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Fetal hypoxia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237964/vulnerability-to-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-of-primary-neurons-derived-from-tg2576-alzheimer-mice-role-of-intraneuronal-abeta-accumulation-and-astrocytes
#1
Vito Antonio Baldassarro, Alessandra Marchesini, Luciana Giardino, Laura Calzà
Microvascular dysfunction is considered an integral part of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathogenesis, but the possible relationship between amyloid pathology, microvascular dysfunction and cell death is still unclear. In order to investigate the influence of intraneuronal Abeta (Aβ) accumulation on vulnerability to hypoxia, we isolated primary cortical neurons from Tg2576 (carrying the APPSwe mutation) and Wt fetal mice. We first demonstrated that neurons isolated from Tg2576 new-born mice show an increase in VEGFa mRNA expression and a decrease in the expression of the two VEGF receptors, i...
February 24, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237611/abnormal-pregnancy-outcome-associated-with-high-dose-maternal-tranylcypromine-therapy-case-report-and-literature-review
#2
Debra Kennedy, William S Webster, Majella Hill, Helen E Ritchie
BACKGROUND: Tranylcypromine is a non-selective inhibitor of monamine oxidase which also inhibits the reuptake of norepinephrine. Spontaneous hypertensive reactions to the drug have been reported. In sheep tranylcypromine has been shown to cause a dose-dependent reduction in uterine blood flow. A similar effect in a pregnant woman might induce constriction of the uterine arteries and temporary fetal hypoxia. CASES: MotherSafe is a state-based Teratogen Information service and currently provides counselling to around 22,000 consumers and healthcare professionals annually regarding exposures during pregnancy and breastfeeding We report on the outcome of 2 pregnancies in a patient treated with high dose tranylcypromine as well as pimozide, diazepam and alprazolam...
February 22, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236270/oxidative-and-carbonyl-stress-in-pregnant-women-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#3
Nazia Khan, Geralyn Lambert-Messerlian, Joao Filipe Monteiro, Julius Hodosy, Ľubomíra Tóthová, Peter Celec, Elizabeth Eklund, Patrizia Curran, Ghada Bourjeily
PURPOSE: Pregnant women are particularly susceptible to sleep-disordered breathing. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in pregnancy is associated with poor pregnancy and fetal outcomes. Oxidative stress caused by intermittent hypoxemia and reoxygenation may impact pregnancy health. We hypothesize that pregnant women with OSA have a pronounced oxidative stress profile. METHODS: A case-control study was performed to study oxidative stress markers in the serum of pregnant women with or without OSA...
February 24, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230075/oxygen-impairs-oligodendroglial-development-via-oxidative-stress-and-reduced-expression-of-hif-1%C3%AE
#4
Christina Brill, Till Scheuer, Christoph Bührer, Stefanie Endesfelder, Thomas Schmitz
The premature increase of oxygen tension may contribute to oligodendroglial precursor cell (OPC) damage in preterm infants. Fetal OPCs are exposed to low oxygen tissue tensions not matched when cells are cultured in room air. Maturation (A2B5, O4, O1, MBP, CNP, arborization), oxidative stress (nitrotyrosine Western blot, NRF2 and SOD2 expression), apoptosis (TUNEL), proliferation (Ki67), and expression of transcription factors regulated by Hypoxia-Inducible-Factor-1-alpha (Hif-1α) expressed in OPCs (Olig1, Olig2, Sox9, Sox10) were assessed in rat OPCs and OLN93 cells cultured at 5% O2 and 21% O2...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219933/akt-signalling-as-a-mediator-of-cardiac-adaptation-to-low-birth-weight
#5
Kimberley Cw Wang, Kimberley J Botting, Song Zhang, Caroline McMillen, Doug A Brooks, Janna L Morrison
Intrauterine insults, such as poor nutrition and placental insufficiency, can alter cardiomyocyte development and this can have significant long-term implications for heart health. Consequently, epidemiological studies have shown that low birth weight babies have an increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease in adult life. In addition, intrauterine growth restriction can result in increased left ventricular hypertrophy, which is the strongest predictor for poor health outcomes in cardiac patients. The mechanisms responsible for these associations are not clear, but a suboptimal intrauterine environment can program alternative expression of genes such as cardiac IGF-2/H19, IGF-2R and AT1R through either an increase or decrease in DNA methylation or histone acetylation at specific loci...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205096/pharmacological-effects-of-asiatic-acid-in-glioblastoma-cells-under-hypoxia
#6
Flourina Kumar Thakor, Ka-Wai Wan, Philip John Welsby, Gail Welsby
Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common and malignant primary brain tumor in adults. Despite current treatment options including surgery followed by radiation and chemotherapy with temozolomide and cisplatin, the median survival rate remains low (<16 months). Combined with increasing drug resistance and the inability of some compounds to cross the blood-brain barrier, novel compounds are being sought for the treatment of this disease. Here, we aimed to examine the pharmacological effect of Asiatic acid (AA) in glioblastoma under hypoxia...
