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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245000/does-traumatic-brain-injury-hold-the-key-to-the-alzheimer-s-puzzle
#1
Robert E Becker, Dimitrios Kapogiannis, Nigel H Greig
INTRODUCTION: Neurodegenerative disorders have been a graveyard for hundreds of well-intentioned efforts at drug discovery and development. Concussion and other traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) share many overlapping pathologies and possible clinical links. METHODS: We searched the literature since 1995 using MEDLINE and Google Scholar for the terms concussion, AD, and shared neuropathologies. We also studied a TBI animal model as a supplement to transgenic (Tg) mouse AD models for evaluating AD drug efficacy by preventing neuronal losses...
December 12, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244782/efficacy-of-blunt-force-trauma-a-novel-mechanical-cervical-dislocation-device-and-a-non-penetrating-captive-bolt-device-for-on-farm-euthanasia-of-pre-weaned-kits-growers-and-adult-commercial-meat-rabbits
#2
Jessica L Walsh, Aaron Percival, Patricia V Turner
The commercial meat rabbit industry is without validated on-farm euthanasia methods, potentially resulting in inadequate euthanasia protocols. We evaluated blunt force trauma (BFT), a mechanical cervical dislocation device (MCD), and a non-penetrating captive bolt device (NPCB) for euthanasia of pre-weaned kits, growers, and adult rabbits. Trials were conducted on three commercial meat rabbit farms using 170 cull rabbits. Insensibility was assessed by evaluating absence of brainstem and spinal reflexes, rhythmic breathing, and vocalizations...
December 15, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244620/calming-cycle-theory-and-the-co-regulation-of-oxytocin
#3
Martha G Welch, Robert J Ludwig
The biological functions of oxytocin in attachment and bonding between mother and infant in parturition and breastfeeding and between adults have been studied extensively. However, most current authors have proposed that infant attachment to the mother is learned through operant conditioning mechanisms via the infant's brain and central nervous system. We propose that oxytocin levels in the mother and infant are co-regulated by emotional connection or disconnection, and that the autonomic co-conditioning learning mechanism can be exploited to change a negative physiological and behavioral response between mother and infant into a positive one...
2017: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244062/longitudinal-course-and-predictors-of-apathetic-symptoms-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Annabelle Arnould, Lucien Rochat, Philippe Azouvi, Martial Van der Linden
Objectives: Apathy is one of the most common behavioral symptoms encountered after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, very little is known about the longitudinal course and predictors of apathetic manifestations. The aims of the present study were to examine how apathy changes and the predictive value of cognitive factors (memory, attention/executive mechanisms, and multitasking) and personal identity factors (self-esteem and self-efficacy beliefs) for apathy over a period of 10 months...
December 13, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243413/clinical-response-to-apatinib-monotherapy-in-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#5
Jianping Xu, Xiaoyan Liu, Sheng Yang, Xiangru Zhang, Yuankai Shi
AIM: Apatinib, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor mainly targeting VEGFR-2, exerts both antiangiogenesis and antiproliferation effects. Apatinib shows clinical benefit in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) at an initial dose of 750 mg qd. We further assessed the efficacy and safety of apatinib at a more frequently used dose of 500 mg qd. The preliminary clinical outcome of apatinib in patients with brain metastases was also reported. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 25 patients who received apatinib between August 2015 and May 2016...
December 15, 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243379/cultural-adaptation-of-a-neurobiologically-informed-intervention-in-local-and-international-contexts
#6
REVIEW
Eric Pakulak, Amanda Hampton Wray, Zayra Longoria, Alejandra Garcia Isaza, Courtney Stevens, Theodore Bell, Sarah Burlingame, Scott Klein, Samuel Berlinski, Orazio Attanasio, Helen Neville
The relationship between early adversity and numerous negative outcomes across the lifespan is evident in a wide range of societies and cultures (e.g., Pakulak, Stevens, & Neville, 2018). Among the most affected neural systems are those supporting attention, self-regulation, and stress regulation. As such, these systems represent targets for neurobiologically informed interventions addressing early adversity. In prior work with monolingual native English-speaking families, we showed that a two-generation intervention targeting these systems in families improves outcomes across multiple domains including child brain function for selective attention (for detail, see Neville et al...
