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Flow mediated dilation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724057/impaired-flow-mediated-dilation-response-and-carotid-intima-media-thickness-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-with-a-mean-disease-duration-of-4-1-years
#1
Lúcia Helena Bonalume Tacito, Antonio Carlos Pires, Juan Carlos Yugar-Toledo
Objective: This study aimed at assessing the endothelial function in patients with Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) response and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT). Materials and methods: This study enrolled 32 T1DM patients (mean disease duration 4.1 years) and 28 age-matched controls (CTL Group). Endothelial function and CIMT were assessed with high-resolution ultrasound using standardized offline measurements. Results: FMD was significantly lower in patients in the T1DM Group (8...
July 13, 2017: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721151/moderate-dose-atorvastatin-improves-arterial-endothelial-function-in-patients-with-angina-pectoris-and-normal-coronary-angiogram-a-pilot-study
#2
Amela Kabaklić, Zlatko Fras
INTRODUCTION: Endothelial dysfunction could contribute to the pathophysiology of angina pectoris (AP) in patients with normal coronary angiograms. Besides lipid-lowering effects, statins exert pleiotropic effects including improving endothelial function. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Our double-blind study included 58 patients with AP, noninvasively confirmed myocardial ischemia and a normal coronary angiogram. The effect of once-daily 20 mg atorvastatin (A) was compared with placebo (P) for 6 months...
June 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717575/flow-mediated-dilatation-test-using-optoacoustic-imaging-a-proof-of-concept
#3
Angelos Karlas, Josefine Reber, Gael Diot, Dmitry Bozhko, Maria Anastasopoulou, Tareq Ibrahim, Markus Schwaiger, Fabien Hyafil, Vasilis Ntziachristos
Label-free multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) has recently shown superior performance in visualizing the morphology of human vasculature, especially of smaller vessels, compared to ultrasonography. Herein, we extend these observations towards MSOT interrogation of macrovascular endothelial function. We employed a real-time handheld MSOT scanner to assess flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), a technique used to characterize endothelial function. A data processing scheme was developed to quantify the dimensions and diameter changes of arteries in humans and determine wall distensibility parameters...
July 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716800/relationship-between-vascular-resistance-and-sympathetic-nerve-fiber-density-in-arterial-vessels-in-children-with-sleep-disordered-breathing
#4
Anna Kontos, Kurt Lushington, James Martin, Quenten Schwarz, Ryan Green, David Wabnitz, Xiangjun Xu, Elke M Sokoya, Scott Willoughby, Mathias Baumert, Antonio Ferrante, Melissa La Forgia, Declan Kennedy
BACKGROUND: Sleep disordered breathing in children is associated with increased blood flow velocity and sympathetic overactivity. Sympathetic overactivity results in peripheral vasoconstriction and reduced systemic vascular compliance, which increases blood flow velocity during systole. Augmented blood flow velocity is recognized to promote vascular remodeling. Importantly, increased vascular sympathetic nerve fiber density and innervation in early life plays a key role in the development of early-onset hypertension in animal models...
July 17, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714741/the-efficacy-and-safety-of-adding-either-vildagliptin-or-glimepiride-to-ongoing-metformin-therapy-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#5
Gyuri Kim, Sewon Oh, Sang-Man Jin, Kyu Yeon Hur, Jae Hyeon Kim, Moon-Kyu Lee
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of either vildagliptin or glimepiride on glycemic variability, oxidative stress, and endothelial parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) inadequately controlled with metformin alone. METHODS: In this randomized, open-label, parallel study, 34 patients with T2DM being treated with metformin having an HbA1c of 7.0-10.0% were allocated into either the vildagliptin or glimepiride group. A mixed-meal tolerance test and 72-hour continuous glucose monitoring were conducted, and urinary 8-iso-prostaglandinF2α (PGF2α) and endothelial-dependent flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) were evaluated at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment...
