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Nicholas R Pagani, Antonio Cusano, Xinning Li
Latissimus dorsi tendon transfer is an effective option for young and active patients with massive irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears and intact subscapularis tendon. This approach has been shown to relieve pain and improve shoulder function in both the short and long term. We describe a surgical technique using an acromial osteotomy to better expose the greater tuberosity for the tendon transfer without disrupting the deltoid muscle. The latissimus dorsi tendon is reinforced with a human dermal collagen matrix (GraftJacket; Wright Medical Group) for additional augmentation of the muscle to gain more excursion for the tendon transfer to the greater tuberosity...
February 2018: Arthroscopy Techniques
Ping Jin, Caiyun Lv, Shuangli Peng, Lu Cai, Jiu Zhu, Fei Ma
The COMMD (COpper Metabolism gene MURR1 Domain) gene family with ten members participates in various biological processes, such as the regulation of copper and sodium transport, NF-κB activity and cell cycle progression. However, studies on the COMMD gene family in amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri) are yet largely unknown. In this study, we have identified and characterized the ten COMMD family members from amphioxus (designated as AmphiCOMMDs). Firstly, we clone the full length of AmphiCOMMDs, and all AmphiCOMMD proteins contain the conserved COMM domain with two NES (Nuclear Export Signal) motifs...
March 15, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Malgorzata A Gazda, Pedro Andrade, Sandra Afonso, Jolita Dilyte, John P Archer, Ricardo J Lopes, Rui Faria, Miguel Carneiro
Racing pigeons have been selectively bred to find their way home quickly over what are often extremely long distances. This breed is of substantial commercial value and is also an excellent avian model to gain empirical insights into the evolution of traits associated with flying performance and spatial orientation. Here, we investigate the molecular basis of the superior athletic and navigational capabilities of racing pigeons using whole-genome and RNA sequencing data. We inferred multiple signatures of positive selection distributed across the genome of racing pigeons...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Carey L Holleran, Patrick W Hennessey, Abigail L Leddy, Gordhan B Mahtani, Gabrielle Brazg, Brian D Schmit, T George Hornby
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous data suggest that large amounts of high-intensity stepping training in variable contexts (tasks and environments) may improve locomotor function, aerobic capacity, and treadmill gait kinematics in individuals poststroke. Whether similar training strategies are tolerated and efficacious for patients with other acute-onset neurological diagnoses, such as motor incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI), is unknown. Individuals with iSCI potentially have greater bilateral impairments...
April 2018: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
S C Ibeneme, C Ekanem, A Ezuma, N Iloanusi, N N Lasebikan, O A Lasebikan, O E Oboh
BACKGROUND: Depletion of ovarian hormone in postmenopausal women has been associated with changes in the locomotor apparatus that may compromise walking function including muscle atrophy/weakness, weight gain, and bone demineralization. Therefore, handgrip strength (HGS), bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition [percentage body fat mass (%BFM), fat mass (FM), Fat-free mass (FFM) and body mass index (BMI)], may significantly vary and predict WB in postmenopausal women. Consequently, the study sought to 1...
March 15, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Naoki Kikuchi, Koichi Nakazato
Aim: To investigate the effect of push-up training with a similar load of to 40% of 1- repetition maximumal (1RM) bench press on muscle hypertrophy and strength gain in men. Methods: Eighteen male participants (age, 20.2 ± 0.73 years, range: 19-22 years, height: 169.8 ± 4.4 cm, weight: 64.5 ± 4.7 kg) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups: bench press at 40%1RM (bench-press group, n = 9) or push-ups with position adjusted (e.g. kneeling) to the same load of bench-press 40%1RM (push-up group, n = 9), performed twice per week for 8 weeks...
June 2017: Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness
Enya Daynes, Neil J Greening, Theresa C Harvey-Dunstan, Sally J Singh
BACKGROUND: COPD is characterized by expiratory flow limitation, which results in symptomatic dyspnea and reduced exercise capacity. Changes in breathing mechanics mean the respiratory muscles are unable to respond to the ventilatory demands, increasing the sensation of dyspnea. A high-frequency oscillating device has been developed to improve dyspnea in patients with COPD. We conducted a feasibility trial to gain insight into the potential for recruitment, retention, and study design for a future randomized controlled trial...