December 2017: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243005/efficacy-and-safety-outcomes-in-vitamin-d-supplement-users-in-the-fingolimod-phase-3-trials
#7
Kira Hongell, Diego G Silva, Shannon Ritter, Daniela Piani Meier, Merja Soilu-Hänninen
BACKGROUND: Low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D have been associated with worse outcomes in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with interferon-beta. Association of vitamin D nutrition on the outcomes of other MS therapies has been studied less. OBJECTIVE: Whether patients in the phase 3 fingolimod trials using vitamin D supplements have better clinical, MRI and safety outcomes than non-users. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pooled data from phase 3 FREEDOMS trials was analyzed post hoc...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242137/sleep-deprivation-decreases-neuronal-excitability-and-responsiveness-in-rats-both-in-vivo-and-ex-vivo
#8
Sándor Borbély, Ildikó Világi, Zsófia Haraszti, Örs Szalontai, Tünde Hajnik, Attila Tóth, László Détári
Sleep deprivation has severe consequences for higher nervous functions. Its effects on neuronal excitability may be one of the most important factors underlying functional deterioration caused by sleep loss. In the present work, excitability changes were studied using two complementary in vivo and ex vivo models. Auditory evoked potentials were recorded from freely-moving animals in vivo. Amplitude of evoked responses showed a near-continuous decrease during deprivation. Prevention of sleep also reduced synaptic efficacy ex vivo, measured from brain slices derived from rats that underwent sleep deprivation...
December 11, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241912/radiofrequency-ablation-for-selective-reduction-in-complex-monochorionic-multiple-pregnancies-a-case-series
#9
Hong-Mei Wang, Hong-Yan Li, Xie-Tong Wang, Yan-Yun Wang, Lei Li, Bo Liang, Jing Wang, Jia Song
OBJECTIVE: To determine the safety and efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for selective fetal reduction in complex monochorionic multiple pregnancies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From July 2011 to January 2015, data on all cases treated with RFA were collected prospectively in our hospital. Indications, procedure details, cause of fetal demise and pregnancy outcomes were analyzed. Sonography and magnetic resonance imaging were performed to detect fetal brain damage...
December 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241898/patient-preferences-for-device-aided-treatments-indicated-for-advanced-parkinson-disease
#10
Thomas Marshall, Amy Pugh, Angelyn Fairchild, Steven Hass
BACKGROUND: Effective treatment for advanced Parkinson disease (PD) uncontrolled with oral medication includes device-aided therapies such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) and continuous levodopa-carbidopa infusion to the duodenum via a portable pump. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to quantify patient preferences for attributes of these device-aided treatments. METHODS: We administered a Web-enabled survey to 401 patients in the United States...
December 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241172/neurophysiological-monitoring-and-awake-craniotomy-for-resection-of-intracranial-gliomas
#11
Taiichi Saito, Manabu Tamura, Mikhail F Chernov, Soko Ikuta, Yoshihiro Muragaki, Takashi Maruyama
Aggressive resection of intracranial gliomas has a positive impact on patients' prognosis, but is associated with a risk of neurological complications. For preservation of brain functions and avoidance of major postoperative morbidity various methods of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring have been introduced into clinical practice. At present, somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), motor evoked potentials (MEP), visual evoked potentials (VEP), brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP), and electrocorticography (ECoG) are used routinely during neurosurgical procedures...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240833/vagal-nerve-stimulation-triggers-widespread-responses-and-alters-large-scale-functional-connectivity-in-the-rat-brain
#12
Jiayue Cao, Kun-Han Lu, Terry L Powley, Zhongming Liu
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a therapy for epilepsy and depression. However, its efficacy varies and its mechanism remains unclear. Prior studies have used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map brain activations with VNS in human brains, but have reported inconsistent findings. The source of inconsistency is likely attributable to the complex temporal characteristics of VNS-evoked fMRI responses that cannot be fully explained by simplified response models in the conventional model-based analysis for activation mapping...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240240/ultrasound-triggered-effects-of-the-microbubbles-coupled-to-gdnf-and-nurr1-loaded-pegylated-liposomes-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Peijian Yue, Lin Gao, Xuejing Wang, Xuebing Ding, Junfang Teng
The purpose of this study was to investigate ultrasound-triggered effects of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) + nuclear receptor-related factor 1 (Nurr1)-polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated liposomes-coupled microbubbles (PLs-GDNF+Nurr1-MBs) on behavioral impairment and neuron loss in a rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). The unloaded PEGylated liposomes-coupled microbubbles (PLs-MBs) were characterized for zeta potential, particle size, and concentration. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was used to establish the PD rat model...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239410/uptake-and-transcytosis-of-functionalized-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-in-an-in-vitro-blood-brain-barrier-model
#14
Angela Ivask, Emily H Pilkington, Thomas Blin, Aleksandr Käkinen, Heiki Vija, Meeri Visnapuu, John F Quinn, Michael R Whittaker, Ruirui Qiao, Thomas P Davis, Pu Chun Ke, Nicolas H Voelcker
Two major hurdles in nanomedicine are the limited strategies for synthesizing stealth nanoparticles and the poor efficacy of the nanoparticles in translocating across the blood brain barrier (BBB). Here we examined the uptake and transcytosis of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) grafted with biomimetic phosphorylcholine (PC) brushes in an in vitro BBB model system, and compared them with bare, PEG or PC-PEG mixture grafted IONPs. Hyperspectral imaging indicated IONP co-localization with cells. Quantitative analysis with total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry showed that after 24 h, 78% of PC grafted, 68-69% of PEG or PC-PEG grafted, and 30% of bare IONPs were taken up by the BBB...
