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Fetal hypoxia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117499/preclinical-chorioamnionitis-dysregulates-cxcl1-cxcr2-signaling-throughout-the-placental-fetal-brain-axis
#1
REVIEW
Tracylyn R Yellowhair, Shahani Noor, Jessie R Maxwell, Christopher V Anstine, Akosua Y Oppong, Shenandoah Robinson, Erin D Milligan, Lauren L Jantzie
In the United States, perinatal brain injury (PBI) is a major cause of infant mortality and childhood disability. For a large proportion of infants with PBI, central nervous system (CNS) injury begins in utero with inflammation (chorioamnionitis/CHORIO) and/or hypoxia-ischemia. While studies show CHORIO contributes to preterm CNS injury and is also a common independent risk factor for brain injury in term infants, the molecular mechanisms mediating inflammation in the placental-fetal-brain axis that result in PBI remain a gap in knowledge...
November 5, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113299/microrna-210-suppresses-glucocorticoid-receptor-expression-in-response-to-hypoxia-in-fetal-rat-cardiomyocytes
#2
Shannalee R Martinez, Qingyi Ma, Chiranjib Dasgupta, Xianmei Meng, Lubo Zhang
Hypoxia is a common intrauterine stressor, often resulting in intrauterine growth restriction and increased risk for cardiovascular disease later in life. The aim of this work was to test the hypothesis that microRNA-210 (miR-210) mediates the detrimental suppression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in response to hypoxia in fetal rat cardiomyocytes. Cardiomyocytes isolated from gestational day 21 Sprague Dawley fetal rats showed increased miR-210 levels and reduced GR abundance after exposure to ex vivo hypoxia (1% O2)...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105384/hypoxic-stress-forces-adaptive-and-maladaptive-placental-stress-responses-in-early-pregnancy
#3
Yu Yang, Mohammed Abdulhasan, Awoniyi Awonuga, Alan Bolnick, Elizabeth E Puscheck, Daniel A Rappolee
This review focuses on hypoxic stress and its effects on the placental lineage and the earliest differentiation events in mouse and human placental trophoblast stem cells (TSCs). Although the placenta is a decidual organ at the end of pregnancy, its earliest rapid growth and function at the start of pregnancy precedes and supports growth and function of the embryo. Earliest function requires that TSCs differentiate, however, "hypoxia" supports rapid growth, but not differentiation of TSCs. Most of the literature on earliest placental "hypoxia" studies used 2% oxygen which is normoxic for TSCs...
October 16, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105383/hypoxia-and-placental-development
#4
REVIEW
Michael J Soares, Khursheed Iqbal, Keisuke Kozai
Hemochorial placentation is orchestrated through highly regulated temporal and spatial decisions governing the fate of trophoblast stem/progenitor cells. Trophoblast cell acquisition of specializations facilitating invasion and uterine spiral artery remodeling is a labile process, sensitive to the environment, and represents a process that is vulnerable to dysmorphogenesis in pathologic states. Hypoxia is a signal guiding placental development, and molecular mechanisms directing cellular adaptations to low oxygen tension are integral to trophoblast cell differentiation and placentation...
October 16, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105382/hypoxia-from-placental-development-to-fetal-programming
#5
REVIEW
Lais Fajersztajn, Mariana Matera Veras
Hypoxia may influence normal and different pathological processes. Low oxygenation activates a variety of responses, many of them regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 complex, which is mostly involved in cellular control of O2 consumption and delivery, inhibition of growth and development, and promotion of anaerobic metabolism. Hypoxia plays a significant physiological role in fetal development; it is involved in different embryonic processes, for example, placentation, angiogenesis, and hematopoiesis. More recently, fetal hypoxia has been associated directly or indirectly with fetal programming of heart, brain, and kidney function and metabolism in adulthood...
