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Fetal hypoxia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429366/analysis-of-transcriptional-activities-of-angiogenic-biomarkers-during-intrauterine-complications-leading-to-preterm-birth
#1
M Rabajdová, R Dudič, P Urban, V Dudičová, P Urdzík, M Mareková
OBJECTIVE: Pre-eclampsia, growth retardation and preterm delivery are the most common reasons leading to increased maternal and perinatal mortality. The increased expression of hypoxia induced factors, such as HIF-1, triggers the overexpression of anti-angiogenic genes. The aim of this study was to determine the transcriptional activity of individual pro- and anti-angiogenic markers (VEGF, HIF-1, sEng, Flt-1, PlGF-1) in maternal blood samples from patients with spontaneous preterm labor, preterm labor in combination with pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction in comparison with physiologically terminated pregnancies...
April 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423052/inflammation-induced-fetal-growth-restriction-in-rats-is-associated-with-increased-placental-hif-1%C3%AE-accumulation
#2
Kevin P Robb, Tiziana Cotechini, Camille Allaire, Arissa Sperou, Charles H Graham
INTRODUCTION: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) is the oxygen-sensitive subunit of the transcription factor HIF-1, and its expression is increased in placentas from pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia (PE). Fetal growth restriction (FGR) and PE often share a common pathophysiology; however, it is unknown whether increased placental HIF-1α occurs in FGR. We previously demonstrated that aberrant maternal inflammation in rats resulted in altered utero-placental perfusion and FGR, both of which were prevented by administration of the nitric oxide mimetic glyceryl trinitrate (GTN)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415865/-placental-gene-activity-of-significant-angiogenetic-factors-in-the-background-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction
#3
Péter Kovács, Attila Rab, Imre Szentpéteri, József Gábor Joó, László Kornya
Placental vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) gene and endoglin gene are both overexpressed in placental samples obtained from pregnancies with intrauterine growth restriction compared to normal pregnancies. In the background of these changes a mechanism can be supposed, in which the increased endoglin activity in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) leads to impaired placental circulation through an antioangiogenetic effect. This results in the development of placental vascular dysfunction and chronic fetal hypoxia...
April 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407851/time-dependent-changes-and-prognostic-value-of-lactatemia-during-the-first-24%C3%A2-h-of-life-in-brachycephalic-newborn-dogs
#4
C Castagnetti, M Cunto, C Bini, J Mariella, S Capolongo, D Zambelli
Blood lactate concentration is known to be a good prognostic indicator associated with the severity of illness and the patient's outcome both in human and veterinary medicine. It also plays a significant role in the assessment of the newborn, being a good indicator of fetal hypoxia and the ideal predictor of morbidity at term in babies. In veterinary neonatal medicine, hyperlactatemia is considered a valid prognostic marker in critically ill foals; moreover, blood lactate measurement has been proposed for the evaluation of newborn viability and the assessment of fetal distress during delivery in dogs...
May 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395175/oxygen-and-oxidative-stress-in-the-perinatal-period
#5
REVIEW
Isabel Torres-Cuevas, Anna Parra-Llorca, Angel Sánchez-Illana, Antonio Nuñez-Ramiro, Julia Kuligowski, Consuelo Cháfer-Pericás, María Cernada, Justo Escobar, Máximo Vento
Fetal life evolves in a hypoxic environment. Changes in the oxygen content in utero caused by conditions such as pre-eclampsia or type I diabetes or by oxygen supplementation to the mother lead to increased free radical production and correlate with perinatal outcomes. In the fetal-to-neonatal transition asphyxia is characterized by intermittent periods of hypoxia ischemia that may evolve to hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy associated with neurocognitive, motor, and neurosensorial impairment. Free radicals generated upon reoxygenation may notably increase brain damage...
