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Michel Geffard, Arturo Mangas, Denis Bedat, Rafael Coveñas
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that currently has no cure. At present, the only approved treatment for ALS is Riluzole, a glutamate release blocker that improves life expectancy by 3-6 months. ALS-Endotherapia (GEMALS) is a novel therapeutic approach to treat ALS and the aim of the present study was to investigate the potential beneficial effects of this novel treatment. A total of 31 patients with ALS were assessed in the current study. Deceleration of the disease was observed in 83...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Bárbara Carolina Brandão, Alline de Sousa Galdino, Luciano Garcia Lourenção, Glaucia Santana Trindade, Magali Aparecida Orate Menezes da Silva, Roberta Gonçalves da Silva
OBJECTIVE: Describe and correlate bulbar functionality with laryngeal penetration and/or laryngotracheal aspiration for different food consistencies in Motor Neuron Disease (MND). METHODS: Study participants were 18 individuals diagnosed with MND regardless of the type and time of onset of disease. The Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale - Revised/BR (ALSFRS-R/BR) was applied, and only the bulbar parameter, which includes speech, salivation and swallowing, was analyzed, with scores raging from 0 (disability) to 12 (normal functionality)...
March 5, 2018: CoDAS
J Papinska, H Bagavant, G B Gmyrek, M Sroka, S Tummala, K A Fitzgerald, U S Deshmukh
Sjögren syndrome (SS), a chronic autoimmune disorder causing dry mouth, adversely affects the overall oral health in patients. Activation of innate immune responses and excessive production of type I interferons (IFNs) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Recognition of nucleic acids by cytosolic nucleic acid sensors is a major trigger for the induction of type I IFNs. Upon activation, cytosolic DNA sensors can interact with the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) protein, and activation of STING causes increased expression of type I IFNs...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Haifeng Zhu, Chengfu Ji, Zhouming Shen, Zhengxiang Luo, Lei Shi
OBJECTIVE: Obvious skin flap collapse is often accompanied by reduced neurological recovery after decompressive craniectomy. This study explored the feasibility of early cranioplasty (EC) in patients with obvious bilateral frontotemporal bone window (BFBW) collapse after decompressive craniectomy. METHODS: Patients with obvious BFBW collapse who underwent EC or traditional cranioplasty (TC) were divided into three groups according to their preoperative Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores...
February 23, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Alexandre F Cunha, Igor S A Felippe, Nilson C Ferreira-Junior, Leonardo B M Resstel, Daniela A M Guimarães, Vanessa Beijamini, Julian F R Paton, Karla N Sampaio
Although it is well-established that severe poisoning by organophosphorus (OP) compounds strongly affects the cardiorespiratory system, the effects of sub-lethal exposure to these compounds on the neural control of cardiovascular function are poorly explored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute sub-lethal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF), a commonly used OP insecticide, on three basic reflex mechanisms involved in blood pressure regulation, the peripheral chemoreflex, the baroreflex and the Bezold-Jarisch reflex...
February 19, 2018: Toxicology
I M Bykov, E V Izhnina, E V Kochurova, N V Lapina
The radiation has an antitumor effect and causes radiation reactions and damage to surrounding tissues within the framework of combined antitumor treatment of patients with cancer of maxillofacial region. It also has an irreversible effect on the production of saliva by large and small salivary glands, and this must be taken into account when planning radiation therapy for this group of patients.
2018: Stomatologii︠a︡
Laura Iacorossi, Paolo Di Ridolfi, Liciano Bigiarini, Diana Giannarelli, Giuseppe Sanguineti
BACKGROUND: Cancer patients often report symptoms related to therapeutic treatment, whose management is based on traditional medicine. In recent years, however, there has been growing interest towards adopting some form of complementary medicine, among these, Reiki. The aim of this study is to evaluate how this type of discipline can contribute to managing radiotherapy-related symptoms in patients with head and neck cancer. METHOD: The study was performed in the Radiotherapy Department at the Regina Elena National Cancer Institute in Rome...
