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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141991/human-sex-hormone-binding-globulin-does-not-provide-metabolic-protection-against-dysglycemia-in-mice
#1
Yael Sofer, Nava Nevo, Michal Vechoropulus, Gabi Shefer, Esther Osher, Nathan Landis, Geoffrey L Hammond, Naftali Stern
BACKGROUND: Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is the main transporter of sex hormones in most vertebrates. Low SHBG levels have been linked to increased propensity for diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Polymorphisms of the SHBG gene linked to low SHBG protein levels, also strongly predicted increased risk of type 2 diabetes, thus raising the possibility that SHBG may play a role in the in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and diabetes. AIM: To examine whether expression of human SHBG in mice may ameliorate the development of diabetes and metabolic syndrome in response to a high fat diet...
November 15, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141853/the-effects-of-resistance-exercise-on-biomarkers-of-breast-cancer-prognosis-a-pooled-analysis-of-three-randomized-trials
#2
Kerri Winters-Stone, Lisa J Wood, Sydnee Stoyles, Nathan Dieckmann
BACKGROUND: Using a secondary data analysis from randomized controlled trials comparing one year of resistance exercise (N=109) to a placebo control condition (N=106) in postmenopausal, post-treatment breast cancer survivors, we investigated the influence of resistance training and changes in body composition on markers associated with cancer progression. METHODS: Measures included serum levels of insulin, IGF-1, IGFBP1-3, leptin, serum amyloid A (SAA), adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 and body composition (total, lean and fat mass in kg) by DXA at baseline, 6, and 12-months...
November 15, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140994/copy-number-gains-at-chr3p25-and-chr11p11-are-associated-with-lymph-node-involvement-and-survival-in-muscle-invasive-bladder-tumors
#3
Karla J Lindquist, Thomas Sanford, Terence W Friedlander, Pamela L Paris, Sima P Porten
Patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) have poorer prognoses if cancer has metastasized to the lymph nodes. Genomic markers of lymph node involvement (LNI) would be useful for treatment planning, especially if measured at the biopsy stage, but large-scale studies of tumor tissue at any stage are needed to discover robust markers of LNI. We performed a genome-wide query of copy number alterations (CNA) in 237 MIBC surgical tumor specimens from patients in The Cancer Genome Atlas who had radical cystectomy and lymphadenectomy without neoadjuvant treatment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140186/acute-effect-of-two-self-myofascial-release-protocols-on-hip-and-ankle-range-of-motion
#4
Amandda de Souza, Cristiano Gomes Sanchotene, Cristiano Moreira da Silva Lopes, Jader Alfredo Beck, Affonso Celso Kulevicz da Silva, Suzana Matheus Pereira, Caroline Ruschel
CONTEXT: Self-myofascial release (SMR) is an intervention popularly used by rehabilitation, fitness, and sports professionals to improve recovery and performance. In SMR, the athlete/patient himself applies pressure to the muscle and fascia, using various tools such as balls, rods, foam rolls and massagers. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the acute effect of two SMR protocols (short- and long-term) of the posterior thigh and calf muscles on hip and ankle range of motion (ROM) in physically active men...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136214/effects-of-dietary-supplemental-bile-acids-on-performance-carcass-characteristics-serum-lipid-metabolites-and-intestinal-enzyme-activities-of-broiler-chickens
#5
Wenqing Lai, Weigang Huang, Bing Dong, Aizhi Cao, Wenjuan Zhang, Juntao Li, Hui Wu, Liying Zhang
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of bile acids derived from swine on the growth performance, carcass traits, serum lipid metabolites and intestinal enzyme activities in broiler chickens. Four hundred thirty-two 1-day-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly assigned to 4 treatments with 6 replicates of 18 chicks each for 42 d. The experimental treatments received a corn-soybean basal diet containing lard and were as follows: 0 (control), 40 mg, 60 mg, and 80 mg bile acids/kg of diet...
November 9, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131494/antimicrobial-emulsifier-glycerol-monolaurate-induces-metabolic-syndrome-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-and-systemic-low-grade-inflammation-in-low-fat-diet-fed-mice
#6
Zengliang Jiang, Minjie Zhao, Hui Zhang, Yang Li, Mengyun Liu, Fengqin Feng
SCOPE: Glycerol monolaurate (GML) was widely consumed worldwide in food industry, and considered as safe, yet for chronic diseases, supporting scientific data remain sparse. This study was to investigate whether dietary GML induces metabolic syndrome, gut microbiota dysbiosis and systemic low-grade inflammation. METHODS AND RESULTS: GML-induced occurrence of metabolic syndrome, gut microbiota alterations and systemic low-grade inflammation were investigated. Our results demonstrated that GML induced metabolic syndrome by significantly increasing the body weight, weight gain, food intake, body fat, fat droplet size and percentage of epididymal fat, serum triglycerides (TG), LDL and atherogenic index, and decreasing the body muscle ratio, liver weight and HDL, compared to the CON group...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129081/identification-of-mature-atherosclerotic-plaque-proteome-signatures-using-data-independent-acquisition-mass-spectrometry
#7
Nicole Hansmeier, Josef Buttigieg, Pankaj Kumar, Shaneen Pelle, Kyoo Yoon Choi, David Kopriva, Tzu-Chiao Chao
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease with complex pathobiology and one of the most common causes of cardiovascular events. The process is characterized by complex vascular remodeling processes that require the actions of numerous proteins. The composition of atherosclerotic plaque is increasingly recognized as a major factor governing the occurrence of cardiovascular or neurological symptoms. In order to gain deeper insights in the composition of atherosclerotic plaques, we created quantitative proteome profiles of advanced plaque tissues of six male patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy for stroke prevention...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127601/interpreting-adaptation-to-concurrent-compared-with-single-mode-exercise-training-some-methodological-considerations
#8
REVIEW
Jackson J Fyfe, Jeremy P Loenneke
Incorporating both endurance and resistance training into an exercise regime is termed concurrent training. While there is evidence that concurrent training can attenuate resistance training-induced improvements in maximal strength and muscle hypertrophy, research findings are often equivocal, with some suggesting short-term concurrent training may instead further enhance muscle hypertrophy versus resistance training alone. These observations have questioned the validity of the purported 'interference effect' on muscle hypertrophy with concurrent versus single-mode resistance training...
