxidative stress. It is unknown what impact countermeasures to prolonged sitting have on the postprandial lipidome. Objective: In this study, we investigated the effects of regular interruptions to sitting, compared with prolonged sitting, on the postprandial plasma lipidome. Design: Randomized crossover experimental trial...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297799/-a-serum-lipidomic-study-of-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#19
R X Yang, C X Hu, Y Q Mi, W L Sun, G Y Chen, Q Pan, F Shen, G W Xu, J G Fan
Objective: To investigate the serum lipidomic profile in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and to analyze the lipid metabolism characteristics of NAFLD. Methods: The subjects were divided into control group (23 patients) and pathologically confirmed NAFLD group (42 patients), and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure serum lipidomic metabolites. The partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model was established to analyze the differences in lipid metabolism with reference to the univariate analysis...
February 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292831/reduction-of-ether-type-glycerophospholipids-plasmalogens-by-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signal-leading-to-microglial-activation
#20
Md Shamim Hossain, Yuichi Abe, Fatma Ali, Mohammed Youssef, Masanori Honsho, Yukio Fujiki, Toshihiko Katafuchi
Neuroinflammation characterized by activation of glial cells is observed in various neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the reduction of ether-type glycerophospholipids, plasmalogens (Pls), in the brain is reported in AD patients, the mechanism of the reduction and its impact on neuroinflammation remained elusive. In the present study, we found for the first time that various inflammatory stimuli reduced Pls levels in murine glial cells via NF-κB activation, which then downregulated a Pls-synthesizing enzyme, glycerone phosphate O-acyltransferase (Gnpat) through increased c-Myc recruitment onto the Gnpat promoter...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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