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Salivation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876179/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-peri-ictal-autonomic-changes-in-children-with-temporal-lobe-seizures
#1
Mark Whealy, Elaine Wirrell, Lily Wong-Kisiel, Katherine Nickels, Eric T Payne
BACKGROUND: We determined the prevalence of signs and symptoms of autonomic dysfunction in seizures of temporal lobe onset in children. METHODS: We evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of peri-ictal autonomic changes in temporal lobe onset seizures in children from a single-center pediatric epilepsy monitoring unit between June 1, 2009 and October 31, 2013. Age, gender, epilepsy etiology, current antiepileptic drug therapy, ictal electroencephalographic lateralization, brain magnetic resonance imaging results, and the presence of generalized tonic-clonic seizures over the preceding year were recorded from medical record review...
October 11, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871302/glycopyrrolate-in-comparison-to-hyoscine-hydrobromide-and-placebo-in-the-treatment-of-hypersalivation-induced-by-clozapine-gothic1-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-feasibility-study
#2
Inti Qurashi, Simon Chu, Nusrat Husain, Richard J Drake, Imran Chaudhry, J F W Deakin
BACKGROUND: Clozapine is the only medication licensed for the treatment of resistant schizophrenia in the UK. Although efficacious, a common and unpopular side effect of clozapine treatment is clozapine-induced hypersalivation (CIH), which can contribute to non-adherence. The standard treatment for CIH in the UK is hyoscine hydrobromide but this may aggravate cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia while glycopyrrolate may be an effective alternative with a more tolerable side effect profile...
November 21, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863835/metabolites-profiling-reveals-for-antimicrobial-compositional-differences-and-action-mechanism-in-the-toothbrushing-stick-miswak-salvadora-persica
#3
Mohamed A Farag, Sherifa Fahmy, Mouchira A Choucry, Mariam O Wahdan, Mahmoud Fahmi Elsebai
Among many plant species suitable for preparing toothbrushing sticks, miswak (Salvadora persica, family Salvadoraceae) is found the most effective tool for oral hygiene. S. persica possesses antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal effects against oral microbes, mostly due to its benzyl isothiocyanate content. To provide insight into S. persica chemical composition, volatile constituents from roots and stems of S. persica grown in Egypt and Saudi Arabia were profiled using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860388/enhanced-tissue-remodeling-efficacy-of-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-using-injectable-matrices-in-radiation-damaged-salivary-gland-model
#4
Jeong-Seok Choi, Hye-Young An, Hyun-Soo Shin, Young-Mo Kim, Jae-Yol Lim
The present study was conducted to introduce the use of a delivery carrier for local transplantation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs) into the salivary gland (SG) and analyze its ability to enhance radioprotection of AdMSCs against irradiation (IR)-induced damage. An injectable porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) matrix was used as a cell delivery carrier and human AdMSCs were contained within SIS hydrogel (AdMSC/SIS). After local injection into SGs of mice following local IR, morphological and functional changes were evaluated in the sham, vehicle (PBS), SIS, AdMSC, and AdMSC/SIS groups...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822241/surgical-management-of-extensive-oral-tumors-by-bilateral-rostral-mandibulectomy-in-two-dogs
#5
M Shafiuzama, M S Sabarish Babu, N Krishnaveni, P Manoj Prabhakar, S Hemalatha, N J D Souza
Two dogs of different age groups were presented with the history of oral growth, bleeding, excessive salivation, bad breath, inappetance and dysphagia. Physical examination revealed cauliflower like reddish growth in the gingiva enclosing the mandibular incisiors and canine tooth. Haematology and serum biochemical profiles were within the normal range. Plain radiography revealed extensive growth involving the lower mandible and gingiva. Hence rostral mandibulectomy was performed to excise the tumor mass. The dogs recovered uneventfully after surgery with no difficulty in feeding liquid and semisolid diet...
2016: Iranian journal of veterinary research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820842/consumption-simulations-induce-salivation-to-food-cues
#6
Mike Keesman, Henk Aarts, Stefan Vermeent, Michael Häfner, Esther K Papies
Salivation to food cues is typically explained in terms of mere stimulus-response links. However, food cues seem to especially increase salivation when food is attractive, suggesting a more complex psychological process. Adopting a grounded cognition perspective, we suggest that perceiving a food triggers simulations of consuming it, especially when attractive. These simulations then induce salivation, which effectively prepares the body for eating the food. In two experiments, we systematically examined the role of simulations on salivation to food cues...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806766/-effect-of-autonomic-denervation-on-the-secretory-function-of-submandibular-glands
#7
X M Zhang, L L Wu, G Y Yu, Y Zhang
Submandibular gland is innervated by sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves, both of which work synergistically to promote the salivation of the glands. However, denervation does not always produce an inhibitive effect. Regeneration secretion was put forward to describe the situation in which the glands after denervation were found to be supersensitive to the stimulation of several agonists of saliva secretion-related receptors. It is of clinical significance to get a good understanding of the secretory mechanism changes in the autonomically denervated submandibular gland...
