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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600633/igm-mediated-autoimmune-responses-to-oxidative-specific-epitopes-but-not-nitrosylated-adducts-are-significantly-decreased-in-pregnancy-association-with-bacterial-translocation-perinatal-and-lifetime-major-depression-and-the-tryptophan-catabolite-trycat-pathway
#1
Chutima Roomruangwong, Buranee Kanchanatawan, Sunee Sirivichayakul, George Anderson, André F Carvalho, Sebastien Duleu, Michel Geffard, Michael Maes
Immunoglubulin (Ig)M responses directed to oxidative specific epitopes (OSEs) and nitric oxide (NO)-adducts are significantly associated with major depression and physio-somatic symptoms. End of term serum IgM responses to OSEs and NO-adducts were assayed in pregnant women with (n = 24) and without prenatal depression (n = 25) as well as in 24 non-pregnant women. Associations of IgM/IgA responses to Gram-negative gut commensal bacteria (leaky gut index) and IgA/IgM responses to tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs) were analyzed...
June 9, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588585/leaky-gut-as-a-danger-signal-for-autoimmune-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Qinghui Mu, Jay Kirby, Christopher M Reilly, Xin M Luo
The intestinal epithelial lining, together with factors secreted from it, forms a barrier that separates the host from the environment. In pathologic conditions, the permeability of the epithelial lining may be compromised allowing the passage of toxins, antigens, and bacteria in the lumen to enter the blood stream creating a "leaky gut." In individuals with a genetic predisposition, a leaky gut may allow environmental factors to enter the body and trigger the initiation and development of autoimmune disease...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571979/impact-of-high-fat-diet-on-the-intestinal-microbiota-and-small-intestinal-physiology-before-and-after-the-onset-of-obesity
#3
REVIEW
João Ricardo Araújo, Julie Tomas, Christiane Brenner, Philippe J Sansonetti
The modulation of the intestinal microbiota by high-fat diet (HFD) has a major impact on both immunological and metabolic functions of the host. Taking this into consideration, the aim of this contribution is to review the impact of HFD on microbiota profile and small intestinal physiology before and after the onset of obesity and its metabolic complications. Evidence from animal studies suggest that before the onset of obesity and its metabolic complications, HFD induces intestinal dysbiosis - encompassing changes in composition balance and massive redistribution with bacteria occupying intervillous spaces and crypts - associated with early physiopathological changes, predominantly in the ileum, such as low-grade inflammation, decreased antimicrobial peptides expression, impaired mucus production, secretion and layer's thickness, and decreased expression of tight junction proteins...
May 29, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550049/recovery-of-ethanol-induced-akkermansia-muciniphila-depletion-ameliorates-alcoholic-liver-disease
#4
Christoph Grander, Timon E Adolph, Verena Wieser, Patrick Lowe, Laura Wrzosek, Benedek Gyongyosi, Doyle V Ward, Felix Grabherr, Romana R Gerner, Alexandra Pfister, Barbara Enrich, Dragos Ciocan, Sophie Macheiner, Lisa Mayr, Matthias Drach, Patrizia Moser, Alexander R Moschen, Gabriel Perlemuter, Gyongyi Szabo, Anne Marie Cassard, Herbert Tilg
OBJECTIVE: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a global health problem with limited therapeutic options. Intestinal barrier integrity and the microbiota modulate susceptibility to ALD. Akkermansia muciniphila, a Gram-negative intestinal commensal, promotes barrier function partly by enhancing mucus production. The aim of this study was to investigate microbial alterations in ALD and to define the impact of A. muciniphila administration on the course of ALD. DESIGN: The intestinal microbiota was analysed in an unbiased approach by 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing in a Lieber-DeCarli ALD mouse model, and faecal A...
May 26, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498296/interleukin-22-prevents-microbial-dysbiosis-and-promotes-intestinal-barrier-regeneration-following-acute-injury
#5
Adam M Hammer, Niya L Morris, Abigail R Cannon, Omair M Khan, Robin C Gagnon, Nellie V Movtchan, Ilse van Langeveld, Xiaoling Li, Bin Gao, Mashkoor A Choudhry
Intestine barrier disruption and bacterial translocation can contribute to sepsis and multiple organ failure- leading causes of mortality in burn-injured patients. Additionally, findings suggest ethanol (alcohol) intoxication at the time of injury worsens symptoms associated with burn injury. We have previously shown that interleukin-22 (IL-22) protects from intestinal leakiness and prevents overgrowth of Gram-negative bacteria following ethanol and burn injury, but how IL-22 mediates these effects has not been established...
