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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340505/afferent-and-efferent-connections-of-the-interpeduncular-nucleus-with-special-reference-to-circuits-involving-the-habenula-and-raphe-nuclei
#1
Leandro B Lima, Debora Bueno, Fernanda Leite, Stefani Souza, Luciano Gonçalves, Isadora C Furigo, Jose Donato, Martin Metzger
The habenula is an epithalamic structure differentiated into two nuclear complexes, medial (MHb) and lateral habenula (LHb). Recently, MHb together with its primary target, the interpeduncular nucleus (IP), have been identified as major players in mediating the aversive effects of nicotine. However, structures downstream of the MHb-IP axis, including the median (MnR) and caudal dorsal raphe nucleus (DRC), may contribute to the behavioral effects of nicotine. The afferent and efferent connections of the IP have hitherto not been systematically investigated with sensitive tracers...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340472/characterization-of-an-unknown-impurity-in-doxofylline-using-lc-ms-and-nmr
#2
Peixi Zhu, Jingxian Lu, Liya Hong, Weike Su, Ann Van Schepdael, Erwin Adams
During quality control of doxofylline, a novel impurity was detected, which was above the identification threshold defined by ICH. First, a liquid chromatographic method compatible with mass spectrometric (MS) detection was developed. Based on tandem multistage MS and high resolution MS data, the unknown impurity was found to consist of two theophylline groups connected by a methylene group. The structure was further confirmed by 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments after semi-preparative isolation...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340406/a-local-adjustment-strategy-for-the-initialization-of-dynamic-causal-modelling-to-infer-effective-connectivity-in-brain-epileptic-structures
#3
Wentao Xiang, Ahmad Karfoul, Huazhong Shu, Régine Le Bouquin Jeannès
This paper addresses the question of effective connectivity in the human cerebral cortex in the context of epilepsy. Among model based approaches to infer brain connectivity, spectral Dynamic Causal Modelling is a conventional technique for which we propose an alternative to estimate cross spectral density. The proposed strategy we investigated tackles the sub-estimation of the free energy using the well-known variational Expectation-Maximization algorithm highly sensitive to the initialization of the parameters vector by a permanent local adjustment of the initialization process...
March 7, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340193/addressing-structural-barriers-to-hiv-care-among-triply-diagnosed-adults-project-bridge-oakland
#4
Christina Powers, Megan Comfort, Andrea M Lopez, Alex H Kral, Owen Murdoch, Jennifer Lorvick
People who are "triply diagnosed" with HIV, mental health issues, and substance-related disorders face tremendous barriers connecting to and remaining in HIV care. Authors of this article implemented Project Bridge Oakland (PBO), an intervention based on harm reduction and trauma-informed care, to help maintain continuity of care for triply diagnosed adults through cycles of criminal justice involvement. From August 2011 to December 2014, a clinical social worker and an HIV physician provided intensive case management for 19 clients living in Oakland, California...
March 14, 2017: Health & Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339428/does-conservative-treatment-change-the-brain-in-patients-with-chronic-musculoskeletal-pain-a-systematic-review
#5
Jeroen Kregel, Iris Coppieters, Robby DePauw, Anneleen Malfliet, Lieven Danneels, Jo Nijs, Barbara Cagnie, Mira Meeus
BACKGROUND: Chronic musculoskeletal pain is characterized by maladaptive central neuroplastic changes. Many observational studies have demonstrated that chronic pain states are associated with brain alterations regarding structure and/or function. Rehabilitation of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain may include cognitive, exercise, or multimodal therapies. OBJECTIVE: The current review aims to provide a constructive overview of the existing literature reporting neural correlates, based on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, following conservative treatment in chronic musculoskeletal pain patients...
March 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339419/the-im-possibilities-of-returning-to-work-after-a-stroke
#6
Maria Norstedt
BACKGROUND: What a stroke means for working-age persons has not been sufficiently studied from a sociological perspective. OBJECTIVE: This article uses the empirical material of a larger study to describe and analyze how institutional practices and discourses influence attempts to return to work after a stroke. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten persons who have had a stroke and ten civil servants and professionals from the Swedish Public Employment Service, the Social Insurance Agency, and different health care institutions...