November 9, 2016: Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794438/locomotor-activity-and-tissue-levels-following-acute-administration-of-lambda-and-gamma-cyhalothrin-in-rats
#8
Virginia C Moser, Zhiwei Liu, Christopher Schlosser, Terri L Spanogle, Appavu Chandrasekaran, Katherine L McDaniel
Pyrethroids produce neurotoxicity that depends, in part, on the chemical structure. Common behavioral effects include locomotor activity changes and specific toxic syndromes (types I and II). In general these neurobehavioral effects correlate well with peak internal dose metrics. Products of cyhalothrin, a type II pyrethroid, include mixtures of isomers (e.g., λ-cyhalothrin) as well as enriched active isomers (e.g., γ-cyhalothrin). We measured acute changes in locomotor activity in adult male rats and directly correlated these changes to peak brain and plasma concentrations of λ- and γ-cyhalothrin using a within-subject design...
December 15, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770517/microbiological-and-bioinformatics-analysis-of-primary-sjogren-s-syndrome-patients-with-normal-salivation
#9
Huma Siddiqui, Tsute Chen, Ardita Aliko, Piotr M Mydel, Roland Jonsson, Ingar Olsen
BACKGROUND: Reduced salivation is considered a major clinical feature of most but not all cases of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Reduced saliva flow may lead to changes in the salivary microbiota. These changes have mainly been studied with culture that typically recovers only 65% of the bacteria present. OBJECTIVE: This study was to use high throughput sequencing, covering both cultivated and not-yet-cultivated bacteria, to assess the bacterial microbiota of whole saliva in pSS patients with normal salivation...
2016: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760896/gustatory-salivation-is-associated-with-body-mass-index-daytime-sleepiness-and-snoring-in-healthy-young-adults
#10
Satoshi Izumi, Guang Hong, Koh Iwasaki, Masayuki Izumi, Yusuke Matsuyama, Mirei Chiba, Takashi Toda, Tada-Aki Kudo
The taste detection system for oral fatty acid may be related to obesity. In addition, sleep is intrinsically and closely related to food intake and metabolism. However, the association of gustatory salivation with body mass index (BMI), daytime sleepiness, or sleep habits is largely unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between gustatory salivation and BMI, Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS, a daytime sleepiness scale) or sleep habits among 26 healthy young individuals (20 males and 6 females; mean age: 26...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759834/application-of-botulinum-toxin-to-treat-sialorrhea-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-patients-a-literature-review
#11
Ademar Francisco de Oliveira, Gêssyca Adryene de Menezes Silva, Débora Milenna Xavier Almeida
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the degeneration of motor neurons, which are the central nervous system cells that control voluntary muscle movements. The excessive salivation (sialorrhea) is present in approximately 50% of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases. Thus, some alternative therapeutic methods are sought, such as anticholinergic drugs and surgery. Recently the use of botulinum toxin applied at a midpoint of the salivary glands, often guided by ultrasound, have demonstrated positive results...
July 2016: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725850/effect-of-paeoniflorin-on-the-calcium-ion-concentration-in-salivary-gland-cells-using-confocal-laser-scanning-microscopy
#12
Xian Qian, Xiaolu Shi, Hongyi Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of paeoniflorin, the main monomer component of Jinxueyuan granules, on the Ca(2+) concentrations in salivary gland cells to further explore the salivation-promoting mechanism and effective monomer components of Jinxueyuan granules. METHODS: The salivary gland cells of suckling rats were cultured in vitro and loaded with a Fluo-3AM fluorescent probe, and changes in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations were observed using a confocal laser scanning microscope...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707722/vagal-afferent-activation-induces-salivation-and-swallowing-like-events-in-anesthetized-rats
#13
Hirotaka Ueda, Mayu Suga, Takakazu Yagi, Ikue Kusumoto-Yoshida, Hideki Kashiwadani, Tomoyuki Kuwaki, Shouichi Miyawaki
The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of vagal afferent activation on salivation and swallowing-like events. Salivation is part of a reflex induced by stimulation of the oral area during feeding or chewing. Recently, we reported that nausea induced by gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) activation produced salivation and swallowing in humans. Here, we investigated the ability of visceral sensation to enhance salivation and swallowing in rodents in order to inform the mechanism of GER-mediated stomatognathic activation...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705071/sarin-gb-o-isopropyl-methylphosphonofluoridate-neurotoxicity-critical-review
#14
Mohamed B Abou-Donia, Briana Siracuse, Natasha Gupta, Ashly Sobel Sokol
Sarin (GB, O-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is a potent organophosphorus (OP) nerve agent that inhibits acetylcholinesterase (AChE) irreversibly. The subsequent build-up of acetylcholine (ACh) in the central nervous system (CNS) provokes seizures and, at sufficient doses, centrally-mediated respiratory arrest. Accumulation of ACh at peripheral autonomic synapses leads to peripheral signs of intoxication and overstimulation of the muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, which is described as "cholinergic crisis" (i...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688415/the-effect-of-tobacco-smoking-on-salivation
#15
Nikolina Petrušić, Martina Posavac, Ivan Sabol, Marinka Mravak-Stipetić
AIM: The purpose of this study was to examine the detrimental effect of smoking on the function of the salivary glands. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 60 patients who were divided into two groups: a test group which included smokers and control group represented by non-smokers. Each group included 30 patients. General information was collected from all the respondents via a questionnaire as well as the data on the duration of smoking and number of cigarettes smoked per day...
