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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531897/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-brain-of-a-monotreme-the-short-beaked-echidna-tachyglossus-aculeatus
#1
Sandilya Cherupalli, Craig D Hardman, Andre Bongers, Ken W S Ashwell
We used magnetic resonance imaging to study the anatomy of cortical regions, nuclear groups, and major tracts in the brain of a monotreme, i.e., the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus). Our specimens were from a collection held at the Australian Museum in Sydney and had been stored in formaldehyde solution for at least 70 years. Despite this, we were able to detect fine detail in the nuclear divisions of structures as well as in fiber tracts. In particular, we could detect the medial lemniscus as it approached the ventral posterior thalamic nucleus, subdivisions within the ventral posterior thalamic nucleus, lamination and subdivisions within the hippocampal formation, components of the olfactory pathways, and nuclei within the temporal amygdala...
May 23, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531834/bioelectrical-impedimetric-sensor-for-single-cell-analysis-based-on-nanoroughened-quartz-substrate-suitable-for-cancer-therapeutic-purposes
#2
Milad Gharooni, Mohammad Abdolahad
Single cells analysis has been interested in recent decade. Apart from scientific benefits to achieve new biological phenomena in cell study, many diagnostic and therapeutic protocols in non-communicable diseases were introduced by single cell analysis. Moreover, non-invasive methods to maintain the investigated cell for time dependent monitoring has been widely studied because of its importance in some crucial cases such as drug resistance in cancer. Bioelectrical monitoring is one of such methods Although the procedures reported based on electrical probing might not induce cell disruption, indirect connection between recording electrodes and cell membrane (mostly in microfluidic approaches) reduced the quality of response and limited the precision of the results...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531275/molecular-envelope-and-atomic-model-of-an-anti-terminated-glyqs-t-box-regulator-in-complex-with-trnagly
#3
Bhaskar Chetnani, Alfonso Mondragón
A T-box regulator or riboswitch actively monitors the levels of charged/uncharged tRNA and participates in amino acid homeostasis by regulating genes involved in their utilization or biosynthesis. It has an aptamer domain for cognate tRNA recognition and an expression platform to sense the charge state and modulate gene expression. These two conserved domains are connected by a variable linker that harbors additional secondary structural elements, such as Stem III. The structural basis for specific tRNA binding is known, but the structural basis for charge sensing and the role of other elements remains elusive...
May 22, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530904/wiring-variations-that-enable-and-constrain-neural-computation-in-a-sensory-microcircuit
#4
William F Tobin, Rachel I Wilson, Wei-Chung Allen Lee
Neural network function can be shaped by varying the strength of synaptic connections. One way to achieve this is to vary connection structure. To investigate how structural variation among synaptic connections might affect neural computation, we examined primary afferent connections in the Drosophila olfactory system. We used large-scale serial section electron microscopy to reconstruct all the olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) axons that target a left-right pair of glomeruli, as well as all the projection neurons (PNs) postsynaptic to these ORNs...
May 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530835/on-the-formation-of-epitaxially-connected-quantum-dot-solids-nucleation-and-coherent-phase-transition
#5
Kevin Whitham, Tobias Hanrath
The formation of epitaxially connected quantum dot solids involves a complex interplay of interfacial assembly, surface chemistry, and irreversible directed attachment. We describe the basic mechanism in context of a coherent phase transition with distinct nucleation and propagation steps. The proposed mechanism explains how defects in the pre-assembled structure influence nucleation and how basic geometric relationships govern the transformation from hexagonal assemblies of isolated dots to interconnected solids with square symmetry...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530745/self-assembling-peptide-and-protein-amyloids-from-structure-to-tailored-function-in-nanotechnology
#6
REVIEW
Gang Wei, Zhiqiang Su, Nicholas P Reynolds, Paolo Arosio, Ian W Hamley, Ehud Gazit, Raffaele Mezzenga
Self-assembled peptide and protein amyloid nanostructures have traditionally been considered only as pathological aggregates implicated in human neurodegenerative diseases. In more recent times, these nanostructures have found interesting applications as advanced materials in biomedicine, tissue engineering, renewable energy, environmental science, nanotechnology and material science, to name only a few fields. In all these applications, the final function depends on: (i) the specific mechanisms of protein aggregation, (ii) the hierarchical structure of the protein and peptide amyloids from the atomistic to mesoscopic length scales and (iii) the physical properties of the amyloids in the context of their surrounding environment (biological or artificial)...
