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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821181/conservation-genetics-of-the-cheetah-lessons-learned-and-new-opportunities
#1
Stephen J O'Brien, Warren E Johnson, Carlos A Driscoll, Pavel Dobrynin, Laurie Marker
The dwindling wildlife species of our planet have become a cause célèbre for conservation groups, governments, and concerned citizens throughout the world. The application of powerful new genetic technologies to surviving populations of threatened mammals has revolutionized our ability to recognize hidden perils that afflict them. We have learned new lessons of survival, adaptation, and evolution from viewing the natural history of genomes in hundreds of detailed studies. A single case history of one species, the African cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, is here reviewed to reveal a long-term story of conservation challenges and action informed by genetic discoveries and insights...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818679/improved-assays-for-agg-interruptions-in-fragile-x-premutation-carriers
#2
Bruce E Hayward, Karen Usdin
The learning disability fragile X syndrome results from the presence of >200 CGG/CCG-repeats in exon 1 of the X-linked gene FMR1. Such alleles arise by expansion from maternally transmitted FMR1 premutation alleles, alleles having 55 to 200 repeats. Expansion risk is directly related to maternal repeat number. However, AGG interruptions to the repeat tract are important modifiers of expansion risk. Thus, the ability to identify such interruptions is crucial for the appropriate genetic counseling of women who are premutation carriers...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818500/cryptic-sexual-dimorphism-in-spatial-memory-and-hippocampal-oxytocin-receptors-in-prairie-voles-microtus-ochrogaster
#3
Marissa A Rice, Lauren E Hobbs, Kelly J Wallace, Alexander G Ophir
Sex differences are well documented and are conventionally associated with intense sex-specific selection. For example, spatial memory is frequently better in males, presumably due to males' tendency to navigate large spaces to find mates. Alternatively, monogamy (in which sex-specific selection is relatively relaxed) should diminish or eliminate differences in spatial ability and the mechanisms associated with this behavior. Nevertheless, phenotypic differences between monogamous males and females persist, sometimes cryptically...
August 14, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818276/the-role-of-incremental-parsing-in-syntactically-conditioned-word-learning
#4
Jeffrey Lidz, Aaron Steven White, Rebecca Baier
In a series of three experiments, we use children's noun learning as a probe into their syntactic knowledge as well as their ability to deploy this knowledge, investigating how the predictions children make about upcoming syntactic structure change as their knowledge changes. In the first two experiments, we show that children display a developmental change in their ability to use a noun's syntactic environment as a cue to its meaning. We argue that this pattern arises from children's reliance on their knowledge of verbs' subcategorization frame frequencies to guide parsing, coupled with an inability to revise incremental parsing decisions...
September 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817625/disentangling-the-relationship-between-children-s-motor-ability-executive-function-and-academic-achievement
#5
Mirko Schmidt, Fabienne Egger, Valentin Benzing, Katja Jäger, Achim Conzelmann, Claudia M Roebers, Caterina Pesce
Even though positive relations between children's motor ability and their academic achievement are frequently reported, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Executive function has indeed been proposed, but hardly tested as a potential mediator. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine the mediating role of executive function in the relationship between motor ability and academic achievement, also investigating the individual contribution of specific motor abilities to the hypothesized mediated linkage to academic achievement...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817242/improved-medical-student-perception-of-ultrasound-using-a-paired-anatomy-teaching-assistant-and-clinician-teaching-model
#6
Jacob P Smith, John L Kendall, Danielle F Royer
This study describes a new teaching model for ultrasound (US) training, and evaluates its effect on medical student attitudes toward US. First year medical students participated in hands-on US during human gross anatomy (2014 N = 183; 2015 N = 182). The sessions were facilitated by clinicians alone in 2014, and by anatomy teaching assistant (TA)-clinician pairs in 2015. Both cohorts completed course evaluations which included five US-related items on a four-point scale; cohort responses were compared using Mann-Whitney U tests with significance threshold set at 0...
