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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320191/c9orf72-hexanucleotide-repeat-expansions-are-not-a-common-cause-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#1
Karissa C Arthur, Alberto M Rivera, Jack Samuels, Ying Wang, Marco Grados, Fernando S Goes, Brion Maher, Gerald Nestadt, Bryan J Traynor
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a polygenic neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by repetitive thoughts and behaviors that cause distress. The pathogenic repeat expansion [GGGGCC]n found at the C9orf72 locus is the most common cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and has also been documented in patients with psychosis and schizophrenia. Furthermore, obsessions and compulsions have been identified in patients diagnosed with ALS and/or FTD and carrying the pathogenic repeat expansion...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319850/methylation-of-hpa-axis-related-genes-in-men-with-hypersexual-disorder
#2
Jussi Jokinen, Adrian E Boström, Andreas Chatzittofis, Diana M Ciuculete, Katarina Görts Öberg, John N Flanagan, Stefan Arver, Helgi B Schiöth
Hypersexual Disorder (HD) defined as non-paraphilic sexual desire disorder with components of compulsivity, impulsivity and behavioral addiction, and proposed as a diagnosis in the DSM 5, shares some overlapping features with substance use disorder including common neurotransmitter systems and dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. In this study, comprising 67 HD male patients and 39 male healthy volunteers, we aimed to identify HPA-axis coupled CpG-sites, in which modifications of the epigenetic profile are associated with hypersexuality...
March 10, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302189/temporal-dynamics-of-rituals-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#3
Robert W Bond, Stephen J Guastello, Andrea D Guastello
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by obsessions, defined as intrusive and persistent thoughts, and compulsions, defined as repetitive ritualistic behaviors that attempt to neutralize the anxiety associated with the obsessions. The present study investigated the patterns of symptoms as they occur over time in order to generate new insights about the triggers to symptoms. Fourteen adult participants who met the DSM-5 criteria for OCD completed 7-day logbooks of daily activities including the times when they engaged in compulsive rituals...
April 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302187/dynamical-systems-theory-in-quantitative-psychology-and-cognitive-science-a-fair-discrimination-between-deterministic-and-statistical-counterparts-is-required
#4
Adam Gadomski, Marcel Ausloos, Tahlia Casey
This article addresses a set of observations framed in both deterministic as well as statistical formal guidelines. It operates within the framework of nonlinear dynamical systems theory (NDS). It is argued that statistical approaches can manifest themselves ambiguously, creating practical discrepancies in psychological and cognitive data analyses both quantitatively and qualitatively. This is sometimes termed in literature as 'questionable research practices.' This communication points to the demand for a deeper awareness of the data 'initial conditions, allowing to focus on pertinent evolution constraints in such systems...
April 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301091/shorter-sleep-duration-is-associated-with-social-impairment-and-comorbidities-in-asd
#5
Olivia J Veatch, James S Sutcliffe, Zachary E Warren, Brendan T Keenan, Melissa H Potter, Beth A Malow
Sleep disturbance, particularly insomnia, is common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Furthermore, disturbed sleep affects core symptoms and other related comorbidities. Understanding the causes and consequences of sleep disturbances in children with ASD is an important step toward mitigating these symptoms. To better understand the connection between sleep duration and ASD severity, we analyzed ASD-related symptoms using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), IQ scores, and parent reports of the average amount of time slept per night that were available in the medical histories of 2,714 children with ASD in the Simons Simplex Collection (SSC)...
March 16, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294152/melanocortin-3-receptors-expressed-in-nkx2-1-ve-neurons-are-sufficient-for-controlling-appetitive-responses-to-hypocaloric-conditioning
#6
Clémence Girardet, Maria M Mavrikaki, Joseph R Stevens, Courtney A Miller, Daniel L Marks, Andrew A Butler
Melanocortin-3 receptors (MC3R) have a contextual role in appetite control that is amplified with hypocaloric conditioning. C57BL/6J (B6) mice subjected to hypocaloric feeding schedules (HFS) exhibit compulsive behavioral responses involving food anticipatory activity (FAA) and caloric loading following food access. These homeostatic responses to calorie-poor environs are attenuated in B6 mice in which Mc3r transcription is suppressed by a lox-stop-lox sequence in the 5'UTR (Mc3r(TB/TB)). Here, we report that optimization of caloric loading in B6 mice subject to HFS, characterized by increased meal size and duration, is not observed in Mc3r(TB/TB) mice...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291298/-neurobiology-of-alcohol-dependence-and-implications-on-treatment
#7
Ertuğrul Eşel, Köksal Dinç
The process of alcohol dependence has been conceptualized as a progress from controlled alcohol intake to compulsive alcohol consumption or a shift from alcohol intake for pleasure to compulsory alcohol seeking behavior. Hereditary and physical factors and the interaction of individuals with their environment, as well as permanent changes in the neurotransmitter and neurohormonal systems in the brain due to alcohol use, play the most important role in the etiology of alcohol dependence. The effects of ethanol on the neurotransmitter, neuropeptide and neuroendocrine systems not only account for its acute physiological and euphoric/reinforcing effects but also seem to be responsible for the development of dependence...
