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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342918/evidence-of-the-impact-of-visuo-spatial-processing-on-magnitude-representation-in-22q11-2-microdeletion-syndrome
#1
Lucie Attout, Marie-Pascale Noël, Line Vossius, Laurence Rousselle
The influence of visuo-spatial skills on numerical magnitude processing is the subject of a long-standing debate. As most of the numerical and non-numerical magnitude abilities underpinning mathematical development are visual by nature, they are often assessed in the visual modality, thereby confusing visuo-spatial and numerical processing. In order to assess the influence of visuo-spatial processing on numerical magnitude representation, we examined magnitude processing in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a genetic condition characterized by a cognitive profile with a relative weakness in visuo-spatial abilities but with preserved verbal abilities...
March 22, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337645/maintenance-of-memory-for-melodies-articulation-or-attentional-refreshing
#2
Michael A Nees, Ellen Corrini, Peri Leong, Joanna Harris
Past research on the effects of articulatory suppression on working memory for nonverbal sounds has been characterized by discrepant findings, which suggests that multiple mechanisms may be involved in the rehearsal of nonverbal sounds. In two experiments we examined the potential roles of two theoretical mechanisms of verbal working memory-articulatory rehearsal and attentional refreshing-in the maintenance of memory for short melodies. In both experiments, participants performed a same-different melody comparison task...
March 23, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337475/age-at-injury-is-associated-with-the-long-term-cognitive-outcome-of-traumatic-brain-injuries
#3
Wei Li, Shannon L Risacher, Thomas W McAllister, Andrew J Saykin
INTRODUCTION: The association between age at injury (AAI) and long-term cognitive outcome of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) is debatable. METHODS: Eligible participants with a history of TBI from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative were divided into a childhood TBI (cTBI) group (the AAI ≤ 21 years old) and an adult TBI (aTBI) group (the AAI > 21 years old). RESULTS: The cTBI group has a higher Everyday Cognition total score than the aTBI group...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337410/damage-to-white-matter-bottlenecks-contributes-to-language-impairments-after-left-hemispheric-stroke
#4
Joseph C Griffis, Rodolphe Nenert, Jane B Allendorfer, Jerzy P Szaflarski
Damage to the white matter underlying the left posterior temporal lobe leads to deficits in multiple language functions. The posterior temporal white matter may correspond to a bottleneck where both dorsal and ventral language pathways are vulnerable to simultaneous damage. Damage to a second putative white matter bottleneck in the left deep prefrontal white matter involving projections associated with ventral language pathways and thalamo-cortical projections has recently been proposed as a source of semantic deficits after stroke...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334963/three-and-four-dimensional-mapping-of-speech-and-language-in-patients-with-epilepsy
#5
Yasuo Nakai, Jeong-Won Jeong, Erik C Brown, Robert Rothermel, Katsuaki Kojima, Toshimune Kambara, Aashit Shah, Sandeep Mittal, Sandeep Sood, Eishi Asano
We have provided 3-D and 4D mapping of speech and language function based upon the results of direct cortical stimulation and event-related modulation of electrocorticography signals. Patients estimated to have right-hemispheric language dominance were excluded. Thus, 100 patients who underwent two-stage epilepsy surgery with chronic electrocorticography recording were studied. An older group consisted of 84 patients at least 10 years of age (7367 artefact-free non-epileptic electrodes), whereas a younger group included 16 children younger than age 10 (1438 electrodes)...
March 16, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321696/accelerated-and-accentuated-neurocognitive-aging-in-hiv-infection
#6
David P Sheppard, Jennifer E Iudicello, Erin E Morgan, Rujvi Kamat, Lindsay R Clark, Gunes Avci, Mark W Bondi, Steven Paul Woods
There is debate as to whether the neurocognitive changes associated with HIV infection represent an acceleration of the typical aging process or more simply reflect a greater accentuated risk for age-related declines. We aimed to determine whether accelerated neurocognitive aging is observable in a sample of older HIV-infected individuals compared to age-matched seronegatives and older old (i.e., aged ≥65) seronegative adults. Participants in a cross-sectional design included 48 HIV-seronegative (O-) and 40 HIV-positive (O+) participants between the ages of 50-65 (mean ages = 55 and 56, respectively) and 40 HIV-seronegative participants aged ≥65 (OO-; mean age = 74) who were comparable for other demographics...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298013/does-subjective-improvement-in-adults-with-intracranial-arachnoid-cysts-justify-surgical-treatment
#7
Katrin Rabiei, Per Hellström, Mats Högfeldt-Johansson, Magnus Tisell
OBJECTIVE Subjective improvement of patients who have undergone surgery for intracranial arachnoid cysts has justified surgical treatment. The current study aimed to evaluate the outcome of surgical treatment for arachnoid cysts using standardized interviews and assessments of neuropsychological function and balance. The relationship between arachnoid cyst location, postoperative improvement, and arachnoid cyst volume was also examined. METHODS The authors performed a prospective, population-based study. One hundred nine patients underwent neurological, neuropsychological, and physiotherapeutic examinations...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296264/a-clinician-administered-observation-and-corresponding-caregiver-interview-capturing-dsm-5-sensory-reactivity-symptoms-in-children-with-asd
#8
Paige M Siper, Alexander Kolevzon, A Ting Wang, Joseph D Buxbaum, Teresa Tavassoli
Sensory reactivity, including hyperreactivity, hyporeactivity, and sensation seeking, is a new criterion for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). However, there is no consensus on how to reliably measure sensory reactivity, particularly in minimally verbal individuals. The current study is an initial validation of the Sensory Assessment for Neurodevelopmental Disorders (SAND), a novel clinician-administered observation and corresponding caregiver interview that captures sensory symptoms based on DSM-5 criteria for ASD...