August 17, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816960/successful-open-reduction-and-internal-fixation-for-displaced-femoral-fracture-in-a-patient-with-osteopetrosis-case-report-and-lessons-learned
#7
Jiangfa Huang, Jianke Pan, Mingtao Xu, Shuchai Xu
RATIONALE: Osteopetrosis is a rare disease that predominantly occurs in descendants of inbreeding families. In the case of fractures happen in patients with osteopetrosis, the choice between operative or conservative treatment is still controversial. Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) is a conventional treatment for fractures, and it possesses more applicability than conservative treatment. During this surgical treatment, ensure that bone union in the right way is pivotal to success and simultaneously prevents refracture and displacement after the operation...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815796/new-graduate-nurses-preparation-for-recognition-and-prevention-of-failure-to-rescue-a-qualitative-study
#8
Elizabeth K Herron
AIM AND OBJECTIVE: To explore new graduate nurses' experiences with recognition and prevention of failure to rescue. BACKGROUND: Failure to rescue is recognized as a quality of care indicator, a core measure of nursing care in hospitals, and a determinant for staffing in acute care facilities. Clinical reasoning is an essential component in preventing failure to rescue and should be emphasized in nursing education and new graduate orientation. Many nurses graduate without the ability to use clinical reasoning in providing patient care which can lead to adverse patient outcomes...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815260/-improving-the-teaching-quality-by-multiple-tools-and-technology-in-oral-histopathology-experimental-course
#9
Zhen Tian, Li-Zhen Wang, Yu-Hua Hu, Chun-Ye Zhang, Jiang Li
PURPOSES: Oral histopathology is a course which needs to be combined with theory and practice closely. Experimental course plays an important role in teaching oral histopathology. Here, we aim to explore a series of effective measures to improve the teaching quality of experimental course and tried to train observation, thinking, analysis and problem solving skills of dental students. METHODS: We re-edited and updated the experimental textbook "guidelines of experimental course of oral histopathology", and published the reference book for experimental course--"color pocket atlas of oral histopathology: experiment and diadactic teaching"...
April 2017: Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue, Shanghai Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815204/pathology-competencies-for-medical-education-and-educational-cases
#10
Barbara E C Knollmann-Ritschel, Donald P Regula, Michael J Borowitz, Richard Conran, Michael B Prystowsky
Current medical school curricula predominantly facilitate early integration of basic science principles into clinical practice to strengthen diagnostic skills and the ability to make treatment decisions. In addition, they promote life-long learning and understanding of the principles of medical practice. The Pathology Competencies for Medical Education (PCME) were developed in response to a call to action by pathology course directors nationwide to teach medical students pathology principles necessary for the practice of medicine...
January 2017: Acad Pathol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815118/deep-learning-from-eeg-reports-for-inferring-underspecified-information
#11
Travis R Goodwin, Sanda M Harabagiu
Secondary use(1)of electronic health records (EHRs) often relies on the ability to automatically identify and extract information from EHRs. Unfortunately, EHRs are known to suffer from a variety of idiosyncrasies - most prevalently, they have been shown to often omit or underspecify information. Adapting traditional machine learning methods for inferring underspecified information relies on manually specifying features characterizing the specific information to recover (e.g. particular findings, test results, or physician's impressions)...
2017: AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814756/giant-pandas-can-discriminate-the-emotions-of-human-facial-pictures
#12
Youxu Li, Qiang Dai, Rong Hou, Zhihe Zhang, Peng Chen, Rui Xue, Feifei Feng, Chao Chen, Jiabin Liu, Xiaodong Gu, Zejun Zhang, Dunwu Qi
Previous studies have shown that giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) can discriminate face-like shapes, but little is known about their cognitive ability with respect to the emotional expressions of humans. We tested whether adult giant pandas can discriminate expressions from pictures of half of a face and found that pandas can learn to discriminate between angry and happy expressions based on global information from the whole face. Young adult pandas (5-7 years old) learned to discriminate expressions more quickly than older individuals (8-16 years old), but no significant differences were found between females and males...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814474/role-of-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-in-aversive-learning-and-memory
#13
Travis D Goode, Stephen Maren
Surviving threats in the environment requires brain circuits for detecting (or anticipating) danger and for coordinating appropriate defensive responses (e.g., increased cardiac output, stress hormone release, and freezing behavior). The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a critical interface between the "affective forebrain"-including the amygdala, ventral hippocampus, and medial prefrontal cortex-and the hypothalamic and brainstem areas that have been implicated in neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses to actual or anticipated threats...
