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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342394/identification-of-linear-and-nonlinear-sensory-processing-circuits-from-spiking-neuron-data
#1
Dorian Florescu, Daniel Coca
Inferring mathematical models of sensory processing systems directly from input-output observations, while making the fewest assumptions about the model equations and the types of measurements available, is still a major issue in computational neuroscience. This letter introduces two new approaches for identifying sensory circuit models consisting of linear and nonlinear filters in series with spiking neuron models, based only on the sampled analog input to the filter and the recorded spike train output of the spiking neuron...
January 17, 2018: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342158/real-time-community-detection-in-full-social-networks-on-a-laptop
#2
Benjamin Paul Chamberlain, Josh Levy-Kramer, Clive Humby, Marc Peter Deisenroth
For a broad range of research and practical applications it is important to understand the allegiances, communities and structure of key players in society. One promising direction towards extracting this information is to exploit the rich relational data in digital social networks (the social graph). As global social networks (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) are very large, most approaches make use of distributed computing systems for this purpose. Distributing graph processing requires solving many difficult engineering problems, which has lead some researchers to look at single-machine solutions that are faster and easier to maintain...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342142/midbrain-circuits-that-set-locomotor-speed-and-gait-selection
#3
V Caggiano, R Leiras, H Goñi-Erro, D Masini, C Bellardita, J Bouvier, V Caldeira, G Fisone, O Kiehn
Locomotion is a fundamental motor function common to the animal kingdom. It is implemented episodically and adapted to behavioural needs, including exploration, which requires slow locomotion, and escape behaviour, which necessitates faster speeds. The control of these functions originates in brainstem structures, although the neuronal substrate(s) that support them have not yet been elucidated. Here we show in mice that speed and gait selection are controlled by glutamatergic excitatory neurons (GlutNs) segregated in two distinct midbrain nuclei: the cuneiform nucleus (CnF) and the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN)...
January 17, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342122/synthesis-and-characterization-of-a-heterometallic-extended-architecture-based-on-a-manganese-ii-substituted-sandwich-type-polyoxotungstate
#4
Masooma Ibrahim, Eufemio Moreno-Pineda, Thomas Bergfeldt, Christopher E Anson, Annie K Powell
The reaction of [α-P₂W15O56]12- with MnII and DyIII in an aqueous basic solution led to the isolation of an all inorganic heterometallic aggregate Na10(OH₂)42[{Dy(H₂O)₆}₂Mn₄P₄W30O112(H₂O)₂]·17H₂O (Dy₂Mn₄-P₂W15). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction revealed that Dy₂Mn₄-P₂W15 crystallizes in the triclinic system with space group P 1 ¯ , and consists of a tetranuclear manganese(II)-substituted sandwich-type phosphotungstate [Mn₄(H₂O)₂(P₂W15O56)₂]16- (Mn₄-P₂W15), Na, and DyIII cations...
January 17, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341913/characterisation-of-pore-structures-of-pharmaceutical-tablets-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Daniel Markl, Alexa Strobel, Rüdiger Schlossnikl, Johan Bøtker, Prince Bawuah, Cathy Ridgway, Jukka Rantanen, Thomas Rades, Patrick Gane, Kai-Erik Peiponen, J Axel Zeitler
Traditionally, the development of a new solid dosage form is formulation-driven and less focus is put on the design of a specific microstructure for the drug delivery system. However, the compaction process particularly impacts the microstructure, or more precisely, the pore architecture in a pharmaceutical tablet. Besides the formulation, the pore structure is a major contributor to the overall performance of oral solid dosage forms as it directly affects the liquid uptake rate, which is the very first step of the dissolution process...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341893/targeting-bdnf-modulation-by-plant-glycosides-as-a-novel-therapeutic-strategy-in-the-treatment-of-depression
#6
REVIEW
Haroon Khan, Surriya Amin, Seema Patel
Current therapies in clinical practice face strong criticism regarding their efficacy, and side effects, which forced the neuro-researchers to discover novel agents with different mechanistic insights. Glycosides are naturally-occurring plant secondary metabolites with significant medicinal potential and clinical scope as antidepressant. The aim of this review is to focus on the antidepressant effects of glycosides in preclinical studies, with an emphasis on the possible mechanisms. The literature search revealed that only a few phytoglycosides have been evaluated for their relevance in depression alleviation...
January 13, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341757/deconstructing-temperature-gradients-across-fluid-interfaces-the-structural-origin-of-the-thermal-resistance-of-liquid-vapor-interfaces
#7
Jordan Muscatello, Enrique Chacón, Pedro Tarazona, Fernando Bresme
The interfacial thermal resistance determines condensation-evaporation processes and thermal transport across material-fluid interfaces. Despite its importance in transport processes, the interfacial structure responsible for the thermal resistance is still unknown. By combining nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and interfacial analyses that remove the interfacial thermal fluctuations we show that the thermal resistance of liquid-vapor interfaces is connected to a low density fluid layer that is adsorbed at the liquid surface...
