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Flow mediated dilation

Dustin P Joubert, Jorge Z Granados, Jonathan M Oliver, Bethany L Noack, Peter W Grandjean, Christopher R Woodman, Steven E Riechman, Stephen F Crouse
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to compare acute bouts of aquatic treadmill (ATM) and land treadmill (LTM) exercise on flow-mediated dilation (FMD), post-exercise blood pressure (BP), plasma nitrate/nitrite (PN), and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in untrained, pre-hypertensive men. DESIGN: In a counterbalanced, crossover design, 19 untrained, pre-hypertensive men completed bouts of ATM and LTM on separate days. FMD was measured pre-exercise and 1-hour post-exercise...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Kumari M Rathnayake, Michelle Weech, Kim G Jackson, Julie A Lovegrove
Background: Elevated postprandial triacylglycerol concentrations, impaired vascular function, and hypertension are important independent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in women. However, the effects of meal fat composition on postprandial lipemia and vascular function in postmenopausal women are unknown. Objective: This study investigated the impact of sequential meals rich in saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), or n-6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on postprandial flow-mediated dilatation (FMD; primary outcome measure), vascular function, and associated CVD risk biomarkers (secondary outcomes) in postmenopausal women...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Kecheng Yao, Tianming Zhao, Linghai Zeng, Jianming Yang, Yanqun Liu, Qian He, Xiulan Zou
It has been reported that subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is closely related to subclinical atherosclerosis. According to the impact of SCH on noninvasive markers of cardiovascular risk, we fulfilled a meta-analysis of included studies to provide an integrated overview. We searched electronic databases and included all relevant studies involving SCH and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), pulse wave velocity (PWV), flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and glyceryl trinitrate-induced dilation (GNT- induced dilation)...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Guglielmo Maulucci, Francesco Cipriani, Dolores Russo, Grazia Casavecchia, Carlo Di Staso, Luigi Di Martino, Antonio Ruggiero, Matteo Di Biase, Natale Daniele Brunetti
BACKGROUND: The reduction of cholesterol levels with cholesterol-lowering therapy may improve endothelial function. Lipid-lowering therapy has been greatly enhanced by the introduction of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) antibodies. Less is known of the effect of PCSK9 inhibitors on endothelial function of subjects with hypercholesterolemia. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether treatment with PCSK9 inhibitors may improve endothelial function evaluated by brachial artery vasoreactivity test...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Lieselot Decroix, Cajsa Tonoli, Elodie Lespagnol, Constantino Balestra, Amandine Descat, Marie Jose Drittij-Reijnders, Jamie R Blackwell, Wilhelm Stahl, Andrew M Jones, Antje R Weseler, Aalt Bast, Romain Meeusen, Elsa Heyman
INTRODUCTION: During exercise in hypoxia, O2 delivery to brain and muscle is compromised and oxidative stress is elicited. Cocoa flavanols (CF) have antioxidant capacities and can increase blood flow by stimulating endothelial function. We aimed to examine the effects of 7-day CF intake on oxidative stress, nitric oxide production and tissue oxygenation in response to exercise in hypoxia (14.3% O2 ). METHODS: In a randomized, double blind, cross-over study, 14 well-trained male cyclists completed 4 trials: exercise in normoxia or hypoxia, after 7-day CF or placebo intake...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Alessandra Nerviani, Daniele Mauro
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterised by increased mortality secondary to cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Despite being common in SLE, traditional cardiovascular risk factors cannot entirely justify such increase in CVD-associated mortality. The endothelium is a key regulator of the vascular homeostasis; lupus-associated persistent systemic inflammation may impair endothelium functionality, thus initiating a cascade of events that, in concert with traditional CVD-risk factors, leads to atherosclerosis development and progression...
March 13, 2018: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Nobutaka Noto, Akiko Komori, Mamoru Ayusawa, Shori Takahashi
Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis with a predilection for damage to the coronary arteries. In the acute phase, clinical decision making for KD relies on the measurements of the coronary z-score obtained by 2-dimensional echocardiography (2DE). In the convalescent phase, KD patients with coronary artery abnormalities (CAAs) eventually show arteriosclerotic vascular remodeling characterized by marked intimal proliferation and neoangiogenesis after KD vasculitis, which often induces myocardial ischemia...
