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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161350/embedded-performance-validity-tests-in-the-hopkins-verbal-learning-test-revised-and-the-brief-visuospatial-memory-test-revised-a-replication-study
#1
K Chase Bailey, Jason R Soble, Kathleen M Bain, Chrystal Fullen
Objective: Embedded performance validity tests (PVTs) within the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R) and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) were recently identified. This study aimed to further validate/replicate these embedded PVTs. Method: Eighty clinically referred veterans who underwent neuropsychological evaluation were included. Validity groups were established by passing/failing 2-3 well-validated PVTs, with 75% (n = 60) classified as valid and 25% (n = 20) noncredible...
November 17, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161155/the-use-of-virtual-communities-of-practice-to-improve-interprofessional-collaboration-and-education-findings-from-an-integrated-review
#2
Clodagh McLoughlin, Kunal D Patel, Tom O'Callaghan, Scott Reeves
The recent growth in online technology has led to a rapid increase in the sharing of health related information globally. Health and social care professionals are now using a wide range of virtual communities of practice (VCoPs) for learning, support, continuing professional education, knowledge management and information sharing. In this article, we report the findings from a review of the literature that explored the use of VCoPs by health and social care professionals to determine their potential for interprofessional education and collaboration...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160799/-25-a-similarity-analysis-of-audio-signal-to-develop-a-human-activity-recognition-using-similarity-networks
#3
Alejandra García-Hernández, Carlos E Galván-Tejada, Jorge I Galván-Tejada, José M Celaya-Padilla, Hamurabi Gamboa-Rosales, Perla Velasco-Elizondo, Rogelio Cárdenas-Vargas
Human Activity Recognition (HAR) is one of the main subjects of study in the areas of computer vision and machine learning due to the great benefits that can be achieved. Examples of the study areas are: health prevention, security and surveillance, automotive research, and many others. The proposed approaches are carried out using machine learning techniques and present good results. However, it is difficult to observe how the descriptors of human activities are grouped. In order to obtain a better understanding of the the behavior of descriptors, it is important to improve the abilities to recognize the human activities...
November 21, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160007/identification-of-factors-contributing-to-successful-self-directed-weight-loss-a-qualitative-study
#4
N Rafiei, T Gill
BACKGROUND: Despite the number of weight management programmes and their wide promotion, most overweight and obese individuals tend to lose weight on their own. The present study aimed to understand the characteristics and strategies of those who successfully engage in self-directed weight loss, which could empower other overweight and obese individuals with information and strategies to manage their weight on their own. METHODS: Men and women who had lost at least 5% of their body weight without direct interaction with professionals or weight management programmes were recruited...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159278/comparative-evaluation-of-two-porcine-ex-vivo-models-for-training-in-endoscopic-ultrasound-guided-drainage-of-pancreatic-fluid-collections
#5
Frederick Moryoussef, Sarah Leblanc, Alice Bertucat, Arthur Laquiere, Emmanuel Coron, Luigi Mangialavori, Jean-Christophe Duchmann, Yann Le Baleur, Frederic Prat
Introduction:  EUS-guided cystoenterostomy (EUCE), a technique used for the drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts and peri-enteric collections, requires specific skills for which dedicated models are needed. Based on a compact EASIE model (Erlangen Active Simulator for Interventional Endoscopy), we developed two ex vivo porcine models of retrogastric cysts and evaluated learning performance within the frame of a structured training program. Material and methods:  The first model was made of porcine colon (i...
October 2017: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159197/donepezil-enhances-understanding-of-degraded-speech-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Chris J D Hardy, Yun T Hwang, Rebecca L Bond, Charles R Marshall, Basil H Ridha, Sebastian J Crutch, Martin N Rossor, Jason D Warren
Auditory dysfunction under complex, dynamic listening conditions is a clinical hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) but challenging to measure and manage. Here, we assessed understanding of sinewave speech (a paradigm of degraded speech perception) and general cognitive abilities in 17 AD patients, before and following a 10 mg dose of donepezil. Relative to healthy older individuals, patients had impaired sinewave speech comprehension that was selectively ameliorated by donepezil. Our findings demonstrate impaired perception of degraded speech in AD but retained perceptual learning capacity that can be harnessed by acetylcholinesterase inhibition, with implications for designing communication interventions and acoustic environments in dementia...
