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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665864/recurrent-pregnancy-loss-is-associated-to-leaky-gut-a-novel-pathogenic-model-of-endometrium-inflammation
#1
C Tersigni, S D'Ippolito, F Di Nicuolo, R Marana, V Valenza, V Masciullo, F Scaldaferri, F Malatacca, C de Waure, A Gasbarrini, G Scambia, N Di Simone
BACKGROUND: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) occurs in 3-5% in about 30% of cases no cause can be found. Women with RPL show higher prevalence of undiagnosed gut disorders. Furthermore, in endometrial tissues of RPL women, higher expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and Nalp-3 inflammasome has been observed. Aim of this study was to investigate whether an abnormal gut permeability might occur in RPL women and allow passage into systemic circulation of pro-inflammatory molecules able to induce endometrial inflammation...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485654/gut-liver-brain-axis-the-microbial-challenge-in-the-hepatic-encephalopathy
#2
Andrea Mancini, Francesca Campagna, Piero Amodio, Kieran M Tuohy
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a debilitating neuropsychiatric condition often associated with acute liver failure or cirrhosis. Advanced liver diseases are characterized by a leaky gut and systemic inflammation. There is strong evidence that the pathogenesis of HE is linked to a dysbiotic gut microbiota and to harmful microbial by-products, such as ammonia, indoles, oxindoles and endotoxins. Increased concentrations of these toxic metabolites together with the inability of the diseased liver to clear such products is thought to play an important patho-ethiological role...
March 1, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465874/-gut-microbiota-and-kidney-diseases-dangerous-liaisons
#3
Arlène Ghajarzadeh-Wurzner, Maxime Berney, Daniel Teta, Laurence Genton, Menno Pruijm
Recent studies have found a relationship between the kidney and the intestinal microbiome, called the colo-renal axis. Mounting evidence suggests that patients suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an altered composition of gut microbiota. This leads to 1) the increased fermentation of intestinal proteins to uremic toxins such as p-cresyl sulphate and indoxyl sulphate, 2) an altered, more 'leaky' intestinal barrier, and 3) translocation of bacteria and toxins from the gut lumen to the circulation, inducing systemic inflammation...
February 21, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458168/apoptosis-of-enterocytes-and-nitration-of-junctional-complex-proteins-promote-alcohol-induced-gut-leakiness-and-liver-injury
#4
Young-Eun Cho, Li-Rong Yu, Mohamed A Abdelmegeed, Seong-Ho Yoo, Byoung-Joon Song
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Binge alcohol causes gut leakiness, contributing to increased endotoxemia and inflammatory liver injury, although the molecular mechanisms are still elusive. This study was aimed at investigating the roles of apoptosis of enterocytes and nitration followed by degradation of intestinal tight junction (TJ) and adherent junction (AJ) proteins in binge alcohol-induced gut leakiness. METHODS: The levels of intestinal (ileum) junctional complex proteins, oxidative stress markers and apoptosis-related proteins in rodents, T84 colonic cells and autopsied human ileums were determined by immunoblot, immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, and mass-spectral analyses...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457572/early-effects-on-the-intestinal-barrier-and-pancreatic-function-after-enteral-stimulation-with-protease-or-kidney-bean-lectin-in-neonatal-rats
#5
Ester Arévalo Sureda, Olena Prykhodko, Björn Weström
Gut maturation naturally accelerates at weaning in altricial mammalian species, such as the rat. Mimicking this, gut development can also be induced precociously, 3-4 d earlier than it would occur naturally, by enteral exposure to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), or various proteases. We investigated the early effects of gut provocation on intestinal barrier and pancreatic functions, to get a better understanding of the mechanisms that initiate gut maturation. The effects of oral administration of protease (trypsin) or PHA to 14-d-old suckling rats were studied during 24 h in comparison with water-fed controls...
