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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903255/epigenetic-evidence-for-involvement-of-the-oxytocin-receptor-gene-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#1
Carolina Cappi, Juliana Belo Diniz, Guaraci L Requena, Tiaya Lourenço, Bianca Cristina Garcia Lisboa, Marcelo Camargo Batistuzzo, Andrea H Marques, Marcelo Q Hoexter, Carlos A Pereira, Euripedes Constantino Miguel, Helena Brentani
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder that affects up to 3% of the general population. Although epigenetic mechanisms play a role in neurodevelopment disorders, epigenetic pathways associated with OCD have rarely been investigated. Oxytocin is a neuropeptide involved in neurobehavioral functions. Oxytocin has been shown to be associated with the regulation of complex socio-cognitive processes such as attachment, social exploration, and social recognition, as well as anxiety and other stress-related behaviors...
November 30, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901303/diagnostic-masking-and-overshadowing-in-intellectual-disability-how-structured-evaluation-helps
#2
Harshini Manohar, Karthick Subramanian, Preeti Kandasamy, Venkatalakshmi Penchilaiya, Anandbabu Arun
PROBLEM: Comorbid psychiatric diagnoses tend to be underdiagnosed in patients with intellectual disability. Diagnosing anxiety disorders in such patients can pose challenges, in particular with regard to obsessive and compulsive disorder (OCD). METHODS: We present the case of an adolescent diagnosed with intellectual disability with poor expressive language skills who presented with nonspecific mood and behavioral symptoms, not improving with routine clinical evaluations and treatment...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901245/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-for-treatment-resistant-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-report-on-two-cases-and-proposal-for-a-randomized-sham-controlled-trial
#3
Renata de Melo Felipe da Silva, André Russowsky Brunoni, Eurípedes Constantino Miguel, Roseli Gedanke Shavitt
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Neuromodulation techniques for treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have expanded through greater understanding of the brain circuits involved in this disorder. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive technique, has been studied as an alternative for treatment-resistant OCD. We describe the design of a clinical trial using tDCS for OCD and report on the outcomes from two patients with primary OCD who were resistant to cognitive-behavioral therapy and to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and who received tDCS in an open manner during the training phase for the study procedures...
September 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894106/prader-willi-syndrome-due-to-an-unbalanced-de-novo-translocation-t-15-19-q12-p13-3
#4
Vy Dang, Abhilasha Surampalli, Ann M Manzardo, Stephanie Youn, Merlin G Butler, June-Anne Gold, Virginia E Kimonis
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex, multisystem genetic disorder characterized by endocrine, neurologic, and behavioral abnormalities. We report the first case of an unbalanced de novo reciprocal translocation of chromosomes 15 and 19, 45,XY,-15,der(19)t(15;19)(q12;p13.3), resulting in monosomy for the PWS critical chromosome region. Our patient had several typical features of PWS including infantile hypotonia, a poor suck and feeding difficulties, tantrums, skin picking, compulsions, small hands and feet, and food seeking, but not hypopigmentation, a micropenis, cryptorchidism or obesity as common findings seen in PWS at the time of examination at 6 years of age...
November 29, 2016: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893229/measurement-invariance-of-the-yale-food-addiction-scale-2-0-across-gender-and-racial-groups
#5
Meagan M Carr, Pelin D Catak, Megan C Pejsa-Reitz, Karen K Saules, Ashley N Gearhardt
Food addiction describes a psychological and behavioral eating pattern that is similar to the experience of those compulsively taking drugs of abuse. Recent developments related to food addiction, including the development and validation of an updated measure (Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0; Gearhardt, Corbin, & Brownell, 2016), have increased knowledge as to the prevalence and associated correlates of food addiction. However, less is known about the phenomenological experience of food addiction in diverse samples or how the existing measure of food addiction performs in heterogeneous samples...
November 28, 2016: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891112/deep-brain-stimulation-for-tourette-s-syndrome-the-case-for-targeting-the-thalamic-centromedian-parafascicular-complex
#6
REVIEW
Paola Testini, Hoon-Ki Min, Asif Bashir, Kendall H Lee
Tourette's syndrome (TS) is a neurologic condition characterized by both motor and phonic tics and is typically associated with psychiatric comorbidities, including obsessive-compulsive disorder/behavior and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and can be psychologically and socially debilitating. It is considered a disorder of the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuitry, as suggested by pathophysiology studies and therapeutic options. Among these, deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the centromedian-parafascicular nucleus (CM-Pf) of the thalamus is emerging as a valuable treatment modality for patients affected by severe, treatment-resistant TS...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891104/hoarding-symptoms-are-not-exclusive-to-hoarders
#7
Caterina Novara, Gioia Bottesi, Stella Dorz, Ezio Sanavio
Hoarding disorder (HD) was originally conceptualized as a subcategory of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and numerous studies have in fact focused exclusively on investigating the comorbidity between OCD and HD. Hoarding behavior can nevertheless also be found in other clinical populations and in particular in patients with eating disorders (ED), anxiety disorders (AD), major depression (MD), and psychotic disorders (PD). The current study was carried out with the aim of investigating, using a validated instrument such as the Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R), the presence of HD symptoms in patients diagnosed with ED, AD, MD, and PD...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890603/a-novel-inhibitor-of-endocannabinoid-catabolic-enzymes-sheds-light-on-behind-the-scene-interplay-between-chronic-pain-analgesic-tolerance-and-heroin-dependence
#8
Josée Guindon
From the Aristotelian ancient Greece, pain has been associated with appetites or emotions and is opposite to pleasure. Reward and addiction is also linked to pleasure and compulsive drug seeking reinstates pleasure. Alleviation of chronic pain can induce a euphoric phase similar to what is found in addiction. Both chronic pain and addiction are recognized as a disease of the central nervous system. They share many characteristics and brain regions/mechanisms. Evidence points to the usefulness of cannabinoids as a new class of agents to add to the pharmaceutical toolbox in the management of chronic pain...
