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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919875/psychological-support-for-young-adults-with-down-syndrome-dohsa-hou-program-for-maladaptive-behaviors-and-internalizing-problems
#1
Haruo Fujino
Psychological and psychiatric dysfunction is a major problem in a substantial proportion of young adults with Down syndrome. Some patients develop psychiatric issues, such as depressive, obsessive-compulsive, or psychotic-like disorders, in their late adolescence or young adulthood. Furthermore, these individuals may experience moderate to severe emotional and psychological distress. Development of a psychosocial treatment to address these issues is needed in addition to psychotropic medication. The current study reports two cases of young adults with Down syndrome, who presented psychiatric symptoms and marked disruption in their daily lives...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918645/increasing-availability-of-exposure-therapy-through-intensive-group-treatment-for-childhood-anxiety-and-ocd
#2
Stephen P H Whiteside, Julie E Dammann, Michael S Tiede, Bridget K Biggs, Andrea Hillson Jensen
Archival data were used to examine the feasibility of a 5-day, clinic-based, intensive exposure-based cognitive-behavioral group therapy for childhood anxiety disorders (CADs) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Participants were 143 children (82 girls) aged 6 to 19 years ( M = 13.93 years, SD = 2.9 years) with CADs or OCD (or both) in 28 consecutive groups. Repeated-measures ANOVA in the subsample ( n = 57) with complete treatment data indicated positive change on all variables from pretreatment to posttreatment with few differences between CADs and OCD patients...
September 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916503/altered-serotonergic-and-gabaergic-neurotransmission-in-a-mice-model-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#3
Christine Winter, Dana M Greene, Paraskevi Mavrogiorgou, Helge Schaper, Reinhard Sohr, Abel Bult-Ito, Georg Juckel
There is ample evidence that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is based on reduced serotonergic function. Replicated bidirectional selection for thermoregulatory nest-building behavior in the laboratory house mouse (Mus musculus) resulted in compulsive-like, non-compulsive-like and randomly bred control mice that represent a non-induced animal model of OCD. The present study aimed at investigating the neurochemical patterns in specific brain regions of compulsive-like (HA) versus non-compulsive-like (LA) and normal (CA) mice...
September 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910139/quality-of-life-in-children-and-youth-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#4
Eric A Storch, Brent J Small, Joseph F McGuire, Tanya K Murphy, Sabine Wilhelm, Daniel A Geller
OBJECTIVE: The study examined clinical correlates of quality of life (QoL), impact of treatment on QoL, and predictors of QoL change among children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHODS: One hundred forty-two children with primary OCD who were enrolled as part of a larger clinical trial participated. Children were administered a structured diagnostic interview, as well as clinician-administered measures of OCD and depression symptom severity. Children and parents completed reports of QoL, as well as measures of impairment and internalizing and externalizing symptoms...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898308/-the-treatment-of-cannabis-dependence-clinical-work-psychotherapy-and-evidence
#5
José Capece, Federico Pavlovsky
Identifying compulsive consumption of marijuana in association with another mental disorder (attentional defcit disorder, bipolar disorder, depression or psychosis) presents the challenge of clarifying validated therapeutic strategies, especially within the teen population, in which it shows the highest prevalence. The ever-increasing prevalence and the need for regional treatments, demand that we approach this health matter as a public health issue. The ideological con?icts related to the necessary decriminalization of consumption and the current debate on the medical use of marijuana often confuse the urgent need to establish effective therapeutic strategies for the population affected by this mental disorder...
November 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893336/problematic-internet-use-in-gamblers-impact-on-clinical-and-cognitive-measures
#6
Samuel R Chamberlain, Sarah A Redden, Eric Leppink, Jon E Grant
OBJECTIVE: Gambling is a commonplace phenomenon, existing along a continuum from occasional gambling to functionally impairing gambling disorder. The internet may act as a conduit for some gambling behaviors. The impact of problematic internet use on clinical and cognitive features relevant to gambling has received little research attention. METHODS: A total of 206 adults aged 18-30 years who gamble at least five times per year were recruited from the general community and undertook detailed clinical and cognitive assessments...
September 12, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892781/family-accommodation-of-anxiety-symptoms-in-youth-undergoing-intensive-multimodal-treatment-for-anxiety-disorders-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-nature-clinical-correlates-and-treatment-response
#7
Valérie La Buissonnière-Ariza, Sophie C Schneider, Davíð Højgaard, Brian C Kay, Bradley C Riemann, Stephanie C Eken, Peter Lake, Joshua M Nadeau, Eric A Storch
BACKGROUND: Family accommodation is associated with a range of clinical features including symptom severity, functional impairment, and treatment response. However, most previous studies in children and adolescents investigated family accommodation in samples of youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or anxiety disorders receiving non-intensive outpatient services. AIMS: In this study, we aimed to investigate family accommodation of anxiety symptoms in a sample of youth with clinical anxiety levels undergoing an intensive multimodal intervention for anxiety disorders or OCD...
