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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213905/a-ten-gene-containing-genomic-island-determines-flagellin-glycosylation-implication-for-its-regulatory-role-in-motility-and-virulence-of-xanthomonas-oryzae-pv-oryzae
#1
Chao Yu, Huamin Chen, Fang Tian, Fenghuan Yang, Xiaochen Yuan, Ching-Hong Yang, Chenyang He
Flagellin glycosylation plays crucial roles in flagellar assembly, motility and virulence in several pathogenic bacteria. However, little is known about the genetic determinants and biological functions of flagellin glycosylation in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the causal pathogen of bacterial blight of rice. Here, the structure, regulation and functions of a ten-gene cluster gigX (glycosylation island genes of Xoo), which was embedded in a flagellar regulon were characterized. gigX1 through gigX10, encoded putative enzymes or proteins involved in glycan biosynthesis and transfer, including a nucleotide sugar transaminase, an acyl-carrier protein (ACP), a 3-oxoacyl-ACP synthase, a 3-oxoacyl-ACP reductase, a dehydrogenase, an acetyltransferase, a ring hydroxylating dioxygenase, a hypothetical protein, a methyltransferanse, and a glycosyltransferase, respectively...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212548/branched-chain-amino-acids-prevent-hepatic-fibrosis-and-development-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-a-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-mouse-model
#2
Kai Takegoshi, Masao Honda, Hikari Okada, Riuta Takabatake, Naoto Matsuzawa-Nagata, Jean S Campbell, Masashi Nishikawa, Tetsuro Shimakami, Takayoshi Shirasaki, Yoshio Sakai, Taro Yamashita, Toshinari Takamura, Takuji Tanaka, Shuichi Kaneko
Oral supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; leucine, isoleucine, and valine) in patients with liver cirrhosis potentially suppresses the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and improves event-free survival. However, the detailed mechanisms of BCAA action have not been fully elucidated. BCAA were administered to atherogenic and high-fat (Ath+HF) diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model mice. Liver histology, tumor incidence, and gene expression profiles were evaluated. Ath+HF diet mice developed hepatic tumors at a high frequency at 68 weeks...
February 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207768/prevalence-of-mdr-pathogens-of-bacterial-meningitis-in-egypt-and-new-synergistic-antibiotic-combinations
#3
Mona M Abdelkader, Khaled M Aboshanab, Marwa A El-Ashry, Mohammad M Aboulwafa
The aim of this study was identifying bacterial pathogens involved in meningitis, studying their antibiotic resistance profiles, investigating the antibiotic resistance genes as well as evaluating the use of various antibiotic combinations. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were evaluated according to CLSI guidelines. Antibiotic combinations were evaluated by calculating the Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC) index. A total of 71 bacterial isolates were recovered from 68 culture positive CSF specimens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205618/ald5-pad1-atf1-and-atf2-facilitate-the-catabolism-of-coniferyl-aldehyde-ferulic-acid-and-p-coumaric-acid-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#4
Peter Temitope Adeboye, Maurizio Bettiga, Lisbeth Olsson
The ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to catabolize phenolic compounds remains to be fully elucidated. Conversion of coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid by S. cerevisiae under aerobic conditions was previously reported. A conversion pathway was also proposed. In the present study, possible enzymes involved in the reported conversion were investigated. Aldehyde dehydrogenase Ald5, phenylacrylic acid decarboxylase Pad1, and alcohol acetyltransferases Atf1 and Atf2, were hypothesised to be involved...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204983/application-of-acetyl-coa-acetyltransferase-atoad-in-escherichia-coli-to-increase-3-hydroxyvalerate-fraction-in-poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate
#5
Jong-Min Jeon, Hyun-Joong Kim, Shashi Kant Bhatia, Changmin Sung, Hyung-Min Seo, Jung-Ho Kim, Hyung-Yeon Park, Dahye Lee, Christopher J Brigham, Yung-Hun Yang
Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a family of biodegradable polymers, and incorporation of different monomers can alter its physical properties. To produce the copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (P(3HB-co-3HV)) containing a high level of 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) by altering acetyl-CoA pool levels, we overexpressed an acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (atoAD) in an engineered E. coli strain, YH090, carrying PHA synthetic genes bktB, phaB, and phaC. It was found that, with introduction of atoAD and with propionate as a co-substrate, 3HV fraction in PHA was increased up to 7...
