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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679647/a-new-micro-holder-device-for-local-drug-delivery-during-in-vivo-whole-cell-recordings
#1
María Sáez, Maya Ketzef, Javier Alegre-Cortés, Ramón Reig, Gilad Silberberg
Focal administration of pharmacological agents during in vivo recordings is a useful technique to study the functional properties of neural microcircuits. However, the lack of visual control makes this task difficult and inaccurate, especially when targeting small and deep regions where spillover to neighboring regions is likely to occur. An additional problem with recording stability arises when combining focal drug administration with in vivo intracellular recordings, which are highly sensitive to mechanical vibrations...
April 18, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679483/prostaglandin-fp-receptor-antagonists-discovery-pharmacological-characterization-and-therapeutic-utility
#2
REVIEW
Najam A Sharif, Peter G Klimko
In contrast to the availability of potent and selective antagonists of several prostaglandin (PG) receptor types (including DP1 , DP2 , EP, and TP receptors), there has been a paucity of well-characterized, selective FP-receptor antagonists. The earliest ones included dimethyl amide and dimethyl amine derivatives of PGF2α , but these have failed to gain prominence. The fluorinated PGF2α analogs, AL-8810 and AL-3138, were subsequently discovered as competitive and non-competitive FP-receptor antagonists, respectively...
April 21, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679127/-basic-principles-of-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-gliomas
#3
REVIEW
H-G Wirsching, T Weiss, P Roth, M Weller
BACKGROUND: Traditionally, gliomas were classified based on histopathological features alone. The revised World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the central nervous system from 2016 integrated molecular features into the histopathological diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: To summarize key aspects of the WHO classification from 2016 and implications for the clinical management of glioma patients. An overview of novel treatment approaches is also provided...
April 20, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677102/implications-of-pi3k-akt-pten-signaling-on-superoxide-dismutases-expression-and-in-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Satoru Matsuda, Yukie Nakagawa, Ai Tsuji, Yasuko Kitagishi, Atsuko Nakanishi, Toshiyuki Murai
Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative sickness, where the speed of personal disease progression differs prominently due to genetic and environmental factors such as life style. Alzheimer’s disease is described by the construction of neuronal plaques and neurofibrillary tangles composed of phosphorylated tau protein. Mitochondrial dysfunction may be a noticeable feature of Alzheimer’s disease and increased production of reactive oxygen species has long been described. Superoxide dismutases (SODs) protect from excess reactive oxygen species to form less reactive hydrogen peroxide...
April 20, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676856/age-related-changes-in-cortical-and-subcortical-structures-of-healthy-adult-brains-a-surface-based-morphometry-study
#5
Fenglian Zheng, Yulin Liu, Zilong Yuan, Xiaodong Gao, Yaoyao He, Xiaojing Liu, Dong Cui, Rui Qi, Tiao Chen, Jianfeng Qiu
BACKGROUND: Cerebral structures in both cortical and subcortical regions change with aging. More specific and comprehensive studies are needed to better elucidate these changes. PURPOSE: To investigate the relationships between age and cerebral structures regarding cortical and subcortical changes. STUDY TYPE: Cross-cohort research. POPULATION: 54 healthy adults (28 females) aged 21-71 years. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: T1 -weighted imaging was performed at 1...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676844/differentiation-of-brain-infection-from-necrotic-glioblastoma-using-combined-analysis-of-diffusion-and-perfusion-mri
#6
Sanjeev Chawla, Sumei Wang, Suyash Mohan, MacLean Nasrallah, Gaurav Verma, Steven Brem, Donald M O'Rourke, Ronald L Wolf, Harish Poptani, S Ali Nabavizadeh
BACKGROUND: Accurate differentiation of brain infections from necrotic glioblastomas (GBMs) may not always be possible on morphologic MRI or on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted imaging (DSC-PWI) if these techniques are used independently. PURPOSE: To investigate the combined analysis of DTI and DSC-PWI in distinguishing brain injections from necrotic GBMs. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective. POPULATION: Fourteen patients with brain infections and 21 patients with necrotic GBMs...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676814/potential-of-carnosine-a-histamine-precursor-in-rat-model-of-bilateral-common-carotid-artery-occlusion-induced-vascular-dementia
#7
Nidhi Tiwari, Pankaj Bhatia, Amit Kumar, Amteshwar S Jaggi, Nirmal Singh
The present study investigates the potential of Carnosine a histamine precursor, in rat model of bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAo) induced vascular dementia (VaD). Wistar rats were subjected to BCCAo procedure under anesthesia to induce VaD. The rats were subjected to Morris water-maze (MWM) test (6th day onwards post-surgery). MWM test was employed to assess learning and memory of the animals whereby ELT (escape latency time), TSTQ (time spent in target quadrant) and Path length (distance travelled) taken as important parameters...