November 10, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127356/a-transcriptomic-study-of-myogenic-differentiation-under-the-overexpression-of-ppar%C3%AE-by-rna-seq
#9
Kan He, Guoying Wu, Wen-Xing Li, Daogang Guan, Wenwen Lv, Mengting Gong, Shoudong Ye, Aiping Lu
To study the cellular and molecular function of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in skeletal muscle differentiation, we have generated inducible gain-of-function to overexpress PPARγ in C2C12 myoblasts. In order to identify PPARγ targets, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was used to evaluate and quantify the transcriptomes and expression patterns during myogenic differentiation under the overexpression of PPARγ. The formation of myotubes and the expression of muscle-specific myogenic genes such as MyoD and MyoG may be inhibited by PPARγ overexpression...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127112/reduced-expression-of-glutathione-s-transferase-%C3%AE-4-promotes-vascular-neointimal-hyperplasia-in-ckd
#10
Jinlong Luo, Guang Chen, Ming Liang, Aini Xie, Qingtian Li, Qunying Guo, Rajendra Sharma, Jizhong Cheng
Neointima formation is the leading cause of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) failure. We have shown that CKD accelerates this process by transforming the vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) lining the AVF from a contractile to the synthetic phenotype. However, the underlying mechanisms affecting this transformation are not clear. Previous studies have shown that the α-class glutathione transferase isozymes have an important role in regulating 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)-mediated proliferative signaling of cells. Here, using both the loss- and gain-of-function approaches, we investigated the role of glutathione S-transferase α4 (GSTA4) in modulating cellular 4-HNE levels for the transformation and proliferation of SMCs...
November 10, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126270/neural-plasticity-with-age-unilateral-maximal-strength-training-augments-efferent-neural-drive-to-the-contralateral-limb-in-older-adults
#11
Tiril Tøien, Runar Unhjem, Thomas Storehaug Øren, Ann Charlotte Gjertsen Kvellestad, Jan Hoff, Eivind Wang
Efferent neural drive during strong muscle contractions is attenuated with age, even after lifelong strength training. However, it is unknown if this deterioration may impede contralateral neural plasticity, and limit the clinical value of unilateral strength training. We assessed muscle force-generating capacity, evoked potentials recordings (V-wave and H-reflex normalized to M-wave; V/M-ratio and H/M-ratio) and voluntary activation (VA) in the plantar flexors of the contralateral limb following unilateral maximal strength training (MST) with the dominant limb for three weeks (9 sessions)...
November 4, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125226/loperamide-cardiotoxicity-a-brief-review
#12
REVIEW
Tamer Akel, Soad Bekheit
Loperamide is a popular antidiarrheal medication that has been used for many years. It is currently gaining more attention among healthcare professionals due to its increasing potential for side effects. At present, it is considered safe enough to be sold over the counter. In contrast with other opioid agonists, loperamide is a peripherally acting μ-receptor agonist exerting its effects mainly on the myenteric plexus of the gastrointestinal longitudinal muscle layer. It decreases peristalsis and fluid secretion resulting in longer gastrointestinal transit time...
November 10, 2017: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124309/gain-of-function-of-tmem16e-ano5-scrambling-activity-caused-by-a-mutation-associated-with-gnathodiaphyseal-dysplasia
#13
Eleonora Di Zanni, Antonella Gradogna, Joachim Scholz-Starke, Anna Boccaccio
Mutations in the human TMEM16E (ANO5) gene are associated both with the bone disease gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia (GDD; OMIM: 166260) and muscle dystrophies (OMIM: 611307, 613319). However, the physiological function of TMEM16E has remained unclear. We show here that human TMEM16E, when overexpressed in mammalian cell lines, displayed partial plasma membrane localization and gave rise to phospholipid scrambling (PLS) as well as non-selective ionic currents with slow time-dependent activation at highly depolarized membrane potentials...
