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learning ability

Amy S Joh
This study examined sex difference in spatial reasoning, a type of spatial cognition necessary for everyday activities. An aggregated data set was composed of data from 273 3- to 4-year olds who participated in 12 different studies using variants of the same spatial reasoning task. This data set was used to investigate whether and how sex difference is related to learning opportunities through training. The results showed that boys outperform girls in general, but this sex difference was influenced by training...
November 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Sonja U Kubik, Paul R Martin
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the newly developed Headache Triggers Sensitivity and Avoidance Questionnaire (HTSAQ) designed to measure variables relating to the Trigger Avoidance Model of Headaches. BACKGROUND: The Trigger Avoidance Model of Headaches proposes that one pathway to developing a primary headache disorder is through the avoidance of headache triggers, resulting in an increase in trigger potency through sensitization...
October 18, 2016: Headache
Steve Majerus, Nelson Cowan
Verbal short-term memory (STM) impairment is one of the most consistent associated deficits observed in developmental reading disorders such as dyslexia. Few studies have addressed the nature of this STM impairment, especially as regards the ability to temporarily store serial order information. This question is important as studies in typically developing children have shown that serial order STM abilities are predictors of oral and written language development. Associated serial order STM deficits in dyslexia may therefore further increase the learning difficulties in these populations...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
David Mathar, Leonora Wilkinson, Anna K Holl, Jane Neumann, Lorenz Deserno, Arno Villringer, Marjan Jahanshahi, Annette Horstmann
Incidental learning of appropriate stimulus-response associations is crucial for optimal functioning within our complex environment. Positive and negative prediction errors (PEs) serve as neural teaching signals within distinct ('direct'/'indirect') dopaminergic pathways to update associations and optimize subsequent behavior. Using a computational reinforcement learning model, we assessed learning from positive and negative PEs on a probabilistic task (Weather Prediction Task - WPT) in three populations that allow different inferences on the role of dopamine (DA) signals: (1) Healthy volunteers that repeatedly underwent [(11)C]raclopride Positron Emission Tomography (PET), allowing for assessment of striatal DA release during learning, (2) Parkinson's disease (PD) patients tested both on and off L-DOPA medication, (3) early Huntington's disease (HD) patients, a disease that is associated with hyper-activation of the 'direct' pathway...
September 19, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Philip Kitcher
Wisdom is a special kind of virtue. It is not to be identified with any outstanding cognitive ability-like having a prodigious memory or knowing a lot. Rather it consists in seeing what is most important and most valuable, either within a particular domain or in life as a whole. In the life of a wise person, that insight should be accompanied by traits of character, enabling the person to pursue what is seen as valuable. Viewing wisdom as a capacity for synthetic understanding, I argue for the need for philosophy, even at a time when all of us have much to learn from the sciences...
October 17, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Natalia A Stefanova, Natalia A Muraleva, Kseniya Yi Maksimova, Ekaterina A Rudnitskaya, Elena Kiseleva, Darya V Telegina, Nataliya G Kolosova
Mitochondrial aberrations are observed in human Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in medical conditions that increase the risk of this disorder, suggesting that mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to pathophysiology of AD. Here, using OXYS rats that simulate key characteristics of sporadic AD, we set out to determine the role of mitochondria in the pathophysiology of this disorder. OXYS rats were treated with a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 from age 12 to 18 months, that is, during active progression of AD-like pathology in these animals...
October 6, 2016: Aging
Loïc Peter, Diana Mateus, Pierre Chatelain, Denis Declara, Noemi Schworm, Stefan Stangl, Gabriele Multhoff, Nassir Navab
The examination of biopsy samples plays a central role in the diagnosis and staging of numerous diseases, including most cancer types. However, because of the large size of the acquired images, the localization and quantification of diseased portions of a tissue is usually time-consuming, as pathologists must scroll through the whole slide to look for objects of interest which are often only scarcely distributed. In this work, we introduce an approach to facilitate the visual inspection of large digital histopathological slides...
October 5, 2016: Medical Image Analysis
Jeffery F Rocca, Joshua G Lister, Richard J Beninger
Rats repeatedly exposed to the bar test following injections with a dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist such as haloperidol show increased descent latencies, suggesting that contextual stimuli may lose their ability to elicit approach and other responses. Here, we showed that rats took progressively longer to initiate descent from a horizontal bar across sessions following daily intraperitoneal treatment (paired group) with the D2-like receptor antagonist, spiroperidol (0.125 and 0.25 mg/kg), but not in the control group that received 0...
September 29, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
Renee E Shimizu, Allan D Wu, Barbara J Knowlton
Effective learning results not only in improved performance on a practiced task, but also in the ability to transfer the acquired knowledge to novel, similar tasks. Using a modified serial reaction time (RT) task, the authors examined the ability to transfer to novel sequences after practicing sequences in a repetitive order versus a nonrepeating interleaved order. Interleaved practice resulted in better performance on new sequences than repetitive practice. In a second study, participants practiced interleaved sequences in a functional MRI (fMRI) scanner and received a transfer test of novel sequences...
