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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732342/scope-mtl-a-non-invasive-tool-for-identifying-and-lateralizing-mesial-temporal-lobe-seizures-prior-to-scalp-eeg-ictal-onset
#1
Alice D Lam, Douglas Maus, Sahar F Zafar, Andrew J Cole, Sydney S Cash
OBJECTIVE: In mesial temporal lobe (mTL) epilepsy, seizure onset can precede the appearance of a scalp EEG ictal pattern by many seconds. The ability to identify this early, occult mTL seizure activity could improve lateralization and localization of mTL seizures on scalp EEG. METHODS: Using scalp EEG spectral features and machine learning approaches on a dataset of combined scalp EEG and foramen ovale electrode recordings in patients with mTL epilepsy, we developed an algorithm, SCOPE-mTL, to detect and lateralize early, occult mTL seizure activity, prior to the appearance of a scalp EEG ictal pattern...
July 1, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731560/food-insecure-student-clients-of-a-university-based-food-bank-have-compromised-health-dietary-intake-and-academic-quality
#2
Jasmine Farahbakhsh, Mahitab Hanbazaza, Geoff D C Ball, Anna P Farmer, Katerina Maximova, Noreen D Willows
AIM: University and college students in wealthy countries may be vulnerable to financial food insecurity. If food insecure students have suboptimal health, their ability to learn and excel in their education could be compromised. This Canadian study examined the relationship of food security status to diet and self-perceived health and academic quality among students receiving emergency food hampers from the Campus Food Bank at University of Alberta. METHODS: A convenience sample of 58 students completed a survey...
February 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731448/left-frontal-hub-connectivity-during-memory-performance-supports-reserve-in-aging-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#3
Nicolai Franzmeier, Julia C Hartmann, Alexander Nw Taylor, Migeul A Araque Caballero, Lee Simon-Vermot, Katharina Buerger, Lana M Kambeitz-Ilankovic, Birgit Ertl-Wagner, Claudia Mueller, Cihan Catak, Daniel Janowitz, Robert Stahl, Martin Dichgans, Marco Duering, Michael Ewers
Reserve in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is defined as maintaining cognition at a relatively high level in the presence of neurodegeneration, an ability often associated with higher education among other life factors. Recent evidence suggests that higher resting-state functional connectivity within the frontoparietal control network, specifically the left frontal cortex (LFC) hub, contributes to higher reserve. Following up these previous resting-state fMRI findings, we probed memory-task related functional connectivity of the LFC hub as a neural substrate of reserve...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731433/the-effects-of-cardiotrophin-1-on-early-synaptic-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-synaptic-pathology-in-appswe-ps1de9-mice
#4
Dongmei Wang, Xiaozhuan Liu, Yumei Liu, Sanqiang Li, Chenying Wang
The coexistence of neuronal mitochondrial pathology and synaptic dysfunction is an early pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) has been shown to exhibit impressive neuroprotective effects. Previous studies have shown positive effects of CT-1 on brain glucose metabolism and cognition in APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice; however, little is known about the effects of CT-1 on early synaptic mitochondrial dysfunction and resultant synaptic pathology in the brain. In this study, 4-month-old transgenic mice with brain tissue-specific CT-1 expression were used alone or in combination with APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice to evaluate the effect of CT-1 on synaptic mitochondrial dysfunction and resultant synaptic pathology, and cryptic memory deficits in the APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731401/intraoperative-perception-and-estimates-on-extent-of-resection-during-awake-glioma-surgery-overcoming-the-learning-curve
#5
Darryl Lau, Shawn L Hervey-Jumper, Seunggu J Han, Mitchel S Berger
OBJECTIVE There is ample evidence that extent of resection (EOR) is associated with improved outcomes for glioma surgery. However, it is often difficult to accurately estimate EOR intraoperatively, and surgeon accuracy has yet to be reviewed. In this study, the authors quantitatively assessed the accuracy of intraoperative perception of EOR during awake craniotomy for tumor resection. METHODS A single-surgeon experience of performing awake craniotomies for tumor resection over a 17-year period was examined...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731294/the-bioinorganic-chemistry-of-lead-in-the-context-of-its-toxicity
#6
Wolfgang Maret
Owing to its abundance on earth and its multiple uses by humans, lead (Pb) is a major toxicant that has threatened human health for millennia and continues to do so. There is no safe level of exposure, necessitating a nuanced approach to its control in the food we consume, the water we drink, and the air we breathe. Turnover in soft tissues is within days. In contrast, lead accumulates in bone and turns over with a half-life of about 30 years, though it can be mobilized from bone under physiological and pathophysiological conditions of bone resorption...
