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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045782/non-covalent-protein-arginine-deiminase-pad-inhibitors-are-efficacious-in-animal-models-of-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Elizabeth J Curiel Tejeda, Angelica M Bello, Ewa Wasilewski, Adam Koebel, Shannon Dunn, Lakshmi P Kotra
Peptidyl arginine deiminases have been shown to be hyperactive in neurodegenerative diseases including multiple sclerosis. An α-amino acid based core structure, derived from a hydantoin core, with unique heterocycles on the side chains, were synthesized as potential non-covalent inhibitors of PAD enzymes. Amongst the various heterocycles investigated, compound 23 carrying an imidazole moiety, exhibited the highest potency in this series with some selectivity for PAD2, and was further investigated in vivo. Pharmacokinetics in mice suggested the Cmax to be 12...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045548/bold-activity-during-correct-answer-feedback-in-cued-recall-predicts-subsequent-retrieval-performance-an-fmri-investigation-using-a-partial-trial-design
#2
Adrian W Gilmore, Steven M Nelson, Farah Naaz, Ruth A Shaffer, Kathleen B McDermott
Receiving correct answer feedback following a retrieval attempt has proven to be a highly effective means of learning new information, yet the mechanisms behind its efficacy remain poorly understood. Here, fMRI was used to examine how BOLD activity measured during a period of feedback could predict subsequent memory (SM) performance on a final test. Twenty-five human subjects studied pairs of associated words, and were then asked to covertly recall target words in response to provided cues. Correct answer feedback was provided immediately after covert retrieval attempts...
October 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045524/combined-irradiation-and-targeted-therapy-or-immune-checkpoint-blockade-in-brain-metastases-toxicities-and-efficacy
#3
A V Tallet, F Dhermain, E Le Rhun, G Noël, Y M Kirova
Background: Targeted therapies (TT) and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are currently modifying the landscape of metastatic cancer management and are increasingly used over the course of many cancers treatment. They allow long-term survival with controlled extra-cerebral disease, contributing to the increasing incidence of brain metastases (BMs). Radiation therapy remains the cornerstone of BMs treatment (either whole brain irradiation or stereotactic radiosurgery), and investigating the safety profile of radiation therapy combined with TT or ICI is of high interest...
August 2, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045302/neurosteroid-levels-in-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-and-a-history-of-cannabis-use-disorders
#4
Brittany L Mason, Erin Van Enkevort, Francesca Filbey, Christine E Marx, John Park, Alyson Nakamura, Prabha Sunderajan, E Sherwood Brown
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: In animal models, levels of the neurosteroid pregnenolone increase after tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration and pregnenolone appears to attenuate the brain effects of THC. Given these interactions between pregnenolone and THC, we evaluated baseline neurosteroid levels in participants with a history of a cannabis use disorders (CUDs). METHODS/PROCEDURES: Bipolar depressed participants were enrolled in a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of add-on pregnenolone for depression and before receiving pregnenolone or placebo...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043996/clinical-therapeutic-strategy-of-recombinant-human-brain-natriuretic-peptide-and-dopamine-in-cardiorenal-syndrome-type-4-patients-combined-with-hypotension
#5
Bing Han, Hua Li, Qiaoli Ma
Aim of the present study is to investigate the clinical efficacy of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP) and dopamine combination treatment in patients with cardiorenal syndrome type 4 (CRS4) combined with hypotension. A total of 160 CRS4 patients admitted to our hospital from July 2010 to December 2014 were recruited, and were randomly divided into two groups, the observational group (n=80) and the control group (n=80). CRS4 patients treated with dopamine were recruited into the control group...