November 24, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887721/comparative-multimodal-meta-analysis-of-structural-and-functional-brain-abnormalities-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#9
Christina O Carlisi, Luke J Norman, Steve S Lukito, Joaquim Radua, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share inhibitory control deficits possibly underlying poor control over stereotyped and repetitive g., v/r/ dACC /MPFC); and (iv) to indicate a pathway (e.g., if this is a pathway: bilateral putamen/caudate/nucleus accumbens / pallidum /amygdala/insula). BPS style does not allow virgules to be used to represent expressions of duality or alternatives. Please express these as and/or, and, or or . BPS style does not allow virgules to be used to represent a compound modifier such as "rostral/ dorsomedial ," which should be changed to hyphen(s), such as rostral- dorsomedial ...
October 13, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887679/-mindfulness-based-interventions-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-mechanisms-of-action-and-presentation-of-a-pilot-study
#10
M Gasnier, A Pelissolo, G Bondolfi, S Pelissolo, M Tomba, L Mallet, K N'diaye
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a frequent and severe disease, potentially inducing a major impairment for the patient and burden for their family. Recent research in psychiatry and neuroscience have led to better comprehension of the disease's mechanisms and helped to improve its treatment. However, a large proportion of patients have refractory symptoms, including for traditional cognitive and behavioral therapy by exposure and response prevention (ERP), leading clinicians to look for new treatments...
November 22, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884425/the-eating-disorder-associated-hdac4-a778t-mutation-alters-feeding-behaviors-in-female-mice
#11
Michael Lutter, Michael Z Khan, Kenji Satio, Kevin C Davis, Ian J Kidder, Latisha McDaniel, Benjamin W Darbro, Andrew A Pieper, Huxing Cui
BACKGROUND: While eating disorders (EDs) are thought to result from a combination of environmental and psychological stressors superimposed on genetic vulnerability, the neurobiological basis of EDs remains incompletely understood. We recently reported that a rare missense mutation in the gene for the transcriptional repressor histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) is associated with the risk of developing an ED in humans. METHODS: To understand the biological consequences of this missense mutation, we created transgenic mice carrying this mutation by introducing the alanine to threonine mutation at position 778 of mouse Hdac4 (corresponding to position 786 of the human protein)...
October 13, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881957/the-effects-of-excitatory-and-inhibitory-social-cues-on-cocaine-seeking-behavior
#12
Mark A Smith, Huailin Zhang, Andrea M Robinson
Social partners influence the likelihood of using drugs, developing a substance use disorder and relapse to drug use after a period of abstinence. Preclinical studies report that social cues influence the acquisition of cocaine use, the escalation of cocaine use over time, and the compulsive patterns of cocaine use that emerge during an extended binge. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of social cues on the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior after a period of abstinence. Male rats were obtained at weaning, assigned to triads (three rats/cage), reared to adulthood and implanted with intravenous catheters...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881956/ovarian-sex-hormones-modulate-compulsive-affective-and-cognitive-functions-in-a-non-induced-mouse-model-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#13
Swarup Mitra, Cristiane P Bastos, Katherine Bates, Grace S Pereira, Abel Bult-Ito
There is currently a lack of understanding of how surgical menopause can influence obsessions, compulsions and associated affective and cognitive functions in female obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients. Early menopause in women due to surgical removal of ovaries not only causes dramatic hormonal changes, but also may induce affective and cognitive disorders. Here, we tested if surgical removal of ovaries (ovariectomy, OVX), which mimics surgical menopause in humans, would result in exacerbation of compulsive, affective and cognitive behaviors in mice strains that exhibit a spontaneous compulsive-like phenotype...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877117/general-habit-propensity-relates-to-the-sensation-seeking-subdomain-of-impulsivity-but-not-obesity
#14
Anja Dietrich, Sanne de Wit, Annette Horstmann
According to dual-system theory, instrumental learning and performance depend on the balance between goal-directed and habitual action control. Overreliance on habits has been argued to characterize clinical conditions such as drug addiction or obsessive-compulsive disorder as well as obesity and excessive impulsivity. A tendency toward habitual action control in obesity has already been indicated in the food domain. However, impairments might not be restricted to eating behavior. This has been suggested by domain-general obesity-associated disturbances in executive function as well as alterations in corticostriatal circuits underlying the goal-directed and habitual systems...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876668/activation-of-the-orbitofrontal-and-anterior-cingulate-cortices-during-the-expression-of-a-naturalistic-compulsive-like-behavior-in-the-rabbit
#15
Hugo Cano-Ramírez, Kurt L Hoffman
We propose that maternal nest building in the female laboratory rabbit is a useful model for compulsions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This repetitive behavior comprises collecting straw, depositing it into the nest box, and then returning to collect more straw. We reasoned that if "straw carrying" behavior is homologous to compulsive behavior, then it should be associated with activation of prefrontal regions associated with OCD, namely, the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortices (OFC and ACC, respectively)...