May 11, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455694/increased-root-canal-endotoxin-levels-are-associated-with-chronic-apical-periodontitis-increased-oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-major-depression-severity-of-depression-and-a-lowered-quality-of-life
#6
Cinthya Gomes, Frederico Canato Martinho, Décio Sabbatini Barbosa, Leonardo Santos Antunes, Helvécio Cardoso Corrêa Póvoa, Thiago Hissnauer Leal Baltus, Nayara Rampazzo Morelli, Heber Odebrecht Vargas, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas Nunes, George Anderson, Michael Maes
Evidence indicates that major depression is accompanied by increased translocation of gut commensal Gram-negative bacteria (leaky gut) and consequent activation of oxidative and nitrosative (O&NS) pathways. This present study examined the associations among chronic apical periodontitis (CAP), root canal endotoxin levels (lipopolysaccharides, LPS), O&NS pathways, depressive symptoms, and quality of life. Measurements included advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), lipid peroxides (LOOH), -sulfhydryl (SH) groups, total radical trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP), and paraoxonase (PON)1 activity in participants with CAP, with and without depression, as well as healthy controls (no depression, no CAP)...
April 28, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445156/dietary-capsaicin-and-antibiotics-act-synergistically-to-reduce-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-induced-by-high-fat-diet-in-mice
#7
Jingjuan Hu, Haihua Luo, Yong Jiang, Peng Chen
The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is increasing rapidly worldwide. However, effective strategies for combating high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity, fatty liver and metabolic disorder are still limited, and outcomes remain poor. In the present study, we evaluated the combined actions of dietary capsaicin and antibiotics on HFD-induced physiological abnormalities in mice. C57BL/6 male mice were fed with HFD (60% calories from fat) for 17 weeks, and the resultant pathophysiological effects were examined...
June 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438472/shared-metabolic-and-immune-inflammatory-oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-pathways-in-the-metabolic-syndrome-and-mood-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Luiz Gustavo Piccoli de Melo, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas Nunes, George Anderson, Heber Odebrecht Vargas, Décio Sabbattini Barbosa, Piotr Galecki, André F Carvalho, Michael Maes
This review examines the shared immune-inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress (IO&NS) and metabolic pathways underpinning metabolic syndrome (MetS), bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Shared pathways in both MetS and mood disorders are low grade inflammation, including increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins, increased lipid peroxidation with formation of malondialdehyde and oxidized low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), hypernitrosylation, lowered levels of antioxidants, most importantly zinc and paraoxonase (PON1), increased bacterial translocation (leaky gut), increased atherogenic index of plasma and Castelli risk indices; and reduced levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-c) cholesterol...
April 22, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438331/-the-intestinal-microbiota-a-new-player-in-depression
#9
M Meyrel, L Varin, B Detaint, F Mouaffak
Depression is the leading cause of disability in the world according to the World Health Organization. The effectiveness of the available antidepressant therapies is limited. Data from the literature suggest that some subtypes of depression may be associated with chronic low grade inflammation. The uncovering of the role of intestinal microbiota in the development of the immune system and its bidirectional communication with the brain have led to growing interest on reciprocal interactions between inflammation, microbiota and depression...