October 2017: Professioni Infermieristiche
Yunlong Wang, Mengshi Wang, Kaiyue Fan, Tongde Li, Tingxu Yan, Bo Wu, Kaishun Bi, Ying Jia
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Alpinae Oxyphyllae Fructus (AOF) with warming and tonifying the kidney and spleen, anti-salivation, anti-polyuria and anti-diarrhea functions is the dried ripe fruits of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. (Zingiberaceae). As a traditional Chinese medicine, its application history is very long. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The purpose of our study is to investigate the effects of different solvent extracts from AOF on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced animal model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to elucidate the traditional medical theories with modern pharmacological methods and provide a reference for further clarifying its active components and mechanisms...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Paul Schutzmeier, Augusto Focil Baquerizo, Wilson Castillo-Tandazo, Nicholas Focil, Stephan Bose-O'Reilly
BACKGROUND: Chronic mercury intoxication is a severe health issue and occurs especially in gold mining communities. Common chelators used for improving mercury elimination are not everywhere available and challenged by poor cell wall penetration. This study is part of a feasibility trial and the aim was to gather first information about the efficacy of the newly developed chelator N,N'bis-(2-mercaptoethyl) isophthalamide (NBMI) on chronic mercury intoxication. METHODS: In this three-armed, placebo-controlled randomized trial, 36 miners with mercury urine levels exceeding 15 μg/l were administered 100 mg NBMI, 300 mg NBMI or placebo for 14 days...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Kashi Raj Bhattarai, Raghupatil Junjappa, Mallikarjun Handigund, Hyung-Ryong Kim, Han-Jung Chae
Xerostomia is a state of oral dryness associated with salivary gland dysfunction and is induced by stress, radiation and chemical therapy, various systemic and autoimmune diseases, and specific medications. Fluid secretion is interrupted by the stimulation of neurotransmitter-induced increase in cytosolic calcium ([Ca 2+ ] i ) in salivary gland acinar cells, prompting the mobilization of ion channels and their transporters. Salivary fluid and protein secretion are principally dependent on parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves...
February 8, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
N Salnikov, T Usadov, A Kolcov, S Zhivoderov, Y Morgunov, V Gerasimov, A Gogin, I Titov, S Yurkov, A Malogolovkin, D Kolbasov, A Lunitsyn
The first notifications of the unknown disease of cattle appeared in September-October 2015 in North Caucasus region of Russia (Republic of North Ossetia-Alania). The clinical signs included watery discharge from eyes, apathy, loss of appetite, salivation, lameness and nodular skin lesions. Capripoxvirus genome was detected by real-time PCR in the tissue samples of sick animals. The aetiological agent was isolated in the primary cell cultures of lamb testis and goat testis, as well as in the continuous MDBK cell culture...
January 23, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Bridgette Kram, Maegan Greenland, Mollie Grant, Michael E Campbell, Charlotte Wells, Courtney Sommer
BACKGROUND: Neostigmine is traditionally administered intravenously for treatment of acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO), though use is associated with administration constraints and adverse effects. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether an alternative route of administration for neostigmine via subcutaneous (SQ) delivery is safe and effective in a broad cohort of medical and surgical patients. METHODS: This multicenter, retrospective observational study included adult patients administered SQ neostigmine for ileus, ACPO, or refractory constipation...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Derk H Jan Jager, Casper P Bots, Tim Forouzanfar, Henk S Brand
The purpose of this study was to explore the association of the clinical oral dryness score (CODS) with salivary flow rates, xerostomia inventory (XI), and bother index (BI). 147 patients were screened using CODS, which determined 10 features of oral dryness. Each feature contributed 1 point, and the total score varied from 0 to 10. Unstimulated (UWS), chewing-stimulated (CH-SWS) and acid-stimulated (A-SWS) whole salivary flows and the XI and BI were measured. Associations were explored with a bootstrapped Spearman rank correlation test (1000 × bootstrapping)...
