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Santi Di Pietro, Francesco Falaschi, Alice Bruno, Tiziano Perrone, Valeria Musella, Stefano Perlini
PURPOSE: The sonographic evaluation of inferior vena cava diameters and its collapsibility-that is also defined as the caval index-has become a popular way to easily obtain a noninvasive estimate of central venous pressure. This is generally considered an easy sonographic task to perform, and according to the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) Guidelines 25 repetitions of this procedure should be sufficient to reach proficiency. However, little is known about the learning process for this sonographic technique...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound
Alessandra Moletto, Irene Bagnasco, Patrizia Dassi, Piernanda Vigliano
OBJECTIVE: To study the long-term neurocognitive changes of a right-handed girl with intractable epilepsy after late right hemispherectomy and compare them with data in the literature. METHOD: The girl was affected by an epileptic encephalopathy associated with right fronto-temporo-parietal polymicrogyria; she was submitted to right hemispherectomy at the age of 5 and examined with cognitive and neuropsychological tests at the age of 17 years. The girl took advantage of neurocognitive rehabilitation for several years; she is currently seizure-free and off therapy...
March 21, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Markus Boeckle, Georgine Szipl, Thomas Bugnyar
Background: Acoustic parameters of animal signals have been shown to correlate with various phenotypic characteristics of the sender. These acoustic characteristics can be learned and categorized and thus are a basis for perceivers' recognition abilities. One of the most demanding capacities is individual recognition, achievable only after repeated interactions with the same individual. Still, class-level recognition might be potentially important to perceivers who have not previously encountered callers but can classify unknown individuals according to the already learned categories...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
L R Brewster, J J Dale, T L Guttridge, S H Gruber, A C Hansell, M Elliott, I G Cowx, N M Whitney, A C Gleiss
Discerning behaviours of free-ranging animals allows for quantification of their activity budget, providing important insight into ecology. Over recent years, accelerometers have been used to unveil the cryptic lives of animals. The increased ability of accelerometers to store large quantities of high resolution data has prompted a need for automated behavioural classification. We assessed the performance of several machine learning (ML) classifiers to discern five behaviours performed by accelerometer-equipped juvenile lemon sharks ( Negaprion brevirostris ) at Bimini, Bahamas (25°44'N, 79°16'W)...
2018: Marine Biology
Peter Fine, Chris Louca, Albert Leung
This study aimed to explore the relationship between participating in a learning experience and the ensuing changes in confidence. A self-selected group of General Dental Practitioners (GDPs) entered a five-year, part-time postgraduate master's training programme in restorative dentistry. Confidence in communication with patients and technical skills were measured at the start of the programme by questionnaire and at the conclusion of the programme by questionnaire and personal interview. A total of 72 clinicians started the programme; 27% ( n = 20) completed the master's degree...
April 26, 2017: Dent J (Basel)
Denise Presnell
Trauma affects the brain in many ways, including impairing one's ability to learn, creating psychological and emotional issues, and contributing to poorer health outcomes. This is not only true for children but for adults as well, contributing to social issues such as erratic job performance, increase in homelessness rates, addiction rates, and higher rates of domestic violence and child abuse. We must be more effective at preventing and treating trauma and promoting resiliency in order to make the members of our societies as safe and productive as they can be...
March 2018: North Carolina Medical Journal
Kevin J P Woods, Josh H McDermott
The cocktail party problem requires listeners to infer individual sound sources from mixtures of sound. The problem can be solved only by leveraging regularities in natural sound sources, but little is known about how such regularities are internalized. We explored whether listeners learn source "schemas"-the abstract structure shared by different occurrences of the same type of sound source-and use them to infer sources from mixtures. We measured the ability of listeners to segregate mixtures of time-varying sources...
March 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yifu Xu, Bin Yan, Jian Chen, Lei Zeng, Lei Li
BACKGROUND: Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) has been widely used to improve identification of substances from different spectral information. Decomposition of the mixed test samples into two materials relies on a well-calibrated material decomposition function. OBJECTIVE: This work aims to establish and validate a data-driven algorithm for estimation of the decomposition function. METHODS: A deep neural network (DNN) consisting of two sub-nets is proposed to solve the projection decomposition problem...
March 15, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Luna Jammal, Ben Whalley, Edi Barkai
Training rats in a complex olfactory discrimination task results in acquisition of 'rule learning' (learning how to learn), a term describing the capability to perform the task superbly. Such rule learning results in strengthening of both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic connections between neurons in the piriform cortex. Moreover, intrinsic excitability is also enhanced throughout the pyramidal neuron population. Surprisingly, the cortical network retains its stability under these long-term modifications...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Rui Huang, Feng Wu, Jian Zhao, Huai-Bin Li, Jian Ding, Ke-Ren Xiong
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) combined with Gastrodin on learning-memory ability and expression of silent information regulator 2 homologous protein 1(SIRT 1) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC-1 ɑ) of hippocampal CA 1 region in Alzheimer's disease(AD) rats, so as to explore its mechanism under-lying improvement of AD. METHODS: Sixty male SD rats were randomly divided into normal control (normal), sham operation (sham), model, EA, Gastrodin and EA+ Gastrodin groups ( n =10 in each)...
