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Raquel Marin, Noemí Fabelo, Virginia Martín, Paula Garcia-Esparcia, Isidre Ferrer, David Quinto-Alemany, Mario Díaz
Lipid rafts are highly dynamic membrane microdomains intimately associated with cell signaling. Compelling evidence has demonstrated that alterations in lipid rafts are associated with neurodegenerative diseases such Alzheimer's disease, but at present, whether alterations in lipid raft microdomains occur in other types of dementia such dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) remains unknown. Our analyses reveal that lipid rafts from DLB exhibit aberrant lipid profiles including low levels of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (mainly docosahexaenoic acid), plasmalogens and cholesterol, and reduced unsaturation and peroxidability indexes...
September 6, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Han-Sol Park, Jung Eun Jang, Myoung Seok Ko, Sung Hoon Woo, Bum Joong Kim, Hyun Sik Kim, Hye Sun Park, In-Sun Park, Eun Hee Koh, Ki-Up Lee
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common form of chronic liver disease in industrialized countries. Recent studies have highlighted the association between peroxisomal dysfunction and hepatic steatosis. Peroxisomes are intracellular organelles that contribute to several crucial metabolic processes, such as facilitation of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and removal of reactive oxygen species through catalase or plasmalogen synthesis. Statins are known to prevent hepatic steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but underlying mechanisms of this prevention are largely unknown...
October 2016: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Steffi Kopprasch, Srirangan Dheban, Kai Schuhmann, Aimin Xu, Klaus-Martin Schulte, Charmaine J Simeonovic, Peter E H Schwarz, Stefan R Bornstein, Andrej Shevchenko, Juergen Graessler
OBJECTIVE: Glucolipotoxicity is a major pathophysiological mechanism in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). We aimed to detect subtle changes in the circulating lipid profile by shotgun lipidomics analyses and to associate them with four different insulin sensitivity indices. METHODS: The cross-sectional study comprised 90 men with a broad range of insulin sensitivity including normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n = 33), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, n = 32) and newly detected T2D (n = 25)...
2016: PloS One
Sara Moukarzel, Roger A Dyer, Bernd O Keller, Rajavel Elango, Sheila M Innis
BACKGROUND: Human milk contains unique glycerophospholipids, including ethanolamine-containing plasmalogens (Pls-PEs) in the milk fat globule membrane, which have been implicated in infant brain development. Brain Pls-PEs accumulate postnatally and are enriched in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Fatty acid (FA) composition of Pls-PEs in milk is poorly understood because of the analytical challenges in separating Pls-PEs from other phospholipids in the predominating presence of triacylglycerols...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
C Tessier, K Sweers, A Frajerman, H Bergaoui, F Ferreri, C Delva, N Lapidus, A Lamaziere, J P Roiser, M De Hert, P Nuss
Schizophrenia is a severe mental condition in which several lipid abnormalities-either structural or metabolic-have been described. We tested the hypothesis that an abnormality in membrane lipid composition may contribute to aberrant dopamine signaling, and thereby symptoms and cognitive impairment, in schizophrenia (SCZ) patients. Antipsychotic-medicated and clinically stable SCZ outpatients (n=74) were compared with matched healthy subjects (HC, n=40). A lipidomic analysis was performed in red blood cell (RBC) membranes examining the major phospholipid (PL) classes and their associated fatty acids (FAs)...
October 4, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Juscelino Tovar, Vanessa D de Mello, Anne Nilsson, Maria Johansson, Jussi Paananen, Marko Lehtonen, Kati Hanhineva, Inger Björck
SCOPE: MFD, a diet based on multiple functional concepts and ingredients with antiinflammatory activity, was previously shown to improve different cardiometabolic risk-associated markers in healthy subjects. Here, we assessed the impact of MFD on plasma metabolome and explored associations of the differential metabolites with clinical parameters, searching for metabolic determinants related to the effects of MFD. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-four overweight healthy volunteers completed a randomized crossover intervention comparing MFD with a control diet devoid of the active components of MFD...
September 27, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Angela L Duker, Tim Niiler, Grant Eldridge, Nga H Brereton, Nancy E Braverman, Michael B Bober
Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP) is a class of peroxisomal disorders characterized by defective plasmalogen biosynthesis. There are multiple recognized types of RCDP, all of which have autosomal recessive inheritance, and their associated genes are known: RCDP type 1 with PEX7, RCDP type 2 with GNPAT, RCDP type 3 with AGPS, RCDP type 4 with FAR1, and RCDP type 5 with PEX5. Among other medical/developmental issues, plasmalogen deficiency has a direct effect on bone growth and results in postnatal growth failure, the severity of which corresponds to the degree of plasmalogen deficiency...