October 16, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102934/regional-immunoreactivity-of-pax6-in-the-neurogenic-zone-after-chronic-prenatal-hypoxia
#6
Keumyoung So, Yoonyoung Chung, Sun-Kyoung Yu, Yonghyun Jun
BACKGROUND/AIM: Neurogenesis is a complex process to generate new neurons from neural progenitor cells. Neural progenitor cells are observed in two principal neurogenic regions of the forebrain, the subventricular zone and the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. The cerebral cortex also plays a role as the neurogenic zone under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia has many effects on neurogenesis, but the effect of chronic prenatal hypoxia on paired box 6 (Pax6), a protein that plays an important role in neurogenesis, has not been studied in vivo...
November 2017: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098534/impairment-of-astrocytic-glutaminolysis-in-glutaric-aciduria-type-i
#7
Shoko Komatsuzaki, Raga Deepthi Ediga, Jürgen G Okun, Stefan Kölker, Sven W Sauer
Glutaric aciduria type I is a rare, autosomal recessive, inherited defect of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase. Deficiency of this protein in L-lysine degradation leads to the characteristic accumulation of nontoxic glutarylcarnitine and neurotoxic glutaric acid (GA), glutaryl-CoA, and 3-hydroxyglutaric acid. Untreated patients develop bilateral lesions of basal ganglia resulting in a complex movement disorder with predominant dystonia in infancy and early childhood. The current pathomechanistic concept strongly focuses on imbalanced neuronal energy metabolism due to accumulating metabolites, whereas little is known about the pathomechanistic role of astrocytes, which are thought to be in constant metabolic crosstalk with neurons...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089437/transient-hypoxemia-chronically-disrupts-maturation-of-preterm-fetal-ovine-subplate-neuron-arborization-and-activity
#8
Evelyn McClendon, Daniel C Shaver, Kiera Degener-O'Brien, Xi Gong, Thuan Nguyen, Anna Hoerder-Suabedissen, Zoltán Molnár, Claudia Mohr, Ben D Richardson, David J Rossi, Stephen A Back
Preterm infants are at risk for a broad spectrum of neurobehavioral disabilities associated with diffuse disturbances in cortical growth and development. During brain development, subplate neurons (SPNs) are a largely transient population that serves a critical role to establish functional cortical circuits. By dynamically integrating into developing cortical circuits they assist in consolidation of intra and extracortical circuits. Although SPNs reside in close proximity to cerebral white matter, which is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress, the susceptibility of SPNs remains controversial...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078943/update-on-fetal-monitoring-overview-of-approaches-and-management-of-category-ii-tracings
#9
REVIEW
Nandini Raghuraman, Alison G Cahill
Electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) is widely used to assess fetal status in labor. Use of intrapartum continuous EFM is associated with a lower risk of neonatal seizures but a higher risk of cesarean or operative delivery. Category II fetal heart tracings (FHTs) are indeterminate in their ability to predict fetal acidemia. Certain patterns of decelerations and variability within this category may be predictive of neonatal morbidity. Adjunct tests of fetal well-being can be used during labor to further triage patients...