May 22, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530551/angular-velocity-integration-in-a-fly-heading-circuit
#7
Daniel Turner-Evans, Stephanie Wegener, Hervé Rouault, Romain Franconville, Tanya Wolff, Johannes D Seelig, Shaul Druckmann, Vivek Jayaraman
Many animals maintain an internal representation of their heading as they move through their surroundings. Such a compass representation was recently discovered in a neural population in the Drosophila melanogaster central complex, a brain region implicated in spatial navigation. Here, we use two-photon calcium imaging and electrophysiology in head-fixed walking flies to identify a different neural population that conjunctively encodes heading and angular velocity, and is excited selectively by turns in either the clockwise or counterclockwise direction...
May 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530549/a-genetic-basis-for-molecular-asymmetry-at-vertebrate-electrical-synapses
#8
Adam C Miller, Alex C Whitebirch, Arish N Shah, Kurt C Marsden, Michael Granato, John O'Brien, Cecilia B Moens
Neural network function is based upon the patterns and types of connections made between neurons. Neuronal synapses are adhesions specialized for communication and they come in two types, chemical and electrical. Communication at chemical synapses occurs via neurotransmitter release whereas electrical synapses utilize gap junctions for direct ionic and metabolic coupling. Electrical synapses are often viewed as symmetrical structures, with the same components making both sides of the gap junction. By contrast, we show that a broad set of electrical synapses in zebrafish, Danio rerio, require two gap-junction-forming Connexins for formation and function...
May 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530269/a-critical-comparison-of-coarse-grained-structure-based-approaches-and-atomic-models-of-protein-folding
#9
Jie Hu, Tao Chen, Moye Wang, Hue Sun Chan, Zhuqing Zhang
Structure-based coarse-grained Gō-like models have been used extensively in deciphering protein folding mechanisms because of their simplicity and tractability. Meanwhile, explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with physics-based all-atom force fields have been applied successfully to simulate folding/unfolding transitions for several small, fast-folding proteins. To explore the degree to which coarse-grained Gō-like models and their extensions to incorporate nonnative interactions are capable of producing folding processes similar to those in all-atom MD simulations, here we systematically compare the computed unfolded states, transition states, and transition paths obtained using coarse-grained models and all-atom explicit-solvent MD simulations...
May 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530218/visualization-of-penile-suspensory-ligamentous-system-based-on-visible-human-data-sets
#10
Xianzhuo Chen, Yi Wu, Ling Tao, Yan Yan, Jun Pang, Shaoxiang Zhang, Shirong Li
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to use a three-dimensional (3D) visualization technology to illustrate and describe the anatomical features of the penile suspensory ligamentous system based on the Visible Human data sets and to explore the suspensory mechanism of the penis for the further improvement of the penis-lengthening surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS Cross-sectional images retrieved from the first Chinese Visible Human (CVH-1), third Chinese Visible Human (CVH-3), and Visible Human Male (VHM) data sets were used to segment the suspensory ligamentous system and its adjacent structures...
May 22, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529801/crystal-structure-of-n-hy-droxy-quinoline-2-carboxamide-monohydrate
#11
Inna S Safyanova, Kateryna A Ohui, Iryna V Omelchenko, Svitlana V Shyshkina
The title compound, C10H8N2O2·H2O, consists of an N-hy-droxy-quinoline-2-carboxamide mol-ecule in the keto tautomeric form and a water mol-ecule connected through an O-H⋯O hydrogen bond. The N-hy-droxy-quinoline-2-carboxamide mol-ecule has a nearly planar structure [maximum deviation = 0.062 (1) Å] and only the hy-droxy H atom deviates significantly from the mol-ecule plane. In the crystal, π-π stacking between the aromatic rings [inter-centroid distance = 3.887 (1) Å] and inter-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds organize the crystal components into columns extending along the b-axis direction...
