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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139213/heterogeneous-neuronal-activity-in-the-lateral-habenula-after-short-and-long-term-cocaine-self-administration-in-rats
#1
Ping Gao, Henk J Groenewegen, Louk J M J Vanderschuren, Pieter Voorn
Cocaine addiction is thought to be the result of drug-induced functional changes in a neural network implicated in emotions, learning, and cognitive control. Recent studies have implicated the lateral habenula (LHb) in drug-directed behavior, especially its aversive aspects. Limited cocaine exposure has been shown to alter neuronal activity in the LHb, but the impact of long-term drug exposure on habenula function has not been determined. Therefore, using c-fos as a marker, we here examined neuronal activity in LHb in rats that self-administered cocaine for either 10 or 60 days...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134496/an-analysis-of-treatment-seeking-behavior-in-individuals-with-gambling-disorder
#2
Michael D Harries, Sarah A Redden, Jon E Grant
Gambling disorder affects approximately 1.1-3.5% of the population, with the rates being higher in young adults. Despite this high prevalence, little is known regarding which pathological gamblers decide to seek treatment. This study sought to examine the differences in three groups of pathological gamblers: those who did not seek treatment (n = 94), those who sought therapy (n = 106) and those who sought medication therapy (n = 680). All subjects were assessed on a variety of measures including demographics, family history, gambling history, comorbid psychiatric disorders and an assortment of clinical variables such as the Quality of Life Inventory, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Rating Scales, Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Pathologic Gambling (PG-YBOCS), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Eysenck Impulsiveness Questionnaire and select cognitive tasks...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131058/nonfunctional-redundant-acts-characterize-ocd-even-in-ocd-unrelated-tasks-a-demonstration-in-questionnaire-completion
#3
Maya Amitai, Nitzan Arnon, Noa Shaham, Shay Gur, Alan Apter, Abraham Weizman, Haggai Hermesh
BACKGROUND: Ethological methods used to analyze human obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) rituals demonstrated excess of unnecessary repetitions as well as irrelevant, idiosyncratic acts (additions) compared to normal activity. A question that still remains is whether these well-known repetitions and additions are manifested in behaviors unrelated to the OCD rituals. Our objectives were to: (1) assess whether OCD-related repetitions and additions as found in previous studies also affect the patients' activity of filling out questionnaires and (2) evaluate the specificity of these behaviors to OCD as opposed to other anxiety disorders and healthy controls...
November 3, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129722/an-extended-history-of-drug-self-administration-results-in-multiple-sources-of-control-over-drug-seeking-behavior
#4
REVIEW
Kelly J Clemens, Nathan M Holmes
It is widely recognized that across the development of drug addiction, cues associated with drug use come to exert increasing control over drug seeking and taking behaviors. However, there remain gaps in our knowledge regarding how the different types of drug related cues affect drug seeking and taking behaviors, and how the emergence of cue control over these behaviors relates to the onset of drug seeking compulsions. This paper reviews the literature on drug self-administration in animals to address these gaps...
November 9, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128549/personality-traits-and-appearance-ideal-internalization-differential-associations-with-body-dissatisfaction-and-compulsive-exercise
#5
Shelby J Martin, Sarah E Racine
Thin-ideal internalization is a robust risk factor for body dissatisfaction and eating pathology. Conversely, athletic-ideal internalization is often unrelated to body dissatisfaction, but predicts compulsive exercise (i.e., rigid, rule-driven exercise that is continued despite adverse consequences). Distinct personality traits could relate to internalization of different appearance ideals, which may be associated with divergent eating disorder outcomes. Past research has shown that neuroticism is related to body dissatisfaction, whereas extraversion and conscientiousness have been associated with regular and problematic exercise...