February 16, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202522/histone-acetyltransferase-activity-of-mof-is-required-for-mll-af9-leukemogenesis
#6
Daria G Valerio, Haiming Xu, Chun-Wei Chen, Takayuki Hoshii, Meghan E Eisold, Christopher Delaney, Monica Cusan, Aniruddha J Deshpande, Chun-Hao Huang, Amaia Lujambio, Y George G Zheng, Johannes Zuber, Tej K Pandita, Scott W Lowe, Scott A Armstrong
Chromatin-based mechanisms offer therapeutic targets in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) that are of great current interest. In this study, we conducted an RNAi-based screen to identify druggable chromatin regulator-based targets in leukemias marked by oncogenic rearrangements of the MLL gene. In this manner, we discovered the H4K16 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) MOF to be a potent suppressor of leukemia cell growth. Conditional deletion of Mof in a mouse model of MLL-AF9-driven leukemogenesis reduced tumor burden and prolonged host survival...
February 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198154/daily-and-seasonal-expression-profile-of-serum-melatonin-and-its-biosynthesizing-enzyme-genes-tph1-aanat1-aanat2-and-hiomt-in-pineal-organ-and-retina-a-study-under-natural-environmental-conditions-in-a-tropical-carp-catla-catla
#7
Chongtham Rajiv, Haobijam Sanjita Devi, Gopinath Mondal, Sijagurumayum Dharmajyoti Devi, Zeeshan Ahmad Khan, Thangal Yumnamcha, Rupjyoti Bharali, Asamanja Chattoraj
The tropical carp Catla catla is gaining importance for the studies of the impact of environmental changes on aquatic animals due to its surface dwelling habitat. To date, no information is available on the transcriptional profile of melatonin biosynthesizing enzyme genes in any tropical carp under either natural or artificial photothermal conditions in pineal and retina. The present study is an attempt to demonstrate the temporal pattern of expression of melatonin biosynthesizing enzyme genes, tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (tph1), arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (aanat1 and aanat2), and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (hiomt) collectively and simultaneously in pineal organ and retina in tropical fish, C...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196907/acetylation-dependent-regulation-of-mdm2-e3-ligase-activity-dictates-its-oncogenic-function
#8
Naoe T Nihira, Kohei Ogura, Kouhei Shimizu, Brian J North, Jinfang Zhang, Daming Gao, Hiroyuki Inuzuka, Wenyi Wei
Abnormal activation of the oncogenic E3 ubiquitin ligase murine double minute 2 (MDM2) is frequently observed in human cancers. By ubiquitinating the tumor suppressor p53 protein, which leads to its proteasome-mediated destruction, MDM2 limits the tumor-suppressing activity of p53. On the other hand, by ubiquitinating itself, MDM2 targets itself for destruction and promotes the p53 tumor suppressor pathway, a process that can be antagonized by the deubiquitinase herpesvirus-associated ubiquitin-specific protease (HAUSP)...
February 14, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196861/molecular-determinants-of-the-n-terminal-acetyltransferase-naa60-anchoring-to-the-golgi-membrane
#9
Henriette Aksnes, Marianne Goris, Øyvind Strømland, Adrian Drazic, Qaiser Waheed, Nathalie Reuter, Thomas Arnesen
Nα-acetyltransferase 60 (Naa60 or NatF) was recently identified as an unconventional N-terminal acetyltransferase (NAT) since it localizes to organelles, in particular the Golgi apparatus, and has a preference for acetylating N-termini of transmembrane proteins. This knowledge challenged the prevailing view of N-terminal acetylation as a co-translational ribosome-associated process and suggested a new mechanistic functioning for the enzymes responsible for this increasingly recognized protein modification...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196804/nipped-a-regulates-intestinal-stem-cell-proliferation-in-drosophila
#10
Helen Marie Tauc, Alpaslan Tasdogan, Patrick Meyer, Petra Pandur
Adult stem cells uphold a delicate balance between quiescent and active states, a deregulation of which can lead to age-associated diseases such as cancer. In Drosophila, intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation is tightly regulated and mis-regulation is detrimental to intestinal homeostasis. Various factors are known to govern ISC behavior; however, transcriptional changes in ISCs during aging are still unclear. RNA sequencing of young and old ISCs newly identified Nipped-A, a subunit of histone acetyltransferase complexes, as a regulator of ISC proliferation that is upregulated in old ISCs...
