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leaky gut

Maurizio Koch
Microbes are mostly important for the digestion of food, the absorption of some micronutrients, and the production of vitamins. The microbiota stimulates lymphoid structures in the gastrointestinal mucosa and decrease pathogens by competing for nutrients and space. Bacterial translocation is defined as the escape of gut bacteria and their products through the intestinal mucosa to the outside of the intestine as portovenous or systemic circulation. This is induced by a leaky gut barrier. There is evidence for a role of intestinal permeability in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Anastasiya Slyepchenko, Michael Maes, Rodrigo Machado-Veira, George Anderson, Marco Solmi, Yolanda Sanz, Michael Berk, Cristiano A Köhler, André F Carvalho
The comorbid prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) with obesity and type II diabetes mellitus reflects the existence of a subset of individuals with a complex common pathophysiology and overlapping risk factors. Such comorbid disease presentations imply a number of difficulties, including: decreased treatment responsivity and adherence; altered glycemic control and increased risk of wider medical complications. A number of factors link MDD to metabolic-associated disorders, including: higher rates of shared risk factors such as poor diet and physical inactivity and biological elements including increased inflammation; insulin resistance; oxidative and nitrosative stress; and mitochondrial dysfunction...
September 22, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Dinesh Kumar, Gaurav Pandey, Deepak Bansal, Atul Rawat, Umesh Kumar, Durgesh Dubey, Anupam Guleria, Vivek Anand Saraswat
The article presents a simplified NMR based protocol for urinary profiling of lactulose/mannitol ratio (LMR) and demonstrates here its utility to assess increased intestinal permeability (IP) in patients with acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF). ACLF is a serious clinical complication associated with chronic liver disease (cirrhosis). The major risk factor in its development is increased IP ("leaky gut") which has been linked to disease progression and to infectious complications. However, IP has seldom been investigated in patients with ACLF, even though patients frequently report gastrointestinal disorders and associated complications...
September 14, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
Bárbara S Rocha, Mariana G Correia, Rita C Fernandes, João S Gonçalves, João Laranjinha
The clinical implications of the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway have been extensively studied in recent years. However, the physiological impact of bioactive nitrogen oxides produced from dietary nitrate has remained largely elusive. Here, we report a hitherto unrecognized nitrite-dependent nitrating pathway that targets tight junction proteins in the stomach. Inorganic nitrate, nitrite or saliva obtained after the consumption of lettuce were administered by oral gavage to Wistar rats. The enterosalivary circulation of nitrate was allowed to occur for 4 h after which the animals were euthanized and the stomach collected...
October 11, 2016: Free Radical Research
George Anderson, M Seo, M Berk, A F Carvalho, M Maes
BACKGROUND: Increased gut permeability (leaky gut) and alterations in gut microbiota are now widely accepted as relevant to the etiology, course and treatment of many neuropsychiatric disorders, including Parkinson disease (PD). Although a wide array of data on the biological underpinnings of PD has not yet been linked to such gut-associated changes, increased gut permeability and dysregulated microbiota alter many pathways germane to PD. METHODS: In this article we review and integrate these wider biological changes in PD, including increased oxidative and nitrosative stress, immune-inflammatory processes, tryptophan catabolites and alterations in serotoninergic and melatoninergic pathways...
September 6, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Cristiano A Köhler, Michael Maes, Anastasiya Slyepchenko, Michael Berk, Marco Solmi, Krista L Lanctôt, André F Carvalho
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is a progressive disorder manifested by gradual memory loss and subsequent impairment in mental and behavioral functions. Though the primary risk factor for AD is advancing age, other factors such as diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, obesity, vascular factors and depression play a role in its pathogenesis. The human gastrointestinal tract has a diverse commensal microbial population, which has bidirectional interactions with the human host that are symbiotic in health, and in addition to nutrition, digestion, plays major roles in inflammation and immunity...