April 21, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410406/lubiprostone-improves-intestinal-permeability-in-humans-a-novel-therapy-for-the-leaky-gut-a-prospective-randomized-pilot-study-in-healthy-volunteers
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Takayuki Kato, Yasushi Honda, Yusuke Kurita, Akito Iwasaki, Takamitsu Sato, Takaomi Kessoku, Shiori Uchiyama, Yuji Ogawa, Hidenori Ohkubo, Takuma Higurashi, Takeharu Yamanaka, Haruki Usuda, Koichiro Wada, Atsushi Nakajima
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The barrier function of the small intestinal mucosa prevents the introduction of undesired pathogens into the body. Breakdown of this barrier function increases intestinal permeability. This has been proposed to induce not only gastrointestinal diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome, but also various other diseases, including allergies, diabetes mellitus, liver diseases, and collagen diseases, which are associated with this so called "leaky gut syndrome...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403801/iga-igm-responses-to-gram-negative-bacteria-are-not-associated-with-perinatal-depression-but-with-physio-somatic-symptoms-and-activation-of-the-tryptophan-catabolite-pathway-at-the-end-of-term-and-postnatal-anxiety
#11
Chutima Roomruangwong, Buranee Kanchanatawan, Sunee Sirivichayakul, George Anderson, André F Carvalho, Sebastien Duleu, Michel Geffard, Michael Maes
Evidence has implicated the translocation of commensal Gram-negative bacteria (Gram-B) due to leaky gut in the pathophysiology of depression and physio-somatic symptoms (e.g. fatigue, pain, irritable bowel syndrome, malaise, etc.). In addition, the leaky gut may contribute to immune-inflammatory activation and oxidative stress. This study investigated whether bacterial translocation is associated with perinatal depression and anxiety scores and with prenatal physio-somatic symptoms and immune-inflammatory biomarkers, including the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway...
April 7, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342610/intentionally-induced-intestinal-barrier-dysfunction-causes-inflammation-affects-metabolism-and-reduces-productivity-in-lactating-holstein-cows
#12
S K Kvidera, M J Dickson, M Abuajamieh, D B Snider, M V Sanz Fernandez, J S Johnson, A F Keating, P J Gorden, H B Green, K M Schoenberg, L H Baumgard
Study objectives were to evaluate the effects of intentionally reduced intestinal barrier function on productivity, metabolism, and inflammatory indices in otherwise healthy dairy cows. Fourteen lactating Holstein cows (parity 2.6 ± 0.3; 117 ± 18 d in milk) were enrolled in 2 experimental periods. Period 1 (5 d) served as the baseline for period 2 (7 d), during which cows received 1 of 2 i.v. treatments twice per day: sterile saline or a gamma-secretase inhibitor (GSI; 1.5 mg/kg of body weight). Gamma-secretase inhibitors reduce intestinal barrier function by inhibiting crypt cell differentiation into absorptive enterocytes...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328972/altered-gut-microbiome-in-a-mouse-model-of-gulf-war-illness-causes-neuroinflammation-and-intestinal-injury-via-leaky-gut-and-tlr4-activation
#13
Firas Alhasson, Suvarthi Das, Ratanesh Seth, Diptadip Dattaroy, Varun Chandrashekaran, Caitlin N Ryan, Luisa S Chan, Traci Testerman, James Burch, Lorne J Hofseth, Ronnie Horner, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash Nagarkatti, Stephen M Lasley, Saurabh Chatterjee
Many of the symptoms of Gulf War Illness (GWI) that include neurological abnormalities, neuroinflammation, chronic fatigue and gastrointestinal disturbances have been traced to Gulf War chemical exposure. Though the association and subsequent evidences are strong, the mechanisms that connect exposure to intestinal and neurological abnormalities remain unclear. Using an established rodent model of Gulf War Illness, we show that chemical exposure caused significant dysbiosis in the gut that included increased abundance of phylum Firmicutes and Tenericutes, and decreased abundance of Bacteroidetes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280004/connexin-purinergic-signaling-in-enteric-glia-mediates-the-prolonged-effect-of-morphine-on-constipation
#14
Sukhada Bhave, Aravind Gade, Minho Kang, Kurt F Hauser, William L Dewey, Hamid I Akbarali
Morphine is one of the most widely used drugs for the treatment of pain. However, side effects, including persistent constipation and antinociceptive tolerance, limit its clinical efficacy. Prolonged morphine treatment results in a "leaky" gut, predisposing to colonic inflammation that is facilitated by microbial dysbiosis and associated bacterial translocation. In this study, we examined the role of enteric glia in mediating this secondary inflammatory response to prolonged treatment with morphine. We found that purinergic P2X receptor activity was significantly enhanced in enteric glia that were isolated from mice with long-term morphine treatment (in vivo) but not upon direct exposure of glia to morphine (in vitro)...
