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Fetal hypoxia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778808/maternal-treatment-with-a-placental-targeted-antioxidant-mitoq-impacts-offspring-cardiovascular-function-in-a-rat-model-of-prenatal-hypoxia
#1
Mais M Aljunaidy, Jude S Morton, Raven Kirschenman, Tom Phillips, C Patrick Case, Christy-Lynn M Cooke, Sandra T Davidge
Intrauterine growth restriction, a common consequence of prenatal hypoxia, is a leading cause of fetal morbidity and mortality with a significant impact on population health. Hypoxia may increase placental oxidative stress and lead to an abnormal release of placental-derived factors, which are emerging as potential contributors to developmental programming. Nanoparticle-linked drugs are emerging as a novel method to deliver therapeutics targeted to the placenta and avoid risking direct exposure to the fetus...
May 17, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774532/the-fetus-at-the-tipping-point-modifying-the-outcome-of-fetal-asphyxia
#2
Simerdeep K Dhillon, Christopher A Lear, Robert Galinsky, Guido Wassink, Joanne O Davidson, Sandra Juul, Nicola J Robertson, Alistair J Gunn, Laura Bennet
Brain injury around birth is associated with nearly half of all cases of cerebral palsy. Although brain injury is multifactorial, particularly after preterm birth, acute hypoxia-ischaemia is a major contributor to injury. It is now well established that the severity of injury after HI is determined by a dynamic balance between injurious and protective processes. In addition, mothers who are at risk of premature delivery have high rates of diabetes and antepartum infection/inflammation and are almost universally given treatments such as antenatal glucocorticoids and magnesium sulphate to reduce the risk of death and complications after preterm birth...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773977/journey-to-the-center-of-the-fetal-brain-environmental-exposures-and-autophagy
#3
REVIEW
Jun Lei, Pilar Calvo, Richard Vigh, Irina Burd
Fetal brain development is known to be affected by adverse environmental exposures during pregnancy, including infection, inflammation, hypoxia, alcohol, starvation, and toxins. These exposures are thought to alter autophagy activity in the fetal brain, leading to adverse perinatal outcomes, such as cognitive and sensorimotor deficits. This review introduces the physiologic autophagy pathways in the fetal brain. Next, methods to detect and monitor fetal brain autophagy activity are outlined. An additional discussion explores possible mechanisms by which environmental exposures during pregnancy alter fetal brain autophagy activity...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770967/developmental-programming-of-renal-function-nephron-endowment-and-beyond
#4
Andrew G Woodman, Stephane L Bourque
In the face of adversity, the fetal kidney doesn't fare well. When resources are limiting due to pregnancy complications such as placental insufficiency, maternal hypoxia, or nutrient deficiencies, kidney development is often compromised, showing signs of reduced growth, defective nephrogenesis, and abnormal morphology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
May 17, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761855/presence-of-scf-cxcl12-double-positive-large-blast-like-cells-at-the-site-of-cutaneous-extramedullary-hematopoiesis
#5
Toshiaki Kogame, Masahiro Hirata, Tatsuki R Kataoka, Judith A Seidel, Chiyuki Ueshima, Miho Matsui, Takashi Nomura, Kenji Kabashima
Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is observed in the fetal liver and the spleen under physiological conditions, but can rarely occur as pathologic condition after birth. EMH is observed in various anatomical sites in patients with hypoxia-inducing conditions, such as idiopathic myelofibrosis. The nature of the microenvironment for the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in EMH is unclear. Recent studies showed that mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC)-derived cells, that can differentiate into various types of cells, play critical roles in the formation of hematopoietic niches...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753694/physiological-adaptation-of-the-growth-restricted-fetus
#6
REVIEW
Karel Maršál
The growth-restricted fetus in utero is exposed to a hostile environment and suffers undernutrition and hypoxia. To cope with the stress, the fetus changes its physiological functions. These adaptive changes aid intrauterine survival; however, they can lead to permanent functional and structural changes that can contribute to the development of serious chronic diseases later in life. Epigenetic mechanisms are an important part of the pathophysiological processes behind this "developmental origin of adult diseases...
February 24, 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753320/adverse-effects-of-hif1a-mutation-and-maternal-diabetes-on-the-offspring-heart
#7
Radka Cerychova, Romana Bohuslavova, Frantisek Papousek, David Sedmera, Pavel Abaffy, Vladimir Benes, Frantisek Kolar, Gabriela Pavlinkova
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies show that maternal diabetes predisposes offspring to cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. However, the precise mechanisms for the underlying penetrance and disease predisposition remain poorly understood. We examined whether hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha, in combination with exposure to a diabetic intrauterine environment, influences the function and molecular structure of the adult offspring heart. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a mouse model, we demonstrated that haploinsufficient (Hif1a+/- ) offspring from a diabetic pregnancy developed left ventricle dysfunction at 12 weeks of age, as manifested by decreased fractional shortening and structural remodeling of the myocardium...