February 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202385/long-term-consequences-of-disrupting-adenosine-signaling-during-embryonic-development
#7
REVIEW
Scott A Rivkees, Christopher C Wendler
There is growing evidence that disruption in the prenatal environment can have long-lasting effects on an individual's health in adulthood. Research on the fetal programming of adult diseases, including cardiovascular disease, focuses on epi-mutations, which alter the normal pattern of epigenetic factors such as DNA methylation, miRNA expression, or chromatin modification, rather than traditional genetic alteration. Thus, understanding how in utero chemical exposures alter epigenetics and lead to adult disease is of considerable public health concern...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199380/the-effects-of-pravastatin-on-the-normal-human-placenta-lessons-from-ex-vivo-models
#8
Adelina Balan, Irit Szaingurten-Solodkin, Shani S Swissa, Valeria Feinshtein, Mahmoud Huleihel, Gershon Holcberg, Doron Dukler, Ofer Beharier
INTRODUCTION: Research in animal models and preliminary clinical studies in humans support the use of pravastatin for the prevention of preeclampsia. However, its use during pregnancy is still controversial due to limited data about its effect on the human placenta and fetus. METHODS: In the present study, human placental cotyledons were perfused in the absence or presence of pravastatin in the maternal reservoir (PraM). In addition, placental explants were treated with pravastatin for 5, 24 and 72 h under normoxia and hypoxia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168362/practical-methods-for-handling-human-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells-in-serum-free-and-serum-containing-culture-conditions-under-hypoxia-implications-for-regenerative-medicine
#9
Dai Murabayashi, Mai Mochizuki, Yuichi Tamaki, Taka Nakahara
Stem cell-based therapies depend on the reliable expansion of patient-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro. The supplementation of cell culture media with serum is associated with several risks; accordingly, serum-free media are commercially available for cell culture. Furthermore, hypoxia is known to accelerate the expansion of MSCs. The present study aimed to characterize the properties of periodontal ligament-derived MSCs (PDLSCs) cultivated in serum-free and serum-containing media, under hypoxic and normoxic conditions...
February 6, 2017: Human Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161068/distribution-and-potential-significance-of-intravillous-and-intrafibrinous-particulate-microcalcification
#10
Jennifer Zeng, Alan Marcus, Tatiana Buhtoiarova, Khushbakhat Mittal
Radiologic studies indicate that placental calcifications seen at 28-32 weeks' gestation are associated with adverse fetal outcome. One type of placental calcification is typically located at the basement membrane of chorionic villi. It has a fine particulate appearance and can only be seen microscopically. We have designated these calcifications as Intravillous and Intrafibrinous Particulate MicroCalcification (IPMC). In this study we examined the distribution and potential significance of IPMC. Placentas from 14 groups of fetal and maternal outcomes are examined histologically for IPMC...
