Read by QxMD icon Read

CNS activity

Mythily Srinivasan, Baindu Bayon, Nipun Chopra, Debomoy K Lahiri
In the central nervous system (CNS), activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κβ) is associated with both neuronal survival and increased vulnerability to apoptosis. The mechanisms underlying these dichotomous effects are attributed to the composition of NF-κΒ dimers. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), β-amyloid (Aβ) and other aggregates upregulate activation of p65:p50 dimers in CNS cells and enhance transactivation of pathological mediators that cause neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration...
2016: PloS One
Agnieszka Mika, Heidi E Day, Alexander Martinez, Nicole L Rumian, Benjamin N Greenwood, Maciej Chichlowski, Brian M Berg, Monika Fleshner
Manipulating gut microbes may improve mental health. Prebiotics are indigestible compounds that increase the growth and activity of health- promoting microorganisms, yet few studies have examined how prebiotics affect CNS function. Using an acute inescapable stressor known to produce learned helplessness behaviors such as failure to escape and exaggerated fear, we tested whether early life supplementation of a blend of two prebiotics, galactooligosaccharide (GOS) and polydextrose (PDX), and the glycoprotein lactoferrin (LAC) would attenuate behavioral and biological responses to stress later in life...
October 20, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
W Oliver Tobin, Chiara Costanzi, Yong Guo, Joseph E Parisi, Stephen D Weigand, Claudia F Lucchinetti
BACKGROUND: The spectrum of central nervous system-idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease (CNS-IIDD) in the elderly is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical, radiological, and pathological features of a cohort of 30 pathologically proven CNS-IIDD patients ⩾65 years. METHODS: Elderly multiple sclerosis (MS)/clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) patients were compared to a cohort of 125 patients with pathologically proven MS/CIS and symptom onset <65 years...
October 19, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Nathan D Crosby, John J Janik, Warren M Grill
Kilohertz-frequency spinal cord stimulation (KHF-SCS) is a potential paresthesia-free treatment for chronic pain. However, the effects of KHF-SCS on spinal dorsal column (DC) axons and its mechanisms of action remain unknown. The objectives of this study were to quantify activation and conduction block of DC axons by KHF-SCS across a range of kHz frequencies (1, 5, 10, or 20 kHz) and waveforms (biphasic pulses or sinusoids). Custom platinum electrodes delivered SCS to the T10/T11 DCs of anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Poonam Piplani, Chhanda Charan Danta
BACKGROUND: In 2016, the statistical reports stated that Alzheimer is not just memory loss but it kills and has become the 6th leading cause of death. The number of dementia patients is increasing rapidly and expected to rise to 131.5 million by 2050. Still there is not a drug candidate that can cure the cognitive deficits completely. OBJECTIVE: Series of novel piperazine derivatives have been designed, synthesized and evaluated for cognition enhancing activity...
October 14, 2016: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
U C Wieshmann, G Baker
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain efficacy and tolerability of carbamazepine (CBZ), sodium valproate (VPA), lamotrigine (LTG) and levetiracetam (LEV) using the UKAED register ( METHODS: Patients on CBZ (n=91), VPA (n=61), LTG (n=105), LEV (n=72) and healthy control subjects (CTR) on no medication (n=51) were extracted. All patients had anonymously provided information on seizure type and frequency and completed the Liverpool Adverse Event Profile (LAEP). RESULTS: The number of seizure-free patients in the last 4 weeks was overall CBZ/VPA/LTG/LEV=60%/79%/67%/67%, for generalized epilepsy was CBZ/VPA/LTG/LEV=67%/89%/65%/94%, and for localization-related epilepsy was CBZ/VPA/LTG/LEV=59%/71%/67%/57%...
October 18, 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Jing Ni, Oliver Hölsken, Matthias Miller, Quirin Hammer, Merlin Luetke-Eversloh, Chiara Romagnani, Adelheid Cerwenka
Natural killer (NK) cell infusions can induce remissions in subsets of patients with different types of cancer. The optimal strategies for NK cell activation prior to infusion are still under debate. There is recent evidence that NK cells can acquire long-term functional competence by preactivation with the cytokines IL-12/15/18. The mechanisms supporting the maintenance of long-term NK cell antitumor activity are incompletely under-stood. Here, we show that NK cells preactivated in vitro with IL-12/15/18, but not with IL-15 alone, maintained high antitumor activity even 1 mo after transfer into lymphopenic RAG-2(-/-)γc(-/-) mice...
