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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165929/spatial-population-genomics-of-the-brown-rat-rattus-norvegicus-in-new-york-city
#1
Matthew Combs, Emily E Puckett, Jonathan Richardson, Destiny Mims, Jason Munshi-South
Human commensal species such as rodent pests are often widely distributed across cities and threaten both infrastructure and public health. Spatially-explicit population genomic methods provide insights into movements for cryptic pests that drive evolutionary connectivity across multiple spatial scales. We examined spatial patterns of neutral genome-wide variation in brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) across Manhattan, New York City (NYC) using 262 samples and 61,401 SNPs to understand: 1) relatedness among nearby individuals and the extent of spatial genetic structure in a discrete urban landscape; 2) the geographic origin of NYC rats, using a large, previously-published dataset of global rat genotypes; and 3) heterogeneity in gene flow across the city, particularly deviations from isolation-by-distance...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165915/development-and-implementation-of-a-radiation-therapy-incident-learning-system-compatible-with-local-workflow-and-a-national-taxonomy
#2
Logan Montgomery, Palma Fava, Carolyn R Freeman, Tarek Hijal, Ciro Maietta, William Parker, John Kildea
PURPOSE: Collaborative incident learning initiatives in radiation therapy promise to improve and standardize the quality of care provided by participating institutions. However, the software interfaces provided with such initiatives must accommodate all participants and thus are not optimized for the workflows of individual radiation therapy centers. This article describes the development and implementation of a radiation therapy incident learning system that is optimized for a clinical workflow and uses the taxonomy of the Canadian National System for Incident Reporting - Radiation Treatment (NSIR-RT)...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165778/cardiac-ultrasound-a-true-haemodynamic-monitor
#3
Jan Poelaert, Manu L N G Malbrain
Cardiac ultrasound has been used in the critically ill for more than thirty years. The technology has made enormous progression with respect to image quality and quantity, various Doppler techniques, as well as connectivity, the transfer of data and offline calculations. Some consider cardiac ultrasound as the stethoscope of the Twenty-first century. The potential of eye-balling moving cardiac structures gives undeniable power to this diagnostic and monitoring tool. The main shortcoming is the discontinuous mode of monitoring and the fact that optimal information acquisition can only be obtained when one is well-trained and experienced...
November 22, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165461/synthesis-structures-and-magnetic-properties-of-two-chiral-mixed-valence-iron-ii-iii-coordination-networks
#4
Yun-Shan Xue, Xu Tan, Mengjie Zhou, Hua Mei, Yan Xu
Two rare chiral mixed-valence iron(ii,iii) coordination networks d-and l-{[Fe(II)FeO(BTC)3(DEF)3]·0.5H2O}n (d-1 and l-1) (H3BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid; DEF = N,N-diethylformamide) have been synthesized without any chiral auxiliary under the solvothermal conditions and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray crystallography. Structural analysis indicates that these two polymers d-1 and l-1 are enantiomers. The only difference between d-1 and l-1 is that the framework of compound l-1 consists of left-handed double helical chains, while d-1 consists of right-handed double helical chains...
November 22, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165248/neuromodulatory-connectivity-defines-the-structure-of-a-behavioral-neural-network
#5
Feici Diao, Amicia D Elliott, Fengqiu Diao, Sarav Shah, Benjamin H White
Neural networks are typically defined by their synaptic connectivity, yet synaptic wiring diagrams often provide limited insight into network function. This is due partly to the importance of non-synaptic communication by neuromodulators, which can dynamically reconfigure circuit activity to alter its output. Here we systematically map the patterns of neuromodulatory connectivity in a network that governs a developmentally critical behavioral sequence in Drosophila. This sequence, which mediates pupal ecdysis, is governed by the serial release of several key factors, which act both somatically as hormones and within the brain as neuromodulators...
November 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164619/nanoflower-like-yttrium-doped-zno-photocatalyst-for-the-degradation-of-methylene-blue-dye
#6
Hemalatha Parangusan, Deepalekshmi Ponnamma, Mariam Al Ali Al-Maadeed, Alagar Marimuthu
Pure ZnO and Yttrium doped (Y-doped) ZnO at various mol% with flower-like nanostructures are synthesized by a microwave-assisted sol-gel method, followed by investigating the morphologies, crystal structures, optical properties and photocatalytic performances. While the phase formations are detected by X-ray diffraction technique, both scanning and transmission electron microscopy images clearly depict the flower-like morphology of ZnO and Y-doped ZnO samples. Formation of flower petals are from the nanoparticles that grew and connected by orientation attachment process...
November 22, 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164193/two-step-kinetic-model-of-the-self-assembly-mechanism-for-diphenylalanine-micro-nanotube-formation
#7
M S Ishikawa, C Busch, M Motzkus, H Martinho, T Buckup
Peptide nanostructures compose a new class of materials that have gained attention due to their interesting properties. Among them, nanotubes of diphenylalanine (FF) and its analogues have been one of the most studied structures in the last few years. Their importance originates from the need to better understand the formation of β-amyloid fibrils which are associated with Alzheimer's disease. In this work, the FF self-assembly process was probed using time-resolved Raman microscopy. The changes in the Raman spectra are followed over time after injecting water into a FF-film until micro/nanotubes (MNTs) are formed...