July 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709700/prasugrel-as-opposed-to-clopidogrel-improves-endothelial-nitric-oxide-bioavailability-and-reduces-platelet-leukocyte-interaction-in-patients-with-unstable-angina-pectoris-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Tanja K Rudolph, Alexander Fuchs, Anna Klinke, Andrea Schlichting, Kai Friedrichs, Martin Hellmich, Martin Mollenhauer, Edzard Schwedhelm, Stephan Baldus, Volker Rudolph
BACKGROUND: Platelet inhibition has been linked to improved endothelial function, a prognostic factor in coronary artery disease. Whether prasugrel, a potent platelet inhibitor, affects endothelial function remains unknown. METHODS: This was a double-blind, randomized, active-controlled, parallel trial. Patients with unstable angina pectoris undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) received either a daily dose of clopidogrel 75mg (n=23) or prasugrel 10mg (n=22)...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708039/comparison-of-endothelial-function-in-healthy-chronic-periodontitis-and-myocardial-infarction-patients
#7
Anahita Punj, Santhosh B Shenoy, Subramanyam K
BACKGROUND: The inflammatory burden as a result of severe periodontal disease acts as an insult to the endothelium. This disruption in the function of the endothelium, predisposes it towards formation of atherosclerotic plaque, which may be a subsequent risk for coronary artery disease. The aim of this study was to estimate and compare endothelial function via flow mediated dilation (FMD) assessment in periodontal health and disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 120 patients were selected and categorized equally into three groups of healthy, chronic periodontitis and myocardial infarction patients...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702212/obesity-arterial-function-and-arterial-structure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
J Y A Ne, T Y Cai, D S Celermajer, I D Caterson, T Gill, C M Y Lee, M R Skilton
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms by which obesity affects cardiovascular risk have not been fully elucidated. This paper reports a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis on obesity and two key aspects of vascular health using gold-standard non-invasive measures - arterial endothelial function (brachial flow-mediated dilatation) and subclinical atherosclerosis (carotid intima-media thickness). METHODS: Electronic searches for 'Obesity and flow-mediated dilatation' and 'Obesity and intima-media thickness' were performed using Ovid Medline and Embase databases...
June 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699679/one-session-of-remote-ischemic-preconditioning-does-not-improve-vascular-function-in-acute-normobaric-and-chronic-hypobaric-hypoxia
#9
Mathew G Rieger, Ryan L Hoiland, Joshua C Tremblay, Mike Stembridge, Anthony R Bain, Daniela Flück, Prajan Subedi, James D Anholm, Philip N Ainslie
Application of repeated short duration bouts of ischemia to the limbs, termed remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC), is a novel technique that may have protective effects on vascular function during hypoxic exposures. In separate parallel-design studies, at sea-level (SL; n = 16), and after 8-12 days at high-altitude (HA; n = 12; White Mountain, 3800 m), participants underwent either a sham protocol or one session of 4 × 5 minutes of dual-thigh cuff occlusion with 5 minutes recovery. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD; ultrasound), pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP; echocardiography), and internal carotid artery flow (ICA; ultrasound) were measured at SL in normoxia and isocapnic hypoxia [end-tidal PO₂ (PETO₂) maintained to 50 mmHg], and during normal breathing at HA...
July 12, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693985/cardiovascular-risk-markers-among-obese-women-using-the-levonorgestrel-releasing-intrauterine-system-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Lucimara Facio Nobre Zueff, Anderson Sanches de Melo, Carolina S Vieira, Wellington P Martins, Rui A Ferriani
According to international guidelines, women with obesity without other comorbidities can safely use any hormonal contraceptive (HC). However, limited information is available about contraceptive safety for women with obesity since obesity is an exclusion criterion of most contraceptive clinical trials. As such little is known about the possible risks of HC exposure for women with obesity without comorbidities. One way to assess possible long-term risks in this population, even prior to the development of any clinical disease, is to measure alterations in subclinical atherosclerosis markers...
