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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792131/management-of-nursing-workplace-incivility-in-the-health-care-settings-a-systematic-review
#1
Nancy Armstrong
Workplace incivility is a well-documented issue in nursing in the health care setting. It has the potential to cause emotional and physical distress in victims and potentially affects the quality of care provided. The purpose of this study was to critique and summarize the most recent, available evidence related to interventions in assisting nursing staff working in health care settings in managing incivility. This systematic review of literature yielded 10 studies meeting the criteria. The studies were mostly identified as lower quality research...
May 1, 2018: Workplace Health & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791729/implementation-of-reach-up-early-childhood-parenting-program-acceptability-appropriateness-and-feasibility-in-brazil-and-zimbabwe
#2
Joanne A Smith, Helen Baker-Henningham, Alexandra Brentani, Rose Mugweni, Susan P Walker
Young children need nurturing care, which includes responsive caregiver-child interactions and opportunities to learn. However, there are few extant large-scale programs that build parents' abilities to provide this. We have developed an early childhood parenting training package, called Reach Up, with the aim of providing an evidence-based, adaptable program that is feasible for low-resource settings. Implementation of Reach Up was evaluated in Brazil and Zimbabwe to inform modifications needed and identify challenges that implementers and delivery agents encountered...
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791297/late-positive-component-event-related-potential-amplitude-predicts-long-term-classroom-based-learning
#3
Katherine W Turk, Ala'a A Elshaar, Rebecca G Deason, Nadine C Heyworth, Corrine Nagle, Bruno Frustace, Sean Flannery, Ann Zumwalt, Andrew E Budson
It is difficult to predict whether newly learned information will be retrievable in the future. A biomarker of long-lasting learning, capable of predicting an individual's future ability to retrieve a particular memory, could positively influence teaching and educational methods. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were investigated as a potential biomarker of long-lasting learning. Prior ERP studies have supported a dual-process model of recognition memory that categorizes recollection and familiarity as distinct memorial processes with distinct ERP correlates...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791023/comparison-of-the-cockcroft-gault-mdrd-and-ckd-epi-equations-for-estimating-ganciclovir-clearance
#4
Maria-Eugenia Palacio-Lacambra, Immaculada Comas-Reixach, Albert Blanco-Grau, Josep-Maria Suñé-Negre, Alfonso Segarra-Medrano, José-Bruno Montoro-Ronsano
BACKGROUND: Accurately estimating kidney function is essential for the safe administration of renally cleared drugs like ganciclovir. Current practice recommends adjusting renally eliminated drugs according to the Cockcroft-Gault equation. There is no data on the utility of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations in ganciclovir dosing. PURPOSE: To evaluate which renal function equation best predicts ganciclovir clearance...
May 23, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790957/cultivating-collaborations-site-specific-design-for-embodied-science-learning
#5
Katherine Gill, Jocelyn Glazier, Betsy Towns
Immersion in well-designed outdoor environments can foster the habits of mind that enable critical and authentic scientific questions to take root in students' minds. Here we share two design cases in which careful, collaborative, and intentional design of outdoor learning environments for informal inquiry provide people of all ages with embodied opportunities to learn about the natural world, developing the capacity for understanding ecology and the ability to empathize, problem-solve and reflect. Embodied learning, as facilitated by and in well-designed outdoor learning environments, leads students to develop new ways of seeing, new scientific questions, new ways to connect with ideas, with others and new ways of thinking about the natural world...
May 21, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790123/language-experience-shapes-relational-knowledge-of-compound-words
#6
Daniel Schmidtke, Christina L Gagné, Victor Kuperman, Thomas L Spalding
Prior studies of noun-noun compound word processing have provided insight into the human capacity for conceptual combination (Gagné and Shoben Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 23(1), 71 1997; Spalding, Gagné, Mullaly & Ji Linguistische Berichte Sonderheft, 17, 283-315 2010). These studies conclude that relational interpretations of compound words are proposed and appraised by the language system during online word recognition. However, little is known about how the capacity for creating new meanings from existing conceptual units develops within an individual mind...
May 22, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789932/the-cognitive-nuances-of-surprising-events-exposure-to-unexpected-stimuli-elicits-firing-variations-in-neurons-of-the-dorsal-ca1-hippocampus
#7
Ornella Valenti, Nace Mikus, Thomas Klausberger
The ability to recognize novel situations is among the most fascinating and vital of the brain functions. A hypothesis posits that encoding of novelty is prompted by failures in expectancy, according to computation matching incoming information with stored events. Thus, unexpected changes in context are detected within the hippocampus and transferred to downstream structures, eliciting the arousal of the dopamine system. Nevertheless, the precise locus of detection is a matter of debate. The dorsal CA1 hippocampus (dCA1) appears as an ideal candidate for operating a mismatch computation and discriminating the occurrence of diverse stimuli within the same environment...