February 2018: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
Jung-Hoon Lee, Ruda Lee, Moon-Hyon Hwang, Marc T Hamilton, Yoonjung Park
Background: Vascular endothelial dysfunction induced by hyperglycemia and elevated insulin resistance is a potent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and likely contributes to multiple chronic disease complications associated with aging. The aim of this study was to systematically review and quantify the effects of exercise on endothelial function (EF) in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods: Five electronic databases were searched (until June 2017) for studies that met the following criteria: (i) randomized controlled trials; (ii) T2D aged ≥ 18 years; (iii) measured EF by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD); (iv) structured and supervised exercise intervention for ≥ 8 weeks...
2018: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
Vahit Demir, Mehmet Tolga Doğru, Hüseyin Ede, Samet Yilmaz, Cağlar Alp, Yunus Celik, Nesligül Yildirim
INTRODUCTION: Statins can reduce cardiovascular events and improve endothelial function. However, differences in the effect of statins on endothelial dysfunction have not been researched sufficiently. Here, we aimed to compare the effects of atorvastatin versus rosuvastatin on endothelial function via flow-mediated and endothelial-independent dilation. METHODS: Hyperlipidaemic subjects on treatment with statins for one year (either 20 mg/day atorvastatin or 10 mg/day rosuvastatin) were enrolled in the study...
March 8, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Takashi Komatsu, Fusanori Kunugita, Mahito Ozawa, Yoshihiro Satoh, Reisuke Yoshizawa, Shingen Owada, Youhei Sawa, Yoshihiro Morino, Motoyuki Nakamura
Background and methods There is little information concerning the influence of the heart rhythm on the vascular endothelial function in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) compared with studies concerning sinus rhythm (SR). The present study included paroxysmal (n=184) or chronic (n=53) AF patients without heart failure and control subjects with SR (n=79) matched for age, gender and the CHA2 DS2 -VASc score. Paroxysmal AF was defined as episodes that terminated spontaneously within 7 days, while chronic AF was defined as longstanding AF that was refractory to cardioversion for 12 months or longer...
March 9, 2018: Internal Medicine
Elshin Mathias, Allanah Kenny, Michael J Plank, Tim David
A state-of-the-art integrated model of neurovascular coupling (NVC) [19, 18, 38] and the BOLD response [47, 48] is presented with the ability to simulate the fMRI BOLD responses due to continuous neuronal spiking, bursting and cortical spreading depression (CSD) along with the underlying complex vascular coupling. Simulated BOLD responses are compared to experimental BOLD signals observed in the rat barrel cortex and in the hippocampus under seizure conditions showing good agreement. Bursting phenomena provides relatively clear BOLD signals as long as the time between bursts is not too short...
March 8, 2018: NeuroImage
Joshua C Tremblay, Connor A Howe, Philip N Ainslie, Kyra Ellen Pyke
Experimentally-induced oscillatory shear stress (OSS) and hypoxia reduce endothelial function in humans. Acute and sustained hypoxia may cause increases in resting OSS; however, whether this influences endothelial susceptibility to further increases in OSS is unknown. Healthy lowlanders (n=15, 30{plus minus}6 years [mean{plus minus}SD]) participated in three OSS interventions; two at sea level (normoxia and following 20-minutes of normobaric hypoxia [acute hypoxia, 11% O2 ]) and one 5-7 days after a 9-day ascent to 5050m (sustained hypoxia)...
March 9, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Masahide Tokue, Raisuke Iijima, Masao Moroi, Masato Nakamura
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of intensive optimal medical therapy (OMT) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). To investigate our hypothesis that patients with and without OMT achievement differed with respect to the risk of future cardiac events, we investigated the endothelial function in patients with CAD who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and contemporary medical therapy. METHODS: We conducted a prospective longitudinal cohort study to evaluate the endothelial function in 96 consecutive patients at 12 h after admission and 3 months at <12 h after admission and at 3 months after discharge by measuring the brachial artery dilatation after 5 min of forearm ischemia flow-mediated dilation (FMD)...