May 12, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748216/intrinsic-anti-inflammatory-properties-in-the-serum-of-two-species-of-deep-diving-seal
#8
Aranya Bagchi, Annabelle J Batten, Milton Levin, Kaitlin N Allen, Michael L Fitzgerald, Luis A Hückstädt, Daniel P Costa, Emmanuel S Buys, Allyson G Hindle
Weddell and elephant seals are deep diving mammals, which rely on lung collapse to limit nitrogen absorption and prevent decompression injury. Repeated collapse and re-expansion exposes the lungs to multiple stressors, including ischemia/reperfusion, alveolar shear stress, and inflammation. There is no evidence, however, that diving damages pulmonary function in these species. To investigate potential protective strategies in deep-diving seals, we examined the inflammatory response of seal whole blood exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent endotoxin...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747889/oxygen-therapy-in-the-delivery-room-what-is-the-right-dose
#9
REVIEW
Vishal Kapadia, Myra H Wyckoff
Oxygen is the most commonly used medicine used during neonatal resuscitation in the delivery room. Oxygen therapy in delivery room should be used judiciously to avoid oxygen toxicity while delivering sufficient oxygen to prevent hypoxia. Measurement of appropriate oxygenation relies on pulse oximetry, but adequate ventilation and perfusion are equally important for oxygen delivery. In this article, we review oxygenation while transitioning from fetal to neonatal life, the importance of appropriate oxygen therapy, its measurement in the delivery room, and current recommendations for oxygen therapy and its limitations...
June 2018: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740570/influence-of-sex-on-gestational-complications-fetal-to-neonatal-transition-and-postnatal-adaptation
#10
REVIEW
Sheila Lorente-Pozo, Anna Parra-Llorca, Begoña Torres, Isabel Torres-Cuevas, Antonio Nuñez-Ramiro, María Cernada, Ana García-Robles, Maximo Vento
Fetal sex is associated with striking differences during in utero development, fetal-to-neonatal transition, and postnatal morbidity and mortality. Male sex fetuses are apparently protected while in utero resulting in a higher secondary sex rate for males than for females. However, during fetal-to-neonatal transition and thereafter in the newborn period, female exhibits a greater degree of maturation that translates into a better capacity to stabilize, less incidence of prematurity and prematurity-associated morbidities, and better long-term outcomes...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739630/extracorporeal-life-support-as-salvage-therapy-for-massive-pulmonary-embolus-and-cardiac-arrest-in-pregnancy
#11
Michael E Takacs, Kristina E Damisch
BACKGROUND: Massive pulmonary embolus (PE) with prolonged cardiac arrest in the setting of pregnancy has few treatment options. Selections are further restricted if there are contraindications to the standard therapies of embolectomy and thrombolysis. We report a case of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) used as salvage therapy for a critically ill pregnant patient. CASE REPORT: A 21-year-old woman presented to a small rural hospital with chest pain, dyspnea, hypoxia, and syncope...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717932/gestational-hypoxia-and-developmental-plasticity
#12
Charles A Ducsay, Ravi Goyal, William J Pearce, Sean Wilson, Xiang-Qun Hu, Lubo Zhang
Hypoxia is one of the most common and severe challenges to the maintenance of homeostasis. Oxygen sensing is a property of all tissues, and the response to hypoxia is multidimensional involving complicated intracellular networks concerned with the transduction of hypoxia-induced responses. Of all the stresses to which the fetus and newborn infant are subjected, perhaps the most important and clinically relevant is that of hypoxia. Hypoxia during gestation impacts both the mother and fetal development through interactions with an individual's genetic traits acquired over multiple generations by natural selection and changes in gene expression patterns by altering the epigenetic code...
July 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714057/large-for-gestational-age-and-macrosomia-in-singletons-born-after-frozen-thawed-embryo-transfer-fet-in-assisted-reproductive-technology-art
#13
REVIEW
Sine Berntsen, Anja Pinborg
Increase in success rates with frozen embryo transfer (FET) and reduced risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and multiple pregnancies has lead to a steady rise in FET. Further, FET is associated with lower risk of prematurity and low birth weight in singletons, when compared with fresh transfer. However, there is a growing concern of increased risk of large for gestational (LGA) and/or macrosomic children after FET. Macrosomic/LGA births have a higher risk of cesarean section, fetal hypoxia and stillbirth...
