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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775078/effects-of-a-parent-implemented-developmental-reciprocity-treatment-program-for-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Grace W Gengoux, Salena Schapp, Sarah Burton, Christina M Ardel, Robin A Libove, Gina Baldi, Kari L Berquist, Jennifer M Phillips, Antonio Y Hardan
Developmental approaches to autism treatment aim to establish strong interpersonal relationships through joint play. These approaches have emerging empirical support; however, there is a need for further research documenting the procedures and demonstrating their effectiveness. This pilot study evaluated changes in parent behavior and child autism symptoms following a 12-week Developmental Reciprocity Treatment parent-training program. A total of 22 children with autism spectrum disorder between 2 and 6 years (mean age = 44...
May 1, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772560/impact-of-sugar-on-the-body-brain-and-behavior
#2
Clara R Freeman, Amna Zehra, Veronica Ramirez, Corinde E Wiers, Nora D Volkow, Gene-Jack Wang
Sugar is highly palatable and rewarding, both in its taste and nutritive input. Excessive sugar consumption, however, may trigger neuroadaptations in the reward system that decouple eating behavior from caloric needs and leads to compulsive overeating. Excessive sugar intake is in turn associated with adverse health conditions, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory diseases. This review aims to use recent evidence to connect sugar's impact on the body, brain, and behavior to elucidate how and why sugar consumption has been implicated in addictive behaviors and poor health outcomes...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769783/trichotillomania-ranging-from-ritual-to-illness-and-as-a-rare-clinical-manifestation-of-frontotemporal-dementia-review-of-literature-and-case-report
#3
Thomas Gregor Issac, Ashay Vivek Telang, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the most common form of dementia in the younger age group and often exists with comorbid obsessions and compulsions in up to 80% of the patients. Trichotillomania or compulsive "hair-pulling" disorder is a rare manifestation of FTD and is a poorly evaluated symptom in this condition. The release of "grooming functions" due to frontal disinhibition is often attributed to the evolutionary perspective; however, recent findings also implicate the role of neurotransmitter dysfunction...
March 2018: International Journal of Trichology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768651/cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-reports-of-fatal-cases
#4
Mahra Nourbakhsh, Angela Miller, Jeff Gofton, Graham Jones, Bamidele Adeagbo
Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is one of the more clinically challenging effects of cannabis consumption. It is characterized by cyclic attacks of nausea and vomiting in chronic cannabinoid users and learned behavior of compulsive hot bathing. The deaths of a 27-year-old female, a 27-year-old male, and a 31-year-old male with a history of CHS are reported. The decedents had a history of cyclical nausea and vomiting, chronic cannabinoid use and negative laboratory, radiological and endoscopic findings...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761016/the-effects-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-on-resting-state-functional-brain-network-in-drug-naive-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#5
Ping Li, Xiangyun Yang, Andrew J Greenshaw, Sufang Li, Jia Luo, Haiying Han, Jing Liu, Zhaoxi Zhong, Zhihua Guo, Hongfang Xiong, Shumin Yao, Yunhui Chen, Jing Sun, Zhanjiang Li
Objectives: Although cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the treatment mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the effects of CBT on changes in the intrinsic whole-brain functional network of OCD patients. Materials and Methods: Twenty drug-naive and noncomorbid OCD patients were recruited, and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed before and after 12 weeks of CBT...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760181/corticosterone-signaling-and-a-lateral-habenula-ventral-tegmental-area-circuit-modulate-compulsive-self-injurious-behavior-in-a-rat-model
#6
Yujie Guo, Xun Tang, Jichuan Zhang, Sen Jin, Jinnan Li, Lufeng Ding, Keming Zhang, Chaoyu Yang, Hua Zhou, Xiaobin He, Fuqiang Xu, Guo-Qiang Bi, Lin Xu, Pak-Ming Lau
Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is commonly observed in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, as well as nonclinical populations with stress related mental health problems. However, the exact circuitry mechanisms underlying SIB have remained unclear. Here we established a rat model of SIB with bilateral injection of muscimol into entopeduncular nucleus (EP). Following the muscimol injection, the male rats exhibited stereotypic self-biting behavior that lasted for hours and often resulted in wounds of various severities, in a dose-dependent manner...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755713/a-mobile-multimedia-reminiscence-therapy-application-to-reduce-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-in-persons-with-alzheimer-s
#7
Danish Imtiaz, Arshia Khan, Adriana Seelye
The goal of this project is to develop a novel and innovative mobile solution to address behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) that occur in individuals with Alzheimer's. BPSD can include agitation, restlessness, aggression, apathy, obsessive-compulsive and repetitive behaviors, hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and wandering. Alzheimer's currently affects 5.4 million adults in the United States and that number is projected to increase to 14 million by 2050. Almost 90% of all affected with AD experience BPSD, resulting in increased healthcare costs, heavier burden on caregivers, poor patient outcomes, early nursing home placement, long-term hospitalizations, and misuse of medications...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753591/emotion-regulation-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-unaffected-siblings-and-unrelated-healthy-control-participants
#8
Anders L Thorsen, Stella J de Wit, Froukje E de Vries, Danielle C Cath, Dick J Veltman, Ysbrand D van der Werf, David Mataix-Cols, Bjarne Hansen, Gerd Kvale, Odile A van den Heuvel
BACKGROUND: Functional neuroimaging endophenotypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been suggested during executive tasks. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether behavioral and neural responses during emotion processing and regulation also represent an endophenotype of OCD. METHODS: Forty-three unmedicated adult OCD patients, 19 of their unaffected siblings, and 38 healthy control participants underwent 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging during an emotion regulation task including neutral, fear-inducing, and OCD-related visual stimuli...
