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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471572/-cardiovascular-medication-in-elderly-patients
#1
Robert H G Schwinger
Elderly people show increased probability to develop atherosclerotic diseases; in consequence heart failure - most often following coronary heart disease - as well as atrial fibrillation is more common. Following guidelines may lead to polypharmacy, i. e. use of more than 5 drugs daily. Thus, drug interactions as well as side effects become more likely; especially in elderly patients reduced kidney function has to be taken into account. Only drugs which have shown to prolong life or to reduce symptoms in controlled clinical trials should be used...
February 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471510/moderator-s-view-low-protein-diet-in-chronic-kidney-disease-effectiveness-efficacy-and-precision-nutritional-treatments-in-nephrology
#2
Carmine Zoccali, Francesca Mallamaci
Intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses provide complementary information about the usefulness of therapies. While intention-to-treat analyses of trials that tested low-protein diets remain debated, per-protocol analyses of the same trials show that low protein intake actually reduces the risk of kidney failure. Per-protocol analyses are notoriously open to bias but intention-to-treat analyses are less immaculate than commonly realized because they critically depend on adherence to the treatment being tested and therefore may not be directly relevant for informing clinical decisions when different degrees of adherence to therapy occur...
February 19, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471458/pro-the-rationale-for-dietary-therapy-for-patients-with-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease
#3
Joel D Kopple, Denis Fouque
Dietary treatment offers many benefits to patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) who are approaching the need for renal replacement therapy. A large number of these benefits are independent of whether diets slow the rate of progression of CKD. These diets are low in protein and many minerals, and provide adequate energy for the CKD patient. The diets can reduce accumulation of potentially toxic metabolic products derived from protein and amino acid degradation, maintain a healthier balance of body water, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium and other minerals, and prevent or improve protein-energy wasting...
February 19, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471407/plasma-copeptin-as-a-predictor-of-kidney-disease
#4
Sofia Enhörning, Anders Christensson, Olle Melander
Background: Plasma copeptin, a marker of vasopressin, is associated with renal function decline in the general population. Our aim was to study the links between elevated copeptin and future risk of kidney disease. Methods: Copeptin was measured in a sample of the Malmö Preventive Project (MPP) Reinvestigation (n = 5158) and in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cardiovascular Cohort (MDC-CC) (n = 5162). According to national registers, 89 subjects in MPP and 180 in MDC-CC developed chronic kidney disease (CKD) during follow-up (8...
February 16, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471290/presence-of-kidney-disease-as-an-outcome-predictor-in-patients-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#5
Laurent Bitker, Florence Sens, Cécile Payet, Ségolène Turquier, Antoine Duclos, Vincent Cottin, Laurent Juillard
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) may lead to right heart failure and subsequently alter glomerular filtration rates (GFR). Chronic kidney disease (CKD, GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2) may also adversely affect PAH prognosis. This study aimed to assess how right heart hemodynamics was associated with reduced estimated GFR (eGFR) and the association of CKD with survival in PAH patients. METHODS: In a prospective PAH cohort (2003-2012), invasive hemodynamics and eGFR were collected at diagnosis (179 patients) and during follow-up (159 patients)...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471067/the-smell-of-renal-protection-against-chronic-kidney-disease-hydrogen-sulfide-offers-a-potential-stinky-remedy
#6
REVIEW
George J Dugbartey
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common global health challenge characterized by irreversible pathological processes that reduce kidney function and culminates in development of end-stage renal disease. It is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in addition to increased caregiver burden and higher financial cost. A central player in CKD pathogenesis and progression is renal hypoxia. Renal hypoxia stimulates induction of oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, which in turn, promote cellular susceptibility and further aggravate hypoxia, thus forming a pathological vicious cycle in CKD progression...
October 19, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470693/anti-inflammatory-anti-rheumatic-and-analgesic-activities-of-2-5-mercapto-1-3-4-oxadiazol-2-yl-n-propylbenzenesulphonamide-mopbs-in-rodents
#7
Hina Rasheed, Ruqayya Afridi, Ashraf Ullah Khan, Muhammad Zia Ullah, Sidra Khalid, Ayesha Atiq, Humaira Kashif, Muhammad Naeem Ahmed, Yeong Shik Kim, Salman Khan
Chronic inflammation is pathologically associated with various clinical conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Several anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs currently available in market presents a wide range of problems. Therefore, the current study was aimed to evaluate anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of newly synthesized compound 2-(5-mercapto-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)-N-propylbenzenesulphonamide (MOPBS). Carrageenan and CFA-induced models were developed for evaluation of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity...