September 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814056/design-of-a-lightweight-tethered-torque-controlled-knee-exoskeleton
#14
Kirby Ann Witte, Andreas M Fatschel, Steven H Collins
Lower-limb exoskeletons show promise for improving gait rehabilitation for those with chronic gait abnormalities due to injury, stroke or other illness. We designed and built a tethered knee exoskeleton with a strong lightweight frame and comfortable, four-point contact with the leg. The device is structurally compliant in select directions, instrumented to measure joint angle and applied torque, and is lightweight (0.76 kg). The exoskeleton is actuated by two off-board motors. Closed loop torque control is achieved using classical proportional feedback control with damping injection in conjunction with iterative learning...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814025/learning-from-demonstration-teaching-a-myoelectric-prosthesis-with-an-intact-limb-via-reinforcement-learning
#15
Gautham Vasan, Patrick M Pilarski
Prosthetic arms should restore and extend the capabilities of someone with an amputation. They should move naturally and be able to perform elegant, coordinated movements that approximate those of a biological arm. Despite these objectives, the control of modern-day prostheses is often nonintuitive and taxing. Existing devices and control approaches do not yet give users the ability to effect highly synergistic movements during their daily-life control of a prosthetic device. As a step towards improving the control of prosthetic arms and hands, we introduce an intuitive approach to training a prosthetic control system that helps a user achieve hard-to-engineer control behaviours...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813903/let-s-do-this-together-bi-manu-interact-a-novel-device-for-studying-human-haptic-interactive-behavior
#16
Ekaterina Ivanova, Axel Krause, Marie Schalicke, Franziska Schellhardt, Natalie Jankowski, Josy Achner, Henning Schmidt, Michael Joebges, Jorg Kruger
Our area of interest is robotic-based rehabilitation after stroke, and our goal is to help patients achieve optimal motor learning during high-intensity repetitive movement training through the assistance of robots. It is important, that the robotic assistance is adapted to the patients' abilities, thereby ensuring that the device is only supporting the patient as necessary ("assist-as-needed"). We hypothesize that natural and learning-effective human-machine interaction can be achieved by programming the robot's control, so that it emulates how a physiotherapist adaptively supports the patients' limb movement during stroke rehabilitation...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813818/the-effect-of-myoelectric-prosthesis-control-strategies-and-feedback-level-on-adaptation-rate-for-a-target-acquisition-task
#17
Ahmed W Shehata, Erik J Scheme, Jonathon W Sensinger
The long-term performance of myoelectric prostheses is related not only to the short-term performance of the controller, but also to the user's ability to learn and adapt to the system. Different control architectures may have inherent tradeoffs between their short-term performance and the amount of relevant feedback that informs this adaptation. In this study we focused on the ability of two common types of myoelectric control interfaces: raw control with raw feedback, such as a regression, and filtered control with filtered feedback, such as a classifier, to affect user adaptation...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813792/there-is-plenty-of-room-for-motor-learning-at-the-bottom-of-the-fugl-meyer-acquisition-of-a-novel-bimanual-wheelchair-skill-after-chronic-stroke-using-an-unmasking-technology
#18
Yasemin Sarigul-Klijn, Joan Lobo-Prat, Brendan W Smith, Sage Thayer, Daniel Zondervan, Vicky Chan, Oliver Stoller, David J Reinkensmeyer
Many people with a stroke have a severely paretic arm, and it is often assumed that they are unable to learn novel, skilled behaviors that incorporate use of that arm. Here, we show that a group of people with chronic stroke (n = 5, upper extremity Fugl-Meyer scores: 31, 30, 26, 22, 8) learned to use their impaired arm to propel a novel, yoked-clutch lever drive wheelchair. Over six daily training sessions, each involving about 134 training movements with their "useless" arm, the users gradually achieved a 3-fold increase in wheelchair speed on average, with a 4-6 fold increase for three of the participants...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813432/basic-reversal-learning-capacity-in-flies-suggests-rudiments-of-complex-cognition
#19
Brad R Foley, Paul Marjoram, Sergey V Nuzhdin
The most basic models of learning are reinforcement learning models (for instance, classical and operant conditioning) that posit a constant learning rate; however many animals change their learning rates with experience. This process is sometimes studied by reversing an existing association between cues and rewards, and measuring the rate of relearning. Augmented reversal-learning, where learning rates increase with practice, can be an important component of behavioral flexibility; and may provide insight into higher cognition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812257/robotic-assisted-microvascular-surgery-skill-acquisition-in-a-rat-model
#20
Nicholas S Clarke, Johnathan Price, Travis Boyd, Stefano Salizzoni, Kenton J Zehr, Alejandro Nieponice, Pietro Bajona
Microsurgery is a technically demanding field with long learning curves. Robotic-assisted microsurgery has the ability to decrease these learning curves. We, therefore, sought to assess the feasibility of robotic-assisted microvascular surgery in a rat model, and whether this could be translated into a worthwhile skills acquisition exercise for residents. Twenty-eight rats underwent microvascular anastomosis. Procedures were performed by a trained microvascular surgeon with no robotic experience (n = 14), or a trained robotic surgeon with no microvascular experience (n = 14)...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Robotic Surgery
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