March 11, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294468/memory-impairment-and-the-mediating-role-of-task-difficulty-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#9
REVIEW
Kyrsten M Grimes, Anosha Zanjani, Konstantine K Zakzanis, C Psych
Using meta-analytic methods, we sought to synthesize the research literature on memory impairment in schizophrenia. Additionally, we compared performances across memory measures to determine if task difficulty (e.g., effortful encoding and retrieval versus non effortful encoding and retrieval) could account for variance across studies. Our primary measures of interest included the California Verbal Learning Test, Wechsler Memory Scale, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, and the Benton Visual Retention Test...
March 14, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293467/relationships-between-cardiorespiratory-fitness-hippocampal-volume-and-episodic-memory-in-a-population-at-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Ryan J Dougherty, Stephanie A Schultz, Elizabeth A Boots, Laura D Ellingson, Jacob D Meyer, Stephanie Van Riper, Aaron J Stegner, Dorothy F Edwards, Jennifer M Oh, Jean Einerson, Claudia E Korcarz, Rebecca L Koscik, Maritza N Dowling, Catherine L Gallagher, Cynthia M Carlsson, Howard A Rowley, Barbara B Bendlin, Sanjay Asthana, Bruce P Hermann, Mark A Sager, James H Stein, Sterling C Johnson, Ozioma C Okonkwo, Dane B Cook
INTRODUCTION: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has been shown to be related to brain health in older adults. In individuals at risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), CRF may be a modifiable risk factor that could attenuate anticipated declines in brain volume and episodic memory. The objective of this study was to determine the association between CRF and both hippocampal volume and episodic memory in a cohort of cognitively healthy older adults with familial and/or genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
March 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291864/sex-specific-cognitive-abnormalities-in-early-onset-psychosis
#11
Miguel Ruiz-Veguilla, Josefa Moreno-Granados, Maria D Salcedo-Marin, Maria L Barrigon, Maria J Blanco-Morales, Evelio Igunza, Anselmo Cañabate, Maria D Garcia, Teresa Guijarro, Francisco Diaz-Atienza, Maite Ferrin
Objectives: Brain maturation differs depending on the area of the brain and sex. Girls show an earlier peak in maturation of the prefrontal cortex. Although differences between adult females and males with schizophrenia have been widely studied, there has been less research in girls and boys with psychosis. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in verbal and visual memory, verbal working memory, auditory attention, processing speed, and cognitive flexibility between boys and girls...
January 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289629/neurocognitive-dysfunction-according-to-hypoperfusion-territory-in-patients-with-moyamoya-disease
#12
Chang Gu Kang, Min Ho Chun, Jung-A Kang, Kyung Hee Do, Su Jin Choi
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the prevalence of cerebral hypoperfusion without focal cerebral lesions in patients with Moyamoya disease (MMD), and the relationship between areas of hypoperfusion and cognitive impairment. METHODS: Twenty-six MMD patients were included. Patients were categorized according to the presence/absence of hypoperfusion in the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes on brain single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) after acetazolamide challenge...
February 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285570/acute-memory-deficits-in-chemotherapy-treated-adults
#13
Oana C Lindner, Andrew Mayes, Martin G McCabe, Deborah Talmi
Data from research on amnesia and epilepsy are equivocal with regards to the dissociation, shown in animal models, between rapid and slow long-term memory consolidation. Cancer treatments have lasting disruptive effects on memory and on brain structures associated with memory, but their acute effects on synaptic consolidation are unknown. We investigated the hypothesis that cancer treatment selectively impairs slow synaptic consolidation. Cancer patients and their matched controls were administered a novel list-learning task modelled on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test...
