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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454155/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc-approaches-on-special-subgroups-and-unresolved-burning-questions
#1
REVIEW
J Remon, N Vilariño, N Reguart
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been incorporated in the treatment strategy of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Beyond the already approved indications in first- and second-line setting of advanced NSCLC, new data has recently emerged demonstrating its efficacy in locally advanced disease as maintenance after chemo-radiotherapy and currently several trials are also exploring its efficacy in earlier stages of the disease to evaluate whether these results could be extrapolated to the adjuvant setting...
February 8, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453777/intramuscular-allopregnanolone-and-ganaxolone-in-a-mouse-model-of-treatment-resistant-status-epilepticus
#2
Dorota Zolkowska, Chun-Yi Wu, Michael A Rogawski
Allopregnanolone (5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one) and its synthetic 3β-methyl analog, ganaxolone, are positive allosteric modulators of synaptic and extrasynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptors that exhibit antiseizure activity in diverse animal seizure models, including models of status epilepticus (SE). The 2 neuroactive steroids are being investigated as treatments for SE, including as a treatment for SE induced by chemical threat agents. Intramuscular injection is the preferred route of administration in the prehospital treatment of SE...
February 17, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453736/reproductive-epidemiology-of-glial-tumors-may-reveal-novel-treatments-high-dose-progestins-or-progesterone-antagonists-as-endocrino-immune-modifiers-against-glioma
#3
REVIEW
Meric A Altinoz, Aysel Ozpinar, Ilhan Elmaci
Female gender, contraceptives, and menopausal hormone replacement treatments containing progesterone analogues associate with higher risk of meningiomas yet with lower risk of gliomas. Progesterone receptor (PR) expression and mifepristone treatment was highly discussed for meningiomas. However, much less is known in regard to progesterone actions in gliomas despite PR expression strongly correlates with their grade. Meningiomas and gliomas may grow faster during gestation; but paradoxically, parousity reduces lifetime risk of gliomas which can be explained with dichotomous cell growth-stimulating and inhibitory actions of progesterone at low versus high levels...
February 17, 2018: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453679/the-impact-of-timing-of-immunotherapy-with-cranial-irradiation-in-melanoma-patients-with-brain-metastases-intracranial-progression-survival-and-toxicity
#4
Rifaquat Rahman, Alfonso Cortes, Andrzej Niemierko, Kevin S Oh, Keith T Flaherty, Donald P Lawrence, Ryan J Sullivan, Helen A Shih
Immunotherapy (IT) is increasingly incorporated in the management of metastatic melanoma patients with brain metastases, but the impact of timing of IT with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the temporal significance of IT in melanoma patients treated with cranial radiation therapy (RT) with respect to patterns of intracranial progression, overall survival (OS), and toxicity. We retrospectively reviewed consecutive melanoma patients with brain metastases undergoing cranial RT and IT between 2008 and 2015...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452771/radiation-therapy-as-an-effective-salvage-strategy-for-secondary-cns-lymphoma
#5
Sarah A Milgrom, Chelsea C Pinnix, T Linda Chi, Thinh H Vu, Jillian R Gunther, Tommy Sheu, Nathan Fowler, Jason R Westin, Loretta J Nastoupil, Yasuhiro Oki, Luis E Fayad, Sattva Neelapu, Maria Alma Rodriguez, Frederick B Hagemeister, Michelle A Fanale, Hun J Lee, Chitra Hosing, Sairah Ahmed, Yago Nieto, Elizabeth J Shpall, Bouthaina S Dabaja
PURPOSE: We assessed the efficacy of radiation therapy (RT) in the management of secondary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The cohort comprised 44 patients with systemic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) secondarily involving the brain and/or leptomeninges at initial diagnosis or relapse that was treated with RT. RESULTS: Of these patients, 29 (66%) were in systemic remission when CNS disease was diagnosed...
