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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208693/dysregulation-of-junctional-adhesion-molecule-a-contributes-to-ethanol-induced-barrier-disruption-in-intestinal-epithelial-cell-monolayers
#1
Daniel M Chopyk, Pradeep Kumar, Reben Raeman, Yunshan Liu, Tekla Smith, Frank A Anania
Alcohol consumption promotes loss of intestinal barrier function. However, mechanisms by which ethanol affects the tight junction (TJ), the cellular structure responsible for maintaining the gut epithelial barrier, are not well understood. Three classes of transmembrane proteins comprise TJs: occludin, claudins, and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs). It has recently been postulated that JAM-A (F11R), the most abundant JAM expressed in intestinal epithelium, regulates "leak" pathway flux, a paracellular route for the nonselective permeation of large solutes...
December 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195678/the-interaction-between-smoking-alcohol-and-the-gut-microbiome
#2
REVIEW
Gabriele Capurso, Edith Lahner
The gastrointestinal microbiome is a complex echosystem that establishes a symbiotic, mutually beneficial relation with the host, being rather stable in health, but affected by age, drugs, diet, alcohol, and smoking. Alcohol and smoking contribute to changes in the stomach and affect H pylori-related disorders including the risk of gastric cancer. In the small intestine and in the colon alcohol causes depletion of bacteria with anti-inflammatory activity, eventually resulting in intestinal damage with "leaky gut"...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140275/old-fashioned-vs-ultra-processed-based-current-diets-possible-implication-in-the-increased-susceptibility-to-type-1-diabetes-and-celiac-disease-in-childhood
#3
REVIEW
Sandra V Aguayo-Patrón, Ana M Calderón de la Barca
Ultra-processed foods are ready-to-heat and ready-to-eat products created to replace traditional homemade meals and dishes due to convenience and accessibility. Because of their low-fiber and high-fat and sugar composition, these foodstuffs could induce a negative impact on health. They are partially responsible for obesity and chronic non-transmissible diseases; additionally, they could impact in the prevalence of autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes and celiac disease. The rationale is that the nutritional composition of ultra-processed foodstuffs can induce gut dysbiosis, promoting a pro-inflammatory response and consequently, a "leaky gut"...
November 15, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097439/mucosa-associated-invariant-t-cells-link-intestinal-immunity-with-antibacterial-immune-defects-in-alcoholic-liver-disease
#4
Antonio Riva, Vishal Patel, Ayako Kurioka, Hannah C Jeffery, Gavin Wright, Sarah Tarff, Debbie Shawcross, Jennifer M Ryan, Alexander Evans, Sarah Azarian, Jasmohan S Bajaj, Andrew Fagan, Vinood Patel, Kosha Mehta, Carlos Lopez, Marieta Simonova, Krum Katzarov, Tanya Hadzhiolova, Slava Pavlova, Julia A Wendon, Ye Htun Oo, Paul Klenerman, Roger Williams, Shilpa Chokshi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Intestinal permeability with systemic distribution of bacterial products are central in the immunopathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), yet links with intestinal immunity remain elusive. Mucosa-associated invariant T cells (MAIT) are found in liver, blood and intestinal mucosa and are a key component of antibacterial host defences. Their role in ALD is unknown. METHODS/DESIGN: We analysed frequency, phenotype, transcriptional regulation and function of blood MAIT cells in severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH), alcohol-related cirrhosis (ARC) and healthy controls (HC)...
November 2, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094594/nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug-induced-leaky-gut-modeled-using-polarized-monolayers-of-primary-human-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#5
Aadra P Bhatt, Dulan B Gunasekara, Jennifer Speer, Mark I Reed, Alexis N Peña, Bentley R Midkiff, Scott T Magness, Scott J Bultman, Nancy L Allbritton, Matthew R Redinbo
The intestinal epithelium provides a critical barrier that separates the gut microbiota from host tissues. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are efficacious analgesics and antipyretics and are among the most frequently used drugs worldwide. In addition to gastric damage, NSAIDs are toxic to the intestinal epithelium, causing erosions, perforations, and longitudinal ulcers in the gut. Here, we use a unique in vitro human primary small intestinal cell monolayer system to pinpoint the intestinal consequences of NSAID treatment...