January 22, 2018: Odontology
Anja Hilbert, Susanne Kurz, Daniela Dremmel, Susann Weihrauch Blüher, Simone Munsch, Ricarda Schmidt
OBJECTIVE: Childhood loss of control (LOC) eating and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are highly comorbid conditions and present with disordered eating behaviors, such as overeating. This study sought to delineate shared and specific abnormalities in physiological, cognitive-motivational, and behavioral components of food-specific impulsivity in children with LOC eating and ADHD. Specifically, children's reactivity and habituation to food and eating in the absence of hunger were examined...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Renata Chałas, Dorota Rykwa, Dominika Wróbel-Dudzińska, Tomasz Żarnowski
BACKGROUND Eye and mouth dryness are the most common symptoms reported during ophthalmological and dental examinations, and their frequency increases with age. In connection with population aging and the huge variety of factors and conditions that can induce this condition, it is becoming a serious and growing problem. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether ocular dryness and concomitant xerostomia is associated with particular systemic diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS We enrolled 642 non-Sjögren patients referred for examination to the ophthalmology or dental clinic of Lublin region, Poland...
January 10, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Isabella Aquila, Santo Gratteri, Matteo A Sacco, Emilio Nuzzolese, Vittorio Fineschi, Paola Frati, Pietrantonio Ricci
INTRODUCTION: "Bolus death" or "Café Coronary syndrome" refers to death due to asphyxia caused by an occlusion of the upper airways due to food. In this kind of asphyxia, the food bolus obstructs the larynx or the bronchial branches. This kind of event often affects subjects with acute intoxication due to alcohol or drugs, or with edentulism and with neurological or psychiatric diseases. CASE REPORT: An elderly woman, suffering from schizophrenia, was found dead in her house due to food bolus asphyxia...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Rena Nakayama, Akira Nishiyama, Chiharu Matsuda, Yuki Nakayama, Chiyoko Hakuta, Masahiko Shimada
OBJECTIVE: To assess the intraoral conditions and oral function of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: This single-centre, cross-sectional observational study included 50 ALS patients, who were treated with tracheostomy positive-pressure ventilation (TPPV) while hospitalized. The disease duration, TPPV duration, current number of teeth, number of occlusal units, number of decayed/missing/filled teeth, community periodontal index, bleeding on probing, dental calculus, maximum mouth opening, salivation rate, tongue anomalies (atrophy or hypertrophy) and tongue coating were determined for each patient...
December 26, 2017: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
Daniel Almeida, Katia Vianna, Patrícia Arriaga, Vittorio Moraschini
OBJECTIVES: The Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects salivation and consequently the health of oral tissues. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the implant survival rate, marginal bone loss (MBL) and biological complications of dental implants in SS patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eligibility criteria included prospective and retrospective cohort studies, controlled clinical trials, and randomized clinical trials (RCTs)...
2017: PloS One
Elías Vera-Sigüenza, Marcelo A Catalán, Gaspar Peña-Münzenmayer, James E Melvin, James Sneyd
We develop a mathematical model of a salivary gland acinar cell with the objective of investigating the role of two [Formula: see text] exchangers from the solute carrier family 4 (Slc4), Ae2 (Slc4a2) and Ae4 (Slc4a9), in fluid secretion. Water transport in this type of cell is predominantly driven by [Formula: see text] movement. Here, a basolateral [Formula: see text] adenosine triphosphatase pump (NaK-ATPase) and a [Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text] cotransporter (Nkcc1) are primarily responsible for concentrating the intracellular space with [Formula: see text] well above its equilibrium potential...
February 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Priyanka Soni, Rajendra Singh Parihar, Laxman Kumar Soni
Introduction: Cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy are prone to many predisposing factors like immunosuppression, imbalance in the oral flora, hypo-salivation and local tissue damage. Therefore, considered to be at higher risk for oral bacterial and fungal infection than the general population. Aim: To study oropharyngeal flora in head and neck cancer patients under treatment and to correlate their incidence according with Chemotherapy cycles and Radiochemotherapy...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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