March 23, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339324/mobile-but-connected-harnessing-the-power-of-self-efficacy-and-group-support-for-weight-loss-success-through-mhealth-intervention
#7
Heewon Kim, Meara Faw, Andreas Michaelides
Despite the growing popularity of mHealth applications, their usage outcomes have received limited empirical attention. Drawing on server-level user activity data and an online survey (N = 384), this study examines the use of an mHealth application for weight loss to elucidate the ways in which it can help individuals harness the power of self-efficacy and group support to enact behavior change and accomplish their health goals. The results of structural equation modeling based on 6-month user activity data demonstrated that (a) self-efficacy had a positive impact on persistent food logging in an mHealth application; (b) social support received from a mobile group was positively associated with food logging and group participation; and (c) both food logging and group participation predicted weight loss success...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339269/portal-connecting-dark-photons-and-axions
#8
Kunio Kaneta, Hye-Sung Lee, Seokhoon Yun
The dark photon and the axion (or axionlike particle) are popular light particles of the hidden sector. Each of them has been actively searched for through the couplings called the vector portal and the axion portal. We introduce a new portal connecting the dark photon and the axion (axion-photon-dark photon, axion-dark photon-dark photon), which emerges in the presence of the two particles. This dark axion portal is genuinely new couplings, not just from a product of the vector portal and the axion portal, because of the internal structure of these couplings...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339010/effects-of-different-cellulose-membranes-regenerated-from-styela-clava-tunics-on-wound-healing
#9
Sung Hwa Song, Keum Yong Seong, Ji Eun Kim, Jun Go, Eun Kyoung Koh, Ji Eun Sung, Hong Joo Son, Young Jin Jung, Hye Sung Kim, Jin Tae Hong, Dae Youn Hwang
The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of three different cellulose membranes (CMs) manufactured from Styela clava tunics (SCTs) on the healing of cutaneous wounds. We examined the physical properties and therapeutic effects of three CMs regenerated from SCTs (referred to as SCT‑ CMs), including normal CM (SCT‑CM), freeze-dried SCT‑CM (FSCT‑CM) and sodium alginate-supplemented SCT‑CM (ASCT‑CM) on skin regeneration and angiogenesis using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. FSCT‑CM exhibited an outstanding interlayered structure, a high tensile strength (1...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338785/elevated-nucleus-accumbens-structural-connectivity-associated-with-proneness-to-hypomania-a-reward-hypersensitivity-perspective
#10
Katherine S Damme, Christina B Young, Robin Nusslock
The Reward Hypersensitivity Model of bipolar disorder argues that hypersensitivity to reward-relevant cues characterizes risk for hypo/mania. This hypersensitivity leads to increased goal-directed motivation during reward-relevant life events that, in the extreme, is reflected in hypo/manic symptoms. In line with this perspective, individuals with bipolar disorder display elevated activation in a cortico-striatal reward circuit including the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC). To date, however, research on reward-related neural circuitry underlying bipolar symptoms focuses on syndromal bipolar disorder (bipolar I, bipolar II), and typically examines neural regions in isolation of each other...
February 17, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338322/hydrothermal-synthesis-of-the-oxofluoride-fesbo2f2-an-anti-ferromagnetic-spin-s-5-2-compound
#11
Sk Imran Ali, Reinhard K Kremer, Mats Johnsson
The new oxofluoride compound FeSbO2F2 was synthesized by hydrothermal techniques at 230 °C. Its crystal structure was determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c with one crystallographic site for Fe(3+) and Sb(3+), respectively. The crystal structure is made of [FeO2F4] octahedra and seesaw [SbO4] building blocks. These are connected to form [FeO2F2]n layers and [SbO2]n chains that bond together via the oxygen atoms to form the three-dimensional framework structure...
March 24, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338095/the-effect-of-microbial-mats-in-the-decay-of-anurans-with-implications-for-understanding-taphonomic-processes-in-the-fossil-record
#12
M Iniesto, I Villalba, A D Buscalioni, M C Guerrero, A I López-Archilla
The pattern and sequence of the decomposition of the Pipidae African dwarf frog (Hymenochirus boettgeri) is tracked in an experiment with microbial mats in order to explore soft tissue preservation over three years. Frog decay in microbial mats is preceded by rapid entombment (25-30 days) and mediated by the formation of a sarcophagus, which is built by a complex microbial community. The frog carcasses maintained a variety of soft tissues for years. Labile organic structures show greater durability within the mat, cells maintain their general shape (bone marrow cells and adipocytes), and muscles and connective tissues (adipose and fibrous tendons) exhibit their original organic structures...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337675/an-ontology-based-search-engine-for-digital-reconstructions-of-neuronal-morphology
#13
Sridevi Polavaram, Giorgio A Ascoli
Neuronal morphology is extremely diverse across and within animal species, developmental stages, brain regions, and cell types. This diversity is functionally important because neuronal structure strongly affects synaptic integration, spiking dynamics, and network connectivity. Digital reconstructions of axonal and dendritic arbors are thus essential to quantify and model information processing in the nervous system. NeuroMorpho.Org is an established repository containing tens of thousands of digitally reconstructed neurons shared by several hundred laboratories worldwide...