March 2018: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
Tatsiana Suvorava, Miriam M Cortese-Krott
Moderate exercise training is a key aspect of primary and secondary prevention strategies. Shear-induced upregulation of eNOS activity and function in the vascular endothelium is considered as one of the main molecular mechanisms of exercise-induced protection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. It has been reported that levels of plasma nitrite, which are largely dependent on eNOS activity, were increased in healthy subjects after acute exercise, while this increase was abolished in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients...
March 6, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Rachel Nicoll, Michael Y Henein
Essential hypertension, fast heart rate, low heart rate variability, sympathetic nervous system dominance over parasympathetic, arterial stiffness, endothelial dysfunction and poor flow-mediated arterial dilatation are all associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. This review of randomised controlled trials and other studies demonstrates that caloric restriction (CR) is capable of significantly improving all these parameters, normalising blood pressure (BP) and allowing patients to discontinue antihypertensive medication, while never becoming hypotensive...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Aleksander Siniarski, Maciej Haberka, Magdalena Mostowik, Renata Gołębiowska-Wiatrak, Małgorzata Poręba, Krzysztof Piotr Malinowski, Zbigniew Gąsior, Ewa Konduracka, Jadwiga Nessler, Grzegorz Gajos
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Numerous recent studies conducted in different clinical settings have focused on the benefits of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. There is limited evidence that patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and very high cardiovascular risk can also benefit from a high dose of n-3PUFAs, especially those on optimal medical therapy as recommended by the guidelines. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of high-dose n-3 PUFA treatment on endothelial function in patients with T2D and established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD)...
March 2, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Joana Almaça, Jonathan Weitz, Rayner Rodriguez-Diaz, Elizabeth Pereira, Alejandro Caicedo
Efficient insulin secretion requires a well-functioning pancreatic islet microvasculature. The dense network of islet capillaries includes the islet pericyte, a cell that has barely been studied. Here we show that islet pericytes help control local blood flow by adjusting islet capillary diameter. Islet pericytes cover 40% of the microvasculature, are contractile, and are innervated by sympathetic axons. Sympathetic adrenergic input increases pericyte activity and reduces capillary diameter and local blood flow...
March 6, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Jacklyn K Jackson, Amanda J Patterson, Lesley K MacDonald-Wicks, Christopher Oldmeadow, Mark A McEvoy
Context: Depleted nitric oxide levels in the human body play a major role in cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. Inorganic nitrate/nitrite (rich dietary sources include beetroot and spinach) can act as a nitric oxide donor because nitrate/nitrite can be metabolized to produce nitric oxide. Objective: This review and meta-analysis sought to investigate the role of inorganic nitrate/nitrite in preventing or treating cardiovascular disease risk factors in humans. Data Sources: Electronic databases, including Medline, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane, and Scopus, were searched...
March 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Joel T Zelt, Joshua H Jones, Daniel M Hirai, Trevor J King, Danilo C Berton, Kyra E Pyke, Denis E O'Donnell, J Alberto Neder
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases play a major role in morbidity and mortality in the earlier stages of COPD. We hypothesized that systemic vascular dysfunction would be present even in patients who are currently considered at "low-risk" for negative cardiovascular outcomes, i.e., those with largely preserved FEV1 , few exacerbations and only mild burden of respiratory symptoms (GOLD spirometric grade 1, clinical group A). METHODS: 16 patients (FEV1  = 86 ± 13%) and 16 age- and gender-matched controls underwent measurements of: a) central arterial stiffness by pulse wave velocity, b) brachial flow-mediated dilation and c) forearm muscle oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy...
March 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Gary J Hodges, Matthew M Mallette, Stephen S Cheung
Whether sympathetic withdrawal or endothelial dilators such as nitric oxide (NO) contributes to cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) events is unclear. We measured blood flow and finger skin temperature (Tfinger ) of the index finger in nine participants during hand immersion in a water bath at 35 °C for 30 min, then at 8 °C for 30 min. Data were binned into 10 s averages for the entire 60 min protocol for laser-Doppler flux (LDF) and Tfinger . At baseline, Tfinger was 35.3 ± 0.2 °C and LDF was 227 ± 28 PU...
March 2, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
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