November 10, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056165/the-leaky-gut-and-altered-microbiome-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#6
Wei Ling Lau, Nosratola D Vaziri
Chronic kidney disease results in disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier as well as profound changes in the gut microbial flora. These events are largely mediated by (1) heavy influx of circulating urea to the gut lumen and (2) dietary restrictions of foods containing high fiber (such as fruits and vegetable) and symbiotic organisms (such as yogurt and cheese) imposed to mitigate hyperkalemia and hyperphosphatemia. Collectively, these factors promote systemic inflammation and cardiovascular morbidity by mediating microbial dysbiosis, disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier, and translocation of endotoxin, bacterial fragments, and uremic toxins across the "leaky gut" into the bloodstream...
November 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038123/lactobacillus-rhamnosus-l34-attenuates-gut-translocation-induced-bacterial-sepsis-in-murine-models-of-leaky-gut
#7
Wimonrat Panpetch, Wiwat Chancharoenthana, Kanthika Bootdee, Sumanee Nilgate, Malcolm Finkelman, Somying Tumwasorn, Asada Leelahavanichkul
Gastrointestinal (GI) bacterial translocation in sepsis is well-known but the role of the probiotics, Lactobacillus spp., is still controversial. We evaluated the therapeutic effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus L34 in a new sepsis model of oral administration of pathogenic bacteria, with GI leakage induced by either an antibiotic cocktail (ATB) and/or dextran sulfate sodium (DSS).GI-leakage with ATB, DSS and DSS+ATB was demonstrated by FITC-dextran translocation to the circulation. Administration of pathogenic bacteria, either Klebsiella pneumoniae or Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, enhanced the translocation...
October 16, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033938/early-life-nutritional-factors-and-mucosal-immunity-in-the-development-of-autoimmune-diabetes
#8
REVIEW
Ling Xiao, Belinda Van't Land, Wouter R P H van de Worp, Bernd Stahl, Gert Folkerts, Johan Garssen
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an immune-mediated disease with a strong genetic basis but might be influenced by non-genetic factors such as microbiome development that "programs" the immune system during early life as well. Factors influencing pathogenesis, including a leaky intestinal mucosal barrier, an aberrant gut microbiota composition, and altered immune responsiveness, offer potential targets for prevention and/or treatment of T1D through nutritional or pharmacologic means. In this review, nutritional approaches during early life in order to protect against T1D development have been discussed...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022091/maternal-high-fat-diet-and-early-life-stress-differentially-modulate-spine-density-and-dendritic-morphology-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-of-juvenile-and-adult-rats
#9
Marion Rincel, Amandine L Lépinay, Yoottana Janthakhin, Gwenaëlle Soudain, Sophie Yvon, Stéphanie Da Silva, Corinne Joffre, Agnès Aubert, Alexandra Séré, Sophie Layé, Vassilia Theodorou, Guillaume Ferreira, Muriel Darnaudéry
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a key area for the regulation of numerous brain functions including stress response and cognitive processes. This brain area is also particularly affected by adversity during early life. Using an animal model in rats, we recently demonstrated that maternal exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) prevents maternal separation (MS)-induced gene expression alterations in the developing PFC and attenuates several long-term deleterious behavioral effects of MS. In the present study, we ask whether maternal HFD could protect mPFC neurons of pups exposed to early life stress by examining dendritic morphology and spine density in juvenile [postnatal day (PND) 21] and adult rats submitted to MS...
October 11, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960346/creb-mediates-alcohol-induced-circadian-disruption-and-intestinal-permeability
#10
Booker T Davis, Robin M Voigt, Maliha Shaikh, Christopher B Forsyth, Ali Keshavarzian
BACKGROUND: Alcoholic Liver Disease (ALD) is commonly associated with intestinal permeability. An unanswered question is why only a subset of heavy alcohol drinkers develop endotoxemia. Recent studies suggest that circadian disruption is the susceptibility factor for alcohol-induced gut leakiness to endotoxins. The circadian protein PER2 is increased after exposure to alcohol and siRNA knockdown of PER2 in vitro blocks alcohol-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction. We have shown that blocking CYP2E1 (i...