May 1, 2018: Birth Defects Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713307/fetal-neuroprotection-by-magnesium-sulfate-from-translational-research-to-clinical-application
#14
REVIEW
Clément Chollat, Loïc Sentilhes, Stéphane Marret
Despite improvements in perinatal care, preterm birth still occurs regularly and the associated brain injury and adverse neurological outcomes remain a persistent challenge. Antenatal magnesium sulfate administration is an intervention with demonstrated neuroprotective effects for preterm births before 32 weeks of gestation (WG). Owing to its biological properties, including its action as an N -methyl-d-aspartate receptor blocker and its anti-inflammatory effects, magnesium is a good candidate for neuroprotection...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674976/neocytolysis-how-to-get-rid-of-the-extra-erythrocytes-formed-by-stress-erythropoiesis-upon-descent-from-high-altitude
#15
REVIEW
Heimo Mairbäurl
Neocytolysis is the selective destruction of those erythrocytes that had been formed during stress-erythropoiesis in hypoxia in order to increase the oxygen transport capacity of blood. Neocytolysis likely aims at decreasing this excess amount of erythrocytes and hemoglobin (Hb) when it is not required anymore and to decrease blood viscosity. Neocytolysis seems to occur upon descent from high altitude. Similar processes seem to occur in microgravity, and are also discussed to mediate the replacement of erythrocytes containing fetal hemoglobin (HbF) with those having adult hemoglobin (HbA) after birth...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648595/progesterone-as-a-postnatal-prophylactic-agent-for-encephalopathy-caused-by-prenatal-hypoxic-ischemic-insult
#16
Yoshimasa Kawarai, Hirokazu Tanaka, Tatsuya Kobayashi, Makio Shozu
Brain damage caused by hypoxic ischemic insult during the perinatal period causes hypoxic ischemic encephalopathies (HIEs). Therapeutic hypothermia is indicated for HIE, but since the therapeutic burden is large for its limited therapeutic effectiveness, another strategy is needed. Progesterone (P4) plays a neuroprotective role through the actions of its metabolite, allopregnanolone (Allo), on P4 receptor, GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid)A receptors or both. We examined the therapeutic potential of P4 using a newborn rat model of HIE...
April 10, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625512/%C3%AE-arrestin2-affects-cardiac-progenitor-cell-survival-through-cell-mobility-and-tube-formation-in-severe-hypoxia
#17
Seul Ki Seo, Nari Kim, Ju Hee Lee, Sang Min Kim, Sang Yeub Lee, Jang Whan Bae, Kyung Kuk Hwang, Dong Woon Kim, Walter J Koch, Myeong Chan Cho
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: β-arrestin2 (β-arr2) basically regulates multiple signaling pathways in mammalian cells by desensitization and internalization of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). We investigated impacts of β-arr2 on survival, mobility, and tube formation of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) obtained from wild-type (WT) mouse (CPC-WT), and β-arr2 knock-out (KO) mouse (CPC-KO) cultured in presence or absence of serum and oxygen as non-canonical roles in GPCR system. METHODS: CPCs were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium/Nutrient Mixture F-12 -based media containing fetal bovine serum and growth factors...
April 2018: Korean Circulation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622278/oxidative-stress-in-placental-pathology
#18
Mirthe H Schoots, Sanne J Gordijn, Sicco A Scherjon, Harry van Goor, Jan-Luuk Hillebrands
The most important function of the placenta is the exchange of nutrients and oxygen between a mother and her fetus. To establish a healthy functioning placenta, placentation needs to occur with adequate remodelling of spiral arteries by extravillous trophoblasts. When this process is impaired, the resulting suboptimal and inadequate placenta function results in the manifestation of pregnancy complications. Impaired placenta function can cause preeclampsia and leads to fetal growth restriction due to hypoxia...
March 16, 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621921/temporal-and-quantitative-associations-of-electronic-fetal-heart-rate-monitoring-patterns-and-neonatal-outcomes-%C3%A2
#19
Dotun Ogunyemi, Andrew Jovanovski, Perry Friedman, Brittany Sweatman, Ichchha Madan
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate the associations of electronic fetal heart rate monitoring (EFM) patterns and adverse neonatal outcomes Study design: From 2013 to 2016; 12,067 term, singleton deliveries in labor ≥2 h with abnormal EFM defined as absent accelerations, variable, late or prolonged decelerations, tachycardia, bradycardia, or minimal variability were analyzed as any documentation during labor, in first hour and last hour of labor. Outcomes were composite neonatal adverse outcomes, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission, neonatal hypoxia, neonatal hypoglycemia, umbilical artery pH, and base excess...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604064/altered-autonomic-control-of-heart-rate-variability-in-the-chronically-hypoxic-fetus
#20
C J Shaw, B J Allison, N Itani, K J Botting, Y Niu, C C Lees, D A Giussani
Although fetal heart rate variability (FHRV) has long been recognised as a powerful predictor of fetal wellbeing, the mechanisms by which it is reduced in the chronically hypoxic fetus have yet to be established. In particular, the physiological mechanism underlying the reduction of short term variation (STV) in fetal compromise remains unclear. In this study, we present a longitudinal study of the development of autonomic control of FHRV, assessed by indirect indices, time domain (SDNN, RMSSD) and power spectral analysis (LF, HF, LF/HF), in normoxic and chronically hypoxic, chronically catheterised, singleton fetal sheep over the last third of gestation...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Physiology
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