February 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157488/placental-stem-villus-arterial-remodeling-associated-with-reduced-hydrogen-sulfide-synthesis-contributes-to-human-fetal-growth-restriction
#11
Liangjian Lu, John Kingdom, Graham J Burton, Tereza Cindrova-Davies
Intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR) is often associated with compromised umbilical arterial flow, indicating increased placental vascular resistance. Oxidative stress is causatively implicated. Hydrogen sulfide maintains differentiated smooth muscle in vascular beds, and its synthetic enzyme cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) is down-regulated in growth-restricted placentas. We hypothesized that remodeling of resistance arteries in stem villi contributes to IUGR by compromising umbilical blood flow via oxidative stress, reducing hydrogen sulfide signaling...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125772/cardiotocography-versus-intermittent-auscultation-of-fetal-heart-on-admission-to-labour-ward-for-assessment-of-fetal-wellbeing
#12
REVIEW
Declan Devane, Joan G Lalor, Sean Daly, William McGuire, Anna Cuthbert, Valerie Smith
BACKGROUND: The admission cardiotocograph (CTG) is a commonly used screening test consisting of a short (usually 20 minutes) recording of the fetal heart rate (FHR) and uterine activity performed on the mother's admission to the labour ward. This is an update of a review published in 2012. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of admission cardiotocography with intermittent auscultation of the FHR on maternal and infant outcomes for pregnant women without risk factors on their admission to the labour ward...
January 26, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122716/relaxin-confers-cytotrophoblast-protection-from-hypoxiareoxygenation-injury-through-the-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-akt-protein-kinase-b-cell-survival-pathway
#13
Oluseyi Ogunleye, Bertha Campo, Diana Herrera, Emiel D Post Uiterweer, Kirk P Conrad
Preeclampsia affects 3-5% of pregnancies, contributes to 10-15% of maternal mortality, and is a leading cause of prematurity and increased long-term morbidity in those affected. Contemporary understanding of preeclampsia's maternal-fetal interface suggests a major role for placental oxidative stress resulting from ischemia-reperfusion injury. We hypothesized the pregnancy hormone relaxin would reduce cytotrophoblast apoptosis, necrosis (aponecrosis) and export of placental debris into maternal circulation. If so, relaxin might be employed as a therapeutic intervention to diminish activation of the maternal systemic inflammatory response central to clinical disease development...
January 25, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117144/review-alterations-in-placental-glycogen-deposition-in-complicated-pregnancies-current-preclinical-and-clinical-evidence
#14
REVIEW
Lisa K Akison, Marloes Dekker Nitert, Vicki L Clifton, Karen M Moritz, David G Simmons
Normal placental function is essential for optimal fetal growth. Transport of glucose from mother to fetus is critical for fetal nutrient demands and can be stored in the placenta as glycogen. However, the function of this glycogen deposition remains a matter of debate: It could be a source of fuel for the placenta itself or a storage reservoir for later use by the fetus in times of need. While the significance of placental glycogen remains elusive, mounting evidence indicates that altered glycogen metabolism and/or deposition accompanies many pregnancy complications that adversely affect fetal development...