December 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060570/statistical-baseline-assessment-in-cardiotocography
#10
Angela Agostinelli, Eleonora Braccili, Enrico Marchegiani, Riccardo Rosati, Agnese Sbrollini, Luca Burattini, Micaela Morettini, Francesco Di Nardo, Sandro Fioretti, Laura Burattini
Cardiotocography (CTG) is the most common non-invasive diagnostic technique to evaluate fetal well-being. It consists in the recording of fetal heart rate (FHR; bpm) and maternal uterine contractions. Among the main parameters characterizing FHR, baseline (BL) is fundamental to determine fetal hypoxia and distress. In computerized applications, BL is typically computed as mean FHR±ΔFHR, with ΔFHR=8 bpm or ΔFHR=10 bpm, both values being experimentally fixed. In this context, the present work aims: to propose a statistical procedure for ΔFHR assessment; to quantitatively determine ΔFHR value by applying such procedure to clinical data; and to compare the statistically-determined ΔFHR value against the experimentally-determined ΔFHR values...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060294/influence-of-ecg-sampling-rate-in-fetal-heart-rate-variability-analysis
#11
J De Jonckheere, C Garabedian, P Charlier, C Champion, E Servan-Schreiber, L Storme, V Debarge, M Jeanne, R Logier
Fetal hypoxia results in a fetal blood acidosis (pH<;7.10). In such a situation, the fetus develops several adaptation mechanisms regulated by the autonomic nervous system. Many studies demonstrated significant changes in heart rate variability in hypoxic fetuses. So, fetal heart rate variability analysis could be of precious help for fetal hypoxia prediction. Commonly used fetal heart rate variability analysis methods have been shown to be sensitive to the ECG signal sampling rate. Indeed, a low sampling rate could induce variability in the heart beat detection which will alter the heart rate variability estimation...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047093/cross-talk-between-mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-and-sarcoplasmic-reticulum-calcium-in-pulmonary-arterial-smooth-muscle-cells
#12
Tengyao Song, Yun-Min Zheng, Yong-Xiao Wang
Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) occurs during both fetal and postnatal development and plays a critical role in matching regional alveolar perfusion with ventilation in humans and animals. HPV also contributes significantly to the development of pulmonary hypertension. Although the molecular mechanisms of HPV and pulmonary hypertension remain incompletely understood, increasing evidence demonstrates that hypoxia induces an elevated intracellular reactive oxygen species concentration ([ROS]i) in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046485/dimethyl-fumarate-increases-fetal-hemoglobin-provides-heme-detoxification-and-corrects-anemia-in-sickle-cell-disease
#13
Sriram Krishnamoorthy, Betty Pace, Dipti Gupta, Sarah Sturtevant, Biaoru Li, Levi Makala, Julia Brittain, Nancy Moore, Benjamin F Vieira, Timothy Thullen, Ivan Stone, Huo Li, William E Hobbs, David R Light
Sickle cell disease (SCD) results from a point mutation in the β-globin gene forming hemoglobin S (HbS), which polymerizes in deoxygenated erythrocytes, triggering recurrent painful vaso-occlusive crises and chronic hemolytic anemia. Reactivation of fetal Hb (HbF) expression ameliorates these symptoms of SCD. Nuclear factor (erythroid derived-2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that triggers cytoprotective and antioxidant pathways to limit oxidative damage and inflammation and increases HbF synthesis in CD34+ stem cell-derived erythroid progenitors...
October 19, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037858/co-localization-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-1-casein-kinase-2%C3%AE-and-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-as-demonstrated-by-dual-immunofluorescence-and-in-situ-proximity-ligation-assay
#14
Sahil S Singal, Karen Nygard, Manthan R Dhruv, Kyle Biggar, Majida Abu Shehab, Shawn Shun-Cheng Li, Thomas Jansson, Madhulika B Gupta
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-1 influences fetal growth by modifying insulin-like growth factor-1 bioavailability. IGFBP-1 phosphorylation is regulated by mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and casein kinase (CSNK)-2. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. We examined the cellular localization and potential interactions of IGFBP-1, CSNK-2β, and mTOR as a prerequisite for protein-protein interaction. Analysis of dual immunofluorescence images indicated a potential perinuclear co-localization between IGFBP-1 and CSNK-2β and a nuclear co-localization between CSNK-2β and mTOR...
October 14, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020781/-the-finding-of-isolated-oligohydramnios-after-37th-week-of%C3%A2-gestation-and-its-association-with-perinatal-outcome
#15
J Hederlingová, M Redecha, J Záhumenský
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determinate the influence of oligohydramnios on perinatal outcome in term pregnancies. DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. SETTING: II. Gynecologic Obstetrics Department, Comenius University, Bratislava. METHODS: Authors analysed a group of 372 single pregnancies after completed 37th week of gestation in years 2011 to 2015 with sonographic diagnosis of isolated oligohydramnios...