January 6, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452732/efficacy-of-pre-hospital-rapid-sequence-intubation-in-paediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-a-9-year-observational-study
#6
Stefan Heschl, Ben Meadley, Emily Andrew, Warwick Butt, Stephen Bernard, Karen Smith
INTRODUCTION: Prehospital airway management of the paediatric patient with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is controversial. Endotracheal intubation of children in the field requires specific skills and has potential benefits but also carries potentially serious complications. We aimed to compare mortality and functional outcomes after six months between children with TBI who either underwent prehospital rapid sequence intubation (RSI) by trained Intensive Care paramedics (ICP) or received no intubation...
February 12, 2018: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452213/nanoemulsion-of-atovaquone-as-a-promising-approach-for-treatment-of-acute-and-chronic-toxoplasmosis
#7
Sanaz Jafarpour Azami, Amir Amani, Hossein Keshavarz, Roqya Najafi-Taher, Mehdi Mohebali, Mohammad Ali Faramarzi, Mahmood Mahmoudi, Saeedeh Shojaee
Treatment of toxoplasmosis is necessary in congenital form and immunocompromised patients. Atovaquone is a powerful suppressor of protozoan parasites with a broad-spectrum activity, but an extremely low water solubility and bioavailability. In this study, nanoemulsion of this drug was prepared with grape seed oil using spontaneous emulsification method to increase bioavailability and efficacy of atovaquone for treatment of toxoplasmosis. In vitro activity of atovaquone nanoemulsion against T. gondii, RH and Tehran strains, was assessed in HeLa cell culture...
February 13, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451456/clival-meningocele-causing-bilateral-hearing-loss-in-a-child-due-to-superficial-siderosis-of-the-central-nervous-system-case-report
#8
Stephen J Johans, Kevin N Swong, Daniel J Burkett, Michael P Wemhoff, Sean M Lew, Chirag R Patel, Anand V Germanwala
Superficial siderosis (SS) of the CNS is a rare and often unrecognized condition. Caused by hemosiderin deposition from chronic, repetitive hemorrhage in the subarachnoid space, it results in parenchymal damage in the subpial layers of the brain and spinal cord. T2-weighted MRI shows the characteristic hypointensity of hemosiderin deposition, classically occurring around the cerebellum, brainstem, and spinal cord. Patients present with progressive gait ataxia and sensorineural hearing impairment. Although there have been several studies, case reports, and review articles over the years, the clear pathophysiology of subarachnoid space hemorrhage remains to be elucidated...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451454/efficacy-of-intraoperative-ultrasonography-in-neurosurgical-tumor-resection
#9
Jared F Sweeney, Heather Smith, AmiLyn Taplin, Eric Perloff, Matthew A Adamo
OBJECTIVE Intraoperative ultrasonography (IOUS) is a widely accessible imaging modality that provides real-time surgical guidance with minimal identified risk or additional operative time. A recent study by the authors found a strong correlation between IOUS and postoperative MRI findings when evaluating the extent of tumor resection, suggesting that IOUS might have significant clinical implications. The objective of this study was to expand on results from the previous study in order to provide more evidence on the usage of IOUS in the determination of gross-total resection (GTR) in both adult and pediatric patients with brain tumors...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451447/peripheral-nerve-grafts-implanted-into-the-substantia-nigra-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-during-deep-brain-stimulation-surgery-1-year-follow-up-study-of-safety-feasibility-and-clinical-outcome
#10
Craig G van Horne, Jorge E Quintero, John T Slevin, Amelia Anderson-Mooney, Julie A Gurwell, Andrew S Welleford, John R Lamm, Renee P Wagner, Greg A Gerhardt
OBJECTIVE Currently, there is no treatment that slows or halts the progression of Parkinson's disease. Delivery of various neurotrophic factors to restore dopaminergic function has become a focus of study in an effort to fill this unmet need for patients with Parkinson's disease. Schwann cells provide a readily available source of such factors. This study presents a 12-month evaluation of safety and feasibility, as well as the clinical response, of implanting autologous peripheral nerve grafts into the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson's disease at the time of deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451340/therapeutic-neural-stem-cells-engineered-during-different-stages-of-reprogramming-reveal-varying-therapeutic-efficacies
#11
Deepak Bhere, Rajiv Kumar Khajuria, William T Hendriks, Antara Bandyopadhyay, Tugba Bagci-Onder, Khalid Shah
Stem cells are emerging as promising treatment strategies for several brain disorders and pathologies including brain tumors. In this study, we explored the potential of creating induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derived therapeutic NSCs (ipNSC) by using either unmodified or gene-modified somatic cells and tested their fate and therapeutic efficacies in vitro and in vivo. We show that cells engineered in somatic state lose transgene-expression during the neural induction process, which is partially restored by HDAC inhibitor (i) treatment whereas cells engineered at the ipNSC state have sustained expression of transgenes...
