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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814195/change-of-plasmalogen-content-of-red-blood-cells-in-myocardial-hypoxia-and-acidosis
#1
Alexander Nikolaevich Osipenko
BACKGROUND: The contribution of hypoxic conditions to the chemical composition of membranes is not completely established. Plasmalogens, containing an alkenyl group with aldehydogenic ether linkage, are significant components of membrane lipids and their level can change in oxygen deficiency. METHODS: Analysis of plasmalogens in red blood cells was performed in patients (n = 17) with coronary heart disease, stable angina (functional class II-III) and coronary atherosclerosis...
August 17, 2017: Acta Cardiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812137/myoglobinemia-markers-with-potential-applications-in-forensic-sample-analysis-lipid-markers-in-myoglobinemia-for-postmortem-blood
#2
Hiroko Abe, Daisuke Yajima, Yumi Hoshioka, Akina Nara, Sayaka Nagasawa, Hirotaro Iwase
The crush syndrome, in which rhabdomyolysis and trauma occur as a result of heat stroke and drug intoxication, can lead to myoglobinemia. This condition can be diagnosed by measuring myoglobin (Mb) levels in blood and urine. However, postmortem Mb levels are unreliable indicators, since blood Mb concentration drastically increases within a very short time after death and urine cannot always be obtained at dissection; this makes it difficult to diagnose myoglobinemia in a corpse. To address this issue, in this study, we used a lipidomics approach to identify markers that can be used to detect myoglobinemia in postmortem blood samples...
August 15, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801719/the-phospholipid-composition-of-kangaroo-spermatozoa-verified-by-mass-spectrometric-lipid-analysis
#3
Kathrin M Engel, Jürgen Schiller, Karin Müller, Dirk Dannenberger, Ulrike Jakop
Cryopreservation of kangaroo sperm has not been successful so far, and yet there is no promising cryopreservation protocol for these cells available. However, conservation of gametes is extremely important, particularly in the context of preserving endangered species. As spermatozoa are comprised of different membrane systems, the composition of these membranes might account for difficulties in cryopreservation. Lipids, as the main components, affect the physical properties of biological membranes and play a major role in sperm maturation...
August 11, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796901/from-peroxisomal-disorders-to-common-neurodegenerative-diseases-the-role-of-ether-phospholipids-in-the-nervous-system
#4
REVIEW
Fabian Dorninger, Sonja Forss-Petter, Johannes Berger
The emerging diverse roles of ether (phospho)lipids in nervous system development and function in health and disease are currently attracting growing interest. Plasmalogens, a subgroup of ether lipids, are important membrane components involved in vesicle fusion and membrane raft composition. They store polyunsaturated fatty acids and may serve as antioxidants. Ether lipid metabolites act as precursors for the formation of glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) anchors; others, like platelet-activating factor, are implicated in signaling functions...
August 10, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796890/an-involvement-of-phospholipase-a-acyltransferase-family-proteins-in-peroxisome-regulation-and-plasmalogen-metabolism
#5
REVIEW
Toru Uyama, Kazuhito Tsuboi, Natsuo Ueda
The HRAS-like suppressor (HRASLS) is a protein family consisting of five members in humans. Despite their discovery as tumor suppressors, we demonstrated that all these proteins are phospholipid-metabolizing enzymes, such as phospholipase A1 /A2 and acyltransferase. We thus proposed to rename HRASLS1-5 as phospholipase A/acyltransferase (PLAAT)-1-5. Notably, PLAATs exhibit N-acyltransferase activity to biosynthesize N-acylated ethanolamine phospholipids, including N-acyl-plasmalogen, which serve as precursors of bioactive N-acylethanolamines...