November 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159015/meals-for-good-an-innovative-community-project-to-provide-healthy-meals-to-children-in-early-care-and-education-programs-through-food-bank-catering
#7
Leah R Carpenter, Teresa M Smith, Katherine Stern, Lisa Weissenburger-Moser Boyd, Cristy Geno Rasmussen, Kelly Schaffer, Julie Shuell, Karen Broussard, Amy L Yaroch
Innovative approaches to childhood obesity prevention are warranted in early care and education (ECE) settings, since intervening early among youth is recommended to promote and maintain healthy behaviors. The objective of the Meals for Good pilot was to explore feasibility of implementing a food bank-based catering model to ECE programs to provide more nutritious meals, compared to meals brought from home (a parent-prepared model). In 2014-2015, a 12-month project was implemented by a food bank in central Florida in four privately-owned ECE programs...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158838/crispr-genome-engineering-for-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-research
#8
REVIEW
Somali Chaterji, Eun Hyun Ahn, Deok-Ho Kim
The emergence of targeted and efficient genome editing technologies, such as repurposed bacterial programmable nucleases (e.g., CRISPR-Cas systems), has abetted the development of cell engineering approaches. Lessons learned from the development of RNA-interference (RNA-i) therapies can spur the translation of genome editing, such as those enabling the translation of human pluripotent stem cell engineering. In this review, we discuss the opportunities and the challenges of repurposing bacterial nucleases for genome editing, while appreciating their roles, primarily at the epigenomic granularity...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157996/longitudinal-interactions-between-brain-and-cognitive-measures-on-reading-development-from-6-months-to-14-years
#9
Kaisa Lohvansuu, Jarmo A Hämäläinen, Leena Ervast, Heikki Lyytinen, Paavo H T Leppänen
Dyslexia is a neurobiological disorder impairing learning to read. Brain responses of infants at genetic risk for dyslexia are abnormal already at birth, and associations from infant speech perception to preschool cognitive skills and reading in early school years have been documented, but there are no studies showing predicting power until adolescence. Here we show that in at-risk infants, brain activation to pseudowords at left hemisphere predicts 44% of reading speed at 14 years, and even improves the prediction after taking into account neurocognitive preschool measures of letter naming, phonology, and verbal short-term memory...
November 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157420/learning-features-in-a-complex-and-changing-environment-a-distribution-based-framework-for-visual-attention-and-vision-in-general
#10
Andrey Chetverikov, Gianluca Campana, Árni Kristjánsson
What are the building blocks of our visual representations? Whatever we look at, the things we see will have some feature variability: even snow is not purely white but has a range of shades of white. However, in most studies investigating visual perception, homogeneous displays with all stimuli having a very limited range of features have been used. In contrast, recent studies using heterogeneous displays have shown that our perceptual system encodes surprisingly detailed information about stimuli, representing parameters such as the mean, variance, and most importantly the probability density functions of feature distributions...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156850/harness-the-synergy-between-targeted-therapy-and-immunotherapy-what-have-we-learned-and-where-are-we-headed
#11
REVIEW
Xiaoyan Liu, Qing Zhou, Yan Xu, Minjiang Chen, Jing Zhao, Mengzhao Wang
Since the introduction of imatinib for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia, several oncogenic mutations have been identified in various malignancies that can serve as targets for therapy. More recently, a deeper insight into the mechanism of antitumor immunity and tumor immunoevasion have facilitated the development of novel immunotherapy agents. Certain targeted agents have the ability of inhibiting tumor growth without causing severe lymphocytopenia and amplifying antitumor immune response by increasing tumor antigenicity, enhancing intratumoral T cell infiltration, and altering the tumor immune microenvironment, which provides a rationale for combining targeted therapy with immunotherapy...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156419/segmentation-of-the-hippocampus-by-transferring-algorithmic-knowledge-for-large-cohort-processing
#12
Benjamin Thyreau, Kazunori Sato, Hiroshi Fukuda, Yasuyuki Taki
The hippocampus is a particularly interesting target for neuroscience research studies due to its essential role within the human brain. In large human cohort studies, bilateral hippocampal structures are frequently identified and measured to gain insight into human behaviour or genomic variability in neuropsychiatric disorders of interest. Automatic segmentation is performed using various algorithms, with FreeSurfer being a popular option. In this manuscript, we present a method to segment the bilateral hippocampus using a deep-learned appearance model...