April 20, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676112/-effect-of-animal-medicines-for-extinguishing-wind-to-arrest-convulsions-on-central-nervous-system-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Zhi-Jie Yu, Jin-Song Li, Wei Peng, Ping Wang, Liang Xiong, Yu-Jie Liu, Ying Xu, Tao Sun
The human health is seriously affected by central nervous system(CNS) diseases, but the pathogenesis of CNS diseases is still not completely clear. Currently, the drugs used to treat CNS diseases are mainly receptor modulators and neurotransmitter inhibitors, which have serious side effects; and there are short of drugs for treating CNS diseases clinically. Studies suggest that animal medicines mainly include protein, polypeptide and small-molecule compounds, and have such pharmacological effects in calming, resisting convulsions and improving brain tissues...
March 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675823/impact-of-neurodegenerative-diseases-on-drug-binding-to-brain-tissues-from-animal-models-to-human-samples
#9
Ana Ugarte, David Corbacho, María S Aymerich, Ana García-Osta, Mar Cuadrado-Tejedor, Julen Oyarzabal
Drug efficacy in the central nervous system (CNS) requires an additional step after crossing the blood-brain barrier. Therapeutic agents must reach their targets in the brain to modulate them; thus, the free drug concentration hypothesis is a key parameter for in vivo pharmacology. Here, we report the impact of neurodegeneration (Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) compared with healthy controls) on the binding of 10 known drugs to postmortem brain tissues from animal models and humans. Unbound drug fractions, for some drugs, are significantly different between healthy and injured brain tissues (AD or PD)...
April 19, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674117/electroconvulsive-seizures-influence-dendritic-spine-morphology-and-bdnf-expression-in-a-neuroendocrine-model-of-depression
#10
Kristen R Maynard, John W Hobbs, Sumita K Rajpurohit, Keri Martinowich
BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a rapid and effective treatment for major depressive disorder. Chronic stress-induced depression causes dendrite atrophy and deficiencies in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which are reversed by anti-depressant drugs. Electroconvulsive seizures (ECS), an animal model of ECT, robustly increase BDNF expression and stimulate dendritic outgrowth. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to understand cellular and molecular plasticity mechanisms contributing to the efficacy of ECS following chronic stress-induced depression...
April 6, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673858/impact-of-high-intensity-interval-exercise-on-executive-function-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-healthy-college-aged-males
#11
Aaron L Slusher, Virginia T Patterson, Charles S Schwartz, Edmund O Acevedo
Prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent executive function is enhanced immediately following high intensity interval exercise (HIIE). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is considered a biomarker associated with enhanced execute functioning capacity at rest and in response to exercise. However, the mechanisms responsible for the acute exercise-induced BDNF response in plasma and serum differ, and it is likely that the utilization of BDNF in plasma and/or serum as a biomarker of improved executive function following HIIE may be limited...
April 16, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673289/systematic-review-of-the-pharmacological-agents-that-have-been-tested-against-spreading-depolarizations
#12
Anna Klass, Renan Sánchez-Porras, Edgar Santos
Spreading depolarization (SD) occurs alongside brain injuries and it can lead to neuronal damage. Therefore, pharmacological modulation of SD can constitute a therapeutic approach to reduce its detrimental effects and to improve the clinical outcome of patients. The major objective of this article was to produce a systematic review of all the drugs that have been tested against SD. Of the substances that have been examined, most have been shown to modulate certain SD characteristics. Only a few have succeeded in significantly inhibiting SD...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672342/outcomes-of-adoptive-cell-transfer-with-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-for-metastatic-melanoma-patients-with-and-without-brain-metastases
#13
Gautam U Mehta, Parisa Malekzadeh, Thomas Shelton, Donald E White, John A Butman, James C Yang, Udai S Kammula, Stephanie L Goff, Steven A Rosenberg, Richard M Sherry
Brain metastases cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients with metastatic melanoma. Although adoptive cell therapy (ACT) with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) can achieve complete and durable remission of advanced cutaneous melanoma, the efficacy of this therapy for brain metastases is unclear. Records of patients with M1c melanoma treated with ACT using TIL, including patients with treated and untreated brain metastases, were analyzed. Treatment consisted of preparative chemotherapy, autologous TIL infusion, and high-dose interleukin-2...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672301/neurobiological-mechanisms-mediating-emotion-dysregulation-as-targets-of-change-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#14
Sabine C Herpertz, Isabella Schneider, Christian Schmahl, Katja Bertsch
Emotion dysregulation is a hallmark of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Most interventions for patients with BPD, therefore, aim at the improvement of emotion regulation. In the current paper, we provide an overview of studies investigating the effects of psychotherapeutic or pharmacological interventions on neurobiological correlates of various aspects of emotion regulation. In fact, studies suggest that the prefrontal-limbic circuit may play a major role in mediating effects of clinically efficacious psychotherapeutic treatments, i...
