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Fetal hypoxia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899472/-long-term-effect-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cell-transplantation-on-a-rat-model-of-white-matter-injury-in-the-preterm-infant
#1
Cheng-Jun Wu, Zhao-Yan Wang, Yin-Xiang Yang, Zuo Luan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term effect of oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) transplantation on a rat model of white matter injury (WMI) in the preterm infant. METHODS: A total of 80 Sprague-Dawley rats aged 3 days were randomly divided into sham-operation group, model control group, 5-day ventricular/white matter transplantation group, 9-day ventricular/white matter transplantation group, 14-day ventricular/white matter transplantation group (n=10 each)...
September 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883688/a-controversial-medicolegal-issue-timing-the-onset-of-perinatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#2
REVIEW
Vittorio Fineschi, Rocco Valerio Viola, Raffaele La Russa, Alessandro Santurro, Paola Frati
Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, as a result of chronic, subacute, and acute insults, represents the pathological consequence of fetal distress and birth or perinatal asphyxia, that is, "nonreassuring fetal status." Hypoxic-ischemic injury (HII) is typically characterized by an early phase of damage, followed by a delayed inflammatory local response, in an apoptosis-necrosis continuum. In the early phase, the cytotoxic edema and eventual acute lysis take place; with reperfusion, additional damage should be assigned to excitotoxicity and oxidative stress...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861917/feto-and-utero-placental-vascular-adaptations-to-chronic-maternal-hypoxia-in-the-mouse
#3
Lindsay S Cahill, Monique Y Rennie, Johnathan Hoggarth, Lisa X Yu, Anum Rahman, John C Kingdom, Mike Seed, Christopher K Macgowan, John G Sled
The fetus and the placenta in eutherian mammals have a unique set of compensatory mechanisms to respond to several pregnancy complications including chronic maternal hypoxia. This study examined the structural adaptations of the feto- and utero-placental vasculature in an experimental mouse model of chronic maternal hypoxia (11% O2 from E14.5-E17.5). While placental weights were unaffected by exposure to chronic hypoxia, using micro-computed tomography, we found a 44% decrease in the absolute feto-placental arterial vascular volume and a 30% decrease in total vessel segments in the chronic hypoxia compared to control group...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854913/reduced-growth-velocity-across-the-third-trimester-is-associated-with-placental-insufficiency-in-fetuses-born-at-a-normal-birthweight-a-prospective-cohort-study
#4
Teresa M MacDonald, Lisa Hui, Stephen Tong, Alice J Robinson, Kirsten M Dane, Anna L Middleton, Susan P Walker
BACKGROUND: While being small-for-gestational-age due to placental insufficiency is a major risk factor for stillbirth, 50% of stillbirths occur in appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA, > 10th centile) fetuses. AGA fetuses are plausibly also at risk of stillbirth if placental insufficiency is present. Such fetuses may be expected to demonstrate declining growth trajectory across pregnancy, although they do not fall below the 10th centile before birth. We investigated whether reduced growth velocity in AGA fetuses is associated with antenatal, intrapartum and neonatal indicators of placental insufficiency...
August 31, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842425/photoacoustic-imaging-for-in-vivo-quantification-of-placental-oxygenation-in-mice
#5
Liliya M Yamaleyeva, Yao Sun, Tiffaney Bledsoe, Asia Hoke, Susan B Gurley, K Bridget Brosnihan
Accurate analysis of placental and fetal oxygenation is critical during pregnancy. Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) combines laser technology with ultrasound in real time. We tested the sensitivity and accuracy of PAI for analysis of placental and fetal O2 saturation (sO2) in mice. The placental labyrinth (L) had a higher sO2 than the junctional zone plus decidua region (JZ+D) in C57Bl/6 mice. Changing maternal O2 from 100 to 20% in C57Bl/6 mice lowered sO2 in these regions. C57Bl/6 mice were treated with the NO synthase inhibitor L-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) from gestational day (GD) 11 to GD18 to induce hypertension...