September 27, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950280/type-2-diabetes-and-bacteremia
#11
Junko Sato, Akio Kanazawa, Hirotaka Watada
BACKGROUND: A high proportion of type 2 diabetes cases are associated with host genetic and environmental factors. During the past decade, microorganisms that inhabit the gut have emerged as contributors to the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, manipulation of the human gut microbiota will provide essential clues regarding new therapeutic targets for diabetes. SUMMARY: Several studies have established the presence of gut dysbiosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, even though there are some differences among the studies that could be explained by differences in ethnicity, diet, and methodology...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950279/bacterial-translocation-from-the-gut-to-the-distant-organs-an-overview
#12
Ravinder Nagpal, Hariom Yadav
BACKGROUND: The intestinal epithelial layer is the chief barricade between the luminal contents and the host. A healthy homeostatic intestinal barrier is pivotal for maintaining gastrointestinal health, which impacts the overall health as it safeguards the gut-blood axis and checks gut microbes including potential pathogens from entering into the circulation. SUMMARY: Under healthy milieus, the intestinal barrier is generally very dynamic and effective, with luminal side being heavily infested with a wide variety of gut microbes while the basolateral side remains virtually sterile...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946778/the-role-of-mucoprotectants-in-the-management-of-gastrointestinal-disorders
#13
Helene Eutamene, Catherine Beaufrand, Cherryl Harkat, Vassilia Theodorou
The intestinal barrier controls the absorption of nutrients and water whilst helping to prevent the entry of toxins and pathogenic micro-organisms from the lumen into the tissues. Deficiencies in the barrier are associated with various gastrointestinal and extra digestive disorders. Areas covered: This review provides an overview of the relationship between increased intestinal permeability and disease, and considers the role of mucosal protectants (mucoprotectants) in restoring normal intestinal barrier function, with a particular focus on diarrheal disorders...
September 26, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941769/a-neuro-immune-neuro-oxidative-and-neuro-nitrosative-model-of-prenatal-and-postpartum-depression
#14
REVIEW
Chutima Roomruangwong, George Anderson, Michael Berk, Drozdstoy Stoyanov, André F Carvalho, Michael Maes
A large body of evidence indicates that major affective disorders are accompanied by activated neuro-immune, neuro-oxidative and neuro-nitrosative stress (IO&NS) pathways. Postpartum depression is predicted by end of term prenatal depressive symptoms whilst a lifetime history of mood disorders appears to increase the risk for both prenatal and postpartum depression. This review provides a critical appraisal of available evidence linking IO&NS pathways to prenatal and postpartum depression. The electronic databases Google Scholar, PubMed and Scopus were sources for this narrative review focusing on keywords, including perinatal depression, (auto)immune, inflammation, oxidative, nitric oxide, nitrosative, tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs), kynurenine, leaky gut and microbiome...
September 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936406/gut-microbiome-based-therapeutics-in-liver-cirrhosis-basic-consideration-for-the-next-step
#15
REVIEW
Hiroshi Fukui
Infections account for significant morbidity and mortality in liver cirrhosis and most are related to the gut microbiome. Fecal dysbiosis, characterized by an overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria and a decrease in autochthonous non-pathogenic bacteria, becomes prominent with the progression of liver cirrhosis. In cirrhotic patients, disruption of the intestinal barrier causes intestinal hyperpermeability (i.e. leaky gut), which is closely related to gut dysmotility, dysbiosis and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and may induce pathological bacterial translocation...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922251/shank3-regulates-intestinal-barrier-function-through-modulating-zo-1-expression-through-the-pkc%C3%AE%C2%B5-dependent-pathway
#16
Shu-Chen Wei, Hsin-Fang Yang-Yen, Po-Nien Tsao, Meng-Tzu Weng, Chien-Chih Tung, Linda C H Yu, Liang-Chuan Lai, Jen-Hao Hsiao, Eric Y Chuang, Chia-Tung Shun, Yen-Hsuan Ni, Ramnik J Xavier, Daniel K Podolsky, Jeffery J Y Yen, Jau-Min Wong
BACKGROUND: The integrity of the gut barrier in patients with inflammatory bowel disease is known to be impaired but the exact mechanisms remain mostly unknown. SHANK3 mutations are associated with autism, and patients with autism are known to have higher proportions of inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we explore the role of SHANK3 in inflammatory bowel disease, both in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: Dextran sulfate sodium colitis was induced in SHANK3 knockout mice...