2016: Oncoimmunology
Viktor S Kokhan, Marina I Matveeva, Azat Mukhametov, Andrey S Shtemberg
Space flight factors (SFF) significantly affect the operating activity of astronauts during deep space missions. Gravitational overloads, hypo-magnetic field and ionizing radiation are the main SFF that perturb the normal activity of the central nervous system (CNS). Acute and chronic CNS risks include alterations in cognitive abilities, reduction of motor functions and behavioural changes. Multiple experimental works have been devoted to the SFF effects on integrative functional activity of the brain; however, the model parameters utilized have not always been ideal and consistent...
October 15, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
George Bakris
Resistant hypertension is defined as a blood pressure above 140/90 mmHg despite adherence to a combination of at least three optimally dosed antihypertensive medications, one of which is a diuretic. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the more common patient comorbidities associated with resistant hypertension. Recommended low-salt diet and triple antihypertensive drug regimens that include a diuretic, should be complemented by the sequential addition of other antihypertensive drugs. CKD is associated with premature vascular ageing, characterized by accelerated arteriosclerosis or atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Richard Wainford, Casey Carmichael, Kathryn Walsh
OBJECTIVE: We have demonstrated a critical role of CNS Gαi2 proteins in sodium homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. These studies tested the hypothesis that increased total body sodium activates the afferent renal afferent nerves to evoke sympathoinhibition to facilitate sodium homeostasis and normotension, via a PVN signal transduction pathway involving Gαi2 proteins, in the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat. DESIGN AND METHOD: Conscious SD rats, having undergone sham or renal afferent nerve denervation (Renal-CAP) underwent an IV volume expansion (VE; 5% BW), HR, MAP, natriuresis and PVN neuronal activation were assessed (N = 5/group)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
João Casaca-Carreira, Yasin Temel, Iñaki Larrakoetxea, Ali Jahanshahi
Antisense oligonucleotide (AON) therapy is emerging as a potential treatment strategy for neurodegenerative diseases, such as spinal muscular atrophy, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. AONs function at the cellular level by, for example, direct interference with the expression of gene products or the molecular activation of neuroprotective pathways. However, AON therapy faces a major obstacle limiting its clinical application for central nervous system (CNS) disorders: the blood-brain barrier...
October 18, 2016: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
M Asunción Barreda-Manso, Natalia Yanguas-Casás, Manuel Nieto-Sampedro, Lorenzo Romero-Ramírez
Following a central nervous system (CNS) injury, restoration of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity is essential for recovering homeostasis. When this process is delayed or impeded, blood substances and cells enter the CNS parenchyma, initiating an additional inflammatory process that extends the initial injury and causes so-called secondary neuronal loss. Astrocytes and profibrotic mesenchymal cells react to the injury and migrate to the lesion site, creating a new glia limitans that restores the BBB. This process is beneficial for the resolution of the inflammation, neuronal survival and the initiation of the healing process...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Lauren Luhrs, Cynthia Manlapaz, Karen Kedzie, Sandhya Rao, Sara Cabrera-Ghayouri, John Donello, Daniel Gil
Noradrenergic signaling, through the α2A and α2C adrenergic receptors modulates the cognitive and behavioral symptoms of disorders such as schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and addiction. However, it is unknown whether the α2B receptor has any significant role in CNS function. The present study elucidates the potential role of the α2B receptor in CNS function via the discovery and use of the first subtype selective α2B antagonist (AGN-209419), and behavioral analyses of α-receptor KO mice...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience
Glenwood Goss, Chun-Ming Tsai, Frances A Shepherd, Lyudmila Bazhenova, Jong Seok Lee, Gee-Chen Chang, Lucio Crino, Miyako Satouchi, Quincy Chu, Toyoaki Hida, Ji-Youn Han, Oscar Juan, Frank Dunphy, Makoto Nishio, Jin-Hyoung Kang, Margarita Majem, Helen Mann, Mireille Cantarini, Serban Ghiorghiu, Tetsuya Mitsudomi
BACKGROUND: Osimertinib (AZD9291) is an oral, potent, irreversible EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor selective for EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor sensitising mutations, and the EGFR Thr790Met resistance mutation. We assessed the efficacy and safety of osimertinib in patients with EGFR Thr790Met-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), who had progressed after previous therapy with an approved EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor. METHODS: In this phase 2, open-label, single-arm study (AURA2), patients aged at least 18 years with centrally confirmed EGFR Thr790Met-positive mutations, locally advanced or metastatic (stage IIIB/IV) NSCLC who progressed on previous EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor therapy received osimertinib 80 mg orally once daily; treatment could continue beyond progression if the investigator observed a clinical benefit...
