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Fetal hypoxia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094441/sex-drugs-and-rock-and-roll-tales-from-preterm-fetal-life
#1
Laura Bennet
Premature fetuses and babies are at greater risk of mortality and morbidity than their term counterparts. The underlying causes are multifactorial, but include exposure to hypoxia. Immaturity of organs and their functional control may impair the physiological defence responses to hypoxia and the preterm fetal responses, or lack thereof, to moderate hypoxia appear to support this concept. However, as this review demonstrates, despite immaturity, the preterm fetus responds to asphyxia in a qualitatively similar manner to that seen at term...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090638/late-gestational-intermittent-hypoxia-induces-metabolic-and-epigenetic-changes-in-male-adult-offspring-mice
#2
Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Rene Cortese, Zhuanhong Qiao, Honggang Ye, Riyue Bao, Jorge Andrade, David Gozal
Pregnancy, particularly late gestation, has been associated with a relatively high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Intermittent hypoxia (IH), a hallmark of OSA, could impose significant long-term effects on somatic growth, energy homeostasis, and metabolic function in offspring. We hypothesized that IH during late pregnancy (LG-IH) may increase the propensity for metabolic dysregulation and obesity in adult offspring via epigenetic modifications. Time-pregnant female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to LG-IH or room air (LG-RA) during days 13-18 of gestation...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060265/analysis-of-cap-binding-proteins-in-human-cells-exposed-to-physiological-oxygen-conditions
#3
Sara Timpano, Gaelan Melanson, Sonia L Evagelou, Brianna D Guild, Erin J Specker, James Uniacke
Translational control is a focal point of gene regulation, especially during periods of cellular stress. Cap-dependent translation via the eIF4F complex is by far the most common pathway to initiate protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells, but stress-specific variations of this complex are now emerging. Purifying cap-binding proteins with an affinity resin composed of Agarose-linked m(7)GTP (a 5' mRNA cap analog) is a useful tool to identify factors involved in the regulation of translation initiation. Hypoxia (low oxygen) is a cellular stress encountered during fetal development and tumor progression, and is highly dependent on translation regulation...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053000/myoblast-replication-is-reduced-in-the-iugr-fetus-despite-maintained-proliferative-capacity-in-vitro
#4
Susan M Soto, Amy C Blake, Stephanie R Wesolowski, Paul J Rozance, Kristen B Barthel, Bifeng Gao, Byron Hetrick, Carrie McCurdy, Natalia G Garza, William Hay, Leslie A Leinwand, Jacob E Friedman, Laura D Brown
Adults who were affected by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) suffer from reductions in muscle mass and insulin resistance, suggesting muscle growth may be restricted by molecular events that occur during fetal development. To explore the basis of restricted fetal muscle growth, we used a sheep model of progressive placental insufficiency-induced IUGR to assess myoblast proliferation within intact skeletal muscle in vivo and isolated myoblasts stimulated with insulin in vitro. Gastrocnemius and soleus muscle weights were reduced by 25% in IUGR fetuses compared to controls (CON)...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050458/congenital-cystic-adenomatoid-malformation-a-tertiary-care-hospital-experience
#5
Asmita Anilkumar Mehta, Naveen Viswanathan, Anil Kumar Vasudevan, Roopa Paulose, Mohan Abraham
INTRODUCTION: Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation (CCAM) is an uncommon developmental deformity affecting the terminal respiratory structures. It is characterized by broncho pulmonary foregut malformations. The reason behind it is an arrest in lung development between 4(th) and 7(th) week of fetal life. AIM: The present study was conducted to assess the clinical and radiological profile and also to study the role of surgical intervention in patients with CCAM...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046159/technical-note-a-new-surgical-technique-for-ovariohysterectomy-during-early-pregnancy-in-beef-heifers
#6
K J McLean, C R Dahlen, P P Borowicz, L P Reynolds, M R Crosswhite, B W Neville, S D Walden, J S Caton
We hypothesized that a standing flank ovariohysterectomy procedure could be developed in beef heifers that would provide high quality tissues for addressing critical questions during early pregnancy, while concomitantly keeping livestock stewardship a high priority. To test the hypothesis, we: 1) developed a standing flank ovariohysterectomy procedure for use in beef heifers, and 2) implemented this procedure in a cohort of heifers up to d 50 of pregnancy for tissue collections, documentation of post-surgical recovery, and assessment of feedlot finishing performance...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043376/disorders-in-barrier-protein-mrna-expression-and-placenta-secretory-activity-under-the-influence-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-in%C3%A2-vitro
#7
A Wojciechowska, J Mlynarczuk, J Kotwica
Pregnancy disorders are often correlated with the presence of organic pollutants in the tissues of living bodies. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects (over 24 and 48 hours) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) 153, 126, and 77 at doses of 1, 10, and 100 ng/mL on barrier function and secretory activity in cow placentome sections collected during the second trimester of pregnancy. None of the PCBs affected the viability of the sections (P > 0.05). Polychlorinated biphenyl 153 decreased (P < 0...