February 19, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375937/eukaryotes-in-the-gut-microbiota-in-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#6
Alexandra H Mandarano, Ludovic Giloteaux, Betsy A Keller, Susan M Levine, Maureen R Hanson
Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) often suffer from gastrointestinal symptoms and many are diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Previous studies, including from our laboratory, have demonstrated that the ME/CFS gut bacterial composition is altered and less diverse when compared to healthy individuals. Patients have increased biomarkers of inflammation and leaky gut syndrome. To further investigate dysbiosis in the ME/CFS gut microbiome, we sought to characterize the eukaryotes present in the gut of 49 individuals with ME/CFS and 39 healthy controls...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368445/lactobacillus-reuteri-strains-protect-epithelial-barrier-integrity-of-ipec-j2-monolayers-from-the-detrimental-effect-of-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli
#7
Shokoufeh Karimi, Hans Jonsson, Torbjörn Lundh, Stefan Roos
Lactobacillus reuteri is an inhabitant of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of mammals and birds and several strains of this species are known to be effective probiotics. The mechanisms by which L. reuteri confers its health-promoting effects are far from being fully understood, but protection of the mucosal barrier is thought to be important. Leaky gut is a state of abnormal intestinal permeability with implications for the pathophysiology of various gastrointestinal disorders. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) can invade the intestinal mucosa and induce changes in barrier function by producing enterotoxin or by direct invasion of the intestinal epithelium...
January 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331880/preventive-effects-of-indole-3-carbinol-against-alcohol-induced-liver-injury-in-mice-via-antioxidant-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-apoptotic-mechanisms-role-of-gut-liver-adipose-tissue-axis
#8
Youngshim Choi, Mohamed A Abdelmegeed, Byoung-Joon Song
Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), found in Brassica family vegetables, exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancerous properties. Here, we aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of I3C against ethanol (EtOH)-induced liver injury and study the protective mechanism(s) by using the well-established chronic-plus-binge alcohol exposure model. The preventive effects of I3C were evaluated by conducting various histological, biochemical, and real-time PCR analyses in mouse liver, adipose tissue, and colon, since functional alterations of adipose tissue and intestine can also participate in promoting EtOH-induced liver damage...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306937/the-effects-of-stress-and-meditation-on-the-immune-system-human-microbiota-and-epigenetics
#9
Ayman Mukerji Househam, Christine Tara Peterson, Paul J Mills, Deepak Chopra
Context • Globally, more than 25% of individuals are affected by anxiety and depression disorders. Meditation is gaining popularity in clinical settings and its treatment efficacy is being studied for a wide array of psychological and physiological ailments. An exploration of stress physiology is an essential precursor to delineation of the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of meditation practices. Objective • The review outlines a model of interconnected physiological processes that might support the continued inclusion and expansion of meditation in the treatment of diverse medical conditions and to investigate the role that gut microbiota may play in realizing well-being through meditation...
October 2017: Advances in Mind-body Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290146/multifunctional-role-of-35-kilodalton-hyaluronan-in-promoting-defense-of-the-intestinal-epithelium
#10
Sean P Kessler, Dana R Obery, Kourtney P Nickerson, Aaron C Petrey, Christine McDonald, Carol A de la Motte
Intestinal epithelium plays a critical role in host defense against orally acquired pathogens. Dysregulation of this protective barrier is a primary driver of inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn's and ulcerative colitis) and also infant gastrointestinal infections. Previously, our lab reported that hyaluronan (HA) isolated from human milk induces the expression of the antimicrobial peptide β-defensin in vivo and protects against Salmonella Typhimurium infection of epithelial cells in vitro. In addition, we demonstrated that commercially available 35 kDa size HA induces the expression of β-defensin, upregulates the expression of tight junction protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), and attenuates murine Citrobacter rodentium infection in vivo...
