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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133229/use-of-electrical-penetration-graphs-epg-and-quantitative-pcr-to-evaluate-the-relationship-between-feeding-behaviour-and-pandora-neoaphidis-infection-levels-in-green-peach-aphid-myzus-persicae
#1
Chun Chen, Sudan Ye, Huajun Hu, Chengmei Xue, Xiaoping Yu
A real-time qPCR method was developed, validated, and used to quantity the fungal pathogen, P. neoaphidis, within aphids at different times during infection; colonization rate fitted the Gompertz model well (R(b)=0.9356). Feeding behaviour of P. neoaphidis-infected and uninfected M. persicae were investigated, for the first time, using DC-electrical penetration graphs (DC-EPG) that characterized the waveforms made during different aphid stylet probing periods corresponding to epidermis penetration, salivation and ingestion...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107143/a-thirteen-week-oral-toxicity-study-of-so-ochim-tang-gami-bang-a-traditional-korean-medicine-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#2
Mi Ju Lee, Myoung Jun Kim, Yang-Chun Park, Jeong June Choi, Mirim Jin, In Chul Jung
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: So-ochim-tang-gamibang (SOCG) is a traditional Korean medicine formulated to control internal energy flow (Qi) and has been prescribed to improve stress-induced depressive disorders. AIM OF THE STUDY: SOCG has been used in clinical practice for the last two decades and its efficacy against stress-induced thoracic pain has been suggested. Although SOCG has been used as an herbal formula in Korean medicine, its toxicity has not yet been evaluated...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104212/the-evaluation-of-a-low-cost-colorimeter-for-glucose-detection-in-salivary-samples
#3
Rocio B Dominguez, Miguel A Orozco, Giovanny Chávez, Alfredo Márquez-Lucero
Given the limited access to healthcare resources, low-income settings require the development of affordable technology. Here we present the design and evaluation of a low-cost colorimeter applied to the non-invasive monitoring of Diabetes Mellitus through the detection of glucose in salival fluid. Samples were processed by the glucose oxidase-peroxidase enzymatic system and analyzed with the development equipment. A light emission diode of 532.5 nm was used as an excitation source and a RGB module was used as a receptor...
November 1, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098656/virological-quality-of-irrigation-water-sources-and-pepper-mild-mottle-virus-and-tobacco-mosaic-virus-as-index-of-pathogenic-virus-contamination-level
#4
Sadhana Shrestha, Shankar Shrestha, Junko Shindo, Jeevan B Sherchand, Eiji Haramoto
Irrigation water is a doorway for the pathogen contamination of fresh produce. We quantified pathogenic viruses [human adenoviruses, noroviruses of genogroups I and II, group A rotaviruses, Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1), enteroviruses (EnVs), and salivirus (SaliV)] and examined potential index viruses [JC and BK polyomaviruses (JCPyVs and BKPyVs), pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)] in irrigation water sources in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. River, sewage, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, pond, canal, and groundwater samples were collected in September 2014, and in April and August 2015...
November 2, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098118/gut-microbiota-and-salivary-diagnostics-the-mouth-is-salivating-to-tell-us-something
#5
REVIEW
Krishna Kodukula, Douglas V Faller, David N Harpp, Iphigenia Kanara, Julie Pernokas, Mark Pernokas, Whitney R Powers, Nikolaos S Soukos, Kosta Steliou, Walter H Moos
The microbiome of the human body represents a symbiosis of microbial networks spanning multiple organ systems. Bacteria predominantly represent the diversity of human microbiota, but not to be forgotten are fungi, viruses, and protists. Mounting evidence points to the fact that the "microbial signature" is host-specific and relatively stable over time. As our understanding of the human microbiome and its relationship to the health of the host increases, it is becoming clear that many and perhaps most chronic conditions have a microbial involvement...
2017: BioResearch Open Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072644/-gender-related-salivation-features
#6
E G Margaryan, M G Arakelyan
The aim of the study was to assess gender related salivation features. One hundred and seventy-five patients were enrolled in the study (115 females and 60 males aged from 18 to 75 years). The study results showed xerostomia to be more common in females and it's subjective symptoms are more prominent partly because of gender-related psychological reasons. Xylitol-based paste and spray were successfully used for symptoms relief.
2017: Stomatologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062033/compared-to-self-immersion-mindful-attention-reduces-salivation-and-automatic-food-bias
#7
Constanza Baquedano, Rodrigo Vergara, Vladimir Lopez, Catalina Fabar, Diego Cosmelli, Antoine Lutz
Immersing ourselves in food images can sometimes make it feel subjectively real, as if the actual food were right in front of us. Excessive self-immersion into mental content, however, is a hallmark of psychological distress, and of several psychiatric conditions. Being aware that imagined events are not necessarily an accurate depiction of reality is a key feature of psychotherapeutic approaches akin to mindfulness-based interventions. Yet, it is still largely unknown to what extent one's engagement with mental content, considering it as real, biases one's automatic tendencies toward the world...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030248/explicit-wanting-and-liking-for-palatable-snacks-are-differentially-affected-by-change-in-physiological-state-and-differentially-related-to-salivation-and-hunger
#8
Richard J Stevenson, Heather M Francis, Tuki Attuquayefio, Candice Ockert
Incentive salience theory (IST) suggests that 'wanting' and liking are dissociable processes. We argue that explicit measures of wanting in humans can reflect the impact of implicit 'wanting' as envisaged by IST, suggesting that dissociations should also be evident for explicit judgments of wanting and liking. To test this, participants were asked to make ratings of these variables for 8 palatable snack foods - and in a related test salivation rate was also assessed. Participants viewed and sniffed each snack food and rated wanting, and then sampled it and rated liking and whether they wanted more of it...