March 9, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267403/antibiotics-promote-the-sampling-of-luminal-antigens-and-bacteria-via-colonic-goblet-cell-associated-antigen-passages
#15
Kathryn A Knoop, Jenny K Gustafsson, Keely G McDonald, Devesha H Kulkarni, Rachel Kassel, Rodney D Newberry
Bacterial translocation is defined as the passage of live bacteria from the gut lumen to distant sites. Gut commensal bacteria translocation has been attributed to 'leakiness', or 'barrier breach' of the intestinal epithelium, allowing live bacteria to cross an inappropriately permeable barrier and disseminate to distant sites. Alternatively, studies suggest dendritic cells directly capture luminal commensal bacteria and transport them to distant sites in the steady-state by extending dendrites between epithelial cells into the lumen...
March 7, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208612/enteric-pathogens-and-their-toxin-induced-disruption-of-the-intestinal-barrier-through-alteration-of-tight-junctions-in-chickens
#16
REVIEW
Wageha A Awad, Claudia Hess, Michael Hess
Maintaining a healthy gut environment is a prerequisite for sustainable animal production. The gut plays a key role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients and constitutes an initial organ exposed to external factors influencing bird's health. The intestinal epithelial barrier serves as the first line of defense between the host and the luminal environment. It consists of a continuous monolayer of intestinal epithelial cells connected by intercellular junctional complexes which shrink the space between adjacent cells...
February 10, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144744/food-matters-how-the-microbiome-and-gut-brain-interaction-might-impact-the-development-and-course-of-anorexia-nervosa
#17
REVIEW
Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann, Jochen Seitz, John Baines
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is one of the most common chronic illnesses in female adolescents and exhibits the highest mortality risk of all psychiatric disorders. Evidence for the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic or psychopharmacological interventions is weak. Mounting data indicate that the gut microbiome interacts with the central nervous system and the immune system by neuroendocrine, neurotransmitter, neurotrophic and neuroinflammatory afferent and efferent pathways. There is growing evidence that the gut microbiota influences weight regulation and psychopathology, such as anxiety and depression...
January 31, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120842/gut-permeability-and-mucosal-inflammation-bad-good-or-context-dependent
#18
REVIEW
R Ahmad, M F Sorrell, S K Batra, P Dhawan, A B Singh
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a multifactorial disease. A breach in the mucosal barrier, otherwise known as "leaky gut," is alleged to promote mucosal inflammation by intensifying immune activation. However, interaction between the luminal antigen and mucosal immune system is necessary to maintain mucosal homeostasis. Furthermore, manipulations leading to deregulated gut permeability have resulted in susceptibility in mice to colitis as well as to creating adaptive immunity. These findings implicate a complex but dynamic association between mucosal permeability and immune homeostasis; however, they also emphasize that compromised gut permeability alone may not be sufficient to induce colitis...
January 25, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049662/gut-permeability-is-related-to-body-weight-fatty-liver-disease-and-insulin-resistance-in-obese-individuals-undergoing-weight-reduction
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Antje Damms-Machado, Sandrine Louis, Anna Schnitzer, Valentina Volynets, Andreas Rings, Maryam Basrai, Stephan C Bischoff
BACKGROUND: Obesity and associated metabolic disorders are related to impairments of the intestinal barrier. OBJECTIVE: We examined lactulose:mannitol (Lac:Man) permeability in obese individuals with and without liver steatosis undergoing a weight-reduction program to test whether an effective weight-loss program improves gut barrier function and whether obese patients with or without liver steatosis differ in this function. DESIGN: Twenty-seven adult, nondiabetic individuals [mean ± SD body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 43...
January 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045919/alterations-in-gut-microbiome-composition-and-barrier-function-are-associated-with-reproductive-and-metabolic-defects-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-pcos-a-pilot-study
#20
Lisa Lindheim, Mina Bashir, Julia Münzker, Christian Trummer, Verena Zachhuber, Bettina Leber, Angela Horvath, Thomas R Pieber, Gregor Gorkiewicz, Vanessa Stadlbauer, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common female endocrinopathy of unclear origin characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligo-/anovulation, and ovarian cysts. Women with PCOS frequently display overweight, insulin resistance, and systemic low-grade inflammation. We hypothesized that endotoxemia resulting from a leaky gut is associated with inflammation, insulin resistance, fat accumulation, and hyperandrogenemia in PCOS. In this pilot study, we compared the stool microbiome, gut permeability, and inflammatory status of women with PCOS and healthy controls...
2017: PloS One
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