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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038123/lactobacillus-rhamnosus-l34-attenuates-gut-translocation-induced-bacterial-sepsis-in-murine-models-of-leaky-gut
#1
Wimonrat Panpetch, Wiwat Chancharoenthana, Kanthika Bootdee, Sumanee Nilgate, Malcolm Finkelman, Somying Tumwasorn, Asada Leelahavanichkul
Gastrointestinal (GI) bacterial translocation in sepsis is well-known but the role of the probiotics, Lactobacillus spp., is still controversial. We evaluated the therapeutic effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus L34 in a new sepsis model of oral administration of pathogenic bacteria, with GI leakage induced by either an antibiotic cocktail (ATB) and/or dextran sulfate sodium (DSS).GI-leakage with ATB, DSS and DSS+ATB was demonstrated by FITC-dextran translocation to the circulation. Administration of pathogenic bacteria, either Klebsiella pneumoniae or Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, enhanced the translocation...
October 16, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033938/early-life-nutritional-factors-and-mucosal-immunity-in-the-development-of-autoimmune-diabetes
#2
REVIEW
Ling Xiao, Belinda Van't Land, Wouter R P H van de Worp, Bernd Stahl, Gert Folkerts, Johan Garssen
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an immune-mediated disease with a strong genetic basis but might be influenced by non-genetic factors such as microbiome development that "programs" the immune system during early life as well. Factors influencing pathogenesis, including a leaky intestinal mucosal barrier, an aberrant gut microbiota composition, and altered immune responsiveness, offer potential targets for prevention and/or treatment of T1D through nutritional or pharmacologic means. In this review, nutritional approaches during early life in order to protect against T1D development have been discussed...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022091/maternal-high-fat-diet-and-early-life-stress-differentially-modulate-spine-density-and-dendritic-morphology-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-of-juvenile-and-adult-rats
#3
Marion Rincel, Amandine L Lépinay, Yoottana Janthakhin, Gwenaëlle Soudain, Sophie Yvon, Stéphanie Da Silva, Corinne Joffre, Agnès Aubert, Alexandra Séré, Sophie Layé, Vassilia Theodorou, Guillaume Ferreira, Muriel Darnaudéry
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a key area for the regulation of numerous brain functions including stress response and cognitive processes. This brain area is also particularly affected by adversity during early life. Using an animal model in rats, we recently demonstrated that maternal exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) prevents maternal separation (MS)-induced gene expression alterations in the developing PFC and attenuates several long-term deleterious behavioral effects of MS. In the present study, we ask whether maternal HFD could protect mPFC neurons of pups exposed to early life stress by examining dendritic morphology and spine density in juvenile [postnatal day (PND) 21] and adult rats submitted to MS...
October 11, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960346/creb-mediates-alcohol-induced-circadian-disruption-and-intestinal-permeability
#4
Booker T Davis, Robin M Voigt, Maliha Shaikh, Christopher B Forsyth, Ali Keshavarzian
BACKGROUND: Alcoholic Liver Disease (ALD) is commonly associated with intestinal permeability. An unanswered question is why only a subset of heavy alcohol drinkers develop endotoxemia. Recent studies suggest that circadian disruption is the susceptibility factor for alcohol-induced gut leakiness to endotoxins. The circadian protein PER2 is increased after exposure to alcohol and siRNA knockdown of PER2 in vitro blocks alcohol-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction. We have shown that blocking CYP2E1 (i...