October 17, 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
Gordon D Logan, Jana E Ulrich, Dakota R B Lindsey
Fine motor skills like typing involve a mapping problem that trades Fitts' law against Hick's law. Eight fingers have to be mapped onto 26 keys. Movement time increases with distance, so Fitts' law is optimized by recruiting more fingers. Choice difficulty increases with the number of alternatives, so Hick's law is optimized by recruiting fewer fingers. The effect of the number of alternatives decreases with consistent practice, so skilled typists achieve a balance between Fitts' law and Hick's law through learning...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Matthew Calamia, John P K Bernstein
INTRODUCTION: Depressive symptoms are common in patients assessed by neuropsychologists, and these symptoms can have an effect on cognitive functioning. Discrepancies between patient- and informant-reported depressive symptoms have been found in some diagnostic groups, raising concerns as to the value of assessing depressive symptoms via self-report alone. This study aimed to examine the relationship between these discrepancies and cognitive functioning in a heterogeneous outpatient neuropsychological sample...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Sari Ylinen, Alexis Bosseler, Katja Junttila, Minna Huotilainen
The ability to predict future events in the environment and learn from them is a fundamental component of adaptive behavior across species. Here we propose that inferring predictions facilitates speech processing and word learning in the early stages of language development. Twelve- and 24-month olds' electrophysiological brain responses to heard syllables are faster and more robust when the preceding word context predicts the ending of a familiar word. For unfamiliar, novel word forms, however, word-expectancy violation generates a prediction error response, the strength of which significantly correlates with children's vocabulary scores at 12 months...
October 16, 2016: Developmental Science
Prawin Kumar, Himanshu Kumar Sanju, J Nikhil
Introduction Enhanced auditory perception in musicians is likely to result from auditory perceptual learning during several years of training and practice. Many studies have focused on biological processing of auditory stimuli among musicians. However, there is a lack of literature on temporal resolution and active auditory discrimination skills in vocal musicians. Objective The aim of the present study is to assess temporal resolution and active auditory discrimination skill in vocal musicians. Method The study participants included 15 vocal musicians with a minimum professional experience of 5 years of music exposure, within the age range of 20 to 30 years old, as the experimental group, while 15 age-matched non-musicians served as the control group...
October 2016: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
Arvind G Kulkarni, Hussain Bohra, Abhilash Dhruv, Abhishek Sarraf, Anupreet Bassi, Vishwanath M Patil
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present prospective study is to evaluate whether the touted advantages of minimal invasive-transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) translate into superior, equal, or inferior outcomes as compared to open-transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (O-TLIF). This is the first study from the Indian subcontinent prospectively comparing the outcomes of MI-TLIF and O-TLIF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All consecutive cases of open and MI-TLIF were prospectively followed up...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
Ritva Heljasvaara, Mari Aikio, Heli Ruotsalainen, Taina Pihlajaniemi
Collagen XVIII is a ubiquitous basement membrane (BM) proteoglycan produced in three tissue-specific isoforms that differ in their N-terminal non-collagenous sequences, but share collagenous and C-terminal non-collagenous domains. The collagenous domain provides flexibility to the large collagen XVIII molecules on account of multiple interruptions in collagenous sequences. Each isoform has a complex multi-domain structure that endows it with an ability to perform various biological functions. The long isoform contains a frizzled-like (Fz) domain with Wnt-inhibiting activity and a unique domain of unknown function (DUF959), which is also present in the medium isoform...
October 13, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Gardiner von Trapp, Ishita Aloni, Stephen Young, Malcolm N Semple, Dan H Sanes
The consequences of developmental hearing loss have been reported to include both sensory and cognitive deficits. To investigate these issues in a non-human model, auditory learning and asymptotic psychometric performance were compared between normal hearing (NH) adult gerbils and those reared with conductive hearing loss (CHL). At postnatal day 10, before ear canal opening, gerbil pups underwent bilateral malleus removal to induce a permanent CHL. Both CHL and control animals were trained to approach a water spout upon presentation of a target (Go stimuli), and withhold for foils (Nogo stimuli)...
October 13, 2016: Hearing Research
Rimpi Arora, Rahul Deshmukh
Embelin, the main active constituent of Embelia ribes, has been reported to possess various pharmacological actions, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, and neuroprotective. The present study was designed to investigate neuroprotective mechanisms and therapeutic potential of embelin against intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (ICV-STZ)-induced experimental sporadic dementia in rats. STZ was infused bilaterally at the dose of (3 mg/kg/1 μl/1 min) ICV on day first and third. Spatial and non-spatial memory was evaluated using Morris water maze and object recognition task in rats...
October 15, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Mary Thuss, Yolanda Babenko-Mould, Mary-Anne Andrusyszyn, Heather K S Laschinger
The purpose of this study was to explore Rwandan nursing clinical instructors' (CIs) experiences of structural and psychological empowerment. CIs play a vital role in students' development by facilitating learning in health care practice environments. Quality nursing education hinges on the CI's ability to enact a professional role. A descriptive qualitative method was used to obtain an understanding of CIs empowerment experiences in practice settings. Kanter's Theory of Structural Power in Organizations and Spreitzer's Psychological Empowerment Theory were used as theoretical frameworks to interpret experiences...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The objective of the present paper is to analyze the first edition of a comprehensive shoulder course for senior orthopedic surgery residents and the chosen evaluation tools. HYPOTHESIS: A course focusing on shoulder surgery, requested by graduating residents in orthopedic surgery, will have a strong level of satisfaction and help improve skills, knowledge, and problem solving abilities in this domain as measured by a pre and post-test. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A two-day course was created with practical sessions, lectures, and case studies...
October 12, 2016: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
Andrew Vo, Ken N Seergobin, Penny A MacDonald
Dopaminergic therapy has been shown to worsen some cognitive functions, particularly learning, in Parkinson's disease (PD). This has been attributed to dopamine overdose of brain regions that are relatively dopamine replete. Dopamine dosages are titrated to the severely depleted dorsal striatum (DS). According to this account, dopaminergic therapy should worsen cognitive functions in healthy young adults who have normal dopamine levels. As a critical test of the dopamine overdose hypothesis, we tested the effect of levodopa on learning stimulus-response associations and on performing stimulus-specific responses once these associations were learned...
October 12, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
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