December 2015: Acta Stomatologica Croatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687712/functional-outcome-in-17-patients-whose-mandibles-were-reconstructed-with-free-fibular-flaps
#16
Erik Jarefors, Thomas Hansson
OBJECTIVE: The vascularised free fibular flap is considered to be a reliable choice for reconstruction of oromandibular defects, especially after resection of malignant tumours in the area. This study evaluates the functional outcome of this method. METHOD: From January 2001 - May 2014, 37 patients were treated at the University Hospital of Linköping using the free fibular flap. The authors present the results from 17. This study reviewed their records and used the University of Washington Quality-of-Life questionnaire (UW-QoL), the Head and Neck Performance Status Scale (PSS), and interviews to assess their outcome...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677911/induction-management-and-complications-of-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-mellitus-in-rhesus-monkeys
#17
Jong-Min Kim, Jun-Seop Shin, Byoung-Hoon Min, Hyun-Je Kim, Jung-Sik Kim, Il-Hee Yoon, Won-Young Jeong, Ga-Eul Lee, Min-Sun Kim, Ju-Eun Kim, Sang-Man Jin, Chung-Gyu Park
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) model using streptozotocin (STZ) which induces chemical ablation of β cell in the pancreas has been widely used for various research purposes in non-human primates. However, STZ has been known to have a variety of adverse effects such as nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and even mortality. The purpose of this study is to report DM induction by STZ, toxicity associated with STZ and procedure and complication of exogenous insulin treatment for DM management in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) that are expected to be transplanted with porcine islets within 2 months...
September 27, 2016: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665742/evaluation-of-the-safety-in-dogs-of-long-term-daily-oral-administration-of-capromorelin-entyce-%C3%A2-a-novel-drug-for-stimulation-of-appetite
#18
B Zollers, M Huebner, G Armintrout, L C Rausch-Derra, L Rhodes
The objective of the study was to evaluate the safety of capromorelin, a ghrelin agonist that stimulates appetite and causes increased body weight and the release of growth hormone (GH). Beagle dogs (n = 32) received either oral placebo or 0.3, 7, or 40 mg/kg capromorelin once daily for 12 consecutive months. Safety was evaluated by physical examinations, including ECG and ophthalmic examinations, and comprehensive clinical pathology. Serum levels of capromorelin, GH, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were measured periodically...
September 25, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660032/expectation-and-expectoration-information-manipulation-alters-spitting-volume-a-common-proxy-for-salivary-flow
#19
Cordelia A Running, John E Hayes
Saliva is becoming an increasingly useful research material across multiple fields of inquiry, including biomedical, dental, psychological, nutritional, and food choice research. However, both the flow rate and protein composition of stimulated saliva differ as a function of the collection method. We hypothesized that the context in which a stimulus is presented to participants may alter salivation via top down cognitive effects and/or behavioral changes (i.e., spitting efficiency). We presented participants with one stimulus (commercially available green tea) in two distinct contexts, once where the tea was described as a food item ("tea") and once where it was described as a disgusting non-food item ("rabbit hair extract")...
September 20, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659845/acute-and-subacute-toxicity-of-an-ethanolic-extract-of-melandrii-herba-in-crl-cd-sprague-dawley-rats-and-cytotoxicity-of-the-extract-in-vitro
#20
Eunsook Park, Mee-Young Lee, Chang-Seob Seo, Sae-Rom Yoo, Woo-Young Jeon, Hyeun-Kyoo Shin
BACKGROUND: Melandrii Herba, a medicinal plant, has been used in Korea for treatment of bacterial and fungal infection. However, the safety and toxicity of Melandrii Herba have not yet been established. Therefore, we investigated the acute and subacute toxicity of an ethanolic extract of Melandrii Herba (MHEE) in Crl:CD Sprague Dawley rats and cytotoxicity of MHEE in vitro. METHODS: To study acute toxicity, rats were treated with MHEE at single doses of 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg administered by oral gavage, and body weight, clinical signs, and mortality were observed after dosing...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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