September 27, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950280/type-2-diabetes-and-bacteremia
#5
Junko Sato, Akio Kanazawa, Hirotaka Watada
BACKGROUND: A high proportion of type 2 diabetes cases are associated with host genetic and environmental factors. During the past decade, microorganisms that inhabit the gut have emerged as contributors to the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, manipulation of the human gut microbiota will provide essential clues regarding new therapeutic targets for diabetes. SUMMARY: Several studies have established the presence of gut dysbiosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, even though there are some differences among the studies that could be explained by differences in ethnicity, diet, and methodology...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950279/bacterial-translocation-from-the-gut-to-the-distant-organs-an-overview
#6
Ravinder Nagpal, Hariom Yadav
BACKGROUND: The intestinal epithelial layer is the chief barricade between the luminal contents and the host. A healthy homeostatic intestinal barrier is pivotal for maintaining gastrointestinal health, which impacts the overall health as it safeguards the gut-blood axis and checks gut microbes including potential pathogens from entering into the circulation. SUMMARY: Under healthy milieus, the intestinal barrier is generally very dynamic and effective, with luminal side being heavily infested with a wide variety of gut microbes while the basolateral side remains virtually sterile...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946778/the-role-of-mucoprotectants-in-the-management-of-gastrointestinal-disorders
#7
Helene Eutamene, Catherine Beaufrand, Cherryl Harkat, Vassilia Theodorou
The intestinal barrier controls the absorption of nutrients and water whilst helping to prevent the entry of toxins and pathogenic micro-organisms from the lumen into the tissues. Deficiencies in the barrier are associated with various gastrointestinal and extra digestive disorders. Areas covered: This review provides an overview of the relationship between increased intestinal permeability and disease, and considers the role of mucosal protectants (mucoprotectants) in restoring normal intestinal barrier function, with a particular focus on diarrheal disorders...
September 26, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941769/a-neuro-immune-neuro-oxidative-and-neuro-nitrosative-model-of-prenatal-and-postpartum-depression
#8
REVIEW
Chutima Roomruangwong, George Anderson, Michael Berk, Drozdstoy Stoyanov, André F Carvalho, Michael Maes
A large body of evidence indicates that major affective disorders are accompanied by activated neuro-immune, neuro-oxidative and neuro-nitrosative stress (IO&NS) pathways. Postpartum depression is predicted by end of term prenatal depressive symptoms whilst a lifetime history of mood disorders appears to increase the risk for both prenatal and postpartum depression. This review provides a critical appraisal of available evidence linking IO&NS pathways to prenatal and postpartum depression. The electronic databases Google Scholar, PubMed and Scopus were sources for this narrative review focusing on keywords, including perinatal depression, (auto)immune, inflammation, oxidative, nitric oxide, nitrosative, tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs), kynurenine, leaky gut and microbiome...
September 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936406/gut-microbiome-based-therapeutics-in-liver-cirrhosis-basic-consideration-for-the-next-step
#9
REVIEW
Hiroshi Fukui
Infections account for significant morbidity and mortality in liver cirrhosis and most are related to the gut microbiome. Fecal dysbiosis, characterized by an overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria and a decrease in autochthonous non-pathogenic bacteria, becomes prominent with the progression of liver cirrhosis. In cirrhotic patients, disruption of the intestinal barrier causes intestinal hyperpermeability (i.e. leaky gut), which is closely related to gut dysmotility, dysbiosis and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and may induce pathological bacterial translocation...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922251/shank3-regulates-intestinal-barrier-function-through-modulating-zo-1-expression-through-the-pkc%C3%AE%C2%B5-dependent-pathway
#10
Shu-Chen Wei, Hsin-Fang Yang-Yen, Po-Nien Tsao, Meng-Tzu Weng, Chien-Chih Tung, Linda C H Yu, Liang-Chuan Lai, Jen-Hao Hsiao, Eric Y Chuang, Chia-Tung Shun, Yen-Hsuan Ni, Ramnik J Xavier, Daniel K Podolsky, Jeffery J Y Yen, Jau-Min Wong
BACKGROUND: The integrity of the gut barrier in patients with inflammatory bowel disease is known to be impaired but the exact mechanisms remain mostly unknown. SHANK3 mutations are associated with autism, and patients with autism are known to have higher proportions of inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we explore the role of SHANK3 in inflammatory bowel disease, both in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: Dextran sulfate sodium colitis was induced in SHANK3 knockout mice...
