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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528321/omega-3-fatty-acids-lipids-and-apoe-lipidation-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-rationale-for-multi-nutrient-dementia-prevention
#1
Marcus O Grimm, Daniel Michaelson, Tobias Hartmann
In the last decade it has become obvious that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is closely linked to changes in lipids or lipid metabolism. One of the main pathological hallmarks of AD is amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition. Aβ is derived from sequential proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Interestingly, both, the APP and all APP secretases are transmembrane proteins which cleave APP close to and in the lipid bilayer. Moreover, apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4) has been identified as the most prevalent genetic risk factor for AD...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528274/angiopoietin-like-8-angptl8-controls-adipocyte-lipolysis-and-phospholipid-composition
#2
Raghavendra Mysore, Gerhard Liebisch, You Zhou, Vesa M Olkkonen, P A Nidhina Haridas
Angiopoietin-like 8 (Angptl8) inhibits lipolysis in the circulation together with Angplt3 and controls post-prandial fat storage in white adipose tissue (WAT). It is strongly induced by insulin in vivo in WAT and in vitro in adipocytes. In this study we addressed the function of Angptl8 in adipocytes by its stable lentivirus-mediated knock-down in 3T3-L1 cells, followed by analyses of triglyceride (TG) storage, lipid droplet (LD) morphology, the cellular lipidome, lipolysis, and gene expression. Depletion of Angptl8 did not drastically affect the adipocytic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells but resulted in a moderate (18-19%) reduction of stored TGs...
May 17, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523433/structural-and-functional-roles-of-ether-lipids
#3
REVIEW
John M Dean, Irfan J Lodhi
Ether lipids, such as plasmalogens, are peroxisome-derived glycerophospholipids in which the hydrocarbon chain at the sn-1 position of the glycerol backbone is attached by an ether bond, as opposed to an ester bond in the more common diacyl phospholipids. This seemingly simple biochemical change has profound structural and functional implications. Notably, the tendency of ether lipids to form non-lamellar inverted hexagonal structures in model membranes suggests that they have a role in facilitating membrane fusion processes...
May 18, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494428/shotgun-lipidomics-in-substantiating-lipid-peroxidation-in-redox-biology-methods-and-applications
#4
REVIEW
Changfeng Hu, Miao Wang, Xianlin Han
Multi-dimensional mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomics (MDMS-SL) has made profound advances for comprehensive analysis of cellular lipids. It represents one of the most powerful tools in analyzing lipids directly from lipid extracts of biological samples. It enables the analysis of nearly 50 lipid classes and thousands of individual lipid species with high accuracy/precision. The redox imbalance causes oxidative stress, resulting in lipid peroxidation, and alterations in lipid metabolism and homeostasis...
April 24, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474568/lipid-biomarkers-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Amira Zarrouk, Meryam Debbabi, Maryem Bezine, El Mostafa Karym, Asmaa Badreddine, Olivier Rouaud, Thibault Moreau, Mustapha Cherkaoui-Malki, Mohamed El Ayeb, Boubker Nasser, Mohamed Hammami, Gérard Lizard
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent form of dementia. It is characterized by three successive stages (preclinical, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia), which are determined with a panel of complementary tests including behavioral and biochemical tests and imaging methods. Currently accepted biomarkers of AD include levels of brain chemicals related to amyloid or tau, and imaging-derived estimates of the size and metabolic activity of specific brain regions. At the moment, the pathogenesis of AD is still poorly understood but some studies support a link between lipid metabolism disorders and AD...
May 4, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439746/plasma-phosphatidylethanolamine-and-triacylglycerol-fatty-acid-concentrations-are-altered-in-major-depressive-disorder-patients-with-seasonal-pattern
#6
Yurika Otoki, Marie Hennebelle, Anthony J Levitt, Kiyotaka Nakagawa, Walter Swardfager, Ameer Y Taha
Disturbances in peripheral and brain lipid metabolism, including the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been reported in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, these changes have yet to be confirmed in MDD with seasonal pattern (MDD-s), a subtype of recurrent MDD. The present exploratory study quantified plasma plasmalogen and diacyl-phospholipid species, and fatty acids within total phospholipids, cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols and free fatty acids in non-medicated MDD-s participants (n = 9) during euthymia in summer or fall, and during depression in winter in order to screen for potential high sensitivity lipid biomarkers...
April 24, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409773/the-making-of-a-mammalian-peroxisome-version-2-0-mitochondria-get-into-the-mix
#7
Michael Schrader, Luca Pellegrini
A recent report from the Laboratory of Heidi McBride (McGill University) presents a role for mitochondria in the de novo biogenesis of peroxisomes in mammalian cells. Peroxisomes are essential organelles responsible for a wide variety of biochemical functions, from the generation of bile to plasmalogen synthesis, reduction of peroxides, and the oxidation of very-long-chain fatty acids. Like mitochondria, peroxisomes proliferate primarily through growth and division of pre-existing peroxisomes. However, unlike mitochondria, peroxisomes do not fuse; further, and perhaps most importantly, they can also be born de novo, a process thought to occur through the generation of pre-peroxisomal vesicles that originate from the endoplasmic reticulum...
