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Kamran Habib Awan
Botulinum toxin (Botox) is an exotoxin produced from Clostridium botulinum. It blocks the release of acetylcholine from the cholinergic nerve end plates resulting in inactivity of the muscles or glands innervated. The efficacy of Botox in facial aesthetics is well established; however, recent literature has highlighted its utilization in multiple non-cosmetic medical and surgical conditions. The present article reviews the current evidence pertaining to Botox use in the non-cosmetic head and neck conditions...
January 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Alexander J McGeachan, Christopher J Mcdermott
Sialorrhoea is a common and problematic symptom that arises from a range of neurological conditions associated with bulbar or facial muscle dysfunction. Drooling can significantly affect quality of life due to both physical complications such as oral chapping, and psychological complications such as embarrassment and social isolation. Thicker, tenacious oral and pharyngeal secretions may result from the drying management approach to sialorrhoea. The management of sialorrhoea in neurological diseases depends on the underlying pathology and severity of symptoms...
April 2017: Practical Neurology
Louisa Ng, Fary Khan, Carolyn A Young, Mary Galea
BACKGROUND: Motor neuron disease (MND), which is also known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), causes a wide range of symptoms but the evidence base for the effectiveness of the symptomatic treatment therapies is limited. OBJECTIVES: To summarise the evidence from Cochrane Systematic Reviews of all symptomatic treatments for MND. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) on 15 November 2016 for systematic reviews of symptomatic treatments for MND...
January 10, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
A Carrol, B McGlone
Sialorrhoea as a consequence of severe acquired brain injury can significantly negatively impact on quality of life. Medications used in its management have many side effects which can cause problems in the severely disabled. Botulinum toxin is an effective treatment of sialorrhoea in a number of neurological conditions but may also have a role to play in the management of sialorrhoea following severe ABI. We report on 4 cases of sialorrhoea following acquired brain injury causing a variety of problems, whose parotid glands were injected with Botulinum toxin type A (Dysport) 50mu each, under ultrasound guidance...
June 10, 2016: Irish Medical Journal
Murali Mahadevan, Maayan Gruber, Darin Bilish, Kathryn Edwards, David Davies-Payne, Graeme van der Meer
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of submandibular salivary gland Botulinum Toxin Type-A (BTX-A) injection in the treatment of drooling in children with varying degrees of neurological dysfunction. METHODS: A retrospective review of pre- and post-procedure drooling frequency and severity scores of patients receiving BTX-A between January 2008 and January 2013. Stratification to different subgroups of neurological impairment was performed according to Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) score...
September 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Jenny Montgomery, Sarah McCusker, Kerry Lang, Susan Grosse, Alastair Mace, Ruby Lumley, Haytham Kubba
OBJECTIVES: Sialorrhoea (drooling) is defined as the involuntary escape of saliva from the mouth. It is considered normal in young children but may cause social problems in older children. Sialorrhoea is frequently seen in children with cerebral palsy, with rates between 10% and 58% and in other neurodevelopmental diseases. Management of these children can be challenging and often requires an individual and stepwise approach. This is a large case series of children managed at the saliva control clinic in Glasgow, Scotland...
June 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Mario Sabas Hernández-Palestina, Juan Carlos Cisneros-Lesser, María Elena Arellano-Saldaña, Said Estibeyesbo Plascencia-Nieto
BACKGROUND: Sialorrhoea has a prevalence of between 10% and 58% in patients with cerebral palsy. Amongst the invasive treatments, botulinum toxin-A injections in submandibular and parotid glands and various surgical techniques are worth mentioning. There are no studies in Mexico on the usefulness of surgery to manage sialorrhoea. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of submandibular gland resection in improving sialorrhoea in patients with cerebral palsy and with a poor response to botulinum toxin...
November 2016: Cirugia y Cirujanos
Karen A Thaxter Nesbeth, Leslie A Samuels, Carla Nicholson Daley, Maxine Gossell-Williams, Damian A Nesbeth
Ptyalism gravidarum is an oral pathological condition specific to gravidity. We present a review of the literature regarding epidemiology internationally, and then highlight therapies reported by patients and caregivers. This often distressing repeated filling of the mouth with watery saliva in a pregnant patient was previously exclusively associated with hyperemesis gravidarum, and the consequent maternal-fetal risk. Our dissertation includes reference to a rare case of isolated sialorrhoea of pregnancy, without nausea or emesis...
March 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
U E Williams, E E Philip-Ephraim, S K Oparah
Motor neuron disease is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of upper motor neuron in the motor cortex and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and spinal cord. Death occurs 2-4 years after the onset of the disease. A complex interplay of cellular processes such as mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, and impaired axonal transport are proposed pathogenetic processes underlying neuronal cell loss. Currently evidence exists for the use of riluzole as a disease modifying drug; multidisciplinary team care approach to patient management; noninvasive ventilation for respiratory management; botulinum toxin B for sialorrhoea treatment; palliative care throughout the course of the disease; and Modafinil use for fatigue treatment...