August 10, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794205/the-human-serum-metabolome-of-vitamin-b-12-deficiency-and-repletion-and-associations-with-neurological-function-in-elderly-adults
#6
Alex Brito, Dmitry Grapov, Johannes Fahrmann, Danielle Harvey, Ralph Green, Joshua W Miller, Sergey N Fedosov, Setareh Shahab-Ferdows, Daniela Hampel, Theresa L Pedersen, Oliver Fiehn, John W Newman, Ricardo Uauy, Lindsay H Allen
Background: The specific metabolomic perturbations that occur in vitamin B-12 deficiency, and their associations with neurological function, are not well characterized.Objective: We sought to characterize the human serum metabolome in subclinical vitamin B-12 deficiency and repletion.Methods: A before-and-after treatment study provided 1 injection of 10 mg vitamin B-12 (with 100 mg pyridoxine and 100 mg thiamin) to 27 community-dwelling elderly Chileans (∼74 y old) with vitamin B-12 deficiency, as evaluated with serum vitamin B-12, total plasma homocysteine (tHcy), methylmalonic acid (MMA), and holotranscobalamin...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789919/identification-of-long-and-very-long-chain-fatty-acids-plasmalogen-c16-0-and-phytanic-acid-as-new-lipid-biomarkers-in-tunisian-coronary-artery-disease-patients
#7
Samia Hadj Ahmed, Nadia Koubaa, Wafa Kharroubi, Amira Zarrouk, Amira Mnari, Fethi Batbout, Habib Gamra, Sonia Hammami, Gérard Lizard, Mohamed Hammami
Long and very long chain fatty acids (LCFAs and VLCFAs) may play an active role in coronary artery diseases (CAD) etiology. Our aim was to evaluate the associations between LCPUFAs (C20:4n-6; C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3) and VLCSFAs (C22:0, C24:0; and C26:0), as well as markers of peroxisomal integrity evaluated by phytanic acid and plasmalogen-C16:0 (PL-C16:0) in addition to the markers of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA] and conjugated dienes [CD]) and inflammation (high sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]) with vascular severity evaluated by Gensini score in order to determine their possible effects on CAD in Tunisian population...
August 5, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742517/type-1-rhizomelic-chondrodysplasia-punctata-with-a-homozygous-pex7-mutation
#8
Nursel Muratoğlu Şahin, Meliha Esra Bilici, Erdal Kurnaz, Melek Pala Akdoğan, Serdar Ceylaner, Zehra Aycan
BACKGROUND: Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP) is a rare peroxisomal disease characterised by punctate calcifications of non-ossified cartilage epiphyseal centres. The main biochemical marker of all RCDP types is a decrease in the levels of plasmalogens. Additionally, the accumulation of phytanic acid can be used as a differential marker between types of RDCP. Due to the biochemical overlap between types 1 and 5 RCDP, a genetic analysis of these genes should be performed in patients to identify the type...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736247/interleukin-1%C3%AE-affects-the-phospholipid-biosynthesis-of-fibroblast-like-synoviocytes-from-human-osteoarthritic-knee-joints
#9
K D Sluzalska, G Liebisch, G Lochnit, B Ishaque, H Hackstein, G Schmitz, M Rickert, J Steinmeyer
OBJECTIVE: Phospholipids (PLs), together with hyaluronan and lubricin, are involved in boundary lubrication within human articular joints. Levels of lubricants in synovial fluid (SF) have been found to be associated with the health status of the joint. However, the biosynthesis and release of PLs within human joints remains poorly understood. This study contributes to our understanding of the effects of cytokines on the biosynthesis of PLs using cultured fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) from human osteoarthritic knee joints...
July 20, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731463/peroxisomes-protect-lymphoma-cells-from-hdac-inhibitor-mediated-apoptosis
#10
Michael S Dahabieh, ZongYi Ha, Erminia Di Pietro, Jessica N Nichol, Alicia M Bolt, Christophe Goncalves, Daphné Dupéré-Richer, Filippa Pettersson, Koren K Mann, Nancy E Braverman, Sonia V Del Rincón, Wilson H Miller
Peroxisomes are a critical rheostat of reactive oxygen species (ROS), yet their role in drug sensitivity and resistance remains unexplored. Gene expression analysis of clinical lymphoma samples suggests that peroxisomes are involved in mediating drug resistance to the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) Vorinostat (Vor), which promotes ROS-mediated apoptosis. Vor augments peroxisome numbers in cultured lymphoma cells, concomitant with increased levels of peroxisomal proteins PEX3, PEX11B, and PMP70. Genetic inhibition of peroxisomes, using PEX3 knockdown, reveals that peroxisomes protect lymphoma cells against Vor-mediated cell death...