2017: Ceská Gynekologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018332/the-beneficial-effects-of-melatonin-administration-following-hypoxia-ischemia-in-preterm-fetal-sheep
#16
Tamara Yawno, Mawin Mahen, Jingang Li, Michael C Fahey, Graham Jenkin, Suzanne L Miller
Melatonin (MLT) is an endogenous hormone that controls circadian cycle. MLT has additional important properties that make it appealing as a neuroprotective agent-it is a potent anti-oxidant, with anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties. MLT is safe for administration during pregnancy or to the newborn after birth, and can reduce white matter brain injury under conditions of chronic fetal hypoxia. Accordingly, in the current study, we examined whether an intermediate dose of MLT could restore white matter brain development when administered after an acute hypoxic ischemic (HI) insult in preterm fetal sheep...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016232/algorithm-for-the-management-of-asthma-in-pregnant-women-a-protocol-to-optimize-processes-in-healthcare
#17
Eva Martinez-Moragón, Auxiliadora Romero-Falcón, Juan Luis García-Rivero
Asthma is the most common chronic disease in pregnant women. Its evolution during pregnancy could improve, stay the same or worsen, especially in cases where there is a loss of clinical control. This can lead to maternal and fetal hypoxia with serious adverse perinatal outcomes. Areas covered: This article reviews physiological modifications in pregnancy, effects of pregnancy on asthma, and possible consequences on fetus development. Furthermore, it reviews evidence on assessment and both pharmacological and non-pharmacological management of asthma in pregnant and breastfeeding women as well as in acute exacerbations...
October 23, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994098/the-impact-of-antiandrogen-flutamide-on-the-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-and-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-a-gene-and-protein-expression-in-the-pig-placenta-during-late-pregnancy
#18
Elzbieta Czaja, Iwona Wieciech-Rojkiewicz, Katarzyna Knapczyk-Stwora, Malgorzata Grzesiak, Maria Słomczynska
INTRODUCTION: In contrast to estradiol action, little is known about androgen signaling in placental development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of diminished androgen action on hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) protein expression as well as their mRNAs in the structures of fetal and maternal parts of porcine placenta during late pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pregnant pigs were injected daily with antiandrogen flutamide, at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight at different stages of pregnancy: between gestational days 83-89 (90 dpc) and 101-107 (108 dpc)...
October 10, 2017: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983923/the-highs-and-lows-of-programmed-cardiovascular-disease-by-developmental-hypoxia-studies-in-the-chicken-embryo
#19
N Itani, C E Salinas, M Villena, K L Skeffington, C Beck, E Villamor, C E Blanco, D A Giussani
It is now established that adverse conditions during pregnancy can trigger a fetal origin of cardiovascular dysfunction and/or increase the risk of heart disease in later life. Suboptimal environmental conditions during early life that may promote the development of cardiovascular dysfunction in the offspring include alterations in fetal oxygenation and nutrition as well as fetal exposure to stress hormones, such as glucocorticoids. There has been growing interest in identifying the partial contributions of each of these stressors to programming of cardiovascular dysfunction...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979210/chronic-hypobaric-hypoxia-modulates-primary-cilia-differently-in-adult-and-fetal-ovine-kidneys
#20
Kiumars Shamloo, Juan Chen, Jasmine Sardar, Rinzhin T Sherpa, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Kimberly F Atkinson, William J Pearce, Lubo Zhang, Surya M Nauli
Hypoxic environments at high altitude have significant effects on kidney injury. Following injury, renal primary cilia display length alterations. Primary cilia are mechanosensory organelles that regulate tubular architecture. The effect of hypoxia on cilia length is still controversial in cultured cells, and no corresponding in vivo study exists. Using fetal and adult sheep, we here study the effect of chronic hypobaric hypoxia on the renal injury, intracellular calcium signaling and the relationship between cilia length and cilia function...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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