August 21, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831049/treating-the-placenta-to-prevent-adverse-effects-of-gestational-hypoxia-on-fetal-brain-development
#6
Tom J Phillips, Hannah Scott, David A Menassa, Ashleigh L Bignell, Aman Sood, Jude S Morton, Takami Akagi, Koki Azuma, Mark F Rogers, Catherine E Gilmore, Gareth J Inman, Simon Grant, Yealin Chung, Mais M Aljunaidy, Christy-Lynn Cooke, Bruno R Steinkraus, Andrew Pocklington, Angela Logan, Gavin P Collett, Helena Kemp, Peter A Holmans, Michael P Murphy, Tudor A Fulga, Andrew M Coney, Mitsuru Akashi, Sandra T Davidge, C Patrick Case
Some neuropsychiatric disease, including schizophrenia, may originate during prenatal development, following periods of gestational hypoxia and placental oxidative stress. Here we investigated if gestational hypoxia promotes damaging secretions from the placenta that affect fetal development and whether a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ might prevent this. Gestational hypoxia caused low birth-weight and changes in young adult offspring brain, mimicking those in human neuropsychiatric disease. Exposure of cultured neurons to fetal plasma or to secretions from the placenta or from model trophoblast barriers that had been exposed to altered oxygenation caused similar morphological changes...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819007/effects-of-antenatal-melatonin-therapy-on-lung-structure-in-growth-restricted-newborn-lambs
#7
Graeme R Polglase, Jade Barbuto, Beth J Allison, Tamara Yawno, Amy Elizabeth Sutherland, Atul Malhotra, Keith E Schulze, Euan M Wallace, Graham Jenkin, Sharon D Ricardo, Suzanne L Miller
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress arising from suboptimal placental function contributes to a multitude of pathologies in infants compromised by fetal growth restriction (FGR). FGR infants are at high risk for respiratory dysfunction after birth and poor long-term lung function. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the contribution of oxidative stress to adverse lung development and the effects of melatonin administration, a powerful anti-oxidant, on lung structure in FGR lambs...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812466/florid-intussusceptive-like-microvascular-dysangiogenesis-in-a-preterm-lung
#8
Monique E De Paepe, Merline Kocheekkaran V Benny, Lauren Priolo, Francois I Luks, Svetlana Shapiro
The cellular mechanisms underlying the microvascular dysangiogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (chronic lung disease of the newborn) remain largely undetermined. We report unusual pulmonary vascular findings in a 27-week-gestation male newborn who died on the second day of life from intractable respiratory failure, following a pregnancy complicated by prolonged membrane rupture and persistent severe oligohydramnios. As expected, postmortem examination revealed pulmonary hypoplasia (lung/body weight ratio: 2...
September 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808079/the-impact-of-iugr-on-pancreatic-islet-development-and-%C3%AE-cell-function
#9
REVIEW
Brit H Boehmer, Sean W Limesand, Paul J Rozance
Placental insufficiency is a primary cause of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). IUGR increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) throughout life, which indicates that insults from placental insufficiency impair β-cell development during the perinatal period because β-cells have a central role in the regulation of glucose tolerance. The severely IUGR fetal pancreas is characterized by smaller islets, less β-cells, and lower insulin secretion. Because of the important associations among impaired islet growth, β-cell dysfunction, impaired fetal growth, and the propensity for T2DM, significant progress has been made in understanding the pathophysiology of IUGR and programing events in the fetal endocrine pancreas...
November 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801981/pregnancy-outcomes-in-mothers-of-offspring-with-inherited-bone-marrow-failure-syndromes
#10
Neelam Giri, Helen D Reed, Pamela Stratton, Sharon A Savage, Blanche P Alter
BACKGROUND: Children with inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFSs) may be symptomatic in utero, resulting in maternal and fetal problems during the pregnancy. Subsequent pregnancies by their mothers should be considered "high risk". METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed outcomes of 575 pregnancies in 165 unaffected mothers of offspring with Fanconi anemia (FA), dyskeratosis congenita (DC), Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) for events noted during pregnancy, labor, and delivery...