November 19, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872269/behavioral-biomarkers-of-schizophrenia-in-high-drinker-rats-a-potential-endophenotype-of-compulsive-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#16
Silvia V Navarro, Roberto Alvarez, M Teresa Colomina, Fernando Sanchez-Santed, Pilar Flores, Margarita Moreno
Psychogenic polydipsia, which is compulsive, non-regulatory fluid consumption, is present in 6%-20% of chronic psychiatric patients and frequently associated with the schizophrenia diagnosis. In the present study, we investigated the relation between schizophrenia-like symptoms and biomarkers with a compulsive drinking behavior phenotype in rats. Rats that were selected for low drinking vs high drinking behavior following schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) were assessed in a latent inhibition (LI) paradigm using tone and electrical foot shock and in a spatial reversal learning task to evaluate behavioral inflexibility...
November 21, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869451/internet-delivered-family-based-treatment-for-early-onset-ocd-a-pilot-randomized-trial
#17
Jonathan S Comer, Jami M Furr, Caroline E Kerns, Elizabeth Miguel, Stefany Coxe, R Meredith Elkins, Aubrey L Carpenter, Danielle Cornacchio, Christine E Cooper-Vince, Mariah DeSerisy, Tommy Chou, Amanda L Sanchez, Muniya Khanna, Martin E Franklin, Abbe M Garcia, Jennifer B Freeman
Objective: Despite advances in supported treatments for early onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), progress has been constrained by regionally limited expertise in pediatric OCD. Videoteleconferencing (VTC) methods have proved useful for extending the reach of services for older individuals, but no randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have evaluated VTC for treating early onset OCD. Method: RCT comparing VTC-delivered family based cognitive-behavioral therapy (FB-CBT) versus clinic-based FB-CBT in the treatment of children ages 4-8 with OCD (N = 22)...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869141/fronto-striatal-glutamate-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#18
Jilly Naaijen, Marcel P Zwiers, Houshang Amiri, Steven Cr Williams, Sarah Durston, Bob Oranje, Daniel Brandeis, Regina Boecker-Schlier, Matthias Ruf, Isabella Wolf, Tobias Banaschewski, Jeffrey C Glennon, Barbara Franke, Jan K Buitelaar, David J Lythgoe
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are often comorbid with the overlap based on compulsive behaviors. Although previous studies suggest glutamatergic deficits in fronto-striatal brain areas in both disorders, this is the first study to directly compare the glutamate concentrations across the two disorders with those in healthy control participants using both categorical and dimensional approaches. In the current multi-center study (four centers), we used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in 51 children with ASD, 29 with OCD, and 53 healthy controls (aged 8 to 13 years) to investigate glutamate (Glu) concentrations in two regions of the fronto-striatal circuit: midline anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and left dorsal striatum...
November 21, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866918/-children-and-adolescents-anxiety-disorders
#19
H Denis, A Baghdadli
Anxiety disorders were long underestimated in children by healthcare professionals, but they are now better diagnosed. They account for the most frequent psychiatric diagnosis between 6 and 18 years of age, with differences in prevalence or risk factors related to the clinical forms. Different clinical subtypes of anxiety disorders are detailed in this article: separation anxiety, specific phobia, generalized anxiety, social anxiety, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress syndrome, and obsessional-compulsive disorder...
November 17, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866012/differential-activation-of-the-frontal-pole-to-high-vs-low-calorie-foods-the-neural-basis-of-food-preference-in-anorexia-nervosa
#20
Jessica C Scaife, Lauren R Godier, Andrea Reinecke, Catherine J Harmer, Rebecca J Park
Neuroimaging studies in anorexia nervosa (AN) suggest that altered food reward processing may result from dysfunction in both limbic reward and cortical control centers of the brain. This fMRI study aimed to index the neural correlates of food reward in a subsample of individuals with restrictive AN: twelve currently ill, fourteen recovered individuals and sixteen healthy controls. Participants were shown pictures of high and low-calorie foods and asked to evaluate how much they wanted to eat each one following a four hour fast...
October 18, 2016: Psychiatry Research
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