March 24, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751168/subjective-cognitive-function-in-hoarding-disorder
#9
David F Tolin, Lauren S Hallion, Bethany M Wootton, Hannah C Levy, Amber L Billingsley, Akanksha Das, Benjamin W Katz, Michael C Stevens
The aim of the present study was to examine subjective cognitive impairment among adult patients with hoarding disorder (HD). Eighty-three patients with HD and 46 age- and gender-matched healthy control (HC) participants received a diagnostic interview and completed measures of subjective cognitive functioning and motivations for saving behavior, as well as measures of hoarding severity, depression, anxiety, stress, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms. The HD group reported more impairment than did the HC group in domains of memory, distractibility, blunders, memory for names, and inattention...
May 4, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750139/the-brown-incompleteness-scale-bincs-measure-development-and-initial-evaluation
#10
Christina L Boisseau, Nicholas J Sibrava, Sarah L Garnaat, Maria C Mancebo, Jane L Eisen, Steven A Rasmussen
Background: In recent years, incompleteness has received increased clinical attention as a core motivation underlying obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. Yet, assessment of incompleteness has relied almost exclusively on self-report and has assumed a unitary conceptualization of this phenomenon. Therefore, we sought to develop and validate a new multi-faceted clinician-administered measure of incompleteness. The Brown Incompleteness Scale (BINCS) consists of 21 items; each rated on a 5-point scale, with higher scores indicating a greater degree of incompleteness...
January 2018: Journal of Obsessive-compulsive and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748110/interoceptive-processing-deficit-a-behavioral-marker-for-subtyping-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Gabriella Santangelo, Carmine Vitale, Chiara Baiano, Alfonsina D'Iorio, Katia Longo, Paolo Barone, Marianna Amboni, Massimiliano Conson
BACKGROUND: Non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), such as cognitive, emotional, autonomic and somatosensory alterations, are not ubiquitous but vary between the tremor dominant (TD) and postural instability/gait difficulty (PIGD) subtypes of the syndrome. Non-motor phenomena (e.g., anxiety, depression and apathy) have been related to representation of autonomic and somatosensory sensations (interoception), and recent findings suggest interoceptive deficits in PD. OBJECTIVES: To test whether interoceptive processing is differently affected in TD and PIGD phenotypes, by assessing both interoceptive accuracy and sensibility in PD patients with TD and PIGD subtypes, and in healthy controls...