November 6, 2017: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126298/what-proportion-of-people-who-try-one-cigarette-become-daily-smokers-a-meta-analysis-of-representative-surveys
#6
Max Birge, Stephen Duffy, Joanna Astrid Miler, Peter Hajek
Introduction: The 'conversion rate' from initial experimentation to daily smoking is a potentially important metric of smoking behavior, but estimates of it based on current representative data are lacking. Methods: The Global Health Data Exchange was searched for representative surveys conducted in English speaking, developed countries after year 2000 that included questions about ever trying a cigarette and ever smoking daily. The initial search identified 2776 surveys that were further screened for language, location, year, sample size, survey structure and representativeness...
November 4, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122148/a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial-of-aerobic-exercise-as-an-adjunct-to-ocd-treatment
#7
Ana M Abrantes, Richard A Brown, David R Strong, Nicole McLaughlin, Sarah L Garnaat, Maria Mancebo, Deborah Riebe, Julie Desaulniers, Agustin G Yip, Steven Rasmussen, Benjamin D Greenberg
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the current study was to conduct a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of aerobic exercise for decreasing OCD symptom severity, other mental health outcomes, and increasing exercise behaviors and cardiorespiratory fitness among individuals with OCD. METHOD: Fifty-six patients (64% female; mean age=38.8years) with OCD and a Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) score of 16 or greater despite engaging in OCD treatment were randomized to 12-weeks of supervised plus home-based moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (AE; n=28) or to 12-weeks of health education sessions (HE; n=28)...
November 2017: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119300/longitudinal-outcomes-of-children-with-pediatric-autoimmune-neuropsychiatric-disorder-associated-with-streptococcal-infections-pandas
#8
Jill Leon, Rebecca Hommer, Paul Grant, Cristan Farmer, Precilla D'Souza, Riley Kessler, Kyle Williams, James F Leckman, Susan Swedo
Little is known about the natural history of children with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS). This study prospectively followed 33 children with PANDAS for up to 4.8 years (mean 3.3 ± 0.7 years) after enrollment in a 24-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) (N = 35). Fourteen of eighteen children randomized to placebo received open label IVIG 6 weeks after the blinded infusion, so follow-up results reported below largely reflect outcomes in a population of children who received at least one dose of IVIG...
November 8, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112884/appearance-based-rejection-sensitivity-as-a-mediator-of-the-relationship-between-symptoms-of-social-anxiety-and-disordered-eating-cognitions-and-behaviors
#9
Jake Linardon, Rachel Braithwaite, Rachel Cousins, Leah Brennan
Previous research has established a robust relationship between symptoms of social anxiety and disordered eating. However, the mechanisms that may underpin this relationship are unclear. Appearance-based rejection sensitivity (ABRS)-the tendency to anxiously expect and overreact to signs of appearance-based rejection-may be a crucial explanatory mechanism, as ABRS has been shown to maintain social anxiety symptoms and predict disordered eating. We therefore tested whether ABRS mediated the relationship between social anxiety symptoms and various indices of disordered eating (over-evaluation of weight/shape, restraint, binge eating, compulsive exercise, and vomiting)...
October 31, 2017: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109977/prior-alcohol-use-enhances-vulnerability-to-compulsive-cocaine-self-administration-by-promoting-degradation-of-hdac4-and-hdac5
#10
Edmund A Griffin, Philippe A Melas, Royce Zhou, Yang Li, Peter Mercado, Kimberly A Kempadoo, Stacy Stephenson, Luca Colnaghi, Kathleen Taylor, Mei-Chen Hu, Eric R Kandel, Denise B Kandel
Addiction to cocaine is commonly preceded by experiences with legal or decriminalized drugs, such as alcohol, nicotine, and marijuana. The biological mechanisms by which these gateway drugs contribute to cocaine addiction are only beginning to be understood. We report that in the rat, prior alcohol consumption results in enhanced addiction-like behavior to cocaine, including continued cocaine use despite aversive consequences. Conversely, prior cocaine use has no effect on alcohol preference. Long-term, but not short-term, alcohol consumption promotes proteasome-mediated degradation of the nuclear histone deacetylases HDAC4 and HDAC5 in the nucleus accumbens, a brain region critical for reward-based memory...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106467/marginal-quantile-regression-for-dependent-data-with-a-working-odds-ratio-matrix
#11
Davide Bossoli, Matteo Bottai
Dependent data arise frequently in applied research and several approaches to adjusting for the dependence among observations have been proposed in quantile regression. Cluster bootstrap is generally inefficient and computationally demanding, especially when the number of clusters is large. When the primary interest is on marginal quantiles, estimating equations have been proposed that estimate a working correlation matrix from the regression residuals' sign. However, the Pearson's correlation coefficient is an inadequate measure of dependence between binary variables because its range depends on their marginal probabilities...