October 14, 2016: Lancet Oncology
Rodrigo Fabrizzio Inácio, Renata Gacielle Zanon, Mateus Vidigal de Castro, Henrique Marques de Souza, Marcio Chaim Bajgelman, Liana Verinaud, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues de Oliveira
Astrocytes are multifunctional glial cells that actively participate in synaptic plasticity in health and disease. Little is known about molecular interactions between neurons and glial cells that result in synaptic stability or elimination. In this sense, the main histocompatibility complex of class I (MHC I) has been shown to play a role in the synaptic plasticity process during development and after lesion of the CNS. MHC I levels in neurons appear to be influenced by astrocyte secreted molecules, which may generate endoplasmic reticulum stress...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Bassem Yousef Sheikh, S M Neamul Kabir Zihad, Nazifa Sifat, Shaikh J Uddin, Jamil A Shilpi, Omer A A Hamdi, Hemayet Hossain, Razina Rouf, Ismet Ara Jahan
In addition to the rich nutritional value, date palm is also used in various ethnobotanical practices for the treatment of various disease conditions. Present investigation was undertaken to examine the neuropharmacological and antinociceptive effect of the ethanol extract of three date cultivars growing in Saudi Arabia, namely Ajwah, Safawy and Sukkari. Neuropharmacological effect was observed by pentobarbitone induced sleeping time, open field, and hole board test. Antinociceptive activity was tested by acetic acid induced writhing and hot plate test...
2016: Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine
Claire-Anne Gutekunst, Jack K Tung, Margaret E McDougal, Robert E Gross
Regrowth inhibitory molecules prevent axon regeneration in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS). RhoA, a small GTPase in the Rho family, is a key intracellular switch that mediates the effects of these extracellular regrowth inhibitors. The bacterial enzyme C3-ADP ribosyltransferase (C3) selectively and irreversibly inhibits the activation of RhoA and stimulates axon outgrowth and regeneration. However, effective intracellular delivery of the C3 protein in vivo is limited by poor cell permeability and a short duration of action...
October 13, 2016: Neuroscience
Genaro R Villa, Jonathan J Hulce, Ciro Zanca, Junfeng Bi, Shiro Ikegami, Gabrielle L Cahill, Yuchao Gu, Kenneth M Lum, Kenta Masui, Huijun Yang, Xin Rong, Cynthia Hong, Kristen M Turner, Feng Liu, Gary C Hon, David Jenkins, Michael Martini, Aaron M Armando, Oswald Quehenberger, Timothy F Cloughesy, Frank B Furnari, Webster K Cavenee, Peter Tontonoz, Timothy C Gahman, Andrew K Shiau, Benjamin F Cravatt, Paul S Mischel
Small-molecule inhibitors targeting growth factor receptors have failed to show efficacy for brain cancers, potentially due to their inability to achieve sufficient drug levels in the CNS. Targeting non-oncogene tumor co-dependencies provides an alternative approach, particularly if drugs with high brain penetration can be identified. Here we demonstrate that the highly lethal brain cancer glioblastoma (GBM) is remarkably dependent on cholesterol for survival, rendering these tumors sensitive to Liver X receptor (LXR) agonist-dependent cell death...
October 13, 2016: Cancer Cell
Alamgir A Dar, Nisar A Dangroo, Arun Raina, Arem Qayum, Shashank Singh, Anil Kumar, Payare L Sangwan
Five new xanthones, named coxanthones A-E (1-5), together with 21 known secondary metabolites (6-26) that include seven xanthones, five flavonoids, two steroids and seven triterpenoids were isolated from the chemically unexplored whole plant Codonopsis ovata. The structures of new metabolites were elucidated by HRMS, interpretation of NMR spectra and other spectroscopic techniques. The absolute configuration of the stereogenic centre of coxanthone B (2) was determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopy...
October 10, 2016: Phytochemistry
Ding-Jun Hao, Cuicui Liu, Lingling Zhang, Bo Chen, Qian Zhang, Rui Zhang, Jing An, Jingjing Zhao, Mingmei Wu, Yi Wang, Alfred Simental, Baorong He, Hao Yang
The gradual deterioration following central nervous system (CNS) injuries or neurodegenerative disorders is usually accompanied by infiltration of degenerated and apoptotic neural tissue debris. A rapid and efficient clearance of these deteriorated cell products is of pivotal importance in creating a permissive environment for regeneration of those damaged neurons. Our recent report revealed that the phagocytic activity of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) can make a substantial contribution to neuronal growth in such a hostile environment...
October 14, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"