May 22, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789368/the-case-for-an-expanded-concept-of-trained-immunity
#8
Antonio Cassone
Trained immunity was originally proposed as a program of innate immunity memory by innate immunity cells of hematopoietic origin such as the monocytes/macrophages and the NK cells. Here I discuss some old and new data justifying this program and some specific, still unanswered, questions it raises regarding the model fungus Candida albicans and the chronic, inflammatory vulvovaginal disease it causes. Building upon this well-established program, the recent reports that epithelial cells of mammals can also acquire memory from previous stimulations, and the apparent intrinsic ability of many living cells from bacteria to mammals to learn from experience, I suggest an expansion of the concept of trained immunity to include all cells of different lineages with the potential of memorizing previous microbial encounters...
May 22, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789099/building-capacity-for-change-evaluation-of-an-organisation-wide-leadership-development-program
#9
Tim Schultz, Jodie Shoobridge, Gill Harvey, Libby Carter, Alison Kitson
Objective. This study evaluated Leading 4 Change, a change leadership development program designed to support healthcare middle managers through a period of significant organisational change and enhance workplace resilience. Methods. A mixed methods evaluation was conducted within the program's framework of a quality improvement activity. Quantitative measures were participant responses (n=160) to online questionnaires, which were compared before and after the program, using an uncontrolled pre-post study design...
May 23, 2018: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789037/a-comparison-of-statistical-and-machine-learning-techniques-in-evaluating-the-association-between-dietary-patterns-and-10-year-cardiometabolic-risk-2002-2012-the-attica-study
#10
Dimitris Panaretos, Efi Koloverou, Alexandros C Dimopoulos, Georgia-Maria Kouli, Malvina Vamvakari, George Tzavelas, Christos Pitsavos, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos
Statistical methods are usually applied in examining diet-disease associations, whereas factor analysis is commonly used for dietary pattern recognition. Recently, machine learning (ML) has been also proposed as an alternative technique in health classification. In this work, the predictive accuracy of statistical v. ML methodologies as regards the association of dietary patterns on CVD risk was tested. During 2001-2002, 3042 men and women (45 (sd 14) years) were enrolled in the ATTICA study. In 2011-2012, the 10-year CVD follow-up was performed among 2020 participants...
May 23, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789017/leveraging-routine-clinical-materials-and-mobile-technology-to-assess-cbt-fidelity-the-innovative-methods-to-assess-psychotherapy-practices-imapp-study
#11
Shannon Wiltsey Stirman, Luana Marques, Torrey A Creed, Cassidy A Gutner, Robert DeRubeis, Paul G Barnett, Eric Kuhn, Michael Suvak, Jason Owen, Dawne Vogt, Booil Jo, Sonja Schoenwald, Clara Johnson, Kera Mallard, Matthew Beristianos, Heidi La Bash
BACKGROUND: Identifying scalable strategies for assessing fidelity is a key challenge in implementation science. However, for psychosocial interventions, the existing, reliable ways to test treatment fidelity quality are often labor intensive, and less burdensome strategies may not reflect actual clinical practice. Cognitive behavioral therapies (CBTs) provide clinicians with a set of effective core elements to help treat a multitude of disorders, which, evidence suggests, need to be delivered with fidelity to maximize potential client impact...
May 22, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788967/towards-a-culturally-competent-health-professional-a-south-african-case-study
#12
Margaret Matthews, Jacqueline Van Wyk
BACKGROUND: South Africa (SA) has a growing multilingual and multicultural population of approximately 55 million people, and faces service delivery challenges due to a shortage in skilled health professionals. Many health care facilities still depict distinct racial and ethnic characteristics that date back to the apartheid era, and there are reports of racial intolerance or preferential treatment at some facilities. There is limited literature in South Africa on cultural competence or on how to train health professionals to provide culturally competent care...
May 22, 2018: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787352/statistical-learning-creates-novel-object-associations-via-transitive-relations
#13
Yu Luo, Jiaying Zhao
A remarkable ability of the cognitive system is to make novel inferences on the basis of prior experiences. What mechanism supports such inferences? We propose that statistical learning is a process through which transitive inferences of new associations are made between objects that have never been directly associated. After viewing a continuous sequence containing two base pairs (e.g., A-B, B-C), participants automatically inferred a transitive pair (e.g., A-C) where the two objects had never co-occurred before (Experiment 1)...
May 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786737/anti-amyloidogenic-properties-of-an-ethyl-acetate-fraction-from-actinidia-arguta-in-a%C3%AE-1-42-induced-icr-mice
#14
Jeong Su Ha, Jong Min Kim, Seon Kyeong Park, Jin Yong Kang, Du Sang Lee, Uk Lee, Dae-Ok Kim, Sung-Gil Choi, Ho Jin Heo
This study aimed to investigate the ameliorating effect of an ethyl acetate fraction from the fruit Actinidia arguta (EFAA) on amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive deficits in ICR mice. EFAA showed potent protective effects against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity through 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA), 2',3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release into the assay medium. EFAA treatment reduced the intracellular ROS level and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in the mitochondria, and increased cell viability in Aβ-induced neuroblastoma MC-IXC cells...