February 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011082/-neonatal-arterial-ischemic-stroke-review-of-the-current-guidelines
#8
E Saliba, T Debillon, S Auvin, O Baud, V Biran, J-L Chabernaud, S Chabrier, F Cneude, A-G Cordier, V Darmency-Stamboul, J-F Diependaele, T Debillon, M Dinomais, C Durand, A Ego, G Favrais, Y Gruel, L Hertz-Pannier, B Husson, S Marret, S N'Guyen The Tich, T Perez, E Saliba, J-B Valentin, C Vuillerot
Neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (NAIS) is a rare event that occurs in approximately one in 5000 term or close-to-term infants. Most affected infants will present with seizures. Although a well-recognized clinical entity, many questions remain regarding diagnosis, risk factors, treatment, and follow-up modalities. In the absence of a known pathophysiological mechanism and lack of evidence-based guidelines, only supportive care is currently provided. To address these issues, a French national committee set up by the French Neonatal Society (Société française de néonatologie) and the national referral center (Centre national de référence) for arterial ischemic stroke in children drew up guidelines based on an HAS (Haute Autorité de santé [HAS]; French national authority for health) methodology...
December 20, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941077/post-translational-modification-of-%C3%AE-catenin-is-associated-with-pathogenic-fibroblastic-changes-in-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#9
Jennifer M S Sucre, Preethi Vijayaraj, Cody Aros, Dan Wilkinson, Manash Paul, Bruce Dunn, Susan H Guttentag, Brigitte N Gomperts
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common complication of premature birth. The histopathology of BPD is characterized by an arrest of alveolarization with fibroblast activation. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is important in early lung development. When Wnt signaling is active, phosphorylation of β-catenin by tyrosine kinases at activating sites, specifically at tyrosine 489 (Y489), correlates with nuclear localization of β-catenin. We examined fetal lung tissue, lung tissue from term newborns, and lung tissue from infants who died with BPD, and found nuclear β-catenin phosphorylatation at Y489 in epithelial and mesenchymal cells in fetal tissue and BPD tissue, but not the lungs of term infants...
December 9, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940158/inactivation-of-maternal-hif-1%C3%AE-at-mid-pregnancy-causes-placental-defects-and-deficits-in-oxygen-delivery-to-the-fetal-organs-under-hypoxic-stress
#10
Doreswamy Kenchegowda, Bryony Natale, Maria A Lemus, David R Natale, Steven A Fisher
A critical transition occurs near mid-gestation of mammalian pregnancy. Prior to this transition, low concentrations of oxygen (hypoxia) signaling through Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) functions as a morphogen for the placenta and fetal organs. Subsequently, functional coupling of the placenta and fetal cardiovascular system for oxygen (O2) transport is required to support the continued growth and development of the fetus. Here we tested the hypothesis that Hif-1α is required in maternal cells for placental morphogenesis and function...