March 12, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394008/large-thoracic-tumor-without-superior-vena-cava-syndrome
#6
Nikolaos Garmpis, Christos Damaskos, Nikolaos Patelis, Dimitrios Dimitroulis, Eleftherios Spartalis, Ioannis Tomos, Anna Garmpi, Michael Spartalis, Efstathios A Antoniou, Konstantinos Kontzoglou, Periklis Tomos
A 62 year-old male with long-standing smoking history presented with hemoptysis. Plain chest x-ray showed abnormal findings proximate to the right pulmonary hilum. Bronchoscopy revealed a fragile exophytic tumor of the right wall of the lower third of the trachea, infiltrating the right main bronchus (75% stenosis) and the right upper lobar bronchus (near total occlusion). Contrast-enhanced chest CT demonstrated a 7.2x4.9 cm tumor contiguous to the above-mentioned structures, mediastinal lymph node pathology, and a vessel coursing inferiorly to the left of the aortic arch and anterior to the left hilum...
April 10, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382413/neurodevelopmental-consequences-in-offspring-of-mothers-with-preeclampsia-during-pregnancy-underlying-biological-mechanism-via-imprinting-genes
#7
REVIEW
Yoko Nomura, Rosalind M John, Anna Bugge Janssen, Charles Davey, Jackie Finik, Jessica Buthmann, Vivette Glover, Luca Lambertini
PURPOSE: Preeclampsia is known to be a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among mothers and their infants. Approximately 3-8% of all pregnancies in the US are complicated by preeclampsia and another 5-7% by hypertensive symptoms. However, less is known about its long-term influence on infant neurobehavioral development. The current review attempts to demonstrate new evidence for imprinting gene dysregulation caused by hypertension, which may explain the link between maternal preeclampsia and neurocognitive dysregulation in offspring...
April 5, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380526/inhibition-of-chemokine-c-x-c-motif-receptor-four-cxcr4-at-the-fetal-maternal-interface-during-early-gestation-in-sheep-alterations-in-expression-of-chemokines-angiogenic-factors-and-their-receptors
#8
K E Quinn, S Z Prosser, K K Kane, R L Ashley
<p>Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12) and its receptor, chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4), are involved in significant biological processes associated with early pregnancy including increasing trophoblast invasion and stimulating placental vascularization. To further elucidate functions of CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling during early gestation, our objective was to inhibit CXCR4 in vivo using a CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100. We hypothesized that inhibition of CXCR4 would negatively affect chemokine and angiogenic factor regulation imperative for placental development in sheep...
March 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376077/maternal-nutrient-restriction-in-guinea-pigs-leads-to-fetal-growth-restriction-with-evidence-for-chronic-hypoxia
#9
Alexander A Elias, Yohei Maki, Brad Matushewski, Karen Nygard, Timothy R H Regnault, Bryan S Richardson
BACKGROUND: We determined if maternal nutrient restriction (MNR) in guinea pigs leading to fetal growth restriction (FGR), impacts markers for tissue hypoxia implicating a mechanistic role for chronic hypoxia. METHODS: Guinea pigs were fed ad libitum (Control) or 70% of the control diet pre-pregnant switching to 90% at mid-pregnancy (MNR). Near term, Hypoxyprobe-1 (HP-1), a marker of tissue hypoxia, was injected into pregnant sows. Fetuses were then necropsied and liver, kidney and placental tissues were processed for erythropoietin (EPO), EPO-receptor (EPOR), and VEGF protein levels, and for HP-1 immunoreactivity (IR)...
April 4, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372508/the-small-for-gestational-age-fetus-has-an-intact-ability-to-develop-lacticemia-when-exposed-to-hypoxia-a-retrospective-comparative-register-study
#10
Fernanda Åkerman, Parisa Mokarami, Karin Källén, Per Olofsson
OBJECTIVE: to investigate the ability of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetuses to develop lacticemia during hypoxia. METHODS: umbilical cord arterial and venous pH, lactate and glucose concentrations were determined in 1777 SGA (<10(th) percentile) and 14569 AGA newborns and related to acidemia (pH < mean -2SD). Non-parametric statistics with two-sided P <0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: glucose and lactate were linearly related and both variables correlated negatively with pH...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369712/computerized-data-driven-interpretation-of-the-intrapartum-cardiotocogram-a-cohort-study
#11
Antoniya Georgieva, Christopher W G Redman, Aris T Papageorghiou
Continuous intrapartum fetal monitoring remains a significant clinical challenge. We propose utilising cohorts of routinely collected data. We aim to combine non-classical (data-driven) and classical cardiotocography (CTG) features with clinical features into a system (OxSys), which generates automated alarms for the fetus at risk of intrapartum hypoxia. We hypothesise that OxSys can outperform clinical diagnosis of 'fetal distress', when optimised and tested over large retrospective datasets MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied a cohort of 22,790 labouring women (≥36 weeks gestation)...