April 14, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409465/peroxisomal-membrane-and-matrix-protein-import-using-a-semi-intact-mammalian-cell-system
#8
Kanji Okumoto, Masanori Honsho, Yuqiong Liu, Yukio Fujiki
Peroxisomes are essential intracellular organelles that catalyze a number of essential metabolic pathways including β-oxidation of very long chain fatty acids, synthesis of plasmalogen, bile acids, and generation and degradation of hydrogen peroxide. These peroxisomal functions are accomplished by strictly and spatiotemporally regulated compartmentalization of the enzymes catalyzing these reactions. Defects in peroxisomal protein import result in inherited peroxisome biogenesis disorders in humans. Peroxisomal matrix and membrane proteins are synthesized on free ribosomes and transported to peroxisomes in a manner dependent on their specific targeting signals and their receptors...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409451/analysis-of-plasmalogen-synthesis-in-cultured-cells
#9
Masanori Honsho, Yukio Fujiki
Plasmalogen synthesis can be analyzed by metabolic labeling, followed by the separation of ethanolamine plasmalogens from glycerophospholipids on one-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. The vinyl-ether bond of plasmalogens is acid-labile, which allows separating plasmalogens as 2-acyl-glycerophospholipids from diacyl-glycerophospholipids.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389203/preferential-binding-of-inorganic-mercury-to-specific-lipid-classes-and-its-competition-with-cadmium
#10
Evan Kerek, Mohamed Hassanin, Wenzhou Zhang, Elmar J Prenner
Upon uptake of Hg and Cd into living systems, possible targets for metal induced toxicity include the membranes surrounding nervous, cardiovascular and renal cells. To further our understanding of the interactions of Hg and Cd with different lipid structures under physiologically relevant chloride and pH conditions (100 mM NaCl pH 7.4), we used fluorescence spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering to monitor changes in membrane fluidity and phase transition and liposome size. The metal effects were studied on zwitterionic, cationic and anionic lipids to elucidate electrostatically driven metal-lipid interactions...
July 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370438/differential-activities-of-peroxisomes-along-the-mouse-intestinal-epithelium
#11
Petruta L Morvay, Myriam Baes, Paul P Van Veldhoven
The presence of peroxisomes in mammalian intestine has been revealed formerly by catalase staining combined with electron microscopy. Despite the central role of intestine in lipid uptake and the established importance of peroxisomes in different lipid-related pathways, few data are available on the physiological role of peroxisomes in intestinal metabolism, more specifically, α-, β-oxidation, and etherlipid synthesis. Hence, the peroxisomal compartment was analyzed in more detail in mouse intestine. On the basis of immunohistochemistry, the organelles are mainly confined to the epithelial cells...
April 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323950/breaking-up-prolonged-sitting-alters-the-postprandial-plasma-lipidomic-profile-of-adults-with-type-2-diabetes
#12
Megan S Grace, Paddy C Dempsey, Parneet Sethi, Piyushkumar A Mundra, Natalie A Mellett, Jacquelyn M Weir, Neville Owen, David W Dunstan, Peter J Meikle, Bronwyn A Kingwell
Context: Postprandial dysmetabolism in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is exacerbated by prolonged sitting, and may trigger inflammation and oxidative stress. It is unknown what impact countermeasures to prolonged sitting have on the postprandial lipidome. Objective: In this study, we investigated the effects of regular interruptions to sitting, compared to prolonged sitting, on the postprandial plasma lipidome. Design: Randomized cross-over experimental trial...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297799/-a-serum-lipidomic-study-of-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
R X Yang, C X Hu, Y Q Mi, W L Sun, G Y Chen, Q Pan, F Shen, G W Xu, J G Fan
Objective: To investigate the serum lipidomic profile in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and to analyze the lipid metabolism characteristics of NAFLD. Methods: The subjects were divided into control group (23 patients) and pathologically confirmed NAFLD group (42 patients), and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure serum lipidomic metabolites. The partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model was established to analyze the differences in lipid metabolism with reference to the univariate analysis...