May 22, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786422/mechanisms-regulating-the-association-of-protein-phosphatase-1-with-spinophilin-and-neurabin
#15
Michael C Edler, Asma B Salek, Darryl S Watkins, Harjot Kaur, Cameron W Morris, Bryan K Yamamoto, Anthony J Baucum
Protein phosphorylation is a key mediator of signal transduction, allowing for dynamic regulation of substrate activity. Whereas protein kinases obtain substrate specificity by targeting specific amino acid sequences, serine/threonine phosphatase catalytic subunits are much more promiscuous in their ability to dephosphorylate substrates. To obtain substrate specificity, serine/threonine phosphatases utilize targeting proteins to regulate phosphatase subcellular localization and catalytic activity. Spinophilin and its homolog neurabin are two of the most abundant dendritic spine-localized protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) targeting proteins...
May 22, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785910/a-large-scale-study-of-indicators-of-sub-clinical-mastitis-in-dairy-cattle-by-attribute-weighting-analysis-of-milk-composition-features-highlighting-the-predictive-power-of-lactose-and-electrical-conductivity
#16
Esmaeil Ebrahimie, Faezeh Ebrahimi, Mansour Ebrahimi, Sarah Tomlinson, Kiro R Petrovski
Sub-clinical mastitis (SCM) affects milk composition. In this study, we hypothesise that large-scale mining of milk composition features by pattern recognition models can identify the best predictors of SCM within the milk composition features. To this end, using data mining algorithms, we conducted a large-scale and longitudinal study to evaluate the ability of various milk production parameters as indicators of SCM. SCM is the most prevalent disease of dairy cattle, causing substantial economic loss for the dairy industry...
May 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785890/family-networks-and-healthy-behaviour-evidence-from-nepal
#17
Jolene Skordis, Noemi Pace, Marcos Vera-Hernandez, Imran Rasul, Emla Fitzsimons, David Osrin, Dharma Manandhar, Anthony Costello
Models of household decision-making commonly focus on nuclear family members as primary decision-makers. If extended families shape the objectives and constraints of households, then neglecting the role of this network may lead to an incomplete understanding of health-seeking behaviour. Understanding the decision-making processes behind care-seeking may improve behaviour change interventions, better intervention targeting and support health-related development goals. This paper uses data from a cluster randomised trial of a participatory learning and action cycle (PLA) through women's groups, to assess the role of extended family networks as a determinant of gains in health knowledge and health practice...
May 22, 2018: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785844/regularity-extraction-across-species-associative-learning-mechanisms-shared-by-human-and-non-human-primates
#18
Arnaud Rey, Laure Minier, Raphaëlle Malassis, Louisa Bogaerts, Joël Fagot
Extracting the regularities of our environment is a core cognitive ability in human and non-human primates. Comparative studies may provide information of strong heuristic value to constrain the elaboration of computational models of regularity learning. This study illustrates this point by testing human and non-human primates (Guinea baboons, Papio papio) with the same experimental paradigm, using a novel online learning measure. For local co-occurrence regularities, we found similar patterns of regularity extraction in baboons and humans...
May 21, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785714/lexical-learning-may-contribute-to-phonetic-learning-in-infants-a-corpus-analysis-of-maternal-spanish
#19
Daniel Swingley, Claudia Alarcon
In their first year, infants begin to learn the speech sounds of their language. This process is typically modeled as an unsupervised clustering problem in which phonetically similar speech-sound tokens are grouped into phonetic categories by infants using their domain-general inference abilities. We argue here that maternal speech is too phonetically variable for this account to be plausible, and we provide phonetic evidence from Spanish showing that infant-directed Spanish vowels are more readily clustered over word types than over vowel tokens...
May 21, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785281/impact-of-the-applied-simulated-and-integrated-learning-approach-on-nursing-assistants-knowledge-and-confidence-caring-for-frail-seniors-in-nursing-homes
#20
Veronique M Boscart, George Heckman, Meaghan Davey, Michelle Heyer, John P Hirdes
Background: Increasing importance is being placed on optimizing the role of Nursing Aides (NAs) in improving quality of care for nursing home (NH) residents. One approach to do so is to have NAs participate in assessments embedded within the Minimum Data Set (MDS). This pilot study aimed to design and evaluate the Applied Simulated and Integrated Learning Approach (ASILA) program, a novel innovative training program for NAs employed in NHs to enhance their ability to assess residents within an inter-professional framework...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
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