March 13, 2018: Respiratory Care
Mathias T Vangsoe, Malte S Joergensen, Lars-Henrik L Heckmann, Mette Hansen
During prolonged resistance training, protein supplementation is known to promote morphological changes; however, no previous training studies have tested the effect of insect protein isolate in a human trial. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effect of insect protein as a dietary supplement to increase muscle hypertrophy and strength gains during prolonged resistance training in young men. Eighteen healthy young men performed resistance training four day/week for eight weeks. Subjects were block randomized into two groups consuming either an insect protein isolate or isocaloric carbohydrate supplementation within 1 h after training and pre-sleep on training days...
March 10, 2018: Nutrients
Belinda J Poole, Marius Mather, Evan J Livesey, Irina M Harris, Justin A Harris
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex produces motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in contralateral muscles. The amplitude of these MEPs can be used to measure the excitability of the corticospinal tract during motor planning. In two experiments, we investigated learning-related changes in corticospinal excitability as subjects prepared to respond in a choice reaction-time task. Subjects responded with their left or right hand to a left or right arrow, and on some trials the arrow was immediately preceded by a warning cue that signaled which response would be required...
February 21, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Marco A Minetto, Alberto Botter, Giulia Gamerro, Ilaria Varvello, Giuseppe Massazza, Rosa G Bellomo, Nicola A Maffiuletti, Raoul Saggini
BACKGROUND: The "contralateral effect" phenomenon refers to the strength gain in the opposite, untrained homonymous muscle following unilateral training. Previous studies showed that neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) of the right quadriceps facilitated maximal voluntary strength and efferent neural drive of the left knee extensors, while no previous study investigated the contralateral effect elicited by focal muscle vibration. AIM: To investigate whether quadriceps NMES and focal vibration, when applied unilaterally, have the same potential to enhance the contralateral muscle strength and the associated neural drive...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Cristian Cuadra, Angelo Bartsch, Paula Tiemann, Sasha Reschechtko, Mark L Latash
We explored whether the synergic control of the hand during multi-finger force production tasks depends on the hand muscles involved. Healthy subjects performed accurate force production tasks and targeted force pulses while pressing against loops positioned at the level of fingertips, middle phalanges, and proximal phalanges. This varied the involvement of the extrinsic and intrinsic finger flexors. The framework of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis was used to analyze the structure of inter-trial variance, motor equivalence, and anticipatory synergy adjustments prior to the force pulse in the spaces of finger forces and finger modes (hypothetical finger-specific control signals)...
March 12, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Samuel T Orange, Phil Marshall, Leigh A Madden, Rebecca V Vince
This study compared the effects of a 4-week supervised (SUP) and unsupervised (UNSUP) resistance training programme followed by 12 weeks of detraining (DET). Thirty-six healthy aging adults (age: 53.6 ± 3.6 years; body mass index: 28.3 ± 5.1 kg/m) were randomly allocated to a SUP group (n = 17) or an UNSUP group (n = 19). Participants completed three training sessions per week using resistance bands and body weight movements. Measures of physical performance were administered at baseline, at the end of the training programme, and after the DET period...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Xiao Ya Zhang, Xiangfang Zeng, Xutong Liu, Hongmin Jia, Pingli He, Shiyan Qiao, Xiangbing Mao
The objective of this study was to investigate whether valine (Val) supplementation in a reduced protein (RP) diet regulates growth performance associated with the changes in plasma amino acids (AAs) profile, metabolism, endocrine and neural system in piglets. Piglets or piglets with a catheter in the precaval vein were randomly assigned to two treatments, including two RP diets with standardized ileal digestible (SID) Val: Lysine (Lys) ratio of 0.45 and 0.65, respectively. The results indicated that piglets in the higher Val:Lys ratio treatment had higher average daily feed intake (ADFI) (P < 0...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Renee Zahnow, Jim McVeigh, Geoff Bates, Vivian Hope, Joseph Kean, John Campbell, Josie Smith
BACKGROUND: Despite recognition that the Anabolic Androgenic Steroid (AAS) using population is diverse, empirical studies to develop theories to conceptualise this variance in use have been limited. METHODS: In this study, using cluster analysis and multinomial logistic regression, we identify typologies of people who use AAS and examine variations in motivations for AAS use across types in a sample of 611 men who use AAS. RESULTS: The cluster analysis identified four groups in the data with different risk profiles...
