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incretin 2016

A P van Beek, M Emous, M Laville, J Tack
BACKGROUND: Dumping syndrome, a common complication of esophageal, gastric or bariatric surgery, includes early and late dumping symptoms. Early dumping occurs within 1 h after eating, when rapid emptying of food into the small intestine triggers rapid fluid shifts into the intestinal lumen and release of gastrointestinal hormones, resulting in gastrointestinal and vasomotor symptoms. Late dumping occurs 1-3 h after carbohydrate ingestion, caused by an incretin-driven hyperinsulinemic response resulting in hypoglycemia...
October 17, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
M A Daniels, C Kan, D M Willmes, K Ismail, F Pistrosch, D Hopkins, G Mingrone, S R Bornstein, A L Birkenfeld
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a fast progressing disease reaching pandemic proportions. T2DM is specifically harmful because of its severe secondary complications. In the course of the disease, most patients require treatment with oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs), for which a relatively large number of different options are available. The growing number of individuals affected by T2DM as well as marked interindividual differences in the response to treatment call for individualized therapeutic regimens that can maximize treatment efficacy and thus reduce side effects and costs...
October 2016: Pharmacogenomics Journal
Jennifer D Smith, Elizabeth Mills, Sara E Carlisle
OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature for the efficacy and safety of available treatments for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in the pediatric population. DATA SOURCES: A search from January 1990 to April 2016 was conducted using PubMed and using the search terms diabetes mellitus, type 2; adolescent; child; and pediatric Bibliographies of chosen articles were reviewed. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Relevant articles and preliminary data from clinical trials on metformin, insulin, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and α-glucosidase inhibitors for the treatment of pediatric T2DM were reviewed...
September 2016: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
A L João, F Reis, R Fernandes
Incretins are gastrointestinal-derived hormones released in response to a meal playing a key role in the regulation of postprandial secretion of insulin (incretin effect) and glucagon by the pancreas. Both incretins, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), have several other actions by peripheral and central mechanisms. GLP-1 regulates body weight by inhibiting appetite and delaying gastric, emptying actions that are dependent on central nervous system GLP-1 receptor activation...
July 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
György Jermendy
Several randomized, controlled clinical trials were initiated some years ago in order to evaluate the cardiovascular safety of the new antidiabetic drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes due to requirements from regulatory bodies. Four trials with incretin-based drugs (saxagliptin, alogliptin, sitagliptin and lixisenatide) have been completed so far. Based on the primary outcome endpoints of these trials no cardiovascular risks were found with incretins in patients with type 2 diabetes. As for saxagliptin, the hospitalization for heart failure was investigated as a secondary endpoint, and an increased risk was observed in the respective trial; however, this observation was widely debated later in the literature...
April 17, 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
György Jermendy
In the last couple of years incretin-based antidiabetic drugs became increasingly popular and widely used for treating patients with type 2 diabetes. Immediately after launching, case reports and small case series were published on the potential side effects of the new drugs, with special attention to pancreatic disorders such as acute pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer. As clinical observations accumulated, these side-effects were noted with nearly all drugs of this class. Although these side-effects proved to be rare, an intensive debate evolved in the literature...
April 3, 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
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