July 7, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690284/association-between-waist-to-height-ratio-and-endothelial-dysfunction-in-patients-with-morbidity%C3%A3-a-report-from-the-fmd-j-study
#11
Akihiro Tokushige, Shinichiro Ueda, Hirofumi Tomiyama, Mituru Ohishi, Takahide Kohro, Yukihito Higashi, Bonpei Takase, Toru Suzuki, Tomoko Ishizu, Tsutomu Yamazaki, Tomoo Furumoto, Kazuomi Kario, Teruo Inoue, Shinji Koba, Yasuhiko Takemoto, Takuzo Hano, Masataka Sata, Yutaka Ishibashi, Koichi Node, Koji Maemura, Yusuke Ohya, Taiji Furukawa, Hiroshi Ito, Akira Yamashina
BACKGROUND: Waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body mass index (BMI) are known as easy anthropometric markers of abnormal obesity and screening tools for predicting cardiovascular outcomes, but which indices are best is unclear. We therefore investigated the superiority and association between each index and low flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) as a surrogate marker for cardiovascular outcomes in patients with morbidity in a large Japanese prospective cohort.Methods and Results:A total of 1,645 Japanese patients who had coronary artery disease and hypertension or diabetes mellitus were enrolled, and 1,087 of them were analyzed...
July 7, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690023/the-tyg-index-as-a-marker-of-subclinical-atherosclerosis-and-arterial-stiffness-in-lean-and-overweight-postmenopausal-women
#12
Irene Lambrinoudaki, Maria Vasiliki Kazani, Eleni Armeni, Georgios Georgiopoulos, Konstantinos Tampakis, Demetrios Rizos, Areti Augoulea, Georgios Kaparos, Andreas Alexandrou, Kimon Stamatelopoulos
BACKGROUND: The present study aims to examine the association of the metabolic syndrome (MS) as well as of the triglyceride-glucose index (TyG-Index), a novel marker of insulin resistance, with subclinical atherosclerosis in a cohort of postmenopausal women, stratified according to their body mass index. METHODS: A total of 473 informed-consenting, non-diabetic postmenopausal women, without overt cardiovascular disease, were included in this study. We aimed to compare the association between structural and functional indices of subclinical atherosclerosis (i...
June 16, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686293/is-primary-hyperparathyroidism-a-cause-of-endothelial-dysfunction
#13
Sevgi Colak, Berna Imge Aydogan, Asena Gokcay Canpolat, Cansin Tulunay Kaya, Mustafa Sahin, Demet Corapcioglu, Ali Riza Uysal, Rifat Emral
OBJECTIVE: Symptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is thought to be related to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In our study, we aimed to investigate endothelial dysfunction and markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in PHPT patients. Also we aimed to demonstrate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on these parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-nine patients followed by medical treatment (A), 25 preoperative (B) and 23 postoperative patients with PHPT (C), and 26 normocalcemic subjects (D) were included...
July 7, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685504/statins-for-children-with-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#14
REVIEW
Alpo Vuorio, Jaana Kuoppala, Petri T Kovanen, Steve E Humphries, Serena Tonstad, Albert Wiegman, Euridiki Drogari, Uma Ramaswami
BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia is one of the most common inherited metabolic diseases and is an autosomal dominant disorder meaning heterozygotes, or carriers, are affected. Those who are homozygous have severe disease. The average worldwide prevalence of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia is at least 1 in 500, although recent genetic epidemiological data from Denmark and next generation sequencing data suggest the frequency may be closer to 1 in 250. Diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolemia in children is based on elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels or DNA-based analysis, or both...
July 7, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683796/effectiveness-of-dapagliflozin-on-vascular-endothelial-function-and-glycemic-control-in-patients-with-early-stage-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-defence-study
#15
Fumika Shigiyama, Naoki Kumashiro, Masahiko Miyagi, Kayoko Ikehara, Eiichiro Kanda, Hiroshi Uchino, Takahisa Hirose
BACKGROUND: Recent studies reported that sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors can potentially reduce the risk of cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, there is little or no information on the therapeutic effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on the progression of atherosclerosis. This dapagliflozin effectiveness on vascular endothelial function and glycemic control (DEFENCE) study was designed to determine the effects of dapagliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, on endothelial function in patients with early-stage T2DM...