August 12, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798665/maternal-diabetes-alters-expression-of-micrornas-that-regulate-genes-critical-for-neural-tube-development
#11
Seshadri Ramya, Sukanya Shyamasundar, Boon Huat Bay, S Thameem Dheen
Maternal diabetes is known to cause neural tube defects (NTDs) in embryos and neuropsychological deficits in infants. Several metabolic pathways and a plethora of genes have been identified to be deregulated in developing brain of embryos by maternal diabetes, although the exact mechanism remains unknown. Recently, miRNAs have been shown to regulate genes involved in brain development and maturation. Therefore, we hypothesized that maternal diabetes alters the expression of miRNAs that regulate genes involved in biological pathways critical for neural tube development and closure during embryogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794104/prenatal-hypoxia-and-placental-oxidative-stress-linkages-to-developmental-origins-of-cardiovascular-disease
#12
Mais M Aljunaidy, Jude S Morton, Christy-Lynn Cooke, Sandra T Davidge
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, a pregnancy complication where the fetus does not reach its genetic growth potential) is a leading cause of fetal morbidity and mortality with a significant impact on population health. IUGR is associated with gestational hypoxia; which can lead to placental oxidative stress and fetal programming of cardiovascular disease. Mitochondria are a major source of placental oxidative stress and may provide a therapeutic target to mitigate the detrimental effects of placental oxidative stress on pregnancy outcomes...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758949/potential-new-non-invasive-therapy-using-artificial-oxygen-carriers-for-pre-eclampsia
#13
REVIEW
Hidenobu Ohta, Maiko Kaga, Heng Li, Hiromi Sakai, Kunihiro Okamura, Nobuo Yaegashi
The molecular mechanisms of pre-eclampsia are being increasingly clarified in animals and humans. With the uncovering of these mechanisms, preventive therapy strategies using chronic infusion of adrenomedullin, vascular endothelial growth factor-121 (VEGF-121), losartan, and sildenafil have been proposed to block narrow spiral artery formation in the placenta by suppressing related possible factors for pre-eclampsia. However, although such preventive treatments have been partly successful, they have failed in ameliorating fetal growth restriction and carry the risk of possible side-effects of drugs on pregnant mothers...
July 30, 2017: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743956/post-hypoxia-invasion-of-the-fetal-brain-by-multidrug-resistant-staphylococcus
#14
Miguel A Zarate, Michelle D Rodriguez, Eileen I Chang, Jordan T Russell, Thomas J Arndt, Elaine M Richards, Beronica A Ocasio, Eva Aranda, Elizabeth M Gordon, Kevin Yu, Josef Neu, Maureen Keller-Wood, Eric W Triplett, Charles E Wood
Herein we describe an association between activation of inflammatory pathways following transient hypoxia and the appearance of the multidrug resistant bacteria Staphylococcus simulans in the fetal brain. Reduction of maternal arterial oxygen tension by 50% over 30 min resulted in a subseiuent significant over-expression of genes associated with immune responses 24 h later in the fetal brain. The activated genes were consistent with stimulation by bacterial lipopolysaccharide; an influx of macrophages and appearance of live bacteria were found in these fetal brains...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737244/hypoxia-animal-experiments-and-clinical-implications
#15
Yasuyuki Kawagoe, Hiroshi Sameshima
The developing fetus has some unique physiological properties that differ from properties in extra-uterine life. The fetus exists in a hypoxemic condition as a result of the presence of the placenta, which serves as a limiting interface between maternal and fetal circulation. In addition, the fetus is prone to be exposed to uterine contractions, which place it under a further hypoxic burden. Thus, the fetal response to hypoxic insults is important. There has been marked progression in the understanding of fetal physiology since the introduction of the 'chronic preparation model'...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730459/fetal-programming-as-a-predictor-of-adult-health-or-disease-the-need-to-reevaluate-fetal-heart-function
#16
REVIEW
Joana O Miranda, Carla Ramalho, Tiago Henriques-Coelho, José Carlos Areias
Epidemiologic and experimental evidence suggests that adverse stimuli during critical periods in utero permanently alters organ structure and function and may have persistent consequences for the long-term health of the offspring. Fetal hypoxia, maternal malnutrition, or ventricular overloading are among the major adverse conditions that can compromise cardiovascular development in early life. With the heart as a central organ in fetal adaptive mechanisms, a deeper understanding of the fetal cardiovascular physiology and of the echocardiographic tools to assess both normal and stressed pregnancies would give precious information on fetal well-being and hopefully may help in early identification of special risk groups for cardiovascular diseases later in life...