March 23, 2017: Brain Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337497/dimerization-and-conformation-related-free-energy-landscapes-of-dye-tagged-amyloid-%C3%AE-12-28-linked-to-fret-experiments
#14
Alexander Kulesza, Steven Daly, Philippe Dugourd
We have investigated the free energy landscape of Aβ-peptide dimer models in connection to gas-phase FRET experiments. We use a FRET-related distance coordinate and one conformation-related coordinate per monomer for accelerated structural exploration with well-tempered metadynamics in solvent and in vacuo. The free energy profiles indicate that FRET under equilibrium conditions should be significantly affected by the de-solvation upon the transfer of ions to the gas-phase. In contrast, a change in the protonation state is found to be less impacting once de-solvated...
March 24, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337409/network-degeneration-and-dysfunction-in-presymptomatic-c9orf72-expansion-carriers
#15
Suzee E Lee, Ana C Sias, Maria Luisa Mandelli, Jesse A Brown, Alainna B Brown, Anna M Khazenzon, Anna A Vidovszky, Theodore P Zanto, Anna M Karydas, Mochtar Pribadi, Deepika Dokuru, Giovanni Coppola, Dan H Geschwind, Rosa Rademakers, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Howard J Rosen, Bruce L Miller, William W Seeley
Hexanucleotide repeat expansions in C9ORF72 are the most common known genetic cause of familial and sporadic frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Previous work has shown that patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia due to C9ORF72 show salience and sensorimotor network disruptions comparable to those seen in sporadic behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, but it remains unknown how early in the lifespan these and other changes in brain structure and function arise...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336933/internal-valence-modulates-the-speed-of-object-recognition
#16
Matthew F Panichello, Kestutis Kveraga, Maximilien Chaumon, Moshe Bar, Lisa Feldman Barrett
Brain regions that process affect are strongly connected with visual regions, but the functional consequences of this structural organization have been relatively unexplored. How does the momentary affect of an observer influence perception? We induced either pleasant or unpleasant affect in participants and then recorded their neural activity using magnetoencephalography while they completed an object recognition task. We hypothesized, and found, that affect influenced the speed of object recognition by modulating the speed and amplitude of evoked responses in occipitotemporal cortex and regions important for representing affect...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336879/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-a-three-dimensional-porous-multi-walled-carbon-nanotube-scaffold-for-bone-regeneration
#17
Manabu Tanaka, Yoshinori Sato, Mei Zhang, Hisao Haniu, Masanori Okamoto, Kaoru Aoki, Takashi Takizawa, Kazushige Yoshida, Atsushi Sobajima, Takayuki Kamanaka, Hiroyuki Kato, Naoto Saito
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted a great deal of attention for the biological and medical science fields because of their characteristic physical and biological properties. In this study, we investigated the capacity of the 3D porous CNT scaffold (CNT porous block; CNTp) for bone regenerative medicine. Surface observations using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), crystal depositions on the surface of CNTps immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF), and evaluations of protein adsorption and controlled releasing were conducted to assess physical properties...
February 17, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335724/a-genetic-chronology-for-the-indian-subcontinent-points-to-heavily-sex-biased-dispersals
#18
Marina Silva, Marisa Oliveira, Daniel Vieira, Andreia Brandão, Teresa Rito, Joana B Pereira, Ross M Fraser, Bob Hudson, Francesca Gandini, Ceiridwen Edwards, Maria Pala, John Koch, James F Wilson, Luísa Pereira, Martin B Richards, Pedro Soares
BACKGROUND: India is a patchwork of tribal and non-tribal populations that speak many different languages from various language families. Indo-European, spoken across northern and central India, and also in Pakistan and Bangladesh, has been frequently connected to the so-called "Indo-Aryan invasions" from Central Asia ~3.5 ka and the establishment of the caste system, but the extent of immigration at this time remains extremely controversial. South India, on the other hand, is dominated by Dravidian languages...
March 23, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335570/an-improved-multi-sensor-fusion-navigation-algorithm-based-on-the-factor-graph
#19
Qinghua Zeng, Weina Chen, Jianye Liu, Huizhe Wang
An integrated navigation system coupled with additional sensors can be used in the Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (MUAV) applications because the multi-sensor information is redundant and complementary, which can markedly improve the system accuracy. How to deal with the information gathered from different sensors efficiently is an important problem. The fact that different sensors provide measurements asynchronously may complicate the processing of these measurements. In addition, the output signals of some sensors appear to have a non-linear character...
March 21, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335381/computational-prediction-of-the-protonation-sites-of-ac-lys-ala-n-lys-nh2-peptides-through-conceptual-dft-descriptors
#20
Sebastián Sastre, Juan Frau, Daniel Glossman-Mitnik
Six density functionals (M11, M11L, MN12L, MN12SX, N12, and N12SX) in connection with the Def2TZVP basis set and the SMD solvation model (water as a solvent) have been assessed for the calculation of the molecular structure and properties of several peptides with the general formulaAc-Lys-(Ala)n-Lys-NH2,withn=0to5  [...].
March 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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