April 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251668/perioperative-fluid-accumulation-impairs-intestinal-contractility-to-a-smilar-extent-as-peritonitis-and-endotoxemia
#11
José Gorrasi, Stephan M Jakob, Luis Tovar, Bruno Balsiger, Sebastian Brandt, Lukas E Bruegger, Hendrik Bracht, Jukka Takala
BACKGROUND: Perioperative resuscitation with large amounts of fluid may cause tissue edema, especially in the gut, and thereby impair its functions. This is especially relevant in sepsis where capillaries become leaky and fluid rapidly escapes to the pericapillary tissue. We assessed the effects of endotoxemia and peritonitis, and the use of high and moderate volume fluid resuscitation on jejunal contractility. We hypothesized that both endotoxemia and peritonitis impair jejunum contractility and relaxation, and that this effect is aggravated in peritonitis and with high fluid administration...
December 14, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208693/dysregulation-of-junctional-adhesion-molecule-a-contributes-to-ethanol-induced-barrier-disruption-in-intestinal-epithelial-cell-monolayers
#12
Daniel M Chopyk, Pradeep Kumar, Reben Raeman, Yunshan Liu, Tekla Smith, Frank A Anania
Alcohol consumption promotes loss of intestinal barrier function. However, mechanisms by which ethanol affects the tight junction (TJ), the cellular structure responsible for maintaining the gut epithelial barrier, are not well understood. Three classes of transmembrane proteins comprise TJs: occludin, claudins, and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs). It has recently been postulated that JAM-A (F11R), the most abundant JAM expressed in intestinal epithelium, regulates "leak" pathway flux, a paracellular route for the nonselective permeation of large solutes...
December 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195678/the-interaction-between-smoking-alcohol-and-the-gut-microbiome
#13
REVIEW
Gabriele Capurso, Edith Lahner
The gastrointestinal microbiome is a complex echosystem that establishes a symbiotic, mutually beneficial relation with the host, being rather stable in health, but affected by age, drugs, diet, alcohol, and smoking. Alcohol and smoking contribute to changes in the stomach and affect H pylori-related disorders including the risk of gastric cancer. In the small intestine and in the colon alcohol causes depletion of bacteria with anti-inflammatory activity, eventually resulting in intestinal damage with "leaky gut"...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140275/old-fashioned-vs-ultra-processed-based-current-diets-possible-implication-in-the-increased-susceptibility-to-type-1-diabetes-and-celiac-disease-in-childhood
#14
REVIEW
Sandra V Aguayo-Patrón, Ana M Calderón de la Barca
Ultra-processed foods are ready-to-heat and ready-to-eat products created to replace traditional homemade meals and dishes due to convenience and accessibility. Because of their low-fiber and high-fat and sugar composition, these foodstuffs could induce a negative impact on health. They are partially responsible for obesity and chronic non-transmissible diseases; additionally, they could impact in the prevalence of autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes and celiac disease. The rationale is that the nutritional composition of ultra-processed foodstuffs can induce gut dysbiosis, promoting a pro-inflammatory response and consequently, a "leaky gut"...
November 15, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097439/mucosa-associated-invariant-t-cells-link-intestinal-immunity-with-antibacterial-immune-defects-in-alcoholic-liver-disease
#15
Antonio Riva, Vishal Patel, Ayako Kurioka, Hannah C Jeffery, Gavin Wright, Sarah Tarff, Debbie Shawcross, Jennifer M Ryan, Alexander Evans, Sarah Azarian, Jasmohan S Bajaj, Andrew Fagan, Vinood Patel, Kosha Mehta, Carlos Lopez, Marieta Simonova, Krum Katzarov, Tanya Hadzhiolova, Slava Pavlova, Julia A Wendon, Ye Htun Oo, Paul Klenerman, Roger Williams, Shilpa Chokshi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Intestinal permeability with systemic distribution of bacterial products are central in the immunopathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), yet links with intestinal immunity remain elusive. Mucosa-associated invariant T cells (MAIT) are found in liver, blood and intestinal mucosa and are a key component of antibacterial host defences. Their role in ALD is unknown. METHODS/DESIGN: We analysed frequency, phenotype, transcriptional regulation and function of blood MAIT cells in severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH), alcohol-related cirrhosis (ARC) and healthy controls (HC)...