March 13, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277308/children-seeking-help-for-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-who-are-they
#14
Kim Maijer, Saskia J M C Palmen, Iris E C Sommer
BACKGROUND: Auditory Verbal Hallucinations (AVH) in children and adolescents are a relatively common and mostly transient feature in community samples. However, it should not be regarded as a merely benign phenomenon, as childhood AVH are associated with psychopathology. Little is known about the clinical group of children seeking help for AVH. This brings uncertainty on how to assess and treat these children. METHODS: This study describes the characteristics of 95 help-seeking children (aged 6 to 18years) with AVH attending an outpatient clinic specifically dedicated to help youth with this complaint...
October 27, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276864/establishing-normative-data-for-multi-trial-memory-tests-the-multivariate-regression-based-approach
#15
Wim Van der Elst, Geert Molenberghs, Marleen van Tetering, Jelle Jolles
OBJECTIVE: Multi-trial memory tests are widely used in research and clinical practice because they allow for assessing different aspects of memory and learning in a single comprehensive test procedure. However, the use of multi-trial memory tests also raises some key data analysis issues. Indeed, the different trial scores are typically all correlated, and this correlation has to be properly accounted for in the statistical analyses. In the present paper, the focus is on the setting where normative data have to be established for multi-trial memory tests...
February 17, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274963/mri-based-comparative-study-of-different-mild-cognitive-impairment-subtypes-protocol-for-an-observational-case-control-study
#16
Yang Yu, Weina Zhao, Siou Li, Changhao Yin
INTRODUCTION: Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI) comprise the 2 main types of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The first condition generally progresses to Alzheimer's disease, whereas the second is likely to develop into vascular dementia (VD). The brain structure and function of patients with MCI differ from those of normal elderly individuals. However, whether brain structures or functions differ between these 2 MCI subtypes has not been studied...
March 8, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270784/auditory-and-non-auditory-contributions-for-unaided-speech-recognition-in-noise-as-a-function-of-hearing-aid-use
#17
Anja Gieseler, Maike A S Tahden, Christiane M Thiel, Kirsten C Wagener, Markus Meis, Hans Colonius
Differences in understanding speech in noise among hearing-impaired individuals cannot be explained entirely by hearing thresholds alone, suggesting the contribution of other factors beyond standard auditory ones as derived from the audiogram. This paper reports two analyses addressing individual differences in the explanation of unaided speech-in-noise performance among n = 438 elderly hearing-impaired listeners (mean = 71.1 ± 5.8 years). The main analysis was designed to identify clinically relevant auditory and non-auditory measures for speech-in-noise prediction using auditory (audiogram, categorical loudness scaling) and cognitive tests (verbal-intelligence test, screening test of dementia), as well as questionnaires assessing various self-reported measures (health status, socio-economic status, and subjective hearing problems)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267801/t-complex-measures-in-bilingual-spanish-english-and-turkish-german-children-and-monolingual-peers
#18
Tanja Rinker, Valerie L Shafer, Markus Kiefer, Nancy Vidal, Yan H Yu
BACKGROUND: Lateral temporal neural measures (Na and T-complex Ta and Tb) of the auditory evoked potential (AEP) index maturation of auditory/speech processing. These measures are also sensitive to language experience in adults. This paper examined neural responses to a vowel sound at temporal electrodes in four- to five-year-old Spanish-English bilinguals and English monolinguals and in five- to six-year-old Turkish-German bilinguals and German monolinguals. The goal was to determine whether obligatory AEPs at temporal electrode sites were modulated by language experience...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240927/contralateral-interictal-and-ictal-eeg-epileptiform-activity-accentuate-memory-impairment-in-unilateral-mesial-temporal-sclerosis-patients
#19
Lecio F Pinto, Carla C Adda, Liliane C A Silva, Natalie H C Banaskiwitz, Valmir Passarelli, Carmen L Jorge, Rosa M Valerio, Luiz H Castro
OBJECTIVE: Memory impairment is a recognized complication of mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). Epileptiform activity may negatively impact on cognition. We evaluated the impact of contralateral EEG involvement on memory in unilateral MTS (uMTS) patients. METHOD: Retrospective review of 121 right-handed uMTS patients (69 left) evaluated with prolonged video-EEG and verbal and nonverbal memory tests (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and Rey-Osterrieth Complex figure), with additional very delayed trials...
March 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235729/impaired-quality-and-efficiency-of-sleep-impairs-cognitive-functioning-in-addison-s-disease
#20
Michelle Henry, Ian Louis Ross, Pedro Sofio Abril Wolf, Kevin Garth Flusk Thomas
BACKGROUND: Standard replacement therapy for Addison's disease (AD) does not restore a normal circadian rhythm. Periods of sub- and supra- physiological cortisol levels experienced by patients with AD likely induce disrupted sleep. Given that healthy sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation, the novelty of the current study was to characterise, using objective measures, the relationship between sleep and memory in patients with AD, and to examine the hypothesis that poor sleep is a biological mechanism underlying memory impairment in those patients...
February 11, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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