April 10, 2017: Metal Ions in Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730995/decoding-human-mental-states-by-whole-head-eeg-fnirs-during-category-fluency-task-performance
#7
Ahmet Omurtag, Haleh Aghajani, Hasan Onur Keles
Concurrent scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), which we refer to as EEG+fNIRS, promises greater accuracy than the individual modalities while remaining nearly as convenient as EEG. We sought to quantify the hybrid system's ability to decode mental states and compare it with its unimodal components. Approach. We recorded from healthy volunteers taking the category fluency test and applied machine learning techniques to the data. Main results...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730911/important-learning-factors-in-high-and-low-achieving-students-in-undergraduate-biomechanics
#8
ChengTu Hsieh, Duane Knudson
The purpose of the present study was to document crucial factors associated with students' learning of biomechanical concepts, particularly between high- and-low achieving students. Students (N = 113) from three introductory biomechanics classes at two public universities volunteered for the study. Two measures of students' learning were obtained, final course grade and improvement on the Biomechanics Concept Inventory version 3 administered before and after the course. Participants also completed a 15-item questionnaire documenting student learning characteristics, effort, and confidence...
July 21, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729882/breastfeeding-is-associated-with-enhanced-learning-abilities-in-school-aged-children
#9
Johanna Inhyang Kim, Bung-Nyun Kim, Jae-Won Kim, Soon-Beom Hong, Min-Sup Shin, Hee Jeong Yoo, Soo-Churl Cho
OBJECTIVE: The majority of studies on the associations between breastfeeding and cognitive functioning have focused on IQ, with only a few investigating learning skills, and none of the latter adjusting for maternal IQ. We examined the association between breastfeeding and learning abilities in school-aged children using a cross-sectional design. METHODS: We recruited 868 children, aged 8-11 years and parents completed the Learning Disability Evaluation Scale (LDES)...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729234/mobile-phone-supported-physiotherapy-for-frozen-shoulder-feasibility-assessment-based-on-a-usability-study
#10
Thomas Stütz, Gerlinde Emsenhuber, Daniela Huber, Michael Domhardt, Martin Tiefengrabner, Gertie Janneke Oostingh, Ulrike Fötschl, Nicholas Matis, Simon Ginzinger
BACKGROUND: Patients with frozen shoulder show limited shoulder mobility often accompanied by pain. Common treatment methods include physiotherapy, pain medication, administration of corticosteroids, and surgical capsulotomy. Frozen shoulder often lasts from months to years and mostly affects persons in the age group of 40 to 70 years. It severely reduces the quality of life and the ability to work. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a mobile health (mHealth) intervention that supports patients affected by "stage two" frozen shoulder...
July 20, 2017: JMIR Rehabil Assist Technol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729156/multivariate-pattern-analysis-utilizing-structural-or-functional-mri-in-individuals-with-musculoskeletal-pain-and-healthy-controls-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Ashley Smith, Marina López-Solà, Katie McMahon, Ashley Pedler, Michele Sterling
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review is to systematically review the evidence relating to findings generated by multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) following structural or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine if this analysis is able to: a) Discriminate between individuals with musculoskeletal pain and healthy controls, b) Predict pain perception in healthy individuals stimulated with a noxious stimulus compared to those stimulated with a non-noxious stimulus...
June 15, 2017: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728547/community-based-initiatives-improving-critical-health-literacy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-synthesis-of-qualitative-evidence
#12
Liesbeth de Wit, Christine Fenenga, Cinzia Giammarchi, Lucia di Furia, Inge Hutter, Andrea de Winter, Louise Meijering
BACKGROUND: Critical health literacy enables older adults to make informed health decisions and take actions for the health and wellbeing of themselves and their community, within their own social and cultural context. A community-based approach has the potential to improve the critical health literacy of older adults and their communities. However, it is not clear how such initiatives consider critical health literacy. Therefore, this study explored how community-based initiatives address the critical health literacy of older adults and their communities...
July 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728441/ability-of-pulmonary-function-decline-to-predict-death-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-patients
#13
Irina Enache, Cristina Pistea, Marie Fleury, Mickael Schaeffer, Monique Oswald-Mammosser, Andoni Echaniz-Laguna, Christine Tranchant, Nicolas Meyer, Anne Charloux
OBJECTIVES: Objectives were to evaluate the relative risk of death associated with lung function decline in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and to examine the ability of ALS patients to perform volitional pulmonary function tests (PFTs). METHODS: The PFTs of 256 consecutive patients referred to the Strasbourg University Hospital ALS Centre over an eight-year period were reviewed. Slow vital capacity (VC), maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures (MIP, MEP), sniff nasal inspiratory pressure (SNIP), and peak cough flow (PCF) were performed at diagnosis and then every four months...