February 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196077/enhancer-of-polycomb-coordinates-multiple-signaling-pathways-to-promote-both-cyst-and-germline-stem-cell-differentiation-in-the-drosophila-adult-testis
#11
Lijuan Feng, Zhen Shi, Xin Chen
Stem cells reside in a particular microenvironment known as a niche. The interaction between extrinsic cues originating from the niche and intrinsic factors in stem cells determines their identity and activity. Maintenance of stem cell identity and stem cell self-renewal are known to be controlled by chromatin factors. Herein, we use the Drosophila adult testis which has two adult stem cell lineages, the germline stem cell (GSC) lineage and the cyst stem cell (CySC) lineage, to study how chromatin factors regulate stem cell differentiation...
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195723/drug-discovery-targeting-bromodomain-containing-protein-4-brd4
#12
Zhiqing Liu, Pingyuan Wang, Haiying Chen, Eric A Wold, Bing Tian, Allan R Brasier, Jia Zhou
BRD4, the most extensively studied member of BET family, is an epigenetic regulator that localizes to DNA via binding acetylated histones and controls the expression of therapeutically important gene regulatory networks through recruiting transcription factors to form mediator complexes, phosphorylating RNA polymerase II and by its intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity. Disrupting the protein-protein interactions between BRD4 and acetyl-lysine has been shown to effectively block cell proliferation in cancer, cytokine production in acute inflammation, etc...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192916/combating-enhanced-intracellular-survival-eis-mediated-kanamycin-resistance-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-by-novel-pyrrolo-1-5-a-pyrazine-based-eis-inhibitors
#13
Atefeh Garzan, Melisa J Willby, Huy X Ngo, Chathurada S Gajadeera, Keith D Green, Selina Y L Holbrook, Caixia Hou, James E Posey, Oleg V Tsodikov, Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Hence, the identification of highly effective antitubercular drugs with novel modes of action is crucial. In this paper, we report the discovery and development of pyrrolo[1,5-a]pyrazine-based analogues as highly potent inhibitors of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) acetyltransferase enhanced intracellular survival (Eis), whose up-regulation causes clinically observed resistance to the aminoglycoside (AG) antibiotic kanamycin A (KAN)...
February 17, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188954/comparative-glandular-trichome-transcriptome-based-gene-characterization-reveals-reasons-for-differential-menthol-biosynthesis-in-mentha-species
#14
Md Qussen Akhtar, Nida Qamar, Pallavi Yadav, Pallavi Kulkarni, Ajay Kumar, Ajit Kumar Shasany
The genes involved in menthol biosynthesis are reported earlier in Mentha × piperita. But the information on these genes is not available in Mentha arvensis. To bridge the gap in knowledge on differential biosynthesis of monoterpenes leading to compositional variation in the essential oil of these species, a comparative transcriptome analysis of the glandular trichome was carried out. In addition to the MVA and MEP pathway genes, about 210 and 196 different terpene synthases (TPS) transcripts were identified from annotation in M...
February 11, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188175/gcn5-determines-the-fate-of-drosophila-germline-stem-cells-through-degradation-of-cyclin-a
#15
Tianqi Liu, Qi Wang, Wenqing Li, Feiyu Mao, Shanshan Yue, Sun Liu, Xiaona Liu, Shan Xiao, Laixin Xia
The fluctuating CDK-CYCLIN complex plays a general role in cell-cycle control. Many types of stem cells use unique features of the cell cycle to facilitate asymmetric division. However, the manner in which these features are established remains poorly understood. The cell cycle of Drosophila female germline stem cells (GSCs) is characterized by short G1 and very long G2 phases, making it an excellent model for the study of cell cycle control in stem cell fate determination. Using a Drosophila female GSCs model, we found Gcn5, the first discovered histone acetyltransferase, to maintain germline stem cells in Drosophila ovaries...