September 12, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Alexina Orsoni, Patrice Thérond, Ricardo Tan, Philippe Giral, Paul Robillard, Anatol Kontush, Peter J Meikle, M John Chapman
AIMS: Atherogenic mixed dyslipidemia associates with oxidative stress and defective HDL antioxidative function in metabolic syndrome (MetS). The impact of statin treatment on the capacity of HDL to inactivate LDL-derived, redox-active phospholipid hydroperoxides (PCOOH) in MetS is indeterminate. METHODS AND RESULTS: Insulin-resistant, hypertriglyceridemic, hypertensive, obese males were treated with pitavastatin (4mg/day) for 180 days, resulting in marked reduction in plasma triglycerides (-41%) and LDL-C (-38%), with minor effects on HDL-cholesterol and apoAI...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
Eileen Ryan, Gavin E Reid
Lipids play critical structural and functional roles in the regulation of cellular homeostasis, and it is increasingly recognized that the disruption of lipid metabolism or signaling or both is associated with the onset and progression of certain metabolically linked diseases. As a result, the field of lipidomics has emerged to comprehensively identify and structurally characterize the diverse range of lipid species within a sample of interest and to quantitatively monitor their abundances under different physiological or pathological conditions...
September 20, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Karolina Tulodziecka, Barbara B Diaz-Rohrer, Madeline M Farley, Robin B Chan, Gilbert Di Paolo, Kandice R Levental, M Neal Waxham, Ilya Levental
Neuronal synapses are the fundamental units of neural signal transduction, and must maintain exquisite signal fidelity while also accommodating the plasticity that underlies learning and development. To achieve these goals, the molecular composition and spatial organization of synaptic terminals must be tightly regulated; however, little is known about the regulation of lipid composition and organization in synaptic membranes. Here, we quantify the comprehensive lipidome of rat synaptic membranes during postnatal development and observe dramatic developmental lipidomic remodeling during the first 60 postnatal days, including progressive accumulation of cholesterol, plasmalogens, and sphingolipids...
August 17, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
James Alexander, Louise Gildea, Julia Balog, Abigail Speller, James McKenzie, Laura Muirhead, Alasdair Scott, Christos Kontovounisios, Shanawaz Rasheed, Julian Teare, Jonathan Hoare, Kirill Veselkov, Robert Goldin, Paris Tekkis, Ara Darzi, Jeremy Nicholson, James Kinross, Zoltan Takats
BACKGROUND: This pilot study assessed the diagnostic accuracy of rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry (REIMS) in colorectal cancer (CRC) and colonic adenomas. METHODS: Patients undergoing elective surgical resection for CRC were recruited at St. Mary's Hospital London and The Royal Marsden Hospital, UK. Ex vivo analysis was performed using a standard electrosurgery handpiece with aspiration of the electrosurgical aerosol to a Xevo G2-S iKnife QTof mass spectrometer (Waters Corporation)...
August 8, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
Sander M Houten, Jia Chen, Fiorella Belpoggi, Fabiana Manservisi, Alberto Sánchez-Guijo, Stefan A Wudy, Susan L Teitelbaum
The consequences of ubiquitous exposure to environmental chemicals remain poorly defined. Non-targeted metabolomic profiling is an emerging method to identify biomarkers of the physiological response to such exposures. We investigated the effect of three commonly used ingredients in personal care products, diethyl phthalate (DEP), methylparaben (MPB) and triclosan (TCS), on the blood metabolome of female Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were treated with low levels of these chemicals comparable to human exposures during prepubertal and pubertal windows as well as chronically from birth to adulthood...
2016: PloS One
Fabio Simbari, Jana McCaskill, Gillian Coakley, Marissa Millar, Rick M Maizels, Gemma Fabriás, Josefina Casas, Amy H Buck
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate communication between cells and organisms across all 3 kingdoms of life. Several reports have demonstrated that EVs can transfer molecules between phylogenetically diverse species and can be used by parasites to alter the properties of the host environment. Whilst the concept of vesicle secretion and uptake is broad reaching, the molecular composition of these complexes is expected to be diverse based on the physiology and environmental niche of different organisms. Exosomes are one class of EVs originally defined based on their endocytic origin, as these derive from multivesicular bodies that then fuse with the plasma membrane releasing them into the extracellular environment...