January 11, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114800/pre-treatment-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-with-inflammatory-factors-or-hypoxia-does-not-influence-migration-to-osteoarthritic-cartilage-and-synovium
#15
Maarten J C Leijs, Gerben M van Buul, Jan A N Verhaar, Martin J Hoogduijn, Pieter K Bos, Gerjo J V M van Osch
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising candidates as a cell-based therapy for osteoarthritis (OA), although current results are modest. Pre-treatment of MSCs before application might improve their therapeutic efficacy. HYPOTHESIS: Pre-treatment of MSCs with inflammatory factors or hypoxia will improve their migration and adhesion capacities toward OA-affected tissues. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. METHODS: We used real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the effects of different fetal calf serum (FCS) batches, platelet lysate (PL), hypoxia, inflammatory factors, factors secreted by OA tissues, and OA synovial fluid (SF) on the expression of 12 genes encoding chemokine or adhesion receptors...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109704/nicotine-promotes-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-secretion-by-human-trophoblast-cells-under-hypoxic-conditions-and-improves-the-proliferation-and-tube-formation-capacity-of-human-umbilical-endothelial-cells
#16
Hongbo Zhao, Lanxiang Wu, Yahui Wang, Jiayi Zhou, Ruixia Li, Jiabing Zhou, Zehua Wang, Congjian Xu
Pre-eclampsia, characterized as defective uteroplacental vascularization, remains the major cause of maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Previous epidemiological studies demonstrated that cigarette smoking reduced the risk of pre-eclampsia. However, the molecular mechanism remains elusive. In the present study, it is demonstrated that a low dose of nicotine decreased soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (sFlt1) secretion in human trophoblast cells under hypoxic conditions. Nicotine was then observed to promote vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion by reducing sFlt1 secretion and increasing VEGF mRNA transcription...
January 17, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108646/postnatal-resveratrol-supplementation-improves-cardiovascular-function-in-male-and-female-intrauterine-growth-restricted-offspring
#17
Amin Shah, Anita Quon, Jude S Morton, Sandra T Davidge
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) may predispose offspring to an increased susceptibility of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adult life. The window of opportunity to treat later life CVD programmed in fetal life is critical. The aim of this study was to identify the effect of resveratrol treatment of IUGR offspring at a time of known CV dysfunction. Sprague-Dawley male and female rat offspring who experienced normoxia (21% O2; control) or hypoxia (11% O2; IUGR) in utero were fed a high-fat (HF) diet (3-21 weeks of age) or a HF diet (3-21 weeks of age) supplemented with resveratrol from 13 to 21 weeks of age...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094441/sex-drugs-and-rock-and-roll-tales-from-preterm-fetal-life
#18
Laura Bennet
Premature fetuses and babies are at greater risk of mortality and morbidity than their term counterparts. The underlying causes are multifactorial, but include exposure to hypoxia. Immaturity of organs and their functional control may impair the physiological defence responses to hypoxia and the preterm fetal responses, or lack thereof, to moderate hypoxia appear to support this concept. However, as this review demonstrates, despite immaturity, the preterm fetus responds to asphyxia in a qualitatively similar manner to that seen at term...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090638/late-gestational-intermittent-hypoxia-induces-metabolic-and-epigenetic-changes-in-male-adult-offspring-mice
#19
Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Rene Cortese, Zhuanhong Qiao, Honggang Ye, Riyue Bao, Jorge Andrade, David Gozal
Pregnancy, particularly late gestation, has been associated with a relatively high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Intermittent hypoxia (IH), a hallmark of OSA, could impose significant long-term effects on somatic growth, energy homeostasis, and metabolic function in offspring. We hypothesized that IH during late pregnancy (LG-IH) may increase the propensity for metabolic dysregulation and obesity in adult offspring via epigenetic modifications. Time-pregnant female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to LG-IH or room air (LG-RA) during days 13-18 of gestation...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060265/analysis-of-cap-binding-proteins-in-human-cells-exposed-to-physiological-oxygen-conditions
#20
Sara Timpano, Gaelan Melanson, Sonia L Evagelou, Brianna D Guild, Erin J Specker, James Uniacke
Translational control is a focal point of gene regulation, especially during periods of cellular stress. Cap-dependent translation via the eIF4F complex is by far the most common pathway to initiate protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells, but stress-specific variations of this complex are now emerging. Purifying cap-binding proteins with an affinity resin composed of Agarose-linked m(7)GTP (a 5' mRNA cap analog) is a useful tool to identify factors involved in the regulation of translation initiation. Hypoxia (low oxygen) is a cellular stress encountered during fetal development and tumor progression, and is highly dependent on translation regulation...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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