November 2, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102367/-the-psychiatric-comorbidity-of-anorexia-nervosa-a-comparative-study-in-a-population-of-french-and-greek-anorexic-patients
#12
M Kountza, G Garyfallos, D Ploumpidis, E Varsou, I Gkiouzepas
OBJECTIVE: The current study had two objectives: (1) to access the psychiatric comorbidity in axis I and axis II (according to DSM-IV) of anorexia nervosa in a sample of 60 anorexic patients; (2) to compare the features of the psychiatric comorbidity between the two groups of French and Greek anorexic patients who participated in the study, as well as to compare some psychological and behavioral aspects of their anorectic psychopathology. METHOD: Sixty anorexic patients, thirty French and thirty Greek, aged between 18 and 60 years, referred for evaluation and therapy at the unit of eating disorders at the "Institut national Marcel-Rivière of the MGEN" (hôpital de La Verrière, France) and at the unit of eating disorders of the First Department of Psychiatry of EGINITIO University Psychiatric Hospital in Athens (Greece), were accessed with the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT26), Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL90R), Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Version 5...
November 1, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098466/prevalence-and-predictors-of-hair-pulling-disorder-and-excoriation-disorder-in-tourette-syndrome
#13
Erica Greenberg, Esther S Tung, Caitlin Gauvin, Lisa Osiecki, Kelly G Yang, Erin Curley, Angela Essa, Cornelia Illmann, Paul Sandor, Yves Dion, Gholson J Lyon, Robert A King, Sabrina Darrow, Matthew E Hirschtritt, Cathy L Budman, Marco Grados, David L Pauls, Nancy J Keuthen, Carol A Mathews, Jeremiah M Scharf
Trichotillomania/hair pulling disorder (HPD) and excoriation/skin picking disorder (SPD) are childhood-onset, body-focused repetitive behaviors that are thought to share genetic susceptibility and underlying pathophysiology with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS). We sought to determine the prevalence of DSM-5 HPD and SPD in TS patients, and to identify clinical factors most associated with their co-morbidity with TS. Participants included 811 TS patients recruited from TS specialty clinics for a multi-center genetic study...
November 2, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098186/chronic-adolescent-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-treatment-of-male-mice-leads-to-long-term-cognitive-and-behavioral-dysfunction-which-are-prevented-by-concurrent-cannabidiol-treatment
#14
Michelle Murphy, Sierra Mills, Joanna Winstone, Emma Leishman, Jim Wager-Miller, Heather Bradshaw, Ken Mackie
Introduction: The high prevalence of adolescent cannabis use, the association between this use and later psychiatric disease, and increased access to high-potency cannabis highlight the need for a better understanding of the long-term effects of adolescent cannabis use on cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Furthermore, increasing Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in high-potency cannabis is accompanied by a decrease in cannabidiol (CBD), thus an understanding of the interactions between CBD and THC in the neurodevelopmental effects of THC is also important...
2017: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098136/the-effectiveness-of-internet-based-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-in-treatment-of-psychiatric-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Vikram Kumar, Yasar Sattar, Anan Bseiso, Sara Khan, Ian H Rutkofsky
This review article is an overview of the effectiveness of internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. ICBT's effectiveness has been investigated in treating and managing conditions like depression, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), adjustment disorder, bipolar disorder, chronic pain, and phobias. ICBT's role in the treatment of medical conditions such as diabetes mellitus with comorbid psychiatric illnesses was also explored...