July 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043770/a-novel-negative-allosteric-modulator-selective-for-glun2c-2d-containing-nmda-receptors-inhibits-synaptic-transmission-in-hippocampal-interneurons
#6
Sharon A Swanger, Katie M Vance, Timothy M Acker, Sommer S Zimmerman, John O DiRaddo, Scott J Myers, Christoffer Bundgaard, Cara A Mosley, Samantha L Summer, David S Menaldino, Henrik S Jensen, Dennis C Liotta, Stephen F Traynelis
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are ionotropic glutamate receptors that mediate excitatory synaptic transmission and have been implicated in numerous neurological disorders. NMDARs typically comprise two GluN1 and two GluN2 subunits. The four GluN2 subtypes (GluN2A-GluN2D) have distinct functional properties and gene expression patterns, which contribute to diverse functional roles for NMDARs in the brain. Here, we present a series of GluN2C/2D-selective negative allosteric modulators built around a N-aryl benzamide (NAB) core...
October 18, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042922/endoscopy-in-the-treatment-of-slit-ventricle-syndrome
#7
Jiaping Zheng, Guoqiang Chen, Qing Xiao, Yiyang Huang, Yupeng Guo
The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of endoscopy in the treatment of post-shunt placement for slit ventricle syndrome (SVS). Endoscopic surgery was performed on 18 patients with SVS between October 2004 and December 2012. Sex, age, causes of the hydrocephalus, ventricular size and imaging data were collected and analyzed. All patients were divided into two groups according to ventricular size and underwent endoscopic surgeries, including endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), endoscopic aqueductoplasty and cystocisternostomy...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042490/remote-ischemic-conditioning-may-improve-outcomes-of-patients-with-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#8
Yuan Wang, Ran Meng, Haiqing Song, Gang Liu, Yang Hua, Dehua Cui, Lemin Zheng, Wuwei Feng, David S Liebeskind, Marc Fisher, Xunming Ji
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) in patients with cerebral small-vessel disease. METHODS: Thirty patients with cerebral small-vessel disease-related mild cognitive impairment were enrolled in this prospective, randomized controlled study for 1 year. Besides routine medical treatment, participants were randomized into the experimental group (n=14) undergoing 5 cycles consisting of ischemia followed by reperfusion for 5 minutes on both upper limbs twice daily for 1 year or the control group (n=16) who were treated with sham ischemia-reperfusion cycles...
October 17, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042375/non-invasive-brain-stimulation-interventions-for-management-of-chronic-central-neuropathic-pain-a-scoping-review-protocol
#9
Mei Lin Chen, Lin Yao, Jennifer Boger, Kathryn Mercer, Benjamin Thompson, Ning Jiang
INTRODUCTION: Pain can affect people regardless of age, gender or ethnicity. Chronic central neuropathic pain (CCNP) is a debilitating condition that affects populations such as stroke survivors, amputees, spinal cord injury patients and patients with multiple sclerosis, with prevalence rates between 30% and 80%. This condition can be caused by a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system. CCNP is notoriously drug resistant, and few effective CCNP treatment or management strategies exist...
October 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042316/concurrent-repeated-exposure-to-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-and-cocaine-produce-locomotor-sensitization-with-minimal-effects-on-brain-monoamines
#10
REVIEW
Robert J Kohler, Shane A Perrine, Lisa E Baker
Synthetic cathinones, known as "bath salts" on the illicit drug market, pose a significant public health concern. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), one of several popular constituents of illicit bath salts, produces similar pharmacological actions to cocaine, albeit with greater potency and efficacy. The present study sought to characterize behavioral and neurochemical effects of repeated exposure to MDPV alone and in combination with cocaine. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one the following four treatments, administered once daily for seven days: 1 mg/kg MDPV, 5 mg/kg cocaine, 1 mg/kg MDPV +5 mg/kg cocaine, or saline...