2014: Journal of Neurodegenerative Diseases
N Sotelo-Cruz, N Gómez-Rivera
INTRODUCTION: Envenomation by black widow spiders manifests clinically with signs of neurotoxicity in paediatric patients. OBJECTIVE: Identify typical neurological signs and symptoms in paediatric patients of different ages, and describe treatment and outcomes in a paediatric hospital in northwest Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We reviewed 70 clinical records of patients hospitalised due to black widow spider bite between 1978 and 2014. We divided the total into 2 groups: Group 1, infants and preschool children; and Group 2, school-age children and adolescents...
May 2016: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
(no author information available yet)
Drooling is the unintentional loss of saliva from the mouth, either anteriorly (visible) or posteriorly (with a risk of coughing, vomiting, aspiration and chronic respiratory disorders).(1,2) Anterior drooling is normal in infancy, but is considered neuro-developmentally abnormal if it occurs in children over the age of 4 years old, and is commonly seen in those with physical, intellectual and learning disability, and poor neuromuscular coordination and oral control.(1,3-7) For example, drooling occurs in 10-38% of children with cerebral palsy...
June 2015: Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin
Heinrich Iro, Johannes Zenk
Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered...
2014: GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
Thomas Benjamin Layton
INTRODUCTION: To illustrate the potential side effects and clinical efficacy of Botox injections in treating sialorrhoea. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 26-year-old patient with cerebral palsy with dystonia had a long history of severe, distressing sialorrhoea. She was treated with three separate Botox injections into her salivary glands in December 2011, July 2012 and March 2013. DISCUSSION: Following the Botox injections the patient developed dysphagia, began to expectorate thick mucus and developed a cough; she was treated for a chest injection and during this time her feeding deteriorated...
2014: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Katharine Noonan, Sarah Prunty, Jennifer F Ha, Shyan Vijayasekaran
AIM OF THE STUDY: Sialorrhoea and chronic salivary aspiration are a major problem in many neurologically impaired children causing embarrassment, skin issues and recurrent lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of salivary gland surgery in the treatment of chronic salivary aspiration in such children. OBJECTIVES: To compare admission rates for LRTI per annum before and after surgical intervention. METHODS: Retrospective review of all patients who underwent salivary management surgery for chronic aspiration under Princess Margaret Hospital's (PMH) Otolaryngology department from 2006 until 2013...
December 2014: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Jenny Montgomery, Sarah McCusker, Jane Hendry, Eleanor Lumley, Haytham Kubba
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review the response of children who have received botulinum toxin A (BtA) injections for saliva control in our institution. METHODS: Retrospective case series of children attending a saliva control clinic in a paediatric tertiary referral hospital. Children were identified from the saliva control database, which has been in place since its creation in 2006. Prior to receiving BtA all the children in the study had previously undertaken a 3-month trial of pharmacological therapy, with no effect...
November 2014: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
G B Gupta, M K Sahu
Clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic has been associated with several side effects like sialorrhoea, sedation, tachycardia, agranulocytosis and seizure. Myotoxicity and neurotoxicity have also been reported with long-term use of clozapine. We report here a case of myotoxicity developing after acute overdose of clozapine. A 17-year-old daughter of a schizophrenic father consumed 3.9 g of clozapine in an attempted suicide. Clinical features of myotoxicity were detected on the third day, after the patient regained full consciousness...
2006: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
H Iro, J Zenk
Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral--induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered...
March 2014: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
A Contri, D Robbe, A Gloria, I De Amicis, M C Veronesi, A Carluccio
The Martina Franca (MF) donkey breed, with 48 jackasses and 515 jennies, is considered an endangered breed according to the data from the Monitoring Institute for Rare Breeds and Seeds in Europe. The knowledge of the estrous cycle characteristics has a great impact for assisted reproduction, especially in endangered species. In this study, the estrous cycle characteristics were investigated in 12 MF jennies throughout the year. Estrous cycle, estrous and diestrous lengths, follicular growth and ovulation, and estradiol-17β (E2) and progesterone (P4) plasma concentrations were monitored in MF jennies and compared in different seasons...
March 15, 2014: Theriogenology
Morten Gersel Stokholm, Carsten Bisgård, Ole Jakob Vilholm
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a second-line treatment of sialorrhoea in ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) patients. This article is a review of the published literature concerning safety and administration of this treatment to ALS patients. A PubMed search was performed. All original publications on BoNT treatment of sialorrhoea in ALS patients were included in the review. Only a few adverse events were observed concerning treatment with BoNT. The studies performed to date have applied different treatment strategies with different dosages...
December 2013: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
J Ekström, T Godoy, F Loy, A Riva
OBJECTIVE: The parasympathetic transmitter vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) increases salivary gland blood flow and evokes protein secretion and, in some species, such as rats, a small fluid secretion. It interacts synergistically with muscarinics for protein and fluid output. Human salivary acini are supplied with VIP-containing nerves. We hypothesise that VIP and clozapine, acting together, evoke a volume of saliva greater than the sum of those induced by each drug given separately...
April 2014: Oral Diseases
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