May 5, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740319/pharmacological-blockade-of-adenosine-a-2a-but-not-a-1-receptors-enhances-goal-directed-valuation-in-satiety-based-instrumental-behavior
#12
Yan Li, Xinran Pan, Yan He, Yang Ruan, Linshan Huang, Yuling Zhou, Zhidong Hou, Chaoxiang He, Zhe Wang, Xiong Zhang, Jiang-Fan Chen
The balance and smooth shift between flexible, goal-directed behaviors and repetitive, habitual actions are critical to optimal performance of behavioral tasks. The striatum plays an essential role in control of goal-directed versus habitual behaviors through a rich interplay of the numerous neurotransmitters and neuromodulators to modify the input, processing and output functions of the striatum. The adenosine receptors (namely A2A R and A1 R), with their high expression pattern in the striatum and abilities to interact and integrate dopamine, glutamate and cannabinoid signals in the striatum, may represent novel therapeutic targets for modulating instrumental behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740277/hedonic-eating-and-the-delicious-circle-from-lipid-derived-mediators-to-brain-dopamine-and-back
#13
REVIEW
Roberto Coccurello, Mauro Maccarrone
Palatable food can be seductive and hedonic eating can become irresistible beyond hunger and negative consequences. This is witnessed by the subtle equilibrium between eating to provide energy intake for homeostatic functions, and reward-induced overeating. In recent years, considerable efforts have been devoted to study neural circuits, and to identify potential factors responsible for the derangement of homeostatic eating toward hedonic eating and addiction-like feeding behavior. Here, we examined recent literature on "old" and "new" players accountable for reward-induced overeating and possible liability to eating addiction...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739139/donepezil-for-compulsive-behavior-in-degenerative-dementia-case-series
#14
Biswa Ranjan Mishra, Vanteemar S Sreeraj, Saranya Dhanashekaran, Rituparna Maiti
Diagnosing and managing dementia, presenting with compulsions is challenging. Presented are three cases, a possible representative subset of the Donepezil responders. Selective degeneration of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex networking striatum leading to compulsions would be amenable to cholinergic modulation.
May 31, 2018: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739137/methylphenidate-induced-lip-and-tongue-biting
#15
Cem Gokcen, Mehmet Karadag, Ihsan Aksoy
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a life-long neurodevelopmental disorder and treatment depends on pharmacotherapy because of its biological origin. Stimulant drugs are the most commonly used treatment for ADHD and they have various side effects. Herein, we report a case who bit off the tip of her tongue with Osmotic Release Oral System methylphenidate (OROS MPH) 36 mg/day, bit the tip of her lower lip with immediate release (IR) MPH 10 mg/day and lateral part of her tongue with IR MPH 20 mg/day...
May 31, 2018: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736078/deep-brain-stimulation-of-anteromedial-globus-pallidus-internus-for-severe-tourette-syndrome
#16
Paresh K Doshi, Raghvendra Ramdasi, Smita Thorve
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a complex disorder characterized by tics and is associated with behavioral problems. Although its intensity decreases in adolescence and adult life, in some cases it continues to remain severe and refractory to medical treatment. Deep brain stimulation has been offered as a treatment option in such cases. We report two cases of TS treated with of anteromedial globus pallidum internus. Both the cases had good postoperative control of tics and associated obsessive-compulsive behavior...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735112/stereotypic-movement-disorders
#17
Mackenzie Katherine
This review summarizes motor stereotypies in terms of description, prevalence, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. They are fixed and persistent movements. Stereotypies begin before 3 years of age and continue into adulthood. Primary motor stereotypies occur in children of normal intelligence, whereas secondary stereotypies ensue in the setting of an additional diagnosis such as autism spectrum disorder or other neurologic disorders. They are highly associated with comorbidities such as anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, inattention, and tics...
April 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730994/initial-validation-of-a-transdiagnostic-compulsivity-questionnaire-the-cambridge-chicago-compulsivity-trait-scale
#18
Samuel R Chamberlain, Jon E Grant
OBJECTIVE: Compulsivity refers to a tendency toward repetitive habitual behaviors. Multiple disorders have compulsive symptoms at their core, including substance use disorders, gambling disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The aim of this study was to validate a scale for the objective, transdiagnostic measurement of compulsivity. METHODS: The 15-item Cambridge-Chicago Compulsivity Trait Scale (CHI-T) was developed for the rapid but comprehensive measurement of compulsivity...
May 7, 2018: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729394/neural-correlates-of-gender-differences-in-distractibility-by-sexual-stimuli
#19
J Strahler, O Kruse, S Wehrum-Osinsky, T Klucken, R Stark
Attentional interference control is a prominent feature of human cognition. To what extent sexual stimuli attract attention and interfere with cognitive tasks has still little been studied. Our study aimed to identify associations between attentional interference, sexual arousal, trait sexual motivation, and neural activity to sexual distractors while accounting for gender differences. Therefore, the present study examined the neural correlates of attentional interference by arousing sexual distractors using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
May 2, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727807/voxel-based-morphometry-analysis-of-structural-brain-scans-in-skin-picking-disorder
#20
Anne Schienle, Jonas Potthoff, Albert Wabnegger
BACKGROUND: Skin-picking disorder (SPD) is characterized by the excessive and repetitive manipulation of one's own skin resulting in tissue damage and impaired social functioning. There are only a few studies with small sample sizes that examined possible brain abnormalities in SPD, which is classified as a syndrome related to obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD). METHOD: The current voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study compared data from 35 SPD patients and 35 control participants including both genders (mean age = 35 years, SD = 15)...
April 26, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
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