February 10, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187447/egr-1-and-rna-pol-ii-facilitate-glioma-cell-gdnf-transcription-induced-by-histone-hyperacetylation-in-promoter-ii
#16
Bao-Le Zhang, Ting-Wen Guo, Le-Le Gao, Guang-Quan Ji, Xiao-He Gu, Yu-Qi Shao, Rui-Qin Yao, Dian-Shuai Gao
The specific mechanisms for epigenetic regulation of gene transcription remain to be elucidated. We previously demonstrated that hyperacetylation of histone H3K9 in promoter II of glioma cells promotes high transcription of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) gene. This hyperacetylation significantly enhanced Egr-1 binding and increased the recruitment of RNA polymerase II (RNA POL II) to that region (P < 0.05). Egr-1 expression was abnormally increased in C6 glioma cells. Further overexpression of Egr-1 significantly increased Egr-1 binding to GDNF promoter II, while increasing RNA POL II recruitment, thus increasing GDNF transcription (P < 0...
February 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187106/association-between-nat2-polymorphisms-and-the-risk-of-schizophrenia-in-a-northern-chinese-han-population
#17
Zhilin Luan, Tianlan Lu, Weihua Yue, Sjef Copray, Dai Zhang
The gene that encodes N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2), an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of many drugs and xenobiotics, is located on chromosome 8p22, one of the most convictive susceptibility loci of schizophrenia. NAT2 genetic polymorphisms lead to various enzyme acetylation phenotypes. In the present study, six selected NAT2 exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in an independent case-control sample of a Northern Chinese Han population to verify the possible association between NAT2 and schizophrenia...
April 2017: Psychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185826/chaetocin-a-histone-methyltransferase-inhibitor-impairs-proliferation-arrests-cell-cycle-and-induces-nucleolar-disassembly-in-trypanosoma-cruzi
#18
Aline Araujo Zuma, Jean de Oliveira Santos, Isabela Mendes, Wanderley de Souza, Carlos Renato Machado, E Maria Cristina M Motta
The Trypanosomatidae family includes pathogenic species of medical and veterinary interest. Chagas disease is endemic in Latin America, and about 8 million people are infected worldwide. There is a need for more effective drugs for the acute, undetermined and chronic phases of the disease that, in addition, do not cause side effects, stimulating the search for identification of new drug targets, as well as new chemotherapeutic targets. Trypanosomatids contain characteristic structures, such as the nucleus that undergoes a closed mitosis without chromosome formation and variations of chromatin packing in the different protozoa developmental stages...
February 6, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182413/targeting-bacillosamine-biosynthesis-in-bacterial-pathogens-development-of-inhibitors-to-a-bacterial-amino-sugar-acetyltransferase-from-campylobacter-jejuni
#19
Joris W De Schutter, James P Morrison, Michael James Morrison, Alessio Ciulli, Barbara Imperiali
The glycoproteins of selected microbial pathogens often include highly modified carbohydrates such as 2,4-diacetamidobacillosamine (diNAcBac). These glycoconjugates are involved in host cell interactions and may be associated with the virulence of medically-significant Gram-negative bacteria. In light of genetic studies demonstrating the attenuated virulence of bacterial strains in which modified carbohydrate biosynthesis enzymes have been knocked out, we are developing small molecule inhibitors of selected enzymes as tools to evaluate whether such compounds modulate virulence...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182356/association-between-n-acetyltransferase-2-polymorphism-and-bladder-cancer-risk-a-meta-analysis-in-a-single-ethnic-group
#20
Wan-Jiang Xu, Li-Ping Wen, Xiang-Xin Jiang, Li-Yin Ye, Fan-Hua Meng, Sheng Guan, Ying-Jun Qian, Jing-Feng Wei
BACKGROUND: Many studies have evaluated the correlation between N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) slow acetylation genotype and bladder cancer risk. However, the results are inconsistent and remain to be confirmed in each ethnic group. To assess the effects of NAT2 acetylation status on the risk of bladder cancer in the Chinese population, a meta-analysis was performed. METHODS: Studies were identified using PubMed and Chinese databases through February 2016. The associations were assessed with pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
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