February 22, 2018: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470556/no-evidence-for-association-between-apol1-kidney-disease-risk-alleles-and-human-african-trypanosomiasis-in-two-ugandan-populations
#8
Magambo Phillip Kimuda, Harry Noyes, Julius Mulindwa, John Enyaru, Vincent Pius Alibu, Issa Sidibe, Dieuodonne Mumba Ngoyi, Christiane Hertz-Fowler, Annette MacLeod, Özlem Tastan Bishop, Enock Matovu
BACKGROUND: Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) manifests as an acute form caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (Tbr) and a chronic form caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (Tbg). Previous studies have suggested a host genetic role in infection outcomes, particularly for APOL1. We have undertaken candidate gene association studies (CGAS) in a Ugandan Tbr and a Tbg HAT endemic area, to determine whether polymorphisms in IL10, IL8, IL4, HLAG, TNFA, TNX4LB, IL6, IFNG, MIF, APOL1, HLAA, IL1B, IL4R, IL12B, IL12R, HP, HPR, and CFH have a role in HAT...
February 22, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470498/u-shaped-association-between-sleep-duration-and-urinary-albumin-excretion-in-korean-adults-2011-2014-korea-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey
#9
Ji Hee Yu, Kyungdo Han, Nam Hoon Kim, Hye Jin Yoo, Ji A Seo, Sin Gon Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Nan Hee Kim
Although sleep duration has been extensively studied in metabolic diseases, few studies have investigated the impact of sleep duration on chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between sleep duration and albuminuria in the general population. Among 24,948 adults who participated in the 2011-2014 KNHANES, a total of 19,994 subjects were included in this analysis. Subjects were categorized into the following five groups according to self-reported sleep duration: less than 5 h, 6 h, 7 h, 8 h, and more than 9 h...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470107/leptospira-genomospecies-and-sequence-type-prevalence-in-small-mammal-populations-in-germany
#10
Stefan Fischer, Anne Mayer-Scholl, Christian Imholt, Nastasja G Spierling, Elisa Heuser, Sabrina Schmidt, Daniela Reil, Ulrike M Rosenfeld, Jens Jacob, Karsten Nöckler, Rainer G Ulrich
Leptospirosis is a worldwide emerging infectious disease caused by zoonotic bacteria of the genus Leptospira. Numerous mammals, including domestic and companion animals, can be infected by Leptospira spp., but rodents and other small mammals are considered the main reservoir. The annual number of recorded human leptospirosis cases in Germany (2001-2016) was 25-166. Field fever outbreaks in strawberry pickers, due to infection with Leptospira kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa, were reported in 2007 and 2014. To identify the most commonly occurring Leptospira genomospecies, sequence types (STs), and their small mammal host specificity, a monitoring study was performed during 2010-2014 in four federal states of Germany...
February 22, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470007/women-and-kidney-disease-reflections-on-world-kidney-day-2018
#11
Giorgina B Piccoli, Mona Alrukhaimi, Zhi-Hong Liu, Elena Zakharova, Adeera Levin
World Kidney Day and International Women's Day 2018 are commemorated on the same day (March 8), an opportunity to highlight the importance of women's health, and particularly, their kidney health. On its 13th anniversary, World Kidney Day promotes affordable and equitable access to health education, health care, and prevention for all women and girls in the world. In this article, we focus on what we do and do not know about women, kidney health, and kidney disease, and what we might learn in the future to improve outcomes worldwide...
January 2018: Nephrology Nursing Journal: Journal of the American Nephrology Nurses' Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470004/accuracy-and-utility-of-estimating-lean-body-mass-and-nutritional-status-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-on-long-term-hemodialysis-using-anthropometric-skinfold-thickness-measurements
#12
Khai Gene Leong, Jia Lian Chee, Amalia Karahalios, Annabelle Skelley, Kim Wong
Malnutrition is common in patients on hemodialysis (prevalence of 30% to 50%) and is associated with higher mortality. Lean body mass (LBM) assessment is an accurate way of assessing nutritional status. The dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan is a reliable method in assessing body compositions and LBM; however, it is expensive and largely inaccessible. Anthropometric skinfold thickness measurement (ASFM) is useful in assessing LBM. It is cheaper and accessible, but underutilized clinically. The subjective global score (SGA) is a well-established method of assessing nutritional status...