October 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041954/combined-cognitive-and-vocational-interventions-after-mild-to-moderate-traumatic-brain-injury-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Emilie I Howe, Knut-Petter S Langlo, Hans Christoffer Aargaard Terjesen, Cecilie Røe, Anne-Kristine Schanke, Helene L Søberg, Unni Sveen, Eline Aas, Heidi Enehaug, Daniele E Alves, Pål Klethagen, Kjersti Sagstad, Christine M Moen, Karin Torsteinsbrend, Anne-Margrethe Linnestad, Tonje Haug Nordenmark, Birte Sand Rismyhr, Grete Wangen, Juan Lu, Jennie Ponsford, Elizabeth W Twamley, Helene Ugelstad, Øystein Spjelkavik, Marianne Løvstad, Nada Andelic
BACKGROUND: A considerable proportion of patients with mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) experience long-lasting somatic, cognitive, and emotional symptoms that may hamper their capacity to return to work (RTW). Although several studies have described medical, psychological, and work-related factors that predict RTW after TBI, well-controlled intervention studies regarding RTW are scarce. Furthermore, there has traditionally been weak collaboration among health-related rehabilitation services, the labor and welfare sector, and workplaces...
October 17, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040867/long-term-follow-up-of-anterior-thalamic-deep-brain-stimulation-in-epilepsy-a-11-year-single-center-experience
#12
Seong Hoon Kim, Sung Chul Lim, Jiyeon Kim, Byung-Chul Son, Kyung Jin Lee, Young-Min Shon
PURPOSE: Anterior thalamic deep brain stimulation (ATN DBS) is an emerging, effective treatment for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, but long-term results on its efficacy and safety are lacking. To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of ATN DBS treatment, as well as predictors of its success, in patients with drug-refractory epilepsy (DRE). METHOD: We retrospectively studied clinical outcomes in 29 consecutive refractory epilepsy patients treated by a single DBS team (two neurosurgeons, four neurologists) over an 11-year period, for whom follow-up was performed for up to 137 months (mean, 74...
October 14, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040703/evidence-and-context-of-use-for-contrast-enhancement-as-a-surrogate-of-disease-burden-and-treatment-response-in-malignant-glioma
#13
Benjamin M Ellingson, Patrick Y Wen, Timothy F Cloughesy
The use of contrast enhancement within the brain on CT or MRI has been the gold standard for diagnosis and therapeutic response assessment in malignant gliomas for decades. The use of contrast enhancing tumor size, however, remains controversial as a tool for accurately diagnosing and assessing treatment efficacy in malignant gliomas, particularly in the current, quickly evolving therapeutic landscape. The current article consolidates overwhelming evidence from hundreds of studies in the field of neuro-oncology, providing the necessary evidence base and specific contexts of use for consideration of contrast enhancing tumor size as an appropriate surrogate biomarker for disease burden and as a tool for measuring treatment response in malignant glioma, including glioblastoma...
October 12, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038383/biological-effects-of-mri-contrast-agents-gadolinium-retention-potential-mechanisms-and-a-role-for-phosphorus
#14
REVIEW
Joel Garcia, Stephen Z Liu, Angelique Y Louie
No discussion of challenges for chemistry in molecular imaging would be complete without addressing the elephant in the room-which is that the purest of chemical compounds needs to interact with a biological system in a manner that does not perturb normal biology while still providing efficacious feedback to assist in diagnosis of disease. In the past decade, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) agents long considered inert have produced adverse effects in certain patient populations under certain treatment regimens...
November 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037342/-pharmacological-treatment-of-apathy-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#15
Jorge Carlos Holguín Lew, Jessica Caamaño Jaraba, Alejandra Gómez Alzate, Catalina Hidalgo López, Daniel Felipe Marino Mondragón, Sebastián Restrepo Moreno, Liz Evelin Rico Abella
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Apathy, defined as a deficit for initiating and maintaining action, is a symptom affecting patients with diverse psychiatric and neuropsychiatric diseases, including dementia, sequelae of traumatic brain injury, schizophrenia, depression, and Parkinson's disease (PD). Apathy negatively affects function and quality of life of PD patients, and it is an important cause of caregiver's distress. The pharmacological treatment of apathy in PD is the focus of this systematic review...