February 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292831/reduction-of-ether-type-glycerophospholipids-plasmalogens-by-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signal-leading-to-microglial-activation
#14
Md Shamim Hossain, Yuichi Abe, Fatma Ali, Mohammed Youssef, Masanori Honsho, Yukio Fujiki, Toshihiko Katafuchi
Neuroinflammation characterized by activation of glial cells is observed in various neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the reduction of ether-type glycerophospholipids, plasmalogens (Pls), in the brain is reported in AD patients, the mechanism of the reduction and its impact on neuroinflammation remained elusive. In the present study, we found for the first time that various inflammatory stimuli reduced Pls levels in murine glial cells via NF-κB activation, which then downregulated a Pls-synthesizing enzyme, glycerone phosphate O-acyltransferase (Gnpat) through increased c-Myc recruitment onto the Gnpat promoter...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292473/placental-dimethyl-acetal-fatty-acid-derivatives-are-elevated-in-preeclampsia
#15
M Brien, L Berthiaume, I Rudkowska, P Julien, J F Bilodeau
Preeclampsia (PE) was shown to affect the placental content and the transfer of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to the fetus. Plasmalogens, a type of phospholipids with a vinyl-ether link at the sn-1 position, play an antioxidant role and are specifically enriched in PUFA at the sn-2 position. In this study, we characterized plasmalogen-derived dimethyl acetal (DMA) fatty acid derivatives, 16:0 DMA, 18:0 DMA, 9c-/11c-18:1 DMA and PUFA in the placenta of normotensive (n = 20) and PE (n = 20) pregnancies, according to the sampling site: peri-insertion or periphery...
March 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272479/plasmalogen-biosynthesis-is-spatiotemporally-regulated-by-sensing-plasmalogens-in-the-inner-leaflet-of-plasma-membranes
#16
Masanori Honsho, Yuichi Abe, Yukio Fujiki
Alkenyl ether phospholipids are a major sub-class of ethanolamine- and choline-phospholipids in which a long chain fatty alcohol is attached at the sn-1 position through a vinyl ether bond. Biosynthesis of ethanolamine-containing alkenyl ether phospholipids, plasmalogens, is regulated by modulating the stability of fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1 (Far1) in a manner dependent on the level of cellular plasmalogens. However, precise molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of plasmalogen synthesis remain poorly understood...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259590/efficacy-and-blood-plasmalogen-changes-by-oral-administration-of-plasmalogen-in-patients-with-mild-alzheimer-s-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-multicenter-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Takehiko Fujino, Tatsuo Yamada, Takashi Asada, Yoshio Tsuboi, Chikako Wakana, Shiro Mawatari, Suminori Kono
BACKGROUND: Plasmalogens (Pls) reportedly decreased in postmortem brain and in the blood of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently we showed that intraperitoneal administration of Pls improved cognitive function in experimental animals. In the present trial, we tested the efficacy of oral administration of scallop-derived purified Pls with respect to cognitive function and blood Pls changes in patients with mild AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: The study was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 24weeks...
March 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202633/regional-changes-in-cns-and-retinal-glycerophospholipid-profiles-with-age-a-molecular-blueprint
#18
Blake R Hopiavuori, Martin-Paul Agbaga, Richard S Brush, Michael T Sullivan, William E Sonntag, Robert E Anderson
We present here a quantitative molecular blueprint of the three major glycerophospholipid (GPL) classes, phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), in retina and six regions of the brain in C57Bl6 mice at 2, 10, and 26 months of age. We found an age-related increase in molecular species containing saturated and monoenoic FAs and an overall decrease in the longer-chain PUFA molecular species across brain regions, with loss of DHA-containing molecular species as the most consistent and dramatic finding...
April 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185807/specific-circulating-phospholipids-acylcarnitines-amino-acids-and-biogenic-amines-are-aerobic-exercise-markers
#19
Thomas K Felder, Susanne Ring-Dimitriou, Simon Auer, Selma M Soyal, Ludmilla Kedenko, Mark Rinnerthaler, Janne Cadamuro, Elisabeth Haschke-Becher, Elmar Aigner, Bernhard Paulweber, Wolfgang Patsch
OBJECTIVES: Regular aerobic exercise provides beneficial effects on human health and reduces all-cause mortality. Aerobic exercise has profound metabolic effects, and specific metabolites may reflect physiological changes. We aimed to identify endogenous metabolites that distinguish the trained from the untrained state to increase the spectrum of analytes amenable for hypothesis testing and to expand understanding of putative beneficial pathways. DESIGN: Cross sectional laboratory repeated measures study...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167298/diabetes-alters-myelin-lipid-profile-in-rat-cerebral-cortex-protective-effects-of-dihydroprogesterone
#20
Gaia Cermenati, Silvia Giatti, Matteo Audano, Marzia Pesaresi, Roberto Spezzano, Donatella Caruso, Nico Mitro, Roberto Cosimo Melcangi
Due to the emerging association of diabetes with several psychiatric and neurodegenerative events, the evaluation of the effects of this pathology on the brain function has now a high priority in biomedical research. In particular, the effects of diabetes on myelin compartment have been poorly taken into consideration. To this purpose, we performed a deep lipidomic analysis of cortical myelin in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model. In male rats three months of diabetes induced an extensive alterations in levels of phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylethanolamines (the main species present in myelin membranes), plasmalogens as well as phosphatidylinositols and phosphatidylserines...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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