September 6, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Mikhail Kogan, Carlos Cuellar Castillo, Melissa S Barber
INTRODUCTION: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) can be comorbidities that are difficult to treat. In this patient, an evidence-informed treatment pathway guided by laboratory biomarkers was used to address both conditions. CASE PRESENTATION: A 69-y-old female patient presented with a 50-y history of sinusitis that was worse in the winter, postnasal drip, frequent sore throats, gastrointestinal complaints, headaches, and yeast infections...
June 2016: Integrative Medicine
Stephen M Vindigni, Timothy L Zisman, David L Suskind, Christopher J Damman
We discuss the tripartite pathophysiological circuit of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), involving the intestinal microbiota, barrier function, and immune system. Dysfunction in each of these physiological components (dysbiosis, leaky gut, and inflammation) contributes in a mutually interdependent manner to IBD onset and exacerbation. Genetic and environmental risk factors lead to disruption of gut homeostasis: genetic risks predominantly affect the immune system, environmental risks predominantly affect the microbiota, and both affect barrier function...
July 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
George Tetz, Victor Tetz
Increased intestinal permeability and translocation of gut microbiota from the intestinal lumen to the systemic circulation predispose patients to various diseases and may be one of the main triggers thereof. The role of microbiota in increased intestinal permeability is under intensive investigation. Here, we studied alterations in the host and increased intestinal permeability as a direct effect of treatment with a bacteriophage cocktail. After 10 days of challenge, the rats showed weight loss, messy hair, and decreased activity...
2016: Gut Pathogens
Victor Y Liew, Marianne J Chapman, Nam Q Nguyen, Caroline E Cousins, Mark P Plummer, Lee-Anne S Chapple, Yasmine Ali Abdelhamid, Nicholas D Manton, Adam Swalling, Peter Sutton-Smith, Alastair D Burt, Adam M Deane
OBJECTIVE: Disturbed intestinal barrier function due to 'leaky' tight junctions may cause secondary sepsis via paracellular translocation across the gut wall. Our objective was to describe the effects of critical illness on duodenal morphology and ultrastructure. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective observational study of 12 mechanically ventilated critically ill patients in an intensive care unit and 15 control participants in an outpatient endoscopy suite...
June 2016: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
Reinaldo B Oriá, Laura E Murray-Kolb, Rebecca J Scharf, Laura L Pendergast, Dennis R Lang, Glynis L Kolling, Richard L Guerrant
The intestinal microbiota undergoes active remodeling in the first 6 to 18 months of life, during which time the characteristics of the adult microbiota are developed. This process is strongly influenced by the early diet and enteric pathogens. Enteric infections and malnutrition early in life may favor microbiota dysbiosis and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, resulting in intestinal barrier dysfunction and translocation of intestinal bacterial products, ultimately leading to low-grade, chronic, subclinical systemic inflammation...
June 2016: Nutrition Reviews
He Tian, Nan Zheng, Weiyu Wang, Jianbo Cheng, Songli Li, Yangdong Zhang, Jiaqi Wang
Heat stress (HS) damages the global dairy industry by reducing milk yields and quality, harming health, and damaging the reproduction of dairy cows, causing huge economic losses each year. However, an understanding of the physiological mechanism of HS lactating dairy cows remains elusive. Here, a metabolomics study using LC-MS and (1)H NMR spectroscopy was performed to analyze the metabolomic differences in the milk between HS-free and HS dairy cows, and discover diagnostic biomarkers and changes in the metabolic pathway...
2016: Scientific Reports
Hai Lun Liu, Luca Garzoni, Christophe Herry, Lucien Daniel Durosier, Mingju Cao, Patrick Burns, Gilles Fecteau, André Desrochers, Natalie Patey, Andrew J E Seely, Christophe Faure, Martin G Frasch
OBJECTIVE: Necrotizing enterocolitis of the neonate is an acute inflammatory intestinal disease that can cause necrosis and sepsis. Chorioamnionitis is a risk factor of necrotizing enterocolitis. The gut represents the biggest vagus-innervated organ. Vagal activity can be measured via fetal heart rate variability. We hypothesized that fetal heart rate variability can detect fetuses with incipient gut inflammation. DESIGN: Prospective animal study. SETTING: University research laboratory...