December 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026848/drug-induced-sialorrhea-and-microfluidic-chip-electrophoretic-analysis-of-engorged-adult-female-tick-saliva-of-haemaphysalis-longicornis-acari-ixodidae
#9
Mohammad Saiful Islam, Myung Jo You
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to induce salivation in Haemaphysalis longicornis to increase saliva production and to characterize the collection of proteins present in the collected saliva using on-chip-electrophoresis. METHODS: Saliva of adult female engorged H. longicornis was collected by treatment with 0.2% dopamine hydrochloride. All protein samples were characterized by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis using a microfluidic High Sensitivity Protein Assay 250 kit by 2100 Bioanalyzer (Agilent Technologies, USA) under non-reducing conditions...
March 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022754/different-protocols-of-photobiomodulation-therapy-of-hyposalivation
#10
Božana Lončar Brzak, Livia Cigić, Marinka Baričević, Ivan Sabol, Marinka Mravak-Stipetić, Dubravko Risović
AIM: Photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy has proved to be effective for a wide range of oral pathologies including oral dryness, but the literature still lacks reports of clinical trials and protocols. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effects of different wavelengths of PBM on salivation in patients suffering from hyposalivation aiming at determination of optimal treatment protocol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 30 patients whose major salivary glands were treated with low-intensity diode laser BTL2000 (Medical Technologies, s...
October 12, 2017: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970334/sieve-element-lining-chaperone-1-restricts-aphid-feeding-on-arabidopsis-during-heat-stress
#11
Karen J Kloth, Jacqueline Busscher, Gerrie Wiegers, Willem Kruijer, Gonda Buijs, Rhonda Christiane Meyer, Benedicte Riber Albrectsen, Harro J Bouwmeester, Marcel Dicke, Maarten A Jongsma
The role of phloem proteins in plant resistance to aphids is still largely elusive. By genome-wide association mapping of aphid behavior on 350 natural Arabidopsis accessions, we identified the small heat shock-like SIEVE ELEMENT-LINING CHAPERONE 1 (SLI1). Detailed behavioral studies on near-isogenic and knockout lines showed that SLI1 impairs phloem feeding. Depending on the haplotype, aphids displayed a different duration of salivation in the phloem. On sli1 mutants, aphids prolonged their feeding sessions and ingested phloem at a higher rate than on wild-type plants...
September 28, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970175/bacterial-pcr-and-clinico-pathological-diagnosis-of-naturally-occurring-pneumonic-pasturellosis-mannheimiosis-during-subtropical-climate-in-sheep
#12
Riaz Hussain, Fazal Mahmood, Hafiz Muhammad Ali, Abu Baker Siddique
Mannheimia haemolytica is causative agent of pneumonic pasteurellosis (mannheimiosis) that causes huge economic losses to livestock farmers. We investigated the microbial and clinico-pathological patterns associated with ovine pneumonic pasturellosis during an outbreak. Prior to death, infected sheep revealed clinical signs including dyspnoea, salivation, pyrexia and mucopurulent nasal discharge. Mortality was significantly (p < 0.05) high in young sheep as compared to adults. Necropsy findings revealed presence of froth in trachea, congestion and consolidation of lungs, pulmonary edema, severe pleural adhesions, pericarditis, hemorrhages on mucosa of jejunum and kidneys...
September 29, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964981/altered-appetitive-conditioning-in-overweight-and-obese-women
#13
Karolien van den Akker, Ghislaine Schyns, Anita Jansen
Overweight and obese individuals show increased psychological and physiological reactivity to food cues and many of them have difficulties in achieving long-term weight loss. The current study tests whether abnormalities in the learning and extinction of appetitive responses to food cues might be responsible for this. Overweight/obese and healthy weight women completed a differential appetitive conditioning task using food as rewards, while eating expectancies, eating desires, conditioned stimulus evaluations, salivation, and electrodermal responses were assessed during an acquisition and extinction phase...