August 29, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098041/migration-stress-poor-mental-health-and-engagement-in-sex-with-high-risk-partners-a-mediation-modeling-analysis-of-data-from-rural-to-urban-migrants-in-china
#16
Bin Yu, Xinguang Chen, Yaqiong Yan, Jie Gong, Fang Li, Emily Robserson
Background: There is a growing need for better understanding of mechanisms underpinning the relationship between migration stress and HIV risk behaviors for the development of HIV prevention and control policy. Methods: Survey data from a random sample of 1,293 Chinese rural-to-urban migrants were analyzed. Stress was assessed using the Domestic Migration Stress Questionnaire (DMSQ), mental health status was assessed using the Brief Symptoms Inventory (BSI), and having sex with high risk partners was assessed as if ever have had sex with high risk partners (e...
December 2017: Sexuality Research & Social Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096776/one-year-outcome-for-responders-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-pediatric-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#17
Davíð R M A Højgaard, Katja A Hybel, Tord Ivarsson, Gudmundur Skarphedinsson, Judith Becker Nissen, Bernhard Weidle, Karin Melin, Nor Christian Torp, Robert Valderhaug, Kitty Dahl, Erik Lykke Mortensen, Scott Compton, Sanne Jensen, Fabian Lenhard, Per Hove Thomsen
OBJECTIVE: This study describes 1-year treatment outcomes from a large sample of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) responders, investigates age as a possible moderator of these treatment outcomes, and evaluates clinical relapse at the 1-year follow-up. METHOD: This study is the planned follow-up to the Nordic Long-term OCD [obsessive-compulsive disorder] Treatment Study (NordLOTS), which included 177 children and adolescents who were rated as treatment responders following CBT for OCD...
November 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096772/enduring-effects-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-pediatric-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-the-nordic-experience
#18
EDITORIAL
Daniel A Geller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091827/examining-the-role-of-sex-differences-in-obsessive-compulsive-symptom-dimensions
#19
Amanda M Raines, Mary E Oglesby, Nicholas P Allan, Brittany M Mathes, Carson A Sutton, Norman B Schmidt
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a notably heterogeneous disorder. As such, there has been increased interest in subtyping OCD into homogeneous entities using biological characteristics such as sex. Whereas there is large consensus in the literature regarding sex differences in the phenotypic expression of OCD, there are numerous disadvantages to how OCD has been previously measured and assessed. The present investigation explored potential sex differences in OCD symptoms using the Dimensional Obsessive Compulsive Scale (DOCS), a redesigned measure that more reliably assesses the four most commonly replicated OCD symptom dimensions...
October 23, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090079/prospective-investigation-of-foxp1-syndrome
#20
Paige M Siper, Silvia De Rubeis, Maria Del Pilar Trelles, Allison Durkin, Daniele Di Marino, François Muratet, Yitzchak Frank, Reymundo Lozano, Evan E Eichler, Morgan Kelly, Jennifer Beighley, Jennifer Gerdts, Arianne S Wallace, Heather C Mefford, Raphael A Bernier, Alexander Kolevzon, Joseph D Buxbaum
BACKGROUND: Haploinsufficiency of the forkhead-box protein P1 (FOXP1) gene leads to a neurodevelopmental disorder termed FOXP1 syndrome. Previous studies in individuals carrying FOXP1 mutations and deletions have described the presence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) traits, intellectual disability, language impairment, and psychiatric features. The goal of the present study was to comprehensively characterize the genetic and clinical spectrum of FOXP1 syndrome. This is the first study to prospectively examine the genotype-phenotype relationship in multiple individuals with FOXP1 syndrome, using a battery of standardized clinical assessments...
2017: Molecular Autism
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