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Auditory verbal

Giulia Prete, Anita D'Anselmo, Luca Tommasi, Alfredo Brancucci
Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) has been increasingly adopted to modulate perceptual and cognitive functions, but the effects on auditory perception are still relatively uncharted. Starting from the evidence that a stronger right ear advantage effect (REA) in dichotic listening positively correlates with speech sound processing, the present study was aimed at modulating the REA by means of high-frequency transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (hf-tRNS). Stimulation was applied over the auditory cortex (AC) either unilaterally (Experiment 1, N = 50) or bilaterally (Experiment 2, N = 24) during a verbal dichotic listening task...
March 13, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Stefan Elmer, Joëlle Albrecht, Seyed Abolfazl Valizadeh, Clément François, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells
Word learning constitutes a human faculty which is dependent upon two anatomically distinct processing streams projecting from