2016: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
David A Ford, Jaideep Honavar, Carolyn J Albert, Mark A Duerr, Joo Yeun Oh, Stephen Doran, Sadis Matalon, Rakesh P Patel
Exposure to chlorine (Cl2) gas can occur during accidents and intentional release scenarios. However, biomarkers that specifically indicate Cl2 exposure and Cl2-derived products that mediate postexposure toxicity remain unclear. We hypothesized that chlorinated lipids (Cl-lipids) formed by direct reactions between Cl2 gas and plasmalogens serve as both biomarkers and mediators of post-Cl2 gas exposure toxicities. The 2-chloropalmitaldehyde (2-Cl-Pald), 2-chlorostearaldehyde (2-Cl-Sald), and their oxidized products, free- and esterified 2-chloropalmitic acid (2-Cl-PA) and 2-chlorostearic acid were detected in the lungs and plasma of mouse and rat models of Cl2 gas exposure...
August 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
Ziqiang Guan, Lingli Chen, Jacoline Gerritsen, Hauke Smidt, Howard Goldfine
We have examined the lipids of three isolates, Romboutsia lituseburensis, Romboutsia ilealis, and Romboutsia sp. strain FRIFI, of the newly described genus Romboutsia by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography (2D-TLC) and by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). We have found three phospholipids, phosphatidylglycerol (PG), cardiolipin and phosphatidic acid in all three species. A fourth phospholipid, lysyl-PG, was found in R. lituseburensis and strain FRIFI. Polyprenyl-phosphates were identified in the lipid extracts of all three species...
September 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Gemma L Pearson, Natalie Mellett, Kwan Yi Chu, Ebru Boslem, Peter J Meikle, Trevor J Biden
OBJECTIVE: Glucose promotes lipid remodelling in pancreatic β-cells, and this is thought to contribute to the regulation of insulin secretion, but the metabolic pathways and potential signalling intermediates have not been fully elaborated. METHODS: Using mass spectrometry (MS) we quantified changes in approximately 300 lipid metabolites in MIN6 β-cells and isolated mouse islets following 1 h stimulation with glucose. Flux through sphingolipid pathways was also assessed in (3)H-sphinganine-labelled cells using TLC...
June 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Mutya Cruz, Miao Wang, Jessica Frisch-Daiello, Xianlin Han
Extraction of lipids from biological samples is a critical step in lipidomics, especially for shotgun lipidomics where lipid extracts are directly infused into a mass spectrometer. The butanol-methanol (BUME) extraction method was originally developed to extract lipids from plasma samples with 1 % acetic acid. Considering some lipids are sensitive to acidic environments, we modified this protocol by replacing acetic acid with lithium chloride solution and extended the modified extraction to tissue samples...
July 2016: Lipids
Flore Dagorn, Aurélie Couzinet-Mossion, Melha Kendel, Peter G Beninger, Vony Rabesaotra, Gilles Barnathan, Gaëtane Wielgosz-Collin
Economic exploitation is one means to offset the cost of controlling invasive species, such as the introduced Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg) on the French Atlantic coast. Total lipid and phospholipid (PL) fatty acids (FAs) and sterols were examined in an invasive population of C. gigas in Bourgneuf Bay, France, over four successive seasons, with a view to identify possible sources of exploitable substances. The total lipid level (% dry weight) varied from 7.1% (winter) to 8.6% (spring). Of this, PLs accounted for 28...
June 2016: Marine Drugs
Masatoshi Matsunami, Nobuyuki Shimozawa, Akinari Fukuda, Tadayuki Kumagai, Masaya Kubota, Pin Fee Chong, Mureo Kasahara
Infantile Refsum disease (IRD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of peroxisome biogenesis characterized by generalized peroxisomal metabolic dysfunction, including accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) and phytanic acid (PA), as well as decreased plasmalogen contents (PL). An effective therapy for this intractable disease has not been established, and only supportive management with docosahexaenoic acid supplementation and low PA diet has been reported so far. A boy of 3 years and 8 months presented with facial dysmorphism, transaminitis, and psychomotor retardation...
June 2016: Pediatrics
Beatriz C S Leão, Nathália A S Rocha-Frigoni, Ériklis Nogueira, Elaine C Cabral, Christina R Ferreira, Marcos N Eberlin, Mônica F Accorsi, Thiago V Neves, Gisele Z Mingoti
Dietary rumen-protected polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) rich in linoleic acid (LA) may affect embryo yield, and LA can modulate the molecular mechanisms of lipid uptake in bovine blastocysts produced in vitro. In embryos, membrane lipids, such as phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and sphingomyelins (SMs), affect cryopreservation success. The aim of the present study was to evaluate embryonic developmental rates after the IVF of oocytes retrieved from Nellore heifers fed for approximately 90 days with rumen-protected PUFAs rich in LA...
May 25, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
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