July 6, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681646/sleeve-gastrectomy-efficacy-on-metabolic-and-cardiovascular-dysfunction-with-a-focus-on-the-role-of-comorbidities
#16
Maria Anastasia Ricci, Stefano Ministrini, Stefano De Vuono, Matteo Camilli, Alessandra Gentili, Giulia Daviddi, Marcello Boni, Graziana Lupattelli
We evaluated the effects of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on metabolic/cardiovascular parameters according to weight loss, visceral fat area (VFA), and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-insulin resistance index; we also assessed the influence of SG on comorbidities (diabetes/hypertension). At baseline and 10 to 12 months after SG, we assessed anthropometric and biochemical parameters, bioimpedentiometry, ultrasonographic VFA, liver steatosis, flow-mediated dilation, and echocardiography in 110 patients with obesity...
January 1, 2017: Angiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680351/endothelial-dysfunction-markers-in-low-cardiovascular-risk-individuals-comparison-of-males-and-females
#17
Zeynep B Gungor, Nurver Sipahioglu, Huseyin Sonmez, Hakan Ekmekci, Sait Toprak, Gulsel Ayaz, Cigdem Bayram Gurel, Tugba Mutlu, Turgut Ulutin, Fikret Sipahioglu, Baris Ilerigelen
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) account for approximately 50% of the total deaths in Turkey. Most of them are related with atherosclerotic coronary heart disease. Predictive value of endothelial dysfunction markers related with the earliest stage of atherosclerosis has been getting more attention. We hypothesized that differences in endothelial dysfunction biochemical markers among genders would aid to capture proatherogenic activity that was not diagnosed by conventional risk assessment scoring systems...
January 2017: Journal of Medical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680087/electronegative-low-density-lipoprotein-increases-the-risk-of-ischemic-lower-extremity-peripheral-artery-disease-in-uremia-patients-on-maintenance-hemodialysis
#18
Chiz-Tzung Chang, Ming-Yi Shen, An-Sean Lee, Chun-Cheng Wang, Wei-Yu Chen, Chia-Ming Chang, Kuan-Cheng Chang, Nicole Stancel, Chu-Huang Chen
Electronegative low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been shown to increase coronary artery disease risk in hemodialysis patients, but its effect on the risk of peripheral artery disease (PAD) remains unclear. We separated plasma LDL from 90 uremia patients undergoing hemodialysis into 5 subfractions (L1-L5) according to charge by using fast-protein liquid chromatography with an anion-exchange column and examined the distribution of L5-the most electronegative LDL subfraction-in total LDL (i.e. L5%). During a 5-year period, we followed up with these patients until the occurrence of ischemic lower-extremity PAD...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676489/voltage-dependent-ca-2-entry-into-smooth-muscle-during-contraction-promotes-endothelium-mediated-feedback-vasodilation-in-arterioles
#19
Christopher J Garland, Pooneh Bagher, Chloe Powell, Xi Ye, Hamish A L Lemmey, Lyudmyla Borysova, Kim A Dora
Vascular smooth muscle contraction is suppressed by feedback dilation mediated by the endothelium. In skeletal muscle arterioles, this feedback can be activated by Ca(2+) signals passing from smooth muscle through gap junctions to endothelial cells, which protrude through holes in the internal elastic lamina to make contact with vascular smooth muscle cells. Although hypothetically either Ca(2+) or inositol trisphosphate (IP3) may provide the intercellular signal, it is generally thought that IP3 diffusion is responsible...
July 4, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675713/obesity-in-pregnancy-as-a-model-to-identify-women-at-risk-for-later-metabolic-syndrome
#20
C Neri, C Di Cesare, A Labianca, M Viggiano, A Caruso, G Paradisi
The aim of our study is to identify - in a cohort of obese women - cardiovascular and clinical risk factors in women with previous complicated pregnancies and protective factors in women with previous physiological pregnancies. A total of 135 nonpregnant obese women referring to Policlinico Gemelli in Rome were prospectively collected in 2009-2010. Thirty-two women matched inclusion criteria: 16 reported a previous physiological pregnancy and 16 reported previous obstetric complications. A clinical, instrumental and laboratory evaluation has been performed for each patient...
July 4, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
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