August 3, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889008/the-interplay-between-ventro-striatal-bdnf-levels-and-the-effects-of-valproic-acid-on-the-acquisition-of-ethanol-induced-conditioned-place-preference-in-mice
#8
Manuel Alves Dos Santos, Sarah Sousa Escudeiro, Germana Silva Vasconcelos, Natália Castelo Branco Matos, Marcos Romário Matos de Souza, Manoel Cláudio Azevedo Patrocínio, Leonardo Pimentel Dantas, Danielle Macêdo, Silvânia Maria Mendes Vasconcelos
Alcohol addiction is a chronic, relapsing and progressive brain disease with serious consequences for health. Compulsive use of alcohol is associated with the capacity to change brain structures involved with the reward pathway, such as ventral striatum. Recent evidence suggests a role of chromatin remodeling in the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence and addictive-like behaviors. In addition, neuroadaptive changes mediated by the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) seems to be an interesting pharmacological target for alcoholism treatment...
September 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888943/melanin-concentrating-hormone-modulates-oxytocin-mediated-marble-burying
#9
Nayna M Sanathara, Celia Garau, Amal Alachkar, Lien Wang, Zhiwei Wang, Katsuhiko Nishimori, Xiangmin Xu, Olivier Civelli
Repetitive and perseverative behaviors are common features of a number of neuropsychiatric diseases such as Angelman's syndrome, Tourette's syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and autism spectrum disorders. The oxytocin system has been linked to the regulation of repetitive behavior in both animal models and humans, but many of its downstream targets have still to be found. We report that the melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) system is a target of the oxytocin system in regulating one repetitive behavior, marble burying...
September 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887182/behavioral-and-neural-mechanisms-underlying-habitual-and-compulsive-drug-seeking
#10
REVIEW
Rachel J Smith, Lillian S Laiks
Addiction is characterized by compulsive drug use despite negative consequences. Here we review studies that indicate that compulsive drug use, and in particular punishment resistance in animal models of addiction, is related to impaired cortical control over habitual behavior. In humans and animals, instrumental behavior is supported by goal-directed and habitual systems that rely on distinct corticostriatal networks. Chronic exposure to addictive drugs or stress has been shown to bias instrumental response strategies toward habit learning, and impair prefrontal cortical (PFC) control over responding...
September 5, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885367/compulsive-skin-picking-behavior-after-deep-brain-stimulation-in-a-patient-with-refractory-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-case-report
#11
Chun-Hung Chang, Shin-Yuan Chen, Sheng-Tzung Tsai, Hsin-Chi Tsai
RATIONAL: The therapeutic effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been studied, but complications after this treatment have rarely been noted. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 28-year-old man with treatment-resistant OCD received bilateral ventral capsule/ventral striatum stimulation for 12 months. DIAGNOSIS: Compulsive skin-picking behavior and infection were noted following 12-month DBS treatment...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883784/neuroscience-of-compulsive-eating-behavior
#12
REVIEW
Catherine F Moore, Valentina Sabino, George F Koob, Pietro Cottone
A systematic characterization of compulsivity in pathological forms of eating has been proposed in the context of three functional domains: (1) habitual overeating; (2) overeating to relieve a negative emotional state; and (3) overeating despite aversive consequences. In this review, we provide evidence supporting this hypothesis and we differentiate the nascent field of neurocircuits and neurochemical mediators of compulsive eating through their underlying neuropsychobiological processes. A better understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms that lead to compulsive eating behavior can improve behavioral and pharmacological intervention for disorders of pathological eating...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881220/executive-function-predicts-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-response-in-childhood-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#13
Katja Anna Hybel, Erik Lykke Mortensen, Rikke Lambek, Davíð R M A Højgaard, Per Hove Thomsen
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is considered first-line treatment for childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite CBT's efficacy, too many children and adolescents do not fully respond to treatment, making the identification of predictors of treatment response highly relevant. Executive functions (EF) have been suggested to constitute such predictors, but studies with pediatric samples are scarce. In the present study, we investigated latent level EF test performance and ratings of daily life EF behavior as predictors of CBT response in pediatric OCD...