May 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094594/nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug-induced-leaky-gut-modeled-using-polarized-monolayers-of-primary-human-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#16
Aadra P Bhatt, Dulan B Gunasekara, Jennifer Speer, Mark I Reed, Alexis N Peña, Bentley R Midkiff, Scott T Magness, Scott J Bultman, Nancy L Allbritton, Matthew R Redinbo
The intestinal epithelium provides a critical barrier that separates the gut microbiota from host tissues. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are efficacious analgesics and antipyretics and are among the most frequently used drugs worldwide. In addition to gastric damage, NSAIDs are toxic to the intestinal epithelium, causing erosions, perforations, and longitudinal ulcers in the gut. Here, we use a unique in vitro human primary small intestinal cell monolayer system to pinpoint the intestinal consequences of NSAID treatment...
January 12, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056165/the-leaky-gut-and-altered-microbiome-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#17
Wei Ling Lau, Nosratola D Vaziri
Chronic kidney disease results in disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier as well as profound changes in the gut microbial flora. These events are largely mediated by (1) heavy influx of circulating urea to the gut lumen and (2) dietary restrictions of foods containing high fiber (such as fruits and vegetable) and symbiotic organisms (such as yogurt and cheese) imposed to mitigate hyperkalemia and hyperphosphatemia. Collectively, these factors promote systemic inflammation and cardiovascular morbidity by mediating microbial dysbiosis, disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier, and translocation of endotoxin, bacterial fragments, and uremic toxins across the "leaky gut" into the bloodstream...
November 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038123/lactobacillus-rhamnosus-l34-attenuates-gut-translocation-induced-bacterial-sepsis-in-murine-models-of-leaky-gut
#18
Wimonrat Panpetch, Wiwat Chancharoenthana, Kanthika Bootdee, Sumanee Nilgate, Malcolm Finkelman, Somying Tumwasorn, Asada Leelahavanichkul
Gastrointestinal (GI) bacterial translocation in sepsis is well known, but the role of Lactobacillus species probiotics is still controversial. We evaluated the therapeutic effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus L34 in a new sepsis model of oral administration of pathogenic bacteria with GI leakage induced by either an antibiotic cocktail (ATB) and/or dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). GI leakage with ATB, DSS, and DSS plus ATB (DSS+ATB) was demonstrated by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran translocation to the circulation...
January 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033938/early-life-nutritional-factors-and-mucosal-immunity-in-the-development-of-autoimmune-diabetes
#19
REVIEW
Ling Xiao, Belinda Van't Land, Wouter R P H van de Worp, Bernd Stahl, Gert Folkerts, Johan Garssen
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an immune-mediated disease with a strong genetic basis but might be influenced by non-genetic factors such as microbiome development that "programs" the immune system during early life as well. Factors influencing pathogenesis, including a leaky intestinal mucosal barrier, an aberrant gut microbiota composition, and altered immune responsiveness, offer potential targets for prevention and/or treatment of T1D through nutritional or pharmacologic means. In this review, nutritional approaches during early life in order to protect against T1D development have been discussed...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022091/maternal-high-fat-diet-and-early-life-stress-differentially-modulate-spine-density-and-dendritic-morphology-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-of-juvenile-and-adult-rats
#20
Marion Rincel, Amandine L Lépinay, Yoottana Janthakhin, Gwenaëlle Soudain, Sophie Yvon, Stéphanie Da Silva, Corinne Joffre, Agnès Aubert, Alexandra Séré, Sophie Layé, Vassilia Theodorou, Guillaume Ferreira, Muriel Darnaudéry
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a key area for the regulation of numerous brain functions including stress response and cognitive processes. This brain area is also particularly affected by adversity during early life. Using an animal model in rats, we recently demonstrated that maternal exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) prevents maternal separation (MS)-induced gene expression alterations in the developing PFC and attenuates several long-term deleterious behavioral effects of MS. In the present study, we ask whether maternal HFD could protect mPFC neurons of pups exposed to early life stress by examining dendritic morphology and spine density in juvenile [postnatal day (PND) 21] and adult rats submitted to MS...
October 11, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
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