July 28, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341714/kinetically-controlled-two-step-amorphization-and-amorphous-amorphous-transition-in-ice
#8
Chuanlong Lin, Xue Yong, John S Tse, Jesse S Smith, Stanislav V Sinogeikin, Curtis Kenney-Benson, Guoyin Shen
We report the results of in situ structural characterization of the amorphization of crystalline ice Ih under compression and the relaxation of high-density amorphous (HDA) ice under decompression at temperatures between 96 and 160 K by synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The results show that ice Ih transforms to an intermediate crystalline phase at 100 K prior to complete amorphization, which is supported by molecular dynamics calculations. The phase transition pathways show clear temperature dependence: direct amorphization without an intermediate phase is observed at 133 K, while at 145 K a direct Ih-to-IX transformation is observed; decompression of HDA shows a transition to low-density amorphous ice at 96 K and ∼1  Pa, to ice Ic at 135 K and to ice IX at 145 K...
September 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341616/stochasticity-of-pores-interconnectivity-in-li-o2-batteries-and-its-impact-on-the-variations-in-electrochemical-performance
#9
Amangeldi Torayev, José Alexis Rucci, Pieter M Magusin, Arnaud Demortiere, Vincent De Andrade, Clare P Grey, Céline Merlet, Alejandro A Franco
While large dispersions in electrochemical performance have been reported for lithium oxygen batteries in the literature, they have not been investigated in any depth. The variability in the results is often assumed to arise from differences in cell design, electrode structure, handling and cell preparation at different times. An accurate theoretical framework turns out to be needed to get a better insight into the mechanisms underneath and to interpreting experimental results. Here, we develop and use a pore network model to simulate the electrochemical performance of three-dimensionally resolved lithium-oxygen cathode mesostructures obtained from TXM nano-computed tomography images...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341344/the-medial-temporal-lobe-functional-connectivity-patterns-associated-with-forming-different-mental-representations
#10
Signy Sheldon, Brian Levine
The medial temporal lobes (MTL), and more specifically the hippocampus, are critical for forming mental representations of past experiences - autobiographical memories - and for forming other 'non-experienced' types of mental representations, such as imagined scenarios. How the MTL coordinate with other brain areas to create these different types of representations is not well understood. To address this issue, we performed a task-based functional connectivity analysis on a previously published dataset in which fMRI data were collected as participants created different types of mental representations under three conditions...
January 17, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340865/design-of-a-tripartite-network-for-the-prediction-of-drug-targets
#11
Ryo Kunimoto, Jürgen Bajorath
Drug-target networks have aided in many target prediction studies aiming at drug repurposing or the analysis of side effects. Conventional drug-target networks are bipartite. They contain two different types of nodes representing drugs and targets, respectively, and edges indicating pairwise drug-target interactions. In this work, we introduce a tripartite network consisting of drugs, other bioactive compounds, and targets from different sources. On the basis of analog relationships captured in the network and so-called neighbor targets of drugs, new drug targets can be inferred...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340398/synthesis-and-crystal-structure-of-sr3bi2o6-and-structural-change-in-the-strontium-bismuth-oxide-system
#12
Yanquan Yang, Jian Li, Youyou Yuan, Fengjuan Pan, Dier Shi, Cong Lin, Xin Du, Junliang Sun
The crystal structures and their changing trend in the strontium-bismuth-oxide system are critical for the studies of the related systems and their applications. The crystal structure of Sr3Bi2O6 was obtained for the first time in the space group of R3[combining macron] with a huge unit cell of a = b = 25.1146(19) Å and c = 18.3685(16) Å and all bismuth ions are Bi3+ forming [BiO3] trigonal pyramids. Sr3Bi2O6 is a key compound for the structural change trend in the SrO-Bi2O3 binary oxide system at 1000 °C...