March 28, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348544/substance-p-neurokinin-1-and-trigeminal-system-a-possible-link-to-the-pathogenesis-in-sudden-perinatal-deaths
#12
REVIEW
Riffat Mehboob
Sudden demise of a healthy fetus or a neonate is a very tragic episode in the life of parents. These deaths have been a mystery since ages but still remain unexplained. This review proposes the involvement of trigeminal nerve, neurotransmitter substance P (SP), and its receptor neurokinin 1 (NK-1R) in regulation of cardiorespiratory control in fetuses and newborns. Anomalies and immaturity of neuroregulatory systems such as trigeminal system in medulla oblongata of brainstem may provide a possible mechanism of sudden perinatal deaths...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347765/spinal-cord-injury-in-hypertonic-newborns-after-antenatal-hypoxia-ischemia-in-a-rabbit-model-of-cerebral-palsy
#13
Alexander Drobyshevsky, Katharina A Quinlan
While antenatal hypoxia-ischemia (H-I) is a well-established cause of brain injury, the effects of H-I on the spinal cord remain undefined. This study examined whether hypertonia in rabbits was accompanied by changes in spinal architecture. Rabbit dams underwent global fetal H-I at embryonic day 25 for 40min. High resolution diffusion tensor imaging was performed on fixed neonatal CNS. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and regional volumetric measurements were compared between kits with and without hypertonia after H-I and sham controls using Tract Based Spatial Statistics...
March 24, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343228/focal-brain-injury-associated-with-a-model-of-severe-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-in-nonhuman-primates
#14
Ryan M McAdams, Ronald J McPherson, Raj P Kapur, Sandra E Juul
Worldwide, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. To better understand the mechanisms contributing to brain injury and improve outcomes in neonates with HIE, better preclinical animal models that mimic the clinical situation following birth asphyxia in term newborns are needed. In an effort to achieve this goal, we modified our nonhuman primate model of HIE induced by in utero umbilical cord occlusion (UCO) to include postnatal hypoxic episodes, in order to simulate apneic events in human neonates with HIE...
March 25, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330415/novel-detection-of-placental-insufficiency-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-the-nonhuman-primate
#15
Jamie O Lo, Victoria H J Roberts, Matthias C Schabel, Xiaojie Wang, Terry K Morgan, Zheng Liu, Colin Studholme, Christopher D Kroenke, Antonio E Frias
The placenta is a vital organ necessary for healthy fetal development. Placental insufficiency creates an in utero environment where the fetus is at risk of insufficient oxygen or nutrient exchange. This is primarily caused by impairment of either maternal or fetal circulation or vascular thrombosis such as placental infarction. As a result of placental dysfunction, affected fetuses may be growth restricted, neurologically impaired, and at risk of increased morbidity and mortality. In a cohort of 4 pregnant Rhesus macaques, we describe antenatal detection of naturally occurring intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and aberrant fetal neurodevelopment in 1 animal...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323976/protective-effects-of-fetal-zone-steroids-are-comparable-to-estradiol-in-hyperoxia-induced-cell-death-of-immature-glia
#16
Stephanie Hübner, Donna E Sunny, Christine Pöhlke, Johanna Ruhnau, Antje Vogelgesang, Bettina Reich, Matthias Heckmann
Impaired neurodevelopment in preterm infants is caused by prematurity itself; however, hypoxia/ischemia, inflammation, and hyperoxia contribute to the extent of impairment. Because preterm birth is accompanied by a dramatic decrease in 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone, preliminary clinical studies have been carried out to substitute these steroids in preterm infants; however, they failed to confirm significantly improved neurological outcomes. We therefore hypothesized that the persistently high postnatal production of fetal zone steroids (mainly dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)) until term could interfere with E2-mediated protection...