February 16, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451219/low-frequency-pulsed-electromagnetic-field-pretreated-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promote-the-regeneration-of-crush-injured-rat-mental-nerve
#12
NaRi Seo, Sung-Ho Lee, Kyung Won Ju, JaeMan Woo, BongJu Kim, SoungMin Kim, Jeong Won Jahng, Jong-Ho Lee
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been shown to promote the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) reportedly promotes the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of BMSCs. Low-frequency PEMF can induce the neuronal differentiation of BMSCs in the absence of nerve growth factors. This study was designed to investigate the effects of low-frequency PEMF pretreatment on the proliferation and function of BMSCs and the effects of low-frequency PEMF pre-treated BMSCs on the regeneration of injured peripheral nerve using in vitro and in vivo experiments...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450203/real-life-experience-of-ceritinib-in-crizotinib-pretreated-alk-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients
#13
Jacques Cadranel, Alexis B Cortot, Hervé Lena, Bertrand Mennecier, Pascal Do, Eric Dansin, Julien Mazieres, Christos Chouaid, Maurice Perol, Fabrice Barlesi, Gilles Robinet, Sylvie Friard, Luc Thiberville, Clarisse Audigier-Valette, Alain Vergnenegre, Virginie Westeel, Khemaies Slimane, Alexandru Buturuga, Denis Moro-Sibilot, Benjamin Besse
Here we report our experience of ceritinib in crizotinib-pretreated patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase ( ALK ) positive ( ALK + ) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a French temporary authorisation for use (TAU) study. The French TAU study included crizotinib-pretreated patients with advanced ALK + or ROS proto-oncogene 1 positive ( ROS1 + ) tumours. Patients received oral ceritinib (750 mg·day -1 as a starting dose) and best tumour response (as evaluated by the investigator) and safety were reported every 3 months...
January 2018: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449814/multisite-delayed-feedback-for-electrical-brain-stimulation
#14
Oleksandr V Popovych, Peter A Tass
Demand-controlled deep brain stimulation (DBS) appears to be a promising approach for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) as revealed by computational, pre-clinical and clinical studies. Stimulation delivery is adapted to brain activity, for example, to the amount of neuronal activity considered to be abnormal. Such a closed-loop stimulation setup might help to reduce the amount of stimulation current, thereby maintaining therapeutic efficacy. In the context of the development of stimulation techniques that aim to restore desynchronized neuronal activity on a long-term basis, specific closed-loop stimulation protocols were designed computationally...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448884/ameliorating-the-in-vivo-antimalarial-efficacy-of-artemether-using-nanostructured-lipid-carriers
#15
Vanka Ravisankar, Gowthamarajan Kuppusamy, Praveen Kumar Simhadri, Uday Krishna Baruah, Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri, Vimal Pandey, Phanithi Prakash Babu
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a fatal neurological complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection that affects children (below five years old) in sub-Saharan Africa and adults in South-East Asia each year having the fatality rate of 10-25%. The survivors of CM also have high risk of long term neurological or cognitive deficits. The objective of the present investigation was to develop optimized nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) of artemether (ARM) for enhanced anti-malarial efficacy of ARM.NLCs of ARM were prepared by a combination of high speed homogenization (HSH) and probe sonication techniques...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Microencapsulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447844/angiotensin-ii-facilitates-gabaergic-neurotransmission-at-postsynaptic-sites-in-rat-amygdala-neurons
#16
Bo Hu, Hu Qiao, Tian Cao, Bo Sun, Xiao Luo, Ru Jia, Yuanyuan Fan, Nan Wang, Yi Lu, Jianqun Yan
The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is critical in the regulation of sodium appetite. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is important in the generation of sodium appetite and may function as a neurotransmitter or modulator to affect the synaptic transmission and the excitability of neurons. However, the role of Ang II in the CeA remains unclear. In this study, we determined the effects of Ang II on the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to the CeA neurons in brain slices with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings...