May 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529793/crystal-structure-and-hirshfeld-surface-analysis-of-3-oxours-12-ene-27a-28-dioic-acid-quafrinoic-acid
#12
Jean Jules Bankeu Kezetas, Stéphanie Dietagoum Madjouka, Rajesh Kumar, Muhammad Shaiq Ali, Bruno Lenta Njakou, Sammer Yousuf
The title compound, C30H44O5, is a penta-cyclic triterpene isolated from the Cameroonian medicinal plant Nauclea Pobeguinii and known as quafrinoic acid. The mol-ecule is composed of five fused six-membered rings, four of which adopt a chair conformation and one a half-chair conformation. Intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen-bond inter-actions exist, which generate S6 and S8 rings. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by pairs of O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, linking R2(2)(8) rings into chains running parallel to the a axis; these chains are further connected into layers parallel to the ab plane by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds...
May 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529789/3-hy-droxy-2-phenyl-2-3-3a-7a-tetra-hydro-1h-5h-pyrano-3-2-b-pyrrol-5-one-crystal-structure-and-hirshfeld-surface-analysis
#13
Julio Zukerman-Schpector, Angélica V Moro, Marcelo R Dos Santos, Carlos Roque D Correia, Mukesh M Jotani, Edward R T Tiekink
The title isoaltholactone derivative, C13H13NO3, has an NH group in place of the ether-O atom in the five-membered ring of the natural product. The five-membered ring is twisted about the N-C bond linking it to the six-membered ring, which has a half-chair conformation with the O atom connected to the ether-O atom lying above the plane defined by the remaining atoms. The dihedral angle between the mean planes of the rings comprising the fused-ring system is 75.10 (8)°. In the crystal, hy-droxy-O-H⋯N(amine) hydrogen bonding sustains linear supra-molecular chains along the a axis...
May 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529774/synthesis-and-crystallographic-characterization-of-a-mononuclear-cobalt-iii-complex-possessing-both-thiol-ate-and-thio-ether-donors-reactivity-of-an-thiol-ate-bridged-penta-nuclear-co2ag3-complex-with-iodo-methane
#14
Yosuke Fukuda, Nobuto Yoshinari, Takumi Konno
Treatment of an S-bridged penta-nuclear Ag(I)3Co(III)2 complex, [Ag3{Co(L)}2](3+) [L(3-) = N(CH2NHCH2CH2S(-))3], in which two tris-(thiol-ate)-type mononuclear Co(III) units ([Co(L)]) are bridged by three Ag(I) ions through S atoms, with iodo-methane (CH3I) gave a new Co(III) mononuclear complex, [Co(LMe2)](2+) [LMe2(-) = N(CH2NHCH2CH2S(-))(CH2NHCH2CH2SCH3)2], systematic name: {2-[(bis{[2-(methylsulfanyl)ethyl]aminomethyl}aminomethyl)amino]ethanethiolato}cobalt(III) bis(hexafluoridophosphate). This cationic complex was crystallized with PF6(-) anions to form the title compound, [Co(LMe2)](PF6)2...