December 14, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239394/quantitative-mr-image-analysis-for-brian-tumor
#15
Zeina A Shboul, Sayed M S Reza, Khan M Iftekharuddin
This paper presents an integrated quantitative MR image analysis framework to include all necessary steps such as MRI inhomogeneity correction, feature extraction, multiclass feature selection and multimodality abnormal brain tissue segmentation respectively. We first obtain mathematical algorithm to compute a novel Generalized multifractional Brownian motion (GmBm) texture feature. We then demonstrate efficacy of multiple multiresolution texture features including regular fractal dimension (FD) texture, and stochastic texture such as multifractional Brownian motion (mBm) and GmBm features for robust tumor and other abnormal tissue segmentation in brain MRI...
2018: VipIMAGE 2017 (2017)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239262/outcomes-following-proton-therapy-for-pediatric-ependymoma
#16
Daniel J Indelicato, Julie A Bradley, Ronny L Rotondo, Ronica H Nanda, Natalie Logie, Eric S Sandler, Philipp R Aldana, Nathan J Ranalli, Alexandra D Beier, Christopher G Morris, Nancy P Mendenhall
BACKGROUND: Proton therapy can reduce the low and intermediate radiation dose to uninvolved brain tissue in children with intracranial ependymomas, which may improve functional outcomes and reduce second malignancies in survivors. Accordingly, ependymoma has become the most common pediatric tumor treated with proton therapy, yet data on efficacy and toxicity are limited. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between June 2007 and February 2017, 179 children (≤21 years old) with nonmetastatic grade II/III intracranial ependymoma received proton therapy at our institution...
December 14, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239214/brainstem-metastases-treated-with-gamma-knife-stereotactic-radiosurgery-the-indiana-university-health-experience
#17
Ajay Patel, Homan Mohammadi, Tuo Dong, Kevin Ren-Yeh Shiue, Douglas Frye, Yi Le, Shaheryar Ansari, Gordon A Watson, James C Miller, Tim Lautenschlaeger
Brainstem metastases offer a unique challenge in cancer treatment, yet stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has proven to be an effective modality in treating these tumors. This report discusses the clinical outcomes of patients with brainstem metastases treated at Indiana University with Gamma Knife (GK) radiosurgery from 2008 to 2016. 19 brainstem metastases from 14 patients who had follow-up brain imaging were identified. Median tumor volume was 0.04 cc (range: 0.01-2.0 cc). Median prescribed dose was 17...
December 14, 2017: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239191/-advances-in-immunotherapy-of-malignant-melanoma
#18
I Krajsová
Development of immunotherapy has dramatically changed poor prognosis of metastatic malignant melanoma (MM). Inhibition of immune checkpoints represents a new effective treatment. Monoclonal antibodies against CTLA-4 ipilimumab and against PD-1 (programme death 1) nivolumab and pembrolizumab prolong progression free survival and overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced metastatic MM. Both achieved significant improvement in relapse-free survival and OS also in adjuvant setting. It looks like the efficacy of the combined immunotherapy of ipilimumab with anti-PD-1 antibodies is superior to the monotherapy, but combined therapy is accompanied by higher toxicity...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238831/numerical-study-of-transport-of-anti-cancer-drugs-in-heterogeneous-vasculature-of-human-brain-tumors-using-dce-mri
#19
Ajay Bhandari, Ankit Bansal, Anup Singh, Niraj Sinha
Systemic administration of drugs in tumors is a challenging task due to unorganized microvasculature and non-uniform extravasation. There is an imperative need to understand the transport behaviour of drugs when administered intravenously. In this study, a transport model is developed to understand the therapeutic efficacy of a free drug and liposome encapsulated drugs (LED), in heterogeneous vasculature of human brain tumors. Dynamic contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) data is employed to model the heterogeneity in tumor vasculature that is directly mapped onto the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238300/supervised-estimation-of-granger-based-causality-between-time-series
#20
Danilo Benozzo, Emanuele Olivetti, Paolo Avesani
Brain effective connectivity aims to detect causal interactions between distinct brain units and it is typically studied through the analysis of direct measurements of the neural activity, e.g., magneto/electroencephalography (M/EEG) signals. The literature on methods for causal inference is vast. It includes model-based methods in which a generative model of the data is assumed and model-free methods that directly infer causality from the probability distribution of the underlying stochastic process. Here, we firstly focus on the model-based methods developed from the Granger criterion of causality, which assumes the autoregressive model of the data...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
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