November 9, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123926/spinal-excitability-changes-after-transspinal-and-transcortical-paired-associative-stimulation-in-humans
#14
Maria Knikou
Paired associative stimulation (PAS) produces enduring neuroplasticity based on Hebbian associative plasticity. This study established the changes in spinal motoneuronal excitability by pairing transcortical and transspinal stimulation. Transcortical stimulation was delivered after (transspinal-transcortical PAS) or before (transcortical-transspinal PAS) transspinal stimulation. Before and after 40 minutes of each PAS protocol, spinal neural excitability was assessed based on the amplitude of the transspinal-evoked potentials (TEPs) recorded from ankle muscles of both legs at different stimulation intensities (recruitment input-output curve)...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123629/effect-of-low-level-laser-therapy-and-strength-training-protocol-on-hand-grip-by-dynamometry
#15
Rafael Barbosa, Alexandre Marcolino, Vitor Souza, Guilherme Bertolino, Marisa Fonseca, Rinaldo Guirro
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) - 660 nm and 904 nm - before grip strength protocol in healthy subjects. Methods: The study included 45 healthy volunteers with an average age of 22.7 (±1.4) years, subdivided into the following groups, control group: grip strength training associated with placebo LLLT; 660 nm group: LLLT (660 nm, 20 J/cm(2), power of 30 mW, and beam area of 0.06 cm(2), continuous, energy 1.2 J, and exposure time 40 seconds per point) before grip strength training and 904 nm group: LLLT (904 nm, 10 J/cm(2), peak power of 70 W and 0...
2017: Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117630/biophysical-properties-of-microvascular-endothelium-requirements-for-initiating-and-conducting-electrical-signals
#16
Adam Kapela, Erik J Behringer, Steven S Segal, Nikolaos M Tsoukias
OBJECTIVE: Electrical signaling along the endothelium underlies spreading vasodilation and blood flow control. We use mathematical modeling to determine the electrical properties of the endothelium and gain insight into the biophysical determinants of electrical conduction. METHODS: Electrical conduction data along endothelial cell (EC) tubes (40 μm wide, 2.5 mm long) isolated from mouse skeletal muscle resistance arteries were analyzed using cable equations and a multicellular computational model...
November 8, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116382/selective-dorsal-rhizotomy-for-the-treatment-of-severe-spastic-cerebral-palsy-efficacy-and-therapeutic-durability-in-gmfcs-grade-iv-and-v-children
#17
Daniel D'Aquino, Ahmad A Moussa, Amr Ammar, Harshal Ingale, Michael Vloeberghs
BACKGROUND: Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) has been established as an effective surgical treatment for spastic diplegia. The applicability of SDR to the full spectrum of spastic cerebral palsy and the durability of its therapeutic effects remain under investigation. There are currently limited data in the literature regarding efficacy and outcomes following SDR in Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) IV and V patients. Intrathecal baclofen has traditionally been the surgical treatment of choice for these patients...
November 7, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115394/high-glucose-upregulates-endothelin-type-b-receptors-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-via-the-downregulation-of-sirt1
#18
Yan Lin, Yan Zhao, Enqi Liu
Silent information regulator family protein 1 (Sirt1) has recently gained attention for its protective effects against diabetic and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Vascular smooth muscle endothelin type B (ETB) receptors are involved in the pathogenesis of CVDs and diabetes. The aim of present study was to explore whether Sirt1 is involved in high glucose (HG)-mediated regulation of ETB receptors in rat superior mesenteric arteries (SMA). The rat SMA segments were cultured in the presence and absence of HG with or without the activator of Sirt1 and specific inhibitor for the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) for 24 h...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114531/effects-of-a-short-term-detraining-period-on-muscle-functionality-and-cognition-of-strength-trained-older-women-a-preliminary-report
#19
Hélio José Coelho, Bruno Rodrigues, Ivan de Oliveira Gonçalves, Marco Carlos Uchida
The present study aimed to investigate the impact of a 1-month detraining composed by Christmas and New Year's Day in the functional and cognitive parameters of 12 older women who had previously participated in 22-week moderate intensity strength training program (ST; n=6) or remained performing their regular habits of life during all study period, without engaging in physical exercise programs (CG; n=6). Transfer capacity (i.e., Timed Up and Go [TUG]) and executive function (i.e., TUG with a cognitive task) were increased in the ST group after the intervention...
October 2017: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112723/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies-of-the-als-ftld-protein-chchd10-reveal-novel-mitochondrial-topology-and-protein-interactions
#20
S R Burstein, F Valsecchi, H Kawamata, M Bourens, R Zeng, A Zuberi, T A Milner, S M Cloonan, C Lutz, A Barrientos, G Manfredi
Mutations in coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix-domain containing 10 (CHCHD10), a mitochondrial twin CX9C protein whose function is still unknown, cause myopathy, motor neuron disease, frontotemporal dementia, and Parkinson's disease. Here, we investigate CHCHD10 topology and its protein interactome, as well as the effects of CHCHD10 depletion or expression of disease-associated mutations in wild-type cells. We find that CHCHD10 associates with membranes in the mitochondrial intermembrane space, where it interacts with a closely related protein, CHCHD2...
November 3, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
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