December 9, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916232/neuroinflammation-in-intrauterine-growth-restriction
#11
REVIEW
Julie A Wixey, Kirat K Chand, Paul B Colditz, S Tracey Bjorkman
Disruption to the maternal environment during pregnancy from events such as hypoxia, stress, toxins, inflammation, and reduced placental blood flow can affect fetal development. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is commonly caused by chronic placental insufficiency, interrupting supply of oxygen and nutrients to the fetus resulting in abnormal fetal growth. IUGR is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality, occurring in approximately 5-10% of pregnancies. The fetal brain is particularly vulnerable in IUGR and there is an increased risk of long-term neurological disorders including cerebral palsy, epilepsy, learning difficulties, behavioural difficulties and psychiatric diagnoses...
November 25, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879258/nucleophosmin-anaplastic-lymphoma-kinase-npm-alk-the-ultimate-oncogene-and-therapeutic-target
#12
Michael T Werner, Chen Zhao, Qian Zhang, Mariusz A Wasik
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase physiologically expressed by fetal neural cells. However, aberrantly expressed ALK is involved in the pathogenesis of diverse malignancies including distinct types of lymphoma, lung carcinoma, and neuroblastoma. The aberrant ALK expression in non-neural cells results from chromosomal translocations that create novel fusion proteins. These protein hybrids are comprised of the proximal part of a partner gene including its promoter region and the distal part of ALK including coding sequence for the entire kinase domain...
November 22, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862683/is-the-neonatal-creatine-phosphokinase-level-a-reliable-marker-for-fetal-hypoxia
#13
Mitsue Muraoka, Koichiro Takagi, Yoshihiro Morita, Hiroaki Nagano, Nobuhide Henmi, Hisaya Hasegawa
AIM: The creatine phosphokinase (CPK) level is believed to increase in neonatal peripheral blood after tissue damage, including damage from perinatal hypoxia. However, it is not clear whether it is truly a reliable marker for fetal hypoxia. We investigated the chronological changes in neonatal CPK and the reliability of CPK as a marker for fetal hypoxia. METHODS: Sixty term neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit at Tokyo Women's Medical University Medical Center East from April 2009 to April 2010 were enrolled in this study...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861916/sildenafil-therapy-for-fetal-cardiovascular-dysfunction-during-hypoxic-development-studies-in-the-chick-embryo
#14
Nozomi Itani, Katie L Skeffington, Christian Beck, Dino A Giussani
KEY POINTS: Common complications of pregnancy, such as chronic fetal hypoxia, trigger a fetal origin of cardiovascular dysfunction and programme cardiovascular disease in later life. Sildenafil treatment protects placental perfusion and fetal growth, but whether the effects of sildenafil transcend the placenta to affect the fetus is unknown. Using the chick embryo model, here we show that sildenafil treatment directly protects the fetal cardiovascular system in hypoxic development, and that the mechanisms of sildenafil protection include reduced oxidative stress and increased nitric oxide bioavailability; Sildenafil does not protect against fetal growth restriction in the chick embryo, supporting the idea that the protective effect of sildenafil on fetal growth reported in mammalian studies, including humans, is secondary to improved placental perfusion...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848898/proteomic-analysis-of-endothelin-1-targets-in-the-regulation-of-cardiomyocyte-proliferation
#15
Alexandra N Shin, Chiranjib Dasgupta, Lubo Zhang, Guangyu Zhang, Kala Seal
Hypoxia is a fetal stressor that leads to the production of endothelin-1 (ET-1). Previous work has shown that ET-1 treatment leads to the premature terminal differentiation of fetal cardiomyocytes. However, the precise mechanism is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the fetal cardiomyocyte proteome will be greatly altered due to ET-1-treatment, which reveals a potential molecular mechanism of ET-1-induced terminal differentiation. Over a thousand proteins were detected in the fetal cardiomyocytes and among them 75 proteins were significantly altered due to ET-1 treatment...