July 21, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728066/baseline-serum-phosphatidylcholine-plasmalogen-concentrations-are-inversely-associated-with-incident-myocardial-infarction-in-patients-with-mixed-peripheral-artery-disease-presentations
#11
Joseph V Moxon, Rhondda E Jones, Gerard Wong, Jacquelyn M Weir, Natalie A Mellett, Bronwyn A Kingwell, Peter J Meikle, Jonathan Golledge
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Despite current best care, patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) remain at high risk of myocardial infarction, and biomarkers to more accurately assess cardiovascular risk are needed. This study assessed the relationship between the serum lipidome and incident myocardial infarction in a cohort of PAD patients. METHODS: 265 PAD patients were followed up for a median of 23 months, during which 18 people suffered a myocardial infarction...
June 29, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720155/effect-of-slaughter-age-and-feeding-system-on-the-neutral-and-polar-lipid-composition-of-horse-meat
#12
X Belaunzaran, P Lavín, A R Mantecón, J K G Kramer, N Aldai
This study was undertaken to provide a thorough analysis of the neutral lipid (NL) and polar lipid (PL) fractions of horse meat that included the content and distribution of acyl and alkenyl moieties in foals under different rearing conditions. Two groups of crossbred horses were studied; the first group was selected from suckling foals produced under grazing conditions and slaughtered at 4 months of age (n=8), and the second group was selected from concentrate-finished foals and slaughtered at 12 months of age (n=7)...
July 19, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710769/the-biophysical-properties-of-plasmalogens-originating-from-their-unique-molecular-architecture
#13
REVIEW
Artturi Koivuniemi
Plasmalogens are a unique class of phospholipids that are present in many organisms. Their presence in cell membranes has intrigued researchers for decades due to their unique molecular structure, namely the vinyl-ether bond at the sn-1 position, and their association with brain related disorders. Apparently, based on their amount in the cell membranes, their function is to provide exclusive structural and dynamical properties to these complex molecular assemblies. Yet, many of their physiological roles manifested through their biophysical properties have been challenging to identify...
July 15, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686302/plasmalogen-homeostasis-regulation-of-plasmalogen-biosynthesis-and-its-physiological-consequence-in-mammals
#14
REVIEW
Masanori Honsho, Yukio Fujiki
Plasmalogens, mostly ethanolamine-containing alkenyl ether phospholipids, are a major subclass of glycerophospholipids. Plasmalogen synthesis is initiated in peroxisomes and completed in the endoplasmic reticulum. The absence of plasmalogens in several organs of peroxisome biogenesis-defective patients suggests that the de novo synthesis of plasmalogens plays a pivotal role in its homeostasis in tissues. Plasmalogen synthesis is regulated by modulating the stability of fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1 on peroxisomal membranes, a rate-limiting enzyme in plasmalogen synthesis, by sensing plasmalogens in the inner leaflet of plasma membranes...
July 7, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641979/sexual-dimorphism-in-the-fetal-cardiac-response-to-maternal-nutrient-restriction
#15
Sribalasubashini Muralimanoharan, Cun Li, Ernesto S Nakayasu, Cameron P Casey, Thomas O Metz, Peter W Nathanielsz, Alina Maloyan
Poor maternal nutrition causes intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR); however, its effects on fetal cardiac development are unclear. We have developed a baboon model of moderate maternal undernutrition, leading to IUGR. We hypothesized that the IUGR affects fetal cardiac structure and metabolism. Six control pregnant baboons ate ad-libitum (CTRL)) or 70% CTRL from 0.16 of gestation (G). Fetuses were euthanized at C-section at 0.9G under general anesthesia. Male but not female IUGR fetuses showed left ventricular fibrosis inversely correlated with birth weight...