January 17, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339514/flexibility-of-thought-in-high-creative-individuals-represented-by-percolation-analysis
#13
Yoed N Kenett, Orr Levy, Dror Y Kenett, H Eugene Stanley, Miriam Faust, Shlomo Havlin
Flexibility of thought is theorized to play a critical role in the ability of high creative individuals to generate novel and innovative ideas. However, this has been examined only through indirect behavioral measures. Here we use network percolation analysis (removal of links in a network whose strength is below an increasing threshold) to computationally examine the robustness of the semantic memory networks of low and high creative individuals. Robustness of a network indicates its flexibility and thus can be used to quantify flexibility of thought as related to creativity...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339418/an-evolutionary-biochemical-connection-between-promoter-and-primer-dependent-polymerases-revealed-by-selective-evolution-of-ligands-by-exponential-enrichment-selex
#14
Katherine J Fenstermacher, Vasudevan Achuthan, Thomas D Schneider, Jeffrey J DeStefano
DNA polymerases (DNAPs) recognize 3' recessed termini on duplex DNA and carry out nucleotide catalysis. Unlike promoter-specific RNA polymerases (RNAPs), no sequence specificity is required for binding or initiation of catalysis. Despite this, previous results indicate that viral reverse transcriptases bind much more tightly to DNA primers that mimic the polypurine tract. In the current report, primer sequences that bind with high affinity to Taq and Klenow polymerases were identified using a modified Selective Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) approach...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339194/vaginal-construction-and-treatment-providers-experiences-a-qualitative-analysis
#15
Katrina Roen, Sarah M Creighton, Peter Hegarty, Lih-Mei Liao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate specialist clinicians' experiences of treating vaginal agenesis. DESIGN: Semi-structured interviews. SETTING: 12 hospitals in Sweden and the UK. SAMPLE: 32 health professionals connected to multidisciplinary teams including medical specialists and psychologists. METHODS: Theoretical thematic analysis of recorded verbatim data. RESULTS: The gynecologist and psychologist interviewees share certain observations including the importance of psychological readiness for and appropriate timing of treatment...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339081/disorder-to-order-transitions-in-the-molten-globule-like-golgi-reassembly-and-stacking-protein
#16
Luís F S Mendes, Luis G M Basso, Patricia S Kumagai, Raquel Fonseca-Maldonado, Antonio J Costa-Filho
BACKGROUND: Golgi Reassembly and Stacking Proteins (GRASPs) are widely spread among eukaryotic cells (except plants) and are considered as key components in both the stacking of the Golgi cisternae and its lateral connection. Furthermore, GRASPs were also proved essential in the unconventional secretion pathway of several proteins, even though the mechanism remains obscure. It was previously observed that the GRASP homolog in Cryptococcus neoformans has a molten globule-like behavior in solution...
January 12, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338329/making-a-university-community-more-dementia-friendly-through-participation-in-an-intergenerational-choir
#17
Phyllis Braudy Harris, Cynthia Anne Caporella
A dementia friendly community is one that is informed about dementia, respectful and inclusive of people with dementia and their families, provides support, promotes empowerment, and fosters quality of life. This study presents data from four cohorts of undergraduate college students and people with dementia and their family members, using an intergenerational choir as the process through which to begin to create a dementia friendly community. This was accomplished by breaking down the stereotypes and misunderstandings that young adults have about people with dementia, thus allowing their commonalities and the strengths of the people living with dementia to become more visible...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338310/therapy-induced-plasticity-in-chronic-aphasia-is-associated-with-behavioral-improvement-and-time-since-stroke
#18
Priya Santhanam, E Susan Duncan, Steven L Small
Cortical reorganization after stroke is thought to underlie functional improvement. Patterns of reorganization may differ depending on the amount of time since the stroke or the degree of improvement. We investigated these issues in a study of brain connectivity changes with aphasia therapy. Twelve individuals with chronic aphasia participated in a 6-week trial of imitation-based speech therapy. We assessed improvement on a repetition test and analyzed effective connectivity during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of a speech observation task before and after therapy...
January 16, 2018: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338238/paralithocins-antimicrobial-peptides-with-unusual-disulfide-connectivity-from-the-red-king-crab-paralithodes-camtschaticus
#19
Morten K Moe, Tor Haug, Magne O Sydnes, Sigmund V Sperstad, Chun Li, Lena C Vaagsfjord, Enrique de la Vega, Klara Stensvåg
As part of an ongoing exploration of marine invertebrates as a source of new antimicrobial peptides, hemocyte extracts from the red king crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus, were studied. Three cationic cysteine (Cys)-rich peptides, named paralithocins 1-3, were isolated by bioassay-guided purification, and their amino acid sequences determined by Edman degradation and expressed sequences tag analysis. Disulfide bond mapping was performed by high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. The peptides (38-51 amino acids in length) share a unique Cys motif composed of eight Cys, forming four disulfide bridges with a bond connectivity of (Cys relative position) Cys1-Cys8, Cys2-Cys6, Cys3-Cys5, and Cys4-Cys7, a disulfide arrangement that has not been previously reported among antimicrobial peptides...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338098/increase-in-motility-and-invasiveness-of-mcf7-cancer-cells-induced-by-nicotine-is-abolished-by-melatonin-through-inhibition-of-erk-phosphorylation
#20
Sara Proietti, Angela Catizone, Maria Grazia Masiello, Simona Dinicola, Gianmarco Fabrizi, Mirko Minini, Giulia Ricci, Roberto Verna, Russel J Reiter, Alessandra Cucina, Mariano Bizzarri
Through activation of the ERK pathway nicotine, in both normal MCF-10A and low malignant breast cancer cells (MCF7), promotes increased motility and invasiveness. Melatonin antagonizes both these effects by inhibiting almost completely ERK phosphorylation. As melatonin has no effect on not-stimulated cells, it is likely that melatonin can counteract ERK-activation only downstream of nicotine-induced activation. This finding suggests that melatonin hampers ERK phosphorylation presumably by targeting a still unknown intermediate factor that connects nicotine stimulation to ERK phosphorylation...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
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