January 2018: Nephrology Nursing Journal: Journal of the American Nephrology Nurses' Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469976/calcitonin-response-to-naturally-occurring-ionized-hypercalcemia-in-cats-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#13
D H N Van den Broek, R F Geddes, T L Williams, Y-M Chang, J Elliott, R E Jepson
BACKGROUND: Hypercalcemia is commonly associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats. OBJECTIVES: To explore the calcitonin response to naturally occurring ionized hypercalcemia in cats with azotemic CKD, and to assess the relationship of plasma calcitonin with ionized calcium, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and urinary calcium excretion. ANIMALS: Thirty-three client-owned cats with azotemic CKD and ionized hypercalcemia from first opinion practice...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469965/vitamin-d-receptor-expression-in-dogs
#14
J A Cartwright, A G Gow, E Milne, D Drummond, S Smith, I Handel, R J Mellanby
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence linking low blood vitamin D concentration to numerous diseases in people and in dogs. Vitamin D influences cellular function by signaling through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Little is known about which non-skeletal tissues express the VDR or how inflammation influences its expression in the dog. OBJECTIVES: To define which non-skeletal canine tissues express the VDR and to investigate expression in inflamed small intestine...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469955/variability-of-symmetric-dimethylarginine-in-apparently-healthy-dogs
#15
M A Kopke, R K Burchell, C G Ruaux, S E Burton, N Lopez-Villalobos, A Gal
BACKGROUND: Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) is a screening tool for early kidney dysfunction and monitoring treatment in cases of chronic kidney disease (CKD). There are no current studies describing the suitability of this test for use with published population-based reference intervals. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To determine the components of biological variability, the index of individuality (IOI), the critical difference between sequential measurements (CD ) and the number of measurements required to assess the homeostatic set point (HSP), for both SDMA and serum creatinine (sCr), in apparently healthy dogs...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468756/copper-deposition-in-oligodendroglial-cells-in-an-autopsied-case-of-hepatolenticular-degeneration
#16
Mayu Nishimuta, Kenta Masui, Tomoko Yamamoto, Yuichi Ikarashi, Katsutoshi Tokushige, Etsuko Hashimoto, Yoji Nagashima, Noriyuki Shibata
We present a case of hepatolenticular degeneration, so-called Wilson's disease (WD), in a 31-year-old Japanese man with broader deposition of copper in the liver, kidney and brain. The liver showed severe cirrhotic changes with macronodular pseudolobule formation, but there was little difference in immunohistochemical expression patterns of the copper transporter ATP7B between the control and present case. In the brain, there were both WD-related lesions such as the scattering of Opalski cells and changes caused by hepatic encephalopathy including the appearance of Alzheimer type II glia...
February 21, 2018: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468561/chronic-pain-in-medullary-sponge-kidney-a-rare-and-never-described-clinical-presentation
#17
G Gambaro, D S Goldfarb, R Baccaro, J Hirsch, N Topilow, S D'Alonzo, G Gambassi, P M Ferraro
Medullary sponge kidney (MSK) is a cause of nephrocalcinosis, associated with hematuria, renal colic, pyelonephritis. There are rare and atypical MSK cases characterized by chronic severe pain (CP), whose features are unknown, in particular the relationship with the stone disease activity. This study analyzes a cohort of MSK-CP patients belonging to three North-America self-support Facebook groups. Patients had to self-administer an on-line questionnaire (on intensity, progression and MSK-associated conditions, stone-related disease, pain features, drug use), the Brief Pain Inventory, the Fatigue Severity Score, and Wisconsin Quality of Life (WQL) in stone formers questionnaires...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468182/-gls-loss-of-function-causes-autosomal-recessive-spastic-ataxia-and-optic-atrophy
#18
David S Lynch, Viorica Chelban, Jana Vandrovcova, Alan Pittman, Nicholas W Wood, Henry Houlden
We describe a consanguineous family in which two brothers were affected by childhood onset spastic ataxia with optic atrophy and loss of motor and language skills. Through a combination of homozygosity mapping and whole-genome sequencing, we identified a homozygous copy number variant in GLS as the cause. The duplication leads to complete knockout of GLS expression. GLS encodes the brain- and kidney-specific enzyme glutaminase, which hydrolyzes glutamine for the production of glutamate, the most abundant central nervous system neurotransmitter...
February 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468169/severe-human-granulocytic-anaplasmosis-with-significantly-elevated-ferritin-levels-in-an-immunocompetent-host-in-pennsylvania-a-case-report
#19
Mona L Camacci, Ronaldo Paolo Panganiban, Zachary Pattison, Kamyar Haghayeghi, Alexander Daly, Cindy Ojevwe, Ryan J Munyon
Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a tick-borne, infectious disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum that generally presents with nonspecific symptoms such as fever, chills, headache, malaise, and myalgia. If not treated immediately, HGA can cause hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a well-documented but underrecognized sequela of severe HGA. In this article, we report a case of severe HGA with hyperferritinemia in a 74-year-old male from Central Pennsylvania who initially presented with recurrent fevers, nausea, and malaise to our emergency department and was subsequently discharged home that same day...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468160/adhesion-gpcrs-in-kidney-development-and-disease
#20
REVIEW
Salvador Cazorla-Vázquez, Felix B Engel
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) represents the fastest growing pathology worldwide with a prevalence of >10% in many countries. In addition, kidney cancer represents 5% of all new diagnosed cancers. As currently no effective therapies exist to restore kidney function after CKD- as well as cancer-induced renal damage, it is important to elucidate new regulators of kidney development and disease as new therapeutic targets. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the most successful class of pharmaceutical targets...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
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