2017: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291296/-the-role-of-distinctiveness-of-stimulus-in-memory-distrust-as-a-function-of-repeated-checking
#8
Talat Demirsöz, H Belgin Ayvaşık
OBJECTIVE: Recent literature proposes that repeated checking increases familiarity with the material, making recollections less vivid and detailed and promoting distrust in memory. The aim of the current study is to investigate the possible underlying mechanisms of low confidence in memory. METHOD: The Padua Inventory-Washington State University Revision (PI-WSUR) was applied in a cohort of university students. Among the students who completed the PI-WSUR, 84 participants were selected and assigned to low Obsessive-Compulsive Symptomatology (OCS) group or high OCS group according to their PI-WSUR scores...
2017: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289979/association-of-rigid-compulsive-behavior-with-functional-constipation-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Sarah Marler, Bradley J Ferguson, Evon Batey Lee, Brittany Peters, Kent C Williams, Erin McDonnell, Eric A Macklin, Pat Levitt, Kara Gross Margolis, David Q Beversdorf, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele
Based upon checklist data from the Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network, we hypothesized that functional constipation (FC) would be associated with rigid-compulsive behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We used the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III to assess FC symptoms in 108 children with ASD. As hypothesized, FC was associated with parent ratings on the Repetitive Behavior Scales-Revised (RBS-R) Compulsive, Ritualistic, and Sameness subscales in the overall population...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289952/tic-severity-and-treatment-in-children-the-effect-of-comorbid-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-behaviors
#10
Tamara Pringsheim
While attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive compulsive disorder have been shown to have major impacts on quality of life in individuals with Tourette syndrome, there is comparatively little data on how the presence of these comorbidities influence tic severity and treatment. 114 children (mean age 10.25 years) were extensively clinically phenotyped at a single specialty clinic. While there was no difference in Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) scores in children with versus without ADHD, children with obsessive compulsive behaviors had significantly higher YGTSS scores (p = 0...
March 13, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288482/a-multicenter-comparative-study-of-impulse-control-disorder-in-latin-american-patients-with-parkinson-disease
#11
Carolina Candelaria Ramírez Gómez, Marcos Serrano Dueñas, Oscar Bernal, Natalia Araoz, Michel Sáenz Farret, Victoria Aldinio, Verónica Montilla, Federico Micheli
OBJECTIVES: Impulse control disorder (ICD) is a common adverse effect in patients with Parkinson disease who receive dopamine agonists; however, other factors are involved in its manifestations. To study the frequency and factors involved in the development of this adverse effect in a Latin American population, we conducted a cross-sectional multicenter study. METHODS: Two hundred fifty-five patients in 3 Latin American centers were evaluated by examination and application of scales (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease-Rating Scale, Hoehn and Yahr, Clinical Impression of Severity Index for Parkinson's Disease)...
March 2017: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284948/compulsive-methamphetamine-taking-under-punishment-is-associated-with-greater-cue-induced-drug-seeking-in-rats
#12
Oscar V Torres, Subramanian Jayanthi, Bruce Ladenheim, Michael T McCoy, Irina N Krasnova, Jean Lud Cadet
Methamphetamine (METH) addicts lose control over drug consumption despite suffering multiple adverse medicolegal consequences. To mimic the negative events associated with drug addiction in humans, we recently introduced a rat model of self-administration (SA) with response-contingent punishment on METH intake. These procedures allowed us to distinguish between two addiction-like phenotypes in rats, those that sustained METH taking despite negative consequences (shock-resistant, SR) and rats that significantly reduced their METH intake (shock-sensitive, SS)...
March 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282427/d-cycloserine-augmentation-of-behavior-therapy-for-anxiety-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorders-a-meta-analysis
#13
Paul-Christian Bürkner, Nadine Bittner, Heinz Holling, Ulrike Buhlmann
OBJECTIVE: The present meta-analysis investigates whether the antibiotic D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial agonist at the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, can augment the effect of behavior therapy in humans with anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders. METHOD: A keyword-based computer search was conducted using common electronic databases. Only studies investigating the effect of DCS in humans with anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders were included, resulting in 23 studies with a combined sample size of 1314 patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281329/addiction-an-underestimated-problem-in-psoriasis-healthcare
#14
A Zink, M Herrmann, T Fischer, F Lauffer, N Garzorz-Stark, A Böhner, C D Spinner, T Biedermann, K Eyerich
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a disease of enormous socio-economic impact. Despite approval of numerous highly efficient and costly therapies, a minor proportion of severely affected patients actually receives sufficient treatment. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether addictions are associated with psoriasis and to develop evidence-based recommendations for dermatologists in their daily clinical practice in order to improve medical assessment of psoriasis and patients' quality of life...