November 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164112/details-matter-noise-and-model-structure-set-the-relationship-between-cell-size-and-cell-cycle-timing
#8
Felix Barber, Po-Yi Ho, Andrew W Murray, Ariel Amir
Organisms across all domains of life regulate the size of their cells. However, the means by which this is done is poorly understood. We study two abstracted "molecular" models for size regulation: inhibitor dilution and initiator accumulation. We apply the models to two settings: bacteria like Escherichia coli, that grow fully before they set a division plane and divide into two equally sized cells, and cells that form a bud early in the cell division cycle, confine new growth to that bud, and divide at the connection between that bud and the mother cell, like the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163899/design-crystal-structure-and-atomic-force-microscopy-study-of-thioether-ligated-d-l-cyclic-antimicrobial-peptides-against-multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#9
Runze He, Ivan Di Bonaventura, Ricardo Visini, Bee-Ha Gan, Yongchun Fu, Daniel Probst, Alexandre Lüscher, Thilo Köhler, Christian van Delden, Achim Stocker, Wenjing Hong, Tamis Darbre, Jean-Louis Reymond
Here we report a new family of cyclic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) targeting MDR strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These CAMPs are cyclized via a xylene double thioether bridge connecting two cysteines placed at the ends of a linear amphiphilic alternating d,l-sequence composed of lysines and tryptophans. Investigations by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy (AFM) suggest that these peptide macrocycles interact with the membrane to form lipid-peptide aggregates...
November 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163435/evolutionary-analysis-of-hiv-1-pol-proteins-reveals-representative-residues-for-viral-subtype-differentiation
#10
Shohei Nagata, Junnosuke Imai, Gakuto Makino, Masaru Tomita, Akio Kanai
RNA viruses have been used as model systems to understand the patterns and processes of molecular evolution because they have high mutation rates and are genetically diverse. Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), the etiological agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, is highly genetically diverse, and is classified into several groups and subtypes. However, it has been difficult to use its diverse sequences to establish the overall phylogenetic relationships of different strains or the trends in sequence conservation with the construction of phylogenetic trees...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163393/the-5bsl3-2-functional-rna-domain-connects-distant-regions-in-the-hepatitis-c-virus-genome
#11
REVIEW
Cristina Romero-López, Alfredo Berzal-Herranz
Viral genomes are complexly folded entities that carry all the information required for the infective cycle. The nucleotide sequence of the RNA virus genome encodes proteins and functional information contained in discrete, highly conserved structural units. These so-called functional RNA domains play essential roles in the progression of infection, which requires their preservation from one generation to the next. Numerous functional RNA domains exist in the genome of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Among them, the 5BSL3...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163343/data-driven-sequence-of-changes-to-anatomical-brain-connectivity-in-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Neil P Oxtoby, Sara Garbarino, Nicholas C Firth, Jason D Warren, Jonathan M Schott, Daniel C Alexander
Model-based investigations of transneuronal spreading mechanisms in neurodegenerative diseases relate the pattern of pathology severity to the brain's connectivity matrix, which reveals information about how pathology propagates through the connectivity network. Such network models typically use networks based on functional or structural connectivity in young and healthy individuals, and only end-stage patterns of pathology, thereby ignoring/excluding the effects of normal aging and disease progression. Here, we examine the sequence of changes in the elderly brain's anatomical connectivity over the course of a neurodegenerative disease...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163337/disrupted-gamma-synchrony-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-and-its-correlation-with-white-matter-abnormality
#13
Chao Wang, Michelle E Costanzo, Paul E Rapp, David Darmon, Dominic E Nathan, Kylee Bashirelahi, Dzung L Pham, Michael J Roy, David O Keyser
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has been firmly associated with disrupted white matter integrity due to induced white matter damage and degeneration. However, comparatively less is known about the changes of the intrinsic functional connectivity mediated via neural synchronization in the brain after mTBI. Moreover, despite the presumed link between structural and functional connectivity, no existing studies in mTBI have demonstrated clear association between the structural abnormality of white matter axons and the disruption of neural synchronization...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163289/network-approach-to-understanding-emotion-dynamics-in-relation-to-childhood-trauma-and-genetic-liability-to-psychopathology-replication-of-a-prospective-experience-sampling-analysis
#14
Laila Hasmi, Marjan Drukker, Sinan Guloksuz, Claudia Menne-Lothmann, Jeroen Decoster, Ruud van Winkel, Dina Collip, Philippe Delespaul, Marc De Hert, Catherine Derom, Evert Thiery, Nele Jacobs, Bart P F Rutten, Marieke Wichers, Jim van Os