February 12, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447137/emerging-therapies-for-neuropathic-pain-new-molecules-or-new-indications-for-old-treatments
#17
Didier Bouhassira, Nadine Attal
Neuropathic pain represents a highly unmet medical need because most of the available treatments have a modest efficacy or dose-limiting side effects. Hence, novel therapeutic perspectives are warranted. Many compounds acting on new pain targets are in preclinical or early clinical development. Only few clinical trials have suggested their clinical relevance in neuropathic pain. This concerns in particular NaV1.7 antagonists and angiotensin type II inhibitors. Another type of emerging drug therapy in neuropathic pain is represented by drugs largely used for other indications, such as botulinum toxin A and the antiepileptic oxcarbazepine, which have recently found to be effective in peripheral neuropathic pain...
March 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446722/herbal-compounds-with-special-reference-to-gastrodin-as-potential-therapeutic-agents-for-microglia-mediated-neuroin%C3%AF-ammation
#18
Juan-Juan Li, Shun-Jin Liu, Xiao-Yu Liu, Eng-Ang Ling
BACKGROUND: Activated microglia play a pivotal role neurodegenerative diseases by producing a variety of proinflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1bea (IL-1β) and nitric oxide (NO) that are toxic to neurons and oligodendrocytes. METHODS: In view of the above, suppression of microglia mediated neuroinflammation is deemed a therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative diseases. Several potential Chinese herbal extracts have been reported to exert neuroprotective effects against neurodegenerative diseases targeting specifically at the activated microglia...
February 14, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446659/association-analysis-of-the-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-gene-val66met-polymorphism-and-gender-with-efficacy-of-antidepressants-in-the-chinese-han-population-with-generalized-anxiety-disorder
#19
Min Lin, Jianying Zhu, Yonggui Yuan, Lie Ren, Mincai Qian, Zhongxia Shen, Yongliang Shao, Xinhua Shen
BACKGROUND AND AIM: This study was designed to explore the relationship between the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism and antidepressants' efficacy in the Chinese Han population with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited 206 patients who met the diagnostic criteria for GAD into the test group, and assigned 209 healthy participants to the control group. All participants were genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism...
February 15, 2018: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446508/accelerated-t-2-mapping-combining-parallel-mri-and-model-based-reconstruction-grappatini
#20
Tom Hilbert, Tilman J Sumpf, Elisabeth Weiland, Jens Frahm, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Reto Meuli, Tobias Kober, Gunnar Krueger
BACKGROUND: Quantitative T 2 measurements are sensitive to intra- and extracellular water accumulation and myelin loss. Therefore, quantitative T 2 promises to be a good biomarker of disease. However, T 2 measurements require long acquisition times. PURPOSE: To accelerate T 2 quantification and subsequent generation of synthetic T 2 -weighted (T 2 -w) image contrast for clinical research and routine. To that end, a recently developed model-based approach for rapid T 2 and M 0 quantification (MARTINI) based on undersampling k-space, was extended by parallel imaging (GRAPPA) to enable high-resolution T 2 mapping with access to T 2 -w images in less than 2 minutes acquisition time for the entire brain...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
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