March 9, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281020/restricted-repetitive-behaviors-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-comparative-review
#15
Marina Jiujias, Elizabeth Kelley, Layla Hall
This review paper critically examines literature regarding restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The similar behavioral profiles of these disorders presents the potential for confusion regarding diagnoses and intervention efforts. As such, this review highlights the similarities and differences between RRBs in ASD and OCD. The developmental trajectories of RRBs are presented, followed by an exploration of three constructs implicated in RRB manifestation: anxiety, executive functioning, and sensory phenomena...
March 9, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279877/a-model-based-analysis-of-decision-making-under-risk-in-obsessive-compulsive-and-hoarding-disorders
#16
Gabriel J Aranovich, Daniel R Cavagnaro, Mark A Pitt, Jay I Myung, Carol A Mathews
Attitudes towards risk are highly consequential in clinical disorders thought to be prone to "risky behavior", such as substance dependence, as well as those commonly associated with excessive risk aversion, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and hoarding disorder (HD). Moreover, it has recently been suggested that attitudes towards risk may serve as a behavioral biomarker for OCD. We investigated the risk preferences of participants with OCD and HD using a novel adaptive task and a quantitative model from behavioral economics that decomposes risk preferences into outcome sensitivity and probability sensitivity...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277734/death-anxiety-and-its-relationship-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#17
Rachel E Menzies, Ilan Dar-Nimrod
The studies presented in this article explored the relevance of death fears to Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). In Study 1, the relationships between death anxiety and a variety of markers of psychopathology were examined in 171 treatment-seeking participants with OCD. Moderate to large correlations between Collett-Lester Fear of Death scale scores, taken at initial assessment, and clinical ratings of OCD severity, number of hospitalizations, number of medications, and total number of lifetime anxiety-related diagnoses identified in structured diagnostic interviews were obtained...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275385/severe-hypernatremia-caused-by-acute-exogenous-salt-intake-combined-with-primary-hypothyroidism
#18
Woo Jin Jung, Su Min Park, Jong Man Park, Harin Rhee, Il Young Kim, Dong Won Lee, Soo Bong Lee, Eun Young Seong, Ihm Soo Kwak, Sang Heon Song
This report describes a case of severe hypernatremia with a serum sodium concentration of 188.1mmol/L caused by exogenous salt intake. A 26-year-old man diagnosed with Crohn's disease 5 years previously visited our clinic due to generalized edema and personality changes, with aggressive behavior. He had compulsively consumed salts, ingesting approximately 154 g of salt over the last 4 days. Despite careful fluid management that included not only hypotonic fluid therapy for 8 hours but also hypertonic saline administration, his serum sodium level decreased sharply at 40...
December 2016: Electrolyte & Blood Pressure: E & BP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273441/composite-impulsivity-related-domains-in-college-students
#19
Sabin Khadka, Michael C Stevens, Farah Aslanzadeh, Balaji Narayanan, Keith A Hawkins, Carol S Austad, Sarah A Raskin, Howard Tennen, Rebecca M Wood, Carolyn Fallahi, Marc N Potenza, Godfrey D Pearlson
Impulsivity is a complex, multidimensional construct with prior theoretically and empirically derived characterizations of impulsivity-related behaviors varying considerably among studies. We assessed college students (N = 440) longitudinally with five impulsivity-related self-reported assessments and two computerized behavioral measures. Using a combination of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), we derived then validated several composite impulsivity-related domains (CIRDs). These factors replicated, in large part, findings from a previous study conducted by our group in an independent sample that used a similar analytical approach...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269076/classification-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-from-resting-state-fmri
#20
Bhaskar Sen, Gail A Bernstein, Tingting Xu, Bryon A Mueller, Mindy W Schreiner, Kathryn R Cullen, Keshab K Parhi
Obssesive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a serious mental illness that affects the overall quality of the patients' daily lives. Accurate diagnosis of this disorder is a primary step towards effective treatment. Diagnosing OCD is a lengthy procedure that involves interviews, symptom rating scales and behavioral observation as well as the experience of a clinician. Discovering signal processing and network based biomarkers from functional magnetic resonance scans of patients may greatly assist the clinicians in their diagnostic assessments...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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