October 2017: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037337/-social-cognition-and-its-contribution-to-the-rehabilitation-of-behavioural-disorders-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
José Ignacio Quemada, Olga Rusu, Paola Fonseca
Social behaviour disorders in traumatic brain injury are caused by the dysfunction of cognitive processes involved in social and interpersonal interaction. The concept of social cognition was introduced by authors studying schizophrenia, autism or mental retardation. The boundaries and the content of the concept have not yet been definitively defined, but theory of mind, empathy and emotional processing are included in all the models proposed. The strategies proposed to improve social behaviour focus on the restoration of cognitive processes such as working memory, emotional recognition and processing, and empathy, as well as social skills...
October 2017: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037245/reduced-antiretroviral-drug-efficacy-and-concentration-in-hiv-infected-microglia-contributes-to-viral-persistence-in-brain
#17
Eugene L Asahchop, Oussama Meziane, Manmeet K Mamik, Wing F Chan, William G Branton, Lothar Resch, M John Gill, Elie Haddad, Jean V Guimond, Mark A Wainberg, Glen B Baker, Eric A Cohen, Christopher Power
BACKGROUND: In patients with HIV/AIDS receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-1 persistence in brain tissue is a vital and unanswered question. HIV-1 infects and replicates in resident microglia and trafficking macrophages within the brain although the impact of individual ART drugs on viral infection within these brain myeloid cells is unknown. Herein, the effects of contemporary ART drugs were investigated using in vitro and in vivo models of HIV-1 brain infection. RESULTS: The EC50 values for specific ART drugs in HIV-infected human microglia were significantly higher compared to bone marrow-derived macrophages and peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
October 16, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037215/melanoma-brain-metastases-treated-with-stereotactic-radiosurgery-and-concurrent-pembrolizumab-display-marked-regression-efficacy-and-safety-of-combined-treatment
#18
Erik S Anderson, Michael A Postow, Jedd D Wolchok, Robert J Young, Åse Ballangrud, Timothy A Chan, Yoshiya Yamada, Kathryn Beal
BACKGROUND: Brain metastases are common in patients with metastatic melanoma. With increasing numbers of melanoma patients on anti-PD-1 therapy, we sought to evaluate the safety and initial response of brain metastases treated with concurrent pembrolizumab and radiation therapy. METHODS: From an institutional database, we retrospectively identified patients with melanoma brain metastases treated with radiation therapy (RT) who received concurrent pembrolizumab. Concurrent treatment was defined as RT during pembrolizumab administration period and up to 4 months after most recent pembrolizumab treatment...
October 17, 2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037162/feasibility-of-a-multi-modal-exercise-program-on-cognition-in-older-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#19
M L Callisaya, R M Daly, J E Sharman, D Bruce, T M E Davis, T Greenaway, M Nolan, R Beare, M G Schultz, T Phan, L C Blizzard, V K Srikanth
BACKGROUND: Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is associated with increased risk of dementia. We aimed to determine the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) examining the efficacy of exercise on cognition and brain structure in people with T2D. METHODS: A 6-month pilot parallel RCT of a progressive aerobic- and resistance-training program versus a gentle movement control group in people with T2D aged 50-75 years (n = 50) at the University of Tasmania, Australia...
October 16, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036840/efficacy-of-memory-aids-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-single-case-series
#20
Hannah R Bos, Duncan R Babbage, Janet M Leathem
BACKGROUND: Individuals living with traumatic brain injury commonly have difficulties with prospective memory- the ability to remember a planned action at the intended time. Traditionally a memory notebook has been recommended as a compensatory memory aid. Electronic devices have the advantage of providing a cue at the appropriate time to remind participants to refer to the memory aid and complete tasks. Research suggests these have potential benefit in neurorehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of a memory notebook and specifically a smartphone as a compensatory memory aid...
October 10, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
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