September 22, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904524/prevalence-circumstances-and-management-of-acute-pesticide-poisoning-in-hospitals-in-kampala-city-uganda
#14
Charles Ssemugabo, Abdullah Ali Halage, Ruth Mubeezi Neebye, Victoria Nabankema, Massy Moses Kasule, Deogratius Ssekimpi, Erik Jørs
This study was aimed at assessing prevalence, circumstance, and management of acute pesticide poisoning in hospitals in Kampala. It was a retrospective cross-sectional study that involved reviewing of 739 poisoning patient records from 5 hospitals in Kampala. Of the 739 patients, 212 were due to pesticide poisoning resulting in a prevalence of 28.8%. About 91.4% (191/210) of the cases were due to organophosphate poisoning, 63.3% (133/210) were intentional, and 98.1% (206/210) were exposed through ingestion...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898708/cue-exposure-therapy-reduces-overeating-of-exposed-and-non-exposed-foods-in-obese-adolescents
#15
Ghislaine Schyns, Anne Roefs, Fren T Y Smulders, Anita Jansen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study tested whether two sessions of food cue exposure therapy reduced eating in the absence of hunger (EAH), specified for exposed and non-exposed food, in overweight and obese adolescents, and whether habituation of food cue reactivity and reduced CS-US expectancies predicted a decrease in EAH. METHODS: 41 overweight adolescents (aged 12-18 years) were randomly assigned to a cue exposure intervention or a lifestyle intervention (control condition)...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887149/transcriptome-and-target-dna-enrichment-sequence-data-provide-new-insights-into-the-phylogeny-of-vespid-wasps-hymenoptera-aculeata-vespidae
#16
Sarah Bank, Manuela Sann, Christoph Mayer, Karen Meusemann, Alexander Donath, Lars Podsiadlowski, Alexey Kozlov, Malte Petersen, Lars Krogmann, Rudolf Meier, Paolo Rosa, Thomas Schmitt, Mareike Wurdack, Shanlin Liu, Xin Zhou, Bernhard Misof, Ralph S Peters, Oliver Niehuis
The wasp family Vespidae comprises more than 5000 described species which represent life history strategies ranging from solitary and presocial to eusocial and socially parasitic. The phylogenetic relationships of the major vespid wasp lineages (i.e., subfamilies and tribes) have been investigated repeatedly by analyzing behavioral and morphological traits as well as nucleotide sequences of few selected genes with largely incongruent results. Here we reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships using a phylogenomic approach...
November 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857279/self-perceived-mouthfeel-and-physico-chemical-surface-effects-after-chewing-gums-containing-sorbitol-and-magnolia-bark-extract
#17
Stefan W Wessel, Henny C van der Mei, Anje M Slomp, Betsy van de Belt-Gritter, Michael W J Dodds, Henk J Busscher
The European Food Safety Authority recognizes the contribution of sugar-free chewing gum to oral health through increased salivation, clearance of food debris, and neutralization of biofilm pH. Magnolia bark extract is a gum additive shown to reduce the prevalence of bad-breath bacteria but its effects on self-perceived mouthfeel are unknown. This paper aims to relate the effects of sorbitol-containing chewing gum, with and without Magnolia bark extract, on tooth-surface hydrophobicity and salivary-film composition with self-perceived mouthfeel...
August 31, 2017: European Journal of Oral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853336/the-percutaneous-absorption-of-soman-in-a-damaged-skin-porcine-model-and-the-evaluation-of-woundstat%C3%A2-as-a-topical-decontaminant
#18
Christopher Dalton, Charlotte Hall, Helen Lydon, John Jenner, J Kevin Chipman, John S Graham, Robert P Chilcott
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate a candidate haemostat (WoundStat™), down-selected from previous in vitro studies, for efficacy as a potential skin decontaminant against the chemical warfare agent pinacoyl methylfluorophosphonate (Soman, GD) using an in vivo pig model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An area of approximately 3 cm(2) was dermatomed from the dorsal ear skin to a nominal depth of 100 µm. A discrete droplet of (14)C-GD (300 µg kg(-1)) was applied directly onto the surface of the damaged skin at the centre of the dosing site...
August 30, 2017: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830430/tick-borne-encephalitis-in-a-naturally-infected-sheep
#19
Brigitte Böhm, Benjamin Schade, Benjamin Bauer, Bernd Hoffmann, Donata Hoffmann, Ute Ziegler, Martin Beer, Christine Klaus, Herbert Weissenböck, Jens Böttcher
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is the most important viral tick borne zoonosis in Europe. In Germany, about 250 human cases are registered annually, with the highest incidence reported in the last years coming from the federal states Bavaria and Baden-Wuerttemberg. In veterinary medicine, only sporadic cases in wild and domestic animals have been reported; however, a high number of wild and domestic animals have tested positive for the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) antibody...
August 22, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830332/hypersensitivity-reactions-to-obinutuzumab-in-cynomolgus-monkeys-and-relevance-to-humans
#20
Elisabeth Husar, Maria Solonets, Olaf Kuhlmann, Eginhard Schick, Hanna Piper-Lepoutre, Thomas Singer, Gaurav Tyagi
Obinutuzumab (GA101, Gazyva™, Gazyvaro®, F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG, Basel, Switzerland) is a humanized, glycoengineered type II antibody targeted against CD20. The preclinical safety evaluation required to support clinical development and marketing authorization of obinutuzumab included repeat-dose toxicity studies in cynomolgus monkeys for up to 6-month dosing with a 9-month recovery period. Results from those studies showed decreases in circulating B cells and corresponding B-cell depletion in lymphoid tissues, consistent with the desired pharmacology of obinutuzumab...
July 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
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