March 8, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Long Wang, Li Cai, Shuaibin Lu, Hai Qian, Michael T Lawton, Xiang'en Shi
Internal maxillary artery (IMA) bypass has gain momentum in the last 5 years for the treatment of complex cerebrovascular disorders and skull base tumors. However, some issues regarding this treatment modality have been proposed. As one of the most experienced neurosurgical team to perform internal maxillary artery bypass in the world (>100 clinical cases), we reviewed literature in aspects of basic anatomy of maxillary artery with its variations to the lateral pterygoid muscle, initial anastomosis modalities and subsequent exposure techniques in cadaver studies, pre-operative arterial evaluation methods, optimal interposed graft selections and surgical outcome in the management of complex aneurysms, skull base tumors and steno-occlusive disorders...
March 7, 2018: World Neurosurgery
T Gabriel Enge, Heath Ecroyd, Dianne F Jolley, Justin J Yerbury, Bernadett Kalmar, Anthony Dosseto
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is among the most common of the motor neuron diseases, and arguably the most devastating. During the course of this fatal neurodegenerative disorder, motor neurons undergo progressive degeneration. The currently best-understood animal models of ALS are based on the over-expression of mutant isoforms of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1); these indicate that there is a perturbation in metal homeostasis with disease progression. Copper metabolism in particular is affected in the central nervous system (CNS) and muscle tissue...
March 7, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Hao Yin, Guang Han, Qiang Li, Xuejun He, Congyang Wang
OBJECTIVE: This research aimed to gain a better understanding of the relationship between cervical posterior open-door laminoplasty on axial symptoms, the net cross-sectional area of paraspinal muscles, and the degree of pimelosis. METHOD: A retrospective study was conducted on a consecutive series of 37 patients who had underwent cervical posterior open-door laminoplasty + lateral mass fixation and bone graft fusion between January 2015 and July 2015. All patients received postoperative examinations at 6 months and 18 months after the operation...
March 9, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Christian L Lino Cardenas, Chase W Kessinger, Yisha Cheng, Carolyn MacDonald, Thomas MacGillivray, Brian Ghoshhajra, Luai Huleihel, Saifar Nuri, Ashish S Yeri, Farouc A Jaffer, Naftali Kaminski, Patrick Ellinor, Neal L Weintraub, Rajeev Malhotra, Eric M Isselbacher, Mark E Lindsay
Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) has been associated with mutations affecting members of the TGF-β signaling pathway, or components and regulators of the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) actomyosin cytoskeleton. Although both clinical groups present similar phenotypes, the existence of potential common mechanisms of pathogenesis remain obscure. Here we show that mutations affecting TGF-β signaling and VSMC cytoskeleton both lead to the formation of a ternary complex comprising the histone deacetylase HDAC9, the chromatin-remodeling enzyme BRG1, and the long noncoding RNA MALAT1...
March 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Weiwei Fan, Nanhai He, Chun Shi Lin, Zong Wei, Nasun Hah, Wanda Waizenegger, Ming-Xiao He, Christopher Liddle, Ruth T Yu, Annette R Atkins, Michael Downes, Ronald M Evans
PGC1α is a pleiotropic co-factor that affects angiogenesis, mitochondrial biogenesis, and oxidative muscle remodeling via its association with multiple transcription factors, including the master oxidative nuclear receptor ERRγ. To decipher their epistatic relationship, we explored ERRγ gain of function in muscle-specific PGC1α/β double-knockout (PKO) mice. ERRγ-driven transcriptional reprogramming largely rescues muscle damage and improves muscle function in PKO mice, inducing mitochondrial biogenesis, antioxidant defense, angiogenesis, and a glycolytic-to-oxidative fiber-type transformation independent of PGC1α/β...
March 6, 2018: Cell Reports
Jin-Bo Li, Rui Zhang, Xiao Han, Chun-Li Piao
Obesity and its consequent type 2 diabetes are significant threats to global health. Emerging evidence indicates that ginsenosides from ginseng (Panax ginseng) have anti-diabetic activity. We hypothesized that ginsenosides Rg1 could suppress dietary-induced obesity and improve obesity-related glucose metabolic disorders. Our results showed that ginsenoside Rg1 attenuated dietary-induced body weight gain and fat accumulation in white adipocyte tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet. Furthermore, we found that ginsenosides Rg1 not only decreased fasting glucose concentration and the 2-h postprandial glucose concentration, but also improved insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in those mice...
March 1, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
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