July 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617934/the-anaerobic-biosynthesis-of-plasmalogens
#16
REVIEW
Howard Goldfine
The biosynthesis of plasmalogens in anaerobic bacteria differs fundamentally from that in animal cells. Firstly, the formation of the alk-1'-enyl ether bond in animal cells is oxygen-dependent. Secondly, the first step in plasmalogen formation in animal cells is an acylation of dihydroxyacetonephosphate (DHAP), which has been ruled out as a precursor in anaerobes. In bacteria the alk-1'-enyl ether bond is formed after the fully formed acyl glycerolipids are synthesized. Evidence will be presented for the conversion of the sn-1 acyl-linked chain to an O-alk-1'-enyl ether by an as yet unknown mechanism...
June 15, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583708/prefrontal-fatty-acid-composition-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-association-with-reelin-expression
#17
Clare L Beasley, William G Honer, Alfredo Ramos-Miguel, Fidel Vila-Rodriguez, Alasdair M Barr
OBJECTIVE: The extracellular matrix protein reelin regulates early brain development and synaptic plasticity in adulthood. Reelin is decreased in the postmortem brain in schizophrenia patients. Reelin's two receptors, ApoER2 and VLDLR, are also substrates for ApoE - a key lipoprotein that regulates phospholipid homeostasis in the brain. The goal of the present study was therefore to examine phospholipids and their constituent fatty acids, and determine whether there is an association between reelin, its receptors and phospholipids in the brain...
June 2, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551706/oral-administration-of-ethanolamine-glycerophospholipid-containing-a-high-level-of-plasmalogen-improves-memory-impairment-in-amyloid-%C3%AE-infused-rats
#18
Shinji Yamashita, Michio Hashimoto, Abdul Md Haque, Kiyotaka Nakagawa, Mikio Kinoshita, Osamu Shido, Teruo Miyazawa
Ethanolamine plasmalogen (PlsEtn), a major phospholipid in neuronal membranes [60-90 mol% of ethanolamine glycerophospholipid (EtnGpl)], is specifically decreased in brains from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study investigated how PlsEtn administration affects cognitive deficits and lipid composition in an animal model of AD. AD model rats were infused with amyloid-β (Aβ) into the cerebral ventricle and divided into three groups. Control, Egg, and Ascidian groups were then orally administered vehicle, egg yolk EtnGpl (260 μmol as EtnGpl/kg BW/day; 10 μmol as PlsEtn/kg BW/day), or ascidian viscera EtnGpl (260 μmol as EtnGpl/kg BW/day; 209 μmol as PlsEtn/kg BW/day), respectively...
July 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528321/omega-3-fatty-acids-lipids-and-apoe-lipidation-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-rationale-for-multi-nutrient-dementia-prevention
#19
Marcus O Grimm, Daniel Michaelson, Tobias Hartmann
In the last decade it has become obvious that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is closely linked to changes in lipids or lipid metabolism. One of the main pathological hallmarks of AD is amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition. Aβ is derived from sequential proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Interestingly, both, the APP and all APP secretases are transmembrane proteins which cleave APP close to and in the lipid bilayer. Moreover, apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4) has been identified as the most prevalent genetic risk factor for AD...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528274/angiopoietin-like-8-angptl8-controls-adipocyte-lipolysis-and-phospholipid-composition
#20
Raghavendra Mysore, Gerhard Liebisch, You Zhou, Vesa M Olkkonen, P A Nidhina Haridas
Angiopoietin-like 8 (Angptl8) inhibits lipolysis in the circulation together with Angplt3 and controls post-prandial fat storage in white adipose tissue (WAT). It is strongly induced by insulin in vivo in WAT and in vitro in adipocytes. In this study we addressed the function of Angptl8 in adipocytes by its stable lentivirus-mediated knock-down in 3T3-L1 cells, followed by analyses of triglyceride (TG) storage, lipid droplet (LD) morphology, the cellular lipidome, lipolysis, and gene expression. Depletion of Angptl8 did not drastically affect the adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells but resulted in a moderate (18-19%) reduction of stored TGs...
May 18, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
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