March 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Victoria Shabardina, Tabea Kischka, Hanna Kmita, Yutaka Suzuki, Wojciech Makałowski
Amoebozoans are in many aspects interesting research objects, as they combine features of single-cell organisms with complex signaling and defense systems, comparable to multicellular organisms. Acanthamoeba castellanii is a cosmopolitan species and developed diverged feeding abilities and strong anti-bacterial resistance; Entamoeba histolytica is a parasitic amoeba, who underwent massive gene loss and its genome is almost twice smaller than that of A. castellanii . Nevertheless, both species prosper, demonstrating fitness to their specific environments...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Amanda Rodrigues Vieira, Nayara Salles, Marco Borges, Theo Mota
For more than a century, visual learning and memory has been studied in the honeybee Apis mellifera using operant appetitive conditioning. Although honeybees show impressive visual learning capacities in this well-established protocol, operant training of free-flying animals can hardly be combined with invasive protocols for studying the neurobiological basis of visual learning. In view of that, different efforts have been made to develop new classical conditioning protocols for studying visual learning in harnessed honeybees, though learning performances remain considerably poorer than those obtained in free-flying animals...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Fang Ma, Yangjing Bai, Yangjuan Bai, Weiguang Ma, Xiangyu Yang, Jiping Li
BACKGROUND: There is a growing recognition that training is not translated into performance and the 'transfer problem' exists in organization training today. Although factors contributing to training transfer have been identified in business and industry, the factors influencing training transfer in nursing profession remain less clear. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive study was undertaken in two tertiary referral hospitals in China from February 2013 to September 2013...
March 20, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Savita Yadav, Pinaki Chakraborty, Prabhat Mittal, Udit Arora
AIM: Parents sometimes show young children YouTube videos on their smartphones. We studied the interaction of 55 Indian children born between December 2014 and May 2015 who watched YouTube videos when they were 6-24 months old. METHODS: The children were recruited by the researchers using professional and personal contacts and visited by the same two observers at four ages, for at least 10 minutes. The observers recorded the children's abilities to interact with touch screens and identify people in videos and noted what videos attracted them the most...
March 20, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Shunjie Ye, Rong Yang, Qiuju Xiong, Youhua Yang, Lianying Zhou, Yeli Gong, Changlei Li, Zhenhan Ding, Guohai Ye, Zhe Xiong
Acute stress has been shown to enhance learning and memory ability, predominantly through the action of corticosteroid stress hormones. However, the valuable targets for promoting learning and memory induced by acute stress and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) play an important role in central neuronal systems and involves in depression, synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. In the current study, we used a combination of electrophysiological and behavioral approaches in an effort to explore the effects of acute stress on ASICs...
March 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Katharine C N S Simon, Rebecca L Gómez, Lynn Nadel
Targeting memories during sleep opens powerful and innovative ways to influence the mind. We used targeted memory reactivation (TMR), which to date has been shown to strengthen learned episodes, to instead induce forgetting (TMR-forget). Participants were first trained to associate the act of forgetting with an auditory forget tone. In a second, separate, task they learned object-sound-location pairings. Shortly thereafter, some of the object sounds were played during slow wave sleep, paired with the forget tone to induce forgetting...
March 16, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Xiaodong Li, Hiroshi Ishimoto, Azusa Kamikouchi
In birds and higher mammals, auditory experience during development is critical to discriminate sound patterns in adulthood. However, the neural and molecular nature of this acquired ability remains elusive. In fruit flies, acoustic perception has been thought to be innate. Here we report, surprisingly, that auditory experience of a species-specific courtship song in developing Drosophila shapes adult song perception and resultant sexual behavior. Preferences in the song-response behaviors of both males and females were tuned by social acoustic exposure during development...
March 20, 2018: ELife
John Au, Edward Palmer, Ian Johnson, Mellick Chehade
BACKGROUND: Like other procedural skills, the ability to relocate a joint is an important aspect of junior doctor education. Changes in the approach to teaching and learning from the traditional apprenticeship-style model have made the teaching of practical skills more difficult logistically. Workshops utilising cadaveric specimens offer a solution to this problem. METHODS: One hundred forty-six fourth year medical students were randomly divided into 5 groups. Each group received a different teaching intervention based on ankle, patella and hip relocation...
March 20, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Samira EghbaliFeriz, Akram Taleghani, Zahra Tayarani-Najaran
Scutellaria comprises many species traditionally used for cognitive and neurological conditions. In vitro and in vivo studies have supported the value of bioactive compounds of the genus Scutellaria for CNS disorders such as Alzheimer, cerebral ischemia, depression and anxiety. In particular, the effects of plants belonging to the genus Scutellaria and their components are detailed on cognitive ability such as memory, attention and learning. In this review, the pharmacology of CNS effect and the related molecular mechanisms of the plants belonging to the genus Scutellaria and active constituents have been discussed...
March 16, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
P Leon Brown, Panos Zanos, Leiming Wang, Greg I Elmer, Todd D Gould, Paul D Shepard
Background: The volatile anesthetic isoflurane may exert a rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effect in patients with medication-resistant depression. The mechanism underlying the putative therapeutic actions of the anesthetic have been attributed to its ability to elicit cortical burst suppression, a distinct EEG pattern with features resembling the characteristic changes that occur following electroconvulsive therapy. It is currently unknown whether the antidepressant actions of isoflurane are shared by anesthetics that do not elicit cortical burst suppression...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
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