August 23, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915953/syntrophic-imbalance-and-the-etiology-of-bacterial-endoparasitism-diseases
#11
James F White
This article outlines the proposed 'syntrophic imbalance hypothesis' for etiology of bacterial endoparasitism diseases. This hypothesis involves microbes (archaea and bacteria) that exist in human body biofilms in syntrophic associations, where bacteria ferment nutrients to produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that are used by methanogenic archaeons to produce methane. Overgrowth of archaea on human tissues (e.g., in association with intestines, teeth or lungs) results in excessive removal of SCFAs from the biofilms and this triggers bacteria in the free-living biofilm state to convert to the endoparasitic state and become intracellular in host cells where they incite inflammation and disease...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906292/shank3-regulates-intestinal-barrier-function-through-modulating-zo-1-expression-through-the-pkc%C3%AE%C2%B5-dependent-pathway
#12
Shu-Chen Wei, Hsin-Fang Yang-Yen, Po-Nien Tsao, Meng-Tzu Weng, Chien-Chih Tung, Linda C H Yu, Liang-Chuan Lai, Jen-Hao Hsiao, Eric Y Chuang, Chia-Tung Shun, Yen-Hsuan Ni, Ramnik J Xavier, Daniel K Podolsky, Jeffery J Y Yen, Jau-Min Wong
BACKGROUND: The integrity of the gut barrier in patients with inflammatory bowel disease is known to be impaired but the exact mechanisms remain mostly unknown. SHANK3 mutations are associated with autism, and patients with autism are known to have higher proportions of inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we explore the role of SHANK3 in inflammatory bowel disease, both in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: Dextran sulfate sodium colitis was induced in SHANK3 knockout mice...
October 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868181/oral-spore-based-probiotic-supplementation-was-associated-with-reduced-incidence-of-post-prandial-dietary-endotoxin-triglycerides-and-disease-risk-biomarkers
#13
Brian K McFarlin, Andrea L Henning, Erin M Bowman, Melody A Gary, Kimberly M Carbajal
AIM: To determine if 30-d of oral spore-based probiotic supplementation could reduce dietary endotoxemia. METHODS: Apparently healthy men and women (n = 75) were screened for post-prandial dietary endotoxemia. Subjects whose serum endotoxin concentration increased by at least 5-fold from pre-meal levels at 5-h post-prandial were considered "responders" and were randomized to receive either placebo (rice flour) or a commercial spore-based probiotic supplement [Bacillus indicus (HU36), Bacillus subtilis (HU58), Bacillus coagulans, and Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus clausii] for 30-d...
August 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857085/enteric-dysbiosis-linked-gut-barrier-disruption-triggers-early-renal-injury-induced-by-chronic-high-salt-feeding-in-mice
#14
Jingjuan Hu, Haihua Luo, Jieyan Wang, Wenli Tang, Junqi Lu, Shan Wu, Zhi Xiong, Guizhi Yang, Zhenguo Chen, Tian Lan, Hongwei Zhou, Jing Nie, Yong Jiang, Peng Chen
Chronic high-salt diet-associated renal injury is a key risk factor for the development of hypertension. However, the mechanism by which salt triggers kidney damage is poorly understood. Our study investigated how high salt (HS) intake triggers early renal injury by considering the 'gut-kidney axis'. We fed mice 2% NaCl in drinking water continuously for 8 weeks to induce early renal injury. We found that the 'quantitative' and 'qualitative' levels of the intestinal microflora were significantly altered after chronic HS feeding, which indicated the occurrence of enteric dysbiosis...
August 25, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838985/targeting-palmitoyl-acyltransferase-zdhhc21-improves-gut-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-resulting-from-burn-induced-systemic-inflammation
#15
Ricci J Haines, Chunyan Wang, Clement Gy Yang, Rebecca A Eitnier, Fang Wang, Mack H Wu
Clinical studies in burn patients demonstrate a close association between leaky guts and increased incidence or severity of sepsis and other complications. Severe thermal injury triggers intestinal inflammation that contributes to intestinal epithelial hyperpermeability, which exacerbates systemic response leading to multiple organ failure and sepsis. In this study, we identified a significant function of a particular palmitoyl acyltransferase (PAT), ZDHHC21, in mediating signaling events required for gut hyperpermeability induced by inflammation...