November 10, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155664/prioritizing-zoonoses-for-global-health-capacity-building-themes-from-one-health-zoonotic-disease-workshops-in-7-countries-2014-2016
#13
Stephanie J Salyer, Rachel Silver, Kerri Simone, Casey Barton Behravesh
Zoonotic diseases represent critical threats to global health security. Effective mitigation of the impact of endemic and emerging zoonotic diseases of public health importance requires multisectoral collaboration and interdisciplinary partnerships. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention created the One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization Tool to help countries identify zoonotic diseases of greatest national concern using input from representatives of human health, agriculture, environment, and wildlife sectors...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155652/cdc-support-for-global-public-health-emergency-management
#14
Daniel J Brencic, Meredith Pinto, Adrienne Gill, Michael H Kinzer, Luis Hernandez, Omer G Pasi
Recent pandemics and rapidly spreading outbreaks of infectious diseases have illustrated the interconnectedness of the world and the importance of improving the international community's ability to effectively respond. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), building on a strong foundation of lessons learned through previous emergencies, international recognition, and human and technical expertise, has aspired to support nations around the world to strengthen their public health emergency management (PHEM) capacity...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155639/when-machines-think-radiology-s-next-frontier
#15
Keith J Dreyer, J Raymond Geis
Artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning, and deep learning are terms now seen frequently, all of which refer to computer algorithms that change as they are exposed to more data. Many of these algorithms are surprisingly good at recognizing objects in images. The combination of large amounts of machine-consumable digital data, increased and cheaper computing power, and increasingly sophisticated statistical models combine to enable machines to find patterns in data in ways that are not only cost-effective but also potentially beyond humans' abilities...
December 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155302/repeated-exposure-to-sevoflurane-impairs-the-learning-and-memory-of-older-male-rats
#16
Shanbin Guo, Lidan Liu, Cong Wang, Qian Jiang, Yunxia Dong, Yue Tian
AIMS: Critically ill old patients sometimes require repeated surgical interventions, and thus it is important to determine the influence of repeated exposure to anesthetics on learning and memory. Sevoflurane, a widely used inhalation anesthetic, has few neurological adverse effects and offers a rapid return to consciousness. But the long-term influence of sevoflurane exposure and the effect of repeated sevoflurane exposure on cognition have rarely been reported, and available studies are contradictory...
November 16, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155095/behavioral-and-neural-mechanisms-by-which-prior-experience-impacts-subsequent-learning
#17
Ryan G Parsons
Memory is often thought about in terms of its ability to recollect and store information about the past, but its function likely rests with the fact that it permits adaptation to ongoing and future experience. Thus, the brain circuitry that encodes memory must act as if stored information is likely to be modified by subsequent experience. Considerable progress has been made in identifying the behavioral and neural mechanisms supporting the acquisition and consolidation of memories, but this knowledge comes largely from studies in laboratory animals in which the training experience is presented in isolation from prior experimentally-controlled events...
November 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154736/lactobacilli-fermented-cow-s-milk-attenuated-lipopolysaccharide-induced-neuroinflammation-and-memory-impairment-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#18
Nurul Huda Musa, Vasudevan Mani, Siong Meng Lim, Sharmili Vidyadaran, Abu Bakar Abdul Majeed, Kalavathy Ramasamy
Nutritional interventions are now recommended as strategies to delay Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. The present study evaluated the neuroprotective effect (anti-inflammation) of lactic acid bacteria (either Lactobacillus fermentum LAB9 or L. casei LABPC) fermented cow's milk (CM) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglial BV2 cells in vitro. The ability of CM-LAB in attenuating memory deficit in LPS-induced mice was also investigated. ICR mice were orally administered with CM-LAB for 28 d before induction of neuroinflammation by LPS...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154439/verbal-short-term-memory-shows-a-specific-association-with-receptive-but-not-productive-vocabulary-measures-in-down-syndrome
#19
S Majerus, K Barisnikov
BACKGROUND: Verbal short-term memory (STM) capacity has been considered to support vocabulary learning in typical children and adults, but evidence for this link is inconsistent for studies in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). The aim of this study was explore the role of processing demands on the association between verbal STM and vocabulary measures in DS, by comparing receptive vocabulary measures with high STM processing demands to productive vocabulary measures with low STM processing demands...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154379/proposed-in-training-electrocardiogram-interpretation-competencies-for-undergraduate-and-postgraduate-trainees
#20
Pavel Antiperovitch, Wojciech Zareba, Jonathan S Steinberg, Ljuba Bacharova, Larisa G Tereshchenko, Jeronimo Farre, Kjell Nikus, Takanori Ikeda, Adrian Baranchuk
Despite its importance in everyday clinical practice, the ability of physicians to interpret electrocardiograms (ECGs) is highly variable. ECG patterns are often misdiagnosed, and electrocardiographic emergencies are frequently missed, leading to adverse patient outcomes. Currently, many medical education programs lack an organized curriculum and competency assessment to ensure trainees master this essential skill. ECG patterns that were previously mentioned in literature were organized into groups from A to D based on their clinical importance and distributed among levels of training...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
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