April 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Rafail I Kushak, Timothy M Buie, Katherine F Murray, David S Newburg, Ceng Chen, Eirini Nestoridi, Harland S Winter
OBJECTIVE: Alterations in intestinal function, often characterized as a "leaky gut," have been attributed to children who are on the autism spectrum. Disaccharidase activity, intestinal inflammation, and permeability were analyzed in 61 children with autism and 50 nonautistic individuals with gastrointestinal symptoms. METHODS: All patients had duodenal biopsies assayed for lactase, sucrase, maltase, and palatinase activity. Intestinal permeability was evaluated by rhamnose/lactulose test and measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
May 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Rosario Galarza-Seeber, Juan D Latorre, Lisa R Bielke, Vivek A Kuttappan, Amanda D Wolfenden, Xochitl Hernandez-Velasco, Ruben Merino-Guzman, Jose L Vicente, Annie Donoghue, David Cross, Billy M Hargis, Guillermo Tellez
Previous studies conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by diet ingredients or feed restriction, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Two experiments were conducted in broilers to evaluate the effect of three concentrations of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1; 2, 1.5, or 1 ppm) on gastrointestinal leakage and liver bacterial translocation (BT). In experiment 1, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers were allocated in two groups, each group had six replicates of 20 chickens (n = 120/group): Control feed or feed + 2 ppm AFB1...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
B García Bueno, J R Caso, J L M Madrigal, J C Leza
The innate immunity is a stereotyped first line of defense against pathogens and unspecified damage signals. One of main actors of innate immunity are the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and one of the better characterized members of this family is TLR-4, that it is mainly activated by Gram-negative bacteria lipopolysaccharide. In brain, TLR-4 organizes innate immune responses against infections or cellular damage, but also possesses other physiological functions. In the last years, some evidences suggest a role of TLR-4 in stress and stress-related neuropsychiatric diseases...
May 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Marco Arrese, Daniel Cabrera, Alexis M Kalergis, Ariel E Feldstein
Inflammation and hepatocyte injury and death are the hallmarks of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the progressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is a currently burgeoning public health problem. Innate immune activation is a key factor in triggering and amplifying hepatic inflammation in NAFLD/NASH. Thus, identification of the underlying mechanisms by which immune cells in the liver recognize cell damage signals or the presence of pathogens or pathogen-derived factors that activate them is relevant from a therapeutic perspective...
May 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Eamonn M M Quigley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article evaluates the current status of the gut barrier in gastrointestinal disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: The gut barrier is a complex, multicomponent, interactive, and bidirectional entity that includes, but is not restricted to, the epithelial cell layer. Intestinal permeability, the phenomenon most readily and commonly studied, reflects just one (albeit an important one) function of the barrier that is intimately related to and interacts with luminal contents, including the microbiota...
March 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Michael Maes, Eugene Bosmans, Marta Kubera
BACKGROUND: There is now evidence that specific subgroups of patients with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) suffer from a neuro-psychiatric-immune disorder. This study was carried out to delineate the expression of the activation markers CD38 and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DR on CD4+ and CD8+ peripheral blood lymphocytes in ME/CFS. METHODS: Proportions and absolute numbers of peripheral lymphocytes expressing CD3+, CD19+, CD4+, CD8+, CD38+ and HLA-DR+ were measured in ME/CFS (n=139), chronic fatigue (CF, n=65) and normal controls (n=40)...
2015: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Andrea Michielan, Renata D'Incà
The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is multifactorial with data suggesting the role of a disturbed interaction between the gut and the intestinal microbiota. A defective mucosal barrier may result in increased intestinal permeability which promotes the exposition to luminal content and triggers an immunological response that promotes intestinal inflammation. IBD patients display several defects in the many specialized components of mucosal barrier, from the mucus layer composition to the adhesion molecules that regulate paracellular permeability...
2015: Mediators of Inflammation
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