March 3, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318025/maternal-chronic-hypoxia-increases-expression-of-genes-regulating-lung-liquid-movement-and-surfactant-maturation-in-male-fetuses-in-late-gestation
#17
Erin V McGillick, Sandra Orgeig, Beth J Allison, Kirsty L Brain, Youguo Niu, Nozomi Itani, Katie L Skeffington, Andrew D Kane, Emilio A Herrera, Dino A Giussani, Janna L Morrison
Chronic fetal hypoxaemia is a common pregnancy complication that may arise from maternal, placental and/or fetal factors. Respiratory outcome of the infant at birth likely depends on the duration, timing and severity of the hypoxaemic insult. We have isolated the effect of maternal chronic hypoxia (MCH) for a month in late gestation on fetal lung development. Pregnant ewes were exposed to normoxia (21% O2 ) or hypoxia (10% O2 ) from 105-138 d gestation (term ∼145 d). At 138 d, gene expression in fetal lung tissue was determined by qRT-PCR...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293198/fetal-heart-rate-analysis-for-automatic-detection-of-perinatal-hypoxia-using-normalized-compression-distance-and-machine-learning
#18
Óscar Barquero-Pérez, Ricardo Santiago-Mozos, José M Lillo-Castellano, Beatriz García-Viruete, Rebeca Goya-Esteban, Antonio J Caamaño, José L Rojo-Álvarez, Carlos Martín-Caballero
Accurate identification of Perinatal Hypoxia from visual inspection of Fetal Heart Rate (FHR) has been shown to have limitations. An automated signal processing method for this purpose needs to deal with time series of different lengths, recording interruptions, and poor quality signal conditions. We propose a new method, robust to those issues, for automated detection of perinatal hypoxia by analyzing the FHR during labor. Our system consists of several stages: (a) time series segmentation; (b) feature extraction from FHR signals, including raw time series, moments, and usual heart rate variability indices; (c) similarity calculation with Normalized Compression Distance, which is the key element for dealing with FHR time series; and (d) a simple classification algorithm for providing the hypoxia detection...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285426/fetal-growth-restriction-current-knowledge
#19
REVIEW
Luciano Marcondes Machado Nardozza, Ana Carolina Rabachini Caetano, Ana Cristina Perez Zamarian, Jaqueline Brandão Mazzola, Carolina Pacheco Silva, Vivian Macedo Gomes Marçal, Thalita Frutuoso Lobo, Alberto Borges Peixoto, Edward Araujo Júnior
BACKGROUND: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a condition that affects 5-10% of pregnancies and is the second most common cause of perinatal mortality. This review presents the most recent knowledge on FGR and focuses on the etiology, classification, prediction, diagnosis, and management of the condition, as well as on its neurological complications. METHODS: The Pubmed, SCOPUS, and Embase databases were searched using the term "fetal growth restriction". RESULTS: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) may be classified as early or late depending on the time of diagnosis...
May 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260773/assessment-of-variations-in-oxidative-stress-in-newborns-from-caesarian-and-normal-delivery-based-on-apgar-score
#20
M Sinharay, I Chakraborty, A Dasgupta, P Chakraborty
Fetal distress seems to be strongly related to fetal hypoxia, which is known to cause derangement of the balance between pro-oxidant and anti-oxidant factors by depleting the antioxidant reserve and increasing oxidative stress. Reduced Apgar score signify the fetal distress in postpartum period. The current study explores the severity of oxidative stress and nitrosative stress markers along with the antioxidant status in the cord blood of the newborns with low Apgar score (Group 1), fairly low Apgar score (Group 2) and normal Apgar score (Group 3) in both categories born by Cesarean section (CS) and Normal delivery (ND)...
January 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
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