November 16, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835686/clinical-outcome-in-singleton-and-multiple-pregnancies-with-placental-chorangioma
#16
Meeli Sirotkina, Konstantinos Douroudis, Nikos Papadogiannakis, Magnus Westgren
INTRODUCTION: Chorangiomas (CAs) are the most common non-trophoblastic tumor-like-lesions of the placenta. Although the clinical significance of small CAs is unknown, the large lesions are often associated with maternal and fetal complications. The aim of our study was to assess the maternal clinical characteristics and neonatal outcome in singleton and multiple pregnancies with placental CA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among 15742 selected placentas 170 CAs were diagnosed...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829441/characterization-of-exosomal-release-in-bovine-endometrial-intercaruncular-stromal-cells
#17
Yong Qin Koh, Hassendrini N Peiris, Kanchan Vaswani, Sarah Reed, Gregory E Rice, Carlos Salomon, Murray D Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Cell-to-cell communication between the blastocyst and endometrium is critical for implantation. In recent years, evidence has emerged from studies in humans and several other animal species that exosomes are secreted from the endometrium and trophoblast cells and may play an important role in cell-to-cell communication maternal-fetal interface during early pregnancy. Exosomes are stable extracellular lipid bilayer vesicles that encapsulate proteins, miRNAs, and mRNAs, with the ability to deliver their cargo to near and distant sites, altering cellular function(s)...
November 9, 2016: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826973/chronic-hypoxia-increases-fetoplacental-vascular-resistance-in-rat-placenta-perfused-with-blood
#18
P Kafka, O Vajnerova, V Hampl
BACKGROUND: Chronic hypoxia elevates vascular resistance on the fetal side of the placenta. However, when a low-viscosity perfusate is used, the increase in resistance caused by chronic hypoxia is relatively small (12 mmHg). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that perfusion with more viscous fluid (blood) will reveal more substantial effect of chronic hypoxia. METHODS: Using an isolated, dually perfused rat placenta perfused at a constant flow rate with homologous blood, perfusion pressure on the fetal side was measured...
2016: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822105/the-danish-national-quality-database-for-births
#19
REVIEW
Charlotte Brix Andersson, Christina Flems, Ulrik Schiøler Kesmodel
AIM OF THE DATABASE: The aim of the Danish National Quality Database for Births (DNQDB) is to measure the quality of the care provided during birth through specific indicators. STUDY POPULATION: The database includes all hospital births in Denmark. MAIN VARIABLES: Anesthesia/pain relief, continuous support for women in the delivery room, lacerations (third and fourth degree), cesarean section, postpartum hemorrhage, establishment of skin-to-skin contact between the mother and the newborn infant, severe fetal hypoxia (proportion of live-born children with neonatal hypoxia), delivery of a healthy child after an uncomplicated birth, and anesthesia in case of cesarean section...
2016: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821551/senp1-drives-hypoxia-induced-polycythemia-via-gata1-and-bcl-xl-in-subjects-with-monge-s-disease
#20
Priti Azad, Huiwen W Zhao, Pedro J Cabrales, Roy Ronen, Dan Zhou, Orit Poulsen, Otto Appenzeller, Yu Hsin Hsiao, Vineet Bafna, Gabriel G Haddad
In this study, because excessive polycythemia is a predominant trait in some high-altitude dwellers (chronic mountain sickness [CMS] or Monge's disease) but not others living at the same altitude in the Andes, we took advantage of this human experiment of nature and used a combination of induced pluripotent stem cell technology, genomics, and molecular biology in this unique population to understand the molecular basis for hypoxia-induced excessive polycythemia. As compared with sea-level controls and non-CMS subjects who responded to hypoxia by increasing their RBCs modestly or not at all, respectively, CMS cells increased theirs remarkably (up to 60-fold)...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
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