August 26, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880359/-a-young-boy-with-periodic-strange-behavior-and-hypersomnia-kleine-levin-syndrome
#14
F Dauwe, L Imeraj, K Dhondt
Kleine-Levin syndrome is a rare neuro-psychiatric disease. Most of the young patients are males who present with hypersomnia, cognitive dysfunction, altered perception, eating disorder (e.g. hyperphagia) or disinhibited behaviour (e.g. hypersexuality). Psychiatric symptoms such as apathy, delusions and hallucinations, depressed mood and compulsive behaviours also appear often and result frequently in a psychiatric referral. These symptoms, however, should be distinguished from those of psychiatric diseases as early as possible in order to ensure that patients do not receive the wrong treatment...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877518/naltrexone-in-the-treatment-of-broadly-defined-behavioral-addictions-a-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#15
Fayçal Mouaffak, Claudio Leite, Sonia Hamzaoui, Amine Benyamina, Xavier Laqueille, Oussama Kebir
INTRODUCTION: Broadly defined behavioral addiction is a conceptual framework including behaviors characterized by loss of control and continuation despite significant negative consequences. Broadly defined behavioral addictions share many similarities with substance use disorders. As naltrexone is one of the most studied treatment for substance use disorders, we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCT) assessing the effectiveness of naltrexone in the treatment of broadly defined behavioral addictions...
September 7, 2017: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873276/micrornas-regulate-synaptic-plasticity-underlying-drug-addiction
#16
REVIEW
A C W Smith, P J Kenny
Chronic use of drugs of abuse results in neurochemical, morphological and behavioral plasticity that underlies the emergence of compulsive drug seeking and vulnerability to relapse during periods of attempted abstinence. Identifying and reversing addiction-relevant plasticity is seen as a potential point of pharmacotherapeutic intervention in drug-addicted individuals. Despite considerable advances in our understanding of the actions of drugs of abuse in the brain this information has thus far yielded few novel treatment options addicted individuals...
September 5, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872637/mechanisms-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-involve-robust-and-extensive-increases-in-brain-network-connectivity
#17
T D Moody, F Morfini, G Cheng, C Sheen, R Tadayonnejad, N Reggente, J O'Neill, J D Feusner
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD); however, little is understood about its mechanisms related to brain network connectivity. We examined connectivity changes from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data pre-to-post-CBT in 43 OCD participants, randomized to receive either 4 weeks of intensive CBT or 4 weeks waitlist followed by 4 weeks of CBT, and 24 healthy controls before and after 4 weeks of no treatment. Network-based-statistic analysis revealed large-magnitude increases in OCD connectivity in eight networks...
September 5, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866722/changes-in-intensity-of-neurotic-symptoms-associated-with-reduction-of-suicidal-ideation-in-patients-who-underwent-psychotherapy-in-the-day-hospital-for-the-treatment-of-neurotic-and-behavioral-disorders
#18
Paweł Rodziński, Krzysztof Rutkowski, Agnieszka Murzyn, Jerzy A Sobański, Katarzyna Cyranka, Edyta Dembińska, Karolina Grządziel, Katarzyna Klasa, Michał Mielimąka, Łukasz Müldner-Nieckowski, Bogna Smiatek-Mazgaj
OBJECTIVES: Analysis of associations between changes in the intensity of neurotic symptoms and reduction of suicidal ideation (SI) or lack of SI reduction, in patients who underwent a course of intensive psychotherapy conducted in integrative approach with predominance of psychodynamic approach in a day hospital. METHODS: Symptom Checklist KO"O" and Life Inventory completed by 461 women and 219 men treated in the psychotherapeutic day hospital due to neurotic, behavioral or personality disorders between 2005-2013...
June 18, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864119/value-based-decision-making-under-uncertainty-in-hoarding-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorders
#19
Helen Pushkarskaya, David Tolin, Lital Ruderman, Daniel Henick, J MacLaren Kelly, Christopher Pittenger, Ifat Levy
Difficulties in decision making are a core impairment in a range of disease states. For instance, both obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD) and hoarding disorder (HD) are associated with indecisiveness, inefficient planning, and enhanced uncertainty intolerance, even in contexts unrelated to their core symptomology. We examined decision-making patterns in 19 individuals with OCD, 19 individuals with HD, 19 individuals with comorbid OCD and HD, and 57 individuals from the general population, using a well-validated choice task grounded in behavioral economic theory...
August 24, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861007/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorder-gray-matter-differences-associated-with-poor-outcome
#20
Aki Tsuchiyagaito, Yoshiyuki Hirano, Kenichi Asano, Fumiyo Oshima, Sawako Nagaoka, Yoshitake Takebayashi, Koji Matsumoto, Yoshitada Masuda, Masaomi Iyo, Eiji Shimizu, Akiko Nakagawa
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and is also applicable to patients with both OCD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, previous studies have reported that CBT for patients with both OCD and ASD might be less effective than for patients with OCD alone. In addition, there is no evidence as to why autistic traits might be risk factors. Therefore, we investigated whether comorbidity between ASD and OCD may significantly affect treatment outcome and discovered predictors of CBT outcomes using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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