Background: The network analysis of intensive time series data collected using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) may provide vital information in gaining insight into the link between emotion regulation and vulnerability to psychopathology. The aim of this study was to apply the network approach to investigate whether genetic liability (GL) to psychopathology and childhood trauma (CT) are associated with the network structure of the emotions "cheerful," "insecure," "relaxed," "anxious," "irritated," and "down"-collected using the ESM method...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163228/gmsc-derived-exosomes-combined-with-a-chitosan-silk-hydrogel-sponge-accelerates-wound-healing-in-a-diabetic-rat-skin-defect-model
#15
Quan Shi, Zhiyong Qian, Donghua Liu, Jie Sun, Xing Wang, Hongchen Liu, Juan Xu, Ximin Guo
Background: Delayed wound healing in diabetic patients is one of the most challenging complications in clinical medicine, as it poses a greater risk of gangrene, amputation and even death. Therefore, a novel method to promote diabetic wound healing is of considerable interest at present. Previous studies showed that injection of MSC-derived exosomes has beneficial effects on wound healing. In current studies, we aimed to isolate exosomes derived from gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) and then loading them to the chitosan/silk hydrogel sponge to evaluate the effects of this novel non-invasive method on skin defects in diabetic rats...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163098/a-systematic-review-of-investigations-into-functional-brain-connectivity-following-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Alkinoos Athanasiou, Manousos A Klados, Niki Pandria, Nicolas Foroglou, Kyriaki R Kavazidi, Konstantinos Polyzoidis, Panagiotis D Bamidis
Background: Complete or incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) results in varying degree of motor, sensory and autonomic impairment. Long-lasting, often irreversible disability results from disconnection of efferent and afferent pathways. How does this disconnection affect brain function is not so clear. Changes in brain organization and structure have been associated with SCI and have been extensively studied and reviewed. Yet, our knowledge regarding brain connectivity changes following SCI is overall lacking...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163021/schizophrenia-shows-disrupted-links-between-brain-volume-and-dynamic-functional-connectivity
#17
Anees Abrol, Barnaly Rashid, Srinivas Rachakonda, Eswar Damaraju, Vince D Calhoun
Studies featuring multimodal neuroimaging data fusion for understanding brain function and structure, or disease characterization, leverage the partial information available in each of the modalities to reveal data variations not exhibited through the independent analyses. Similar to other complex syndromes, the characteristic brain abnormalities in schizophrenia may be better understood with the help of the additional information conveyed by leveraging an advanced modeling method involving multiple modalities...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163003/a-complex-interplay-of-vitamin-b1-and-b6-metabolism-with-cognition-brain-structure-and-functional-connectivity-in-older-adults
#18
Kai Jannusch, Christiane Jockwitz, Hans-Jürgen Bidmon, Susanne Moebus, Katrin Amunts, Svenja Caspers
Aging is associated with brain atrophy, functional brain network reorganization and decline of cognitive performance, albeit characterized by high interindividual variability. Among environmental influencing factors accounting for this variability, nutrition and particularly vitamin supply is thought to play an important role. While evidence exists that supplementation of vitamins B6 and B1 might be beneficial for cognition and brain structure, at least in deficient states and neurodegenerative diseases, little is known about this relation during healthy aging and in relation to reorganization of functional brain networks...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162696/expansion-microscopy-of-zebrafish-for-neuroscience-and-developmental-biology-studies
#19
Limor Freifeld, Iris Odstrcil, Dominique Förster, Alyson Ramirez, James A Gagnon, Owen Randlett, Emma K Costa, Shoh Asano, Orhan T Celiker, Ruixuan Gao, Daniel A Martin-Alarcon, Paul Reginato, Cortni Dick, Linlin Chen, David Schoppik, Florian Engert, Herwig Baier, Edward S Boyden
Expansion microscopy (ExM) allows scalable imaging of preserved 3D biological specimens with nanoscale resolution on fast diffraction-limited microscopes. Here, we explore the utility of ExM in the larval and embryonic zebrafish, an important model organism for the study of neuroscience and development. Regarding neuroscience, we found that ExM enabled the tracing of fine processes of radial glia, which are not resolvable with diffraction-limited microscopy. ExM further resolved putative synaptic connections, as well as molecular differences between densely packed synapses...
November 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162503/global-structural-integrity-and-effective-connectivity-in-patients-with-disorders-of-consciousness
#20
Olivier Bodart, Enrico Amico, Francisco Gómez, Adenauer G Casali, Sarah Wannez, Lizette Heine, Aurore Thibaut, Jitka Annen, Melanie Boly, Silvia Casarotto, Mario Rosanova, Marcello Massimini, Steven Laureys, Olivia Gosseries
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have separately reported impaired functional, structural, and effective connectivity in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). The perturbational complexity index (PCI) is a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) derived marker of effective connectivity. The global fractional anisotropy (FA) is a marker of structural integrity. Little is known about how these parameters are related to each other. OBJECTIVE: We aimed at testing the relationship between structural integrity and effective connectivity...
November 11, 2017: Brain Stimulation
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