July 20, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730105/pigment-epithelium-derived-factor-protects-retinal-ganglion-cells-from-hypoxia-induced-apoptosis-by-preventing-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#17
Shu-Wei Tian, Yuan Ren, Jin-Zhi Pei, Bai-Chao Ren, Yuan He
AIM: To investigate the potential of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) to protect the immortalized rat retinal ganglion cells-5 (RGC-5) exposed to CoCl2-induced chemical hypoxia. METHODS: After being differentiated with staurosporine (SS), RGC-5 cells were cultured in four conditions: control group cells cultured in Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 100 µmol/mL streptomycin and penicillin (named as normal conditions); hypoxia group cells cultured in DMEM containing 300 µmol/mL CoCl2; cells in the group protected by PEDF were first pretreated with 100 ng/mL PEDF for 2h and then cultured in the same condition as hypoxia group cells; and PEDF group cells that were cultured in the presence of 100 ng/mL PEDF under normal conditions...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723885/term-versus-preterm-cord-blood-cells-for-the-prevention-of-preterm-brain-injury
#18
Jingang Li, Tamara Yawno, Amy Sutherland, Jan Loose, Ilias Nitsos, Beth J Allison, Robert Bischof, Courtney A McDonald, Graham Jenkin, Suzanne L Miller
BACKGROUND: White matter brain injury in preterm infants can induce neurodevelopmental deficits. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) cells demonstrate neuroprotective properties, but it is unknown whether cells obtained from preterm versus term cord blood have similar efficacy. This study compared the ability of term cord blood (TCB) versus preterm cord blood (PCB) cells to reduce white matter injury in preterm fetal sheep. METHODS: Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) was induced in fetal sheep (0...
July 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710827/comparison-of-non-coding-rnas-in-exosomes-and-functional-efficacy-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-versus-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes
#19
Won Hee Lee, Wenyi Chen, Ning-Yi Shao, Dan Xiao, Xulei Qin, Natalie Baker, Hye Ryeong Michelle Bae, Praveen Shukla, Haodi Wu, Kazuki Kodo, Sang-Ging Ong, Joseph C Wu
BACKGROUND: Both human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (ESC-CMs) and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) can serve as unlimited cell sources for cardiac regenerative therapy. However, the functional equivalency between human ESC-CMs and iPSC-CMs for cardiac regenerative therapy has not been demonstrated. Here we performed a head-to-head comparison of ESC-CMs and iPSC-CMs in their ability to restore cardiac function in a rat myocardial infarction (MI) model as well as their exosomal secretome...
July 14, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694195/hemoglobins-emerging-roles-in-mental-disorders-metabolical-genetical-and-immunological-aspects
#20
REVIEW
Meric A Altinoz, Bahri Ince
Hemoglobin (Hb) expression in the central nervous system is recently shown. Cooccurences of mental disorders (mainly bipolar disorder (BD) and tic disorders) with β- or α-thalassemia trait or erythrocytosis were witnessed, which may be due to peripheral or central hypoxia/hyperoxia or haplotypal gene interactions. β-Globin genes reside at 11p15.5 close to tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine receptor DRD4 and Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor, which involve in psychiatric diseases. α-Globin genes reside at 16p13...
October 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
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