July 20, 2017: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727737/improving-deep-convolutional-neural-networks-with-mixed-maxout-units
#14
Hui-Zhen Zhao, Fu-Xian Liu, Long-Yue Li
Motivated by insights from the maxout-units-based deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) that "non-maximal features are unable to deliver" and "feature mapping subspace pooling is insufficient," we present a novel mixed variant of the recently introduced maxout unit called a mixout unit. Specifically, we do so by calculating the exponential probabilities of feature mappings gained by applying different convolutional transformations over the same input and then calculating the expected values according to their exponential probabilities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726438/superior-pattern-detectors-efficiently-learn-activate-apply-and-update-social-stereotypes
#15
David J Lick, Adam L Alter, Jonathan B Freeman
Superior cognitive abilities are generally associated with positive outcomes such as academic achievement and social mobility. Here, we explore the darker side of cognitive ability, highlighting robust links between pattern detection and stereotyping. Across 6 studies, we find that superior pattern detectors efficiently learn and use stereotypes about social groups. This pattern holds across explicit (Studies 1 and 2), implicit (Studies 2 and 4), and behavioral measures of stereotyping (Study 3). We also find that superior pattern detectors readily update their stereotypes when confronted with new information (Study 5), making them particularly susceptible to counterstereotype training (Study 6)...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725022/action-video-games-improve-reading-abilities-and-visual-to-auditory-attentional-shifting-in-english-speaking-children-with-dyslexia
#16
Sandro Franceschini, Piergiorgio Trevisan, Luca Ronconi, Sara Bertoni, Susan Colmar, Kit Double, Andrea Facoetti, Simone Gori
Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties in learning to read and there is some evidence that action video games (AVG), without any direct phonological or orthographic stimulation, improve reading efficiency in Italian children with dyslexia. However, the cognitive mechanism underlying this improvement and the extent to which the benefits of AVG training would generalize to deep English orthography, remain two critical questions. During reading acquisition, children have to integrate written letters with speech sounds, rapidly shifting their attention from visual to auditory modality...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723943/stress-enhances-model-free-reinforcement-learning-only-after-negative-outcome
#17
Heyeon Park, Daeyeol Lee, Jeanyung Chey
Previous studies found that stress shifts behavioral control by promoting habits while decreasing goal-directed behaviors during reward-based decision-making. It is, however, unclear how stress disrupts the relative contribution of the two systems controlling reward-seeking behavior, i.e. model-free (or habit) and model-based (or goal-directed). Here, we investigated whether stress biases the contribution of model-free and model-based reinforcement learning processes differently depending on the valence of outcome, and whether stress alters the learning rate, i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722249/memory-in-3-month-old-infants-benefits-from-a-short-nap
#18
Klára Horváth, Benjamin Hannon, Peter P Ujma, Ferenc Gombos, Kim Plunkett
A broad range of studies demonstrate that sleep has a facilitating role in memory consolidation (see Rasch & Born, ). Whether sleep-dependent memory consolidation is also apparent in infants in their first few months of life has not been investigated. We demonstrate that 3-month-old infants only remember a cartoon face approximately 1.5-2 hours after its first presentation when a period of sleep followed learning. Furthermore, habituation time, that is, the time to become bored with a stimulus shown repetitively, correlated negatively with the density of infant sleep spindles, implying that processing speed is linked to specific electroencephalographic components of sleep...
July 18, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722172/intentional-learning-a-concept-analysis
#19
Sarah Mollman, Lori Candela
AIM: To use a concept analysis to determine a clear definition of the term "intentional learning" for use in nursing. BACKGROUND: The term intentional learning has been used for years in educational, business, and even nursing literature. It has been used to denote processes leading to higher order thinking and the ability to use knowledge in new situations; both of which are important skills to develop in nursing students. But the lack of a common, accepted definition of the term makes it difficult for nurse educators to base instruction and learning experiences on or to evaluate its overall effectiveness in educating students for diverse, fast-paced clinical practices...
July 19, 2017: Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722154/application-of-headspace-solid-phase-microextraction-followed-by-gas-chromatography-coupled-with-mass-spectrometry-spme-gc-ms-to-determine-esters-of-carboxylic-acids-and-other-volatile-compounds-in-d-maculatus-and-d-ater-lipids
#20
Magdalena Cerkowniak, Mieczysława I Boguś, Emilia Włóka, Piotr Stepnowski, Marek Gołębiowski
A constant problem in veterinary medicine, human healthcare, agriculture, forestry or horticulture is the large number of pests, and the lack of effective methods to combat them which cause no harm to the rest of the environment. It is recommended and desired to reduce the use of chemicals and increase the use of agents based on the knowledge acquired in the field of biology, chemistry, and agrochemicals. To learn the defense mechanisms of insects we should consider not only the site of their physiological ability to protect against external factors (cuticle), but also check the possibility of chemical protection, formed by all compounds on the surface and in the body of insects...
July 19, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
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