April 19, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672039/discovery-of-allosteric-potent-subtype-selective-and-peripherally-restricted-trka-kinase-inhibitors
#15
Sharan K Bagal, Kiyoyuki Omoto, David C Blakemore, Peter J Bungay, James G Bilsland, Philip J Clarke, Matthew S Corbett, Ciarán N Cronin, Jingrong Jean Cui, Rebecca Dias, Neil J Flanagan, Samantha E Greasley, Rachel Grimley, Eric Johnson, David Fengas, Linda Kitching, Michelle L Kraus, Indrawan McAlpine, Asako Nagata, Gareth J Waldron, Joseph S Warmus
Tropomyosin receptor kinases are a family of three tyrosine kinases (TrkA, TrkB, TrkC) activated by peptide hormones of the neurotrophin family: nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin 3 (NT3) and neurotrophin 4 (NT4). The NGF antibody tanezumab has provided clinical proof of concept for inhibition of the TrkA kinase pathway in pain. In turn, this has led to significant interest in the development of small molecule inhibitors of TrkA as an alternative intervention point on the NGF pathway...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671647/deep-brain-stimulation-for-trigeminal-autonomic-cephalalgias
#16
Giuseppe Messina, Giovanni Broggi, Vincenzo Levi, Angelo Franzini
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the posterior hypothalamic region (pHyr) has been shown to be efficacious for more than a half of patients suffering from trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs); nonetheless, controversies about the mechanisms of action and the actual site of stimulation have arisen in recent years. Areas covered: Firstly, a review of the most recent literature on the subject is presented, stressing the critical points that could, in the future, make a difference for optimal management of patients afflicted by these life-threating diseases...
April 19, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671416/pharmacological-approaches-promoting-stem-cell-based-therapy-following-ischemic-stroke-insults
#17
REVIEW
Shu-Zhen Zhu, Vivian Szeto, Mei-Hua Bao, Hong-Shuo Sun, Zhong-Ping Feng
Stroke can lead to long-term neurological deficits. Adult neurogenesis, the continuous generation of newborn neurons in distinct regions of the brain throughout life, has been considered as one of the appoaches to restore the neurological function following ischemic stroke. However, ischemia-induced spontaneous neurogenesis is not suffcient, thus cell-based therapy, including infusing exogenous stem cells or stimulating endogenous stem cells to help repair of injured brain, has been studied in numerous animal experiments and some pilot clinical trials...
April 19, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670409/safinamide-an-add-on-treatment-for-managing-parkinson-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
Thomas Müller
Heterogeneous expression of neurotransmitter deficits results from onset and progression of Parkinson's disease. Intervals, characterized by reappearance of motor and associated certain nonmotor symptoms, determine the end of good tolerability and efficacy of oral levodopa therapy. These "OFF" states result from levodopa pharmacokinetics and disease progression-related deterioration of the central buffering capacity for fluctuations of dopamine levels. This review discusses safinamide as an add-on therapeutic agent in orally levodopa-treated patients with "OFF" phenomena...
2018: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670367/pet-ct-evaluation-of-the-curative-effect-of-crizotinib-on-malignant-myofibroblastoma-with-rare-mutation-of-alk-r401-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#19
Li Yang, Yufeng Wu, Hong Tang, Jiuzhou Zhao, Dongdong Zhao, Sen Yang, Qiming Wang
Objective: The purpose of this article is to explore the targeted treatment of malignant myofibroblastoma and evaluate the role of neoplasm metabolite markers in the evaluation of efficacy after targeted therapy. Method: This report described a case of myofibroblastic sarcoma with rare mutation of ALK R401 in a 58-year-old man prescribed with crizotinib, to evaluate its curative effect by positron emission tomography coupled with computed tomography (PET-CT). After the progressive disease in the brain, bevacizumab combined with crizotinib was administered...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669582/galantamine-improves-cognition-hippocampal-inflammation-and-synaptic-plasticity-impairments-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide-in-mice
#20
Yi Liu, Yuyun Zhang, Xian Zheng, Tongyong Fang, Xia Yang, Xuan Luo, Anlei Guo, Kelly A Newell, Xu-Feng Huang, Yinghua Yu
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the onset and progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) levels are higher in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients and are associated with neuroinflammation and cognitive decline, while neural cholinergic signaling controls inflammation. This study aimed to examine the efficacy of galantamine, a clinically approved cholinergic agent, in alleviating LPS-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive decline as well as the associated mechanism...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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