August 23, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915953/syntrophic-imbalance-and-the-etiology-of-bacterial-endoparasitism-diseases
#17
James F White
This article outlines the proposed 'syntrophic imbalance hypothesis' for etiology of bacterial endoparasitism diseases. This hypothesis involves microbes (archaea and bacteria) that exist in human body biofilms in syntrophic associations, where bacteria ferment nutrients to produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that are used by methanogenic archaeons to produce methane. Overgrowth of archaea on human tissues (e.g., in association with intestines, teeth or lungs) results in excessive removal of SCFAs from the biofilms and this triggers bacteria in the free-living biofilm state to convert to the endoparasitic state and become intracellular in host cells where they incite inflammation and disease...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906292/shank3-regulates-intestinal-barrier-function-through-modulating-zo-1-expression-through-the-pkc%C3%AE%C2%B5-dependent-pathway
#18
Shu-Chen Wei, Hsin-Fang Yang-Yen, Po-Nien Tsao, Meng-Tzu Weng, Chien-Chih Tung, Linda C H Yu, Liang-Chuan Lai, Jen-Hao Hsiao, Eric Y Chuang, Chia-Tung Shun, Yen-Hsuan Ni, Ramnik J Xavier, Daniel K Podolsky, Jeffery J Y Yen, Jau-Min Wong
BACKGROUND: The integrity of the gut barrier in patients with inflammatory bowel disease is known to be impaired but the exact mechanisms remain mostly unknown. SHANK3 mutations are associated with autism, and patients with autism are known to have higher proportions of inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we explore the role of SHANK3 in inflammatory bowel disease, both in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: Dextran sulfate sodium colitis was induced in SHANK3 knockout mice...
October 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868181/oral-spore-based-probiotic-supplementation-was-associated-with-reduced-incidence-of-post-prandial-dietary-endotoxin-triglycerides-and-disease-risk-biomarkers
#19
Brian K McFarlin, Andrea L Henning, Erin M Bowman, Melody A Gary, Kimberly M Carbajal
AIM: To determine if 30-d of oral spore-based probiotic supplementation could reduce dietary endotoxemia. METHODS: Apparently healthy men and women (n = 75) were screened for post-prandial dietary endotoxemia. Subjects whose serum endotoxin concentration increased by at least 5-fold from pre-meal levels at 5-h post-prandial were considered "responders" and were randomized to receive either placebo (rice flour) or a commercial spore-based probiotic supplement [Bacillus indicus (HU36), Bacillus subtilis (HU58), Bacillus coagulans, and Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus clausii] for 30-d...
August 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857085/enteric-dysbiosis-linked-gut-barrier-disruption-triggers-early-renal-injury-induced-by-chronic-high-salt-feeding-in-mice
#20
Jingjuan Hu, Haihua Luo, Jieyan Wang, Wenli Tang, Junqi Lu, Shan Wu, Zhi Xiong, Guizhi Yang, Zhenguo Chen, Tian Lan, Hongwei Zhou, Jing Nie, Yong Jiang, Peng Chen
Chronic high-salt diet-associated renal injury is a key risk factor for the development of hypertension. However, the mechanism by which salt triggers kidney damage is poorly understood. Our study investigated how high salt (HS) intake triggers early renal injury by considering the 'gut-kidney axis'. We fed mice 2% NaCl in drinking water continuously for 8 weeks to induce early renal injury. We found that the 'quantitative' and 'qualitative' levels of the intestinal microflora were significantly altered after chronic HS feeding, which indicated the occurrence of enteric dysbiosis...
August 25, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
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