May 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529773/crystal-structures-of-isomeric-3-5-di-chloro-n-2-3-di-methyl-phen-yl-benzene-sulfonamide-3-5-di-chloro-n-2-6-di-methyl-phen-yl-benzene-sulfonamide-and-3-5-di-chloro-n-3-5-di-methyl-phen-yl-benzene-sulfonamide
#15
K Shakuntala, S Naveen, N K Lokanath, P A Suchetan
The crystal structures of three isomeric compounds of formula C14H13Cl2NO2S, namely 3,5-di-chloro-N-(2,3-di-methyl-phen-yl)-benzene-sulfonamide (I), 3,5-di-chloro-N-(2,6-di-methyl-phen-yl)benzene-sulfonamide (II) and 3,5-di-chloro-N-(3,5-di-methyl-phen-yl)benzene-sulfonamide (III) are described. The mol-ecules of all the three compounds are U-shaped with the two aromatic rings inclined at 41.3 (6)° in (I), 42.1 (2)° in (II) and 54.4 (3)° in (III). The mol-ecular conformation of (II) is stabilized by intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C-H⋯π inter-actions...
May 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528864/effects-of-collagen-microstructure-and-material-properties-on-the-deformation-of-the-neural-tissues-of-the-lamina-cribrosa
#16
A P Voorhees, N-J Jan, I A Sigal
It is widely considered that intraocular pressure (IOP)-induced deformation within the neural tissue pores of the lamina cribrosa (LC) contributes to neurodegeneration and glaucoma. Our goal was to study how the LC microstructure and mechanical properties determine the mechanical insult to the neural tissues within the pores of the LC. Polarized light microscopy was used to measure the collagen density and orientation in histology sections of three sheep optic nerve heads (ONH) at both mesoscale (4.4 μm) and microscale (0...
May 18, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528799/a-multifactorial-obesity-model-developed-from-nationwide-public-health-exposome-data-and-modern-computational-analyses
#17
LisaAnn S Gittner, Barbara J Kilbourne, Ravi Vadapalli, Hafiz M K Khan, Michael A Langston
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: Obesity is both multifactorial and multimodal, making it difficult to identify, unravel and distinguish causative and contributing factors. The lack of a clear model of aetiology hampers the design and evaluation of interventions to prevent and reduce obesity. METHODS: Using modern graph-theoretical algorithms, we are able to coalesce and analyse thousands of inter-dependent variables and interpret their putative relationships to obesity...
May 18, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528645/bacterial-haemoprotein-sensors-of-no-h-nox-and-nosp
#18
Bezalel Bacon, Lisa-Marie Nisbett, Elizabeth Boon
Low concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) modulate varied behaviours in bacteria including biofilm dispersal and quorum sensing-dependent light production. H-NOX (haem-nitric oxide/oxygen binding) is a haem-bound protein domain that has been shown to be involved in mediating these bacterial responses to NO in several organisms. However, many bacteria that respond to nanomolar concentrations of NO do not contain an annotated H-NOX domain. Nitric oxide sensing protein (NosP), a newly discovered bacterial NO-sensing haemoprotein, may fill this role...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528595/implications-of-white-striping-and-spaghetti-meat-abnormalities-on-meat-quality-and-histological-features-in-broilers
#19
G Baldi, F Soglia, M Mazzoni, F Sirri, L Canonico, E Babini, L Laghi, C Cavani, M Petracci
During the past few years, there has been an increasing prevalence of broiler breast muscle abnormalities, such as white striping (WS) and wooden breast conditions. More recently, a new muscular abnormality termed as spaghetti meat (SM) because of the altered structural integrity of the Pectoralis major muscle often associated with WS has emerged. Thus, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of WS and SM conditions, occurring alone or combined within the same P. major muscle, on meat quality traits and muscle histology...
May 22, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527712/insulin-fibrillation-the-influence-and-coordination-of-zn-2
#20
Christian Grundahl Frankær, Pernille Sønderby, Maria Blanner Bang, Ramona Valentina Mateiu, Minna Groenning, Jens Bukrinski, Pernille Harris
Protein amyloid fibrillation is obtaining much focus because it is connected with amyloid-related human diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, or Parkinson's disease. The influence of metal ions on the fibrillation process and whether it is implemented in the amyloid fibrils has been debated for some years. We have therefore investigated the influence and binding geometry of zinc in fibrillated insulin using extended X-ray absorption fine-structure and X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
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