August 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783170/loss-of-claudin-3-expression-induces-il6-gp130-stat3-signaling-to-promote-colon-cancer-malignancy-by-hyperactivating-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#16
R Ahmad, B Kumar, Z Chen, X Chen, D Müller, S M Lele, M K Washington, S K Batra, P Dhawan, A B Singh
The hyperactivated Wnt/β-catenin signaling acts as a switch to induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition and promote colorectal cancer. However, due to its essential role in gut homeostasis, therapeutic targeting of this pathway has proven challenging. Additionally, IL-6/Stat-3 signaling, activated by microbial translocation through the dysregulated mucosal barrier in colon adenomas, facilitates the adenoma to adenocarcinomas transition. However, inter-dependence between these signaling pathways and key mucosal barrier components in regulating colon tumorigenesis and cancer progression remains unclear...
August 7, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766554/campylobacter-jejuni-impairs-sodium-transport-and-epithelial-barrier-function-via-cytokine-release-in-human-colon
#17
R Bücker, S M Krug, V Moos, C Bojarski, M R Schweiger, M Kerick, A Fromm, S Janßen, M Fromm, N A Hering, B Siegmund, T Schneider, C Barmeyer, J D Schulzke
Campylobacter jejuni is the most prevalent cause of foodborne bacterial enteritis worldwide. Patients present with diarrhea and immune responses lead to complications like arthritis and irritable bowel syndrome. Although studies exist in animal and cell models, we aimed at a functional and structural characterization of intestinal dysfunction and the involved regulatory mechanisms in human colon. First, in patients' colonic biopsies, sodium malabsorption was identified as an important diarrheal mechanism resulting from hampered epithelial ion transport via impaired epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) β- and γ-subunit...
August 2, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725075/eosinophilic-esophagitis-leaky-gullet-or-leaky-gut
#18
COMMENT
David A Katzka
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a food allergen disorder driven by antigen recognition in the gastrointestinal tract. The study by Warners et al., strongly supports the esophageal epithelium as the area of disturbed permeability and primary target for initiation of the TH2-induced allergic pathway. In contrast, small bowel assessment reveals a lack of clear change in aspects of permeability compared to controls. It is not clear, however, if the available testing used for this purpose accurately assesses the mechanisms by which antigen recognition may occur in this organ...
July 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697806/control-of-lupus-nephritis-by-changes-of-gut-microbiota
#19
Qinghui Mu, Husen Zhang, Xiaofeng Liao, Kaisen Lin, Hualan Liu, Michael R Edwards, S Ansar Ahmed, Ruoxi Yuan, Liwu Li, Thomas E Cecere, David B Branson, Jay L Kirby, Poorna Goswami, Caroline M Leeth, Kaitlin A Read, Kenneth J Oestreich, Miranda D Vieson, Christopher M Reilly, Xin M Luo
BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus, characterized by persistent inflammation, is a complex autoimmune disorder with no known cure. Immunosuppressants used in treatment put patients at a higher risk of infections. New knowledge of disease modulators, such as symbiotic bacteria, can enable fine-tuning of parts of the immune system, rather than suppressing it altogether. RESULTS: Dysbiosis of gut microbiota promotes autoimmune disorders that damage extraintestinal organs...
July 11, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690233/-progress-in-studies-on-tlr4-signaling-pathway-and-major-depressive-disorder
#20
Lu Wang, Jindong Chen
TLR4 signaling pathway plays an important role in regulation of the innate immune response and the adaptive immune response. Studies have shown that TLR4 signaling pathway is closely associated with the immune inflammatory process in major depressive disorder, but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. The pathophysiological process of depression involves multiple molecule mechanisms and signal pathways. The change of TLR4 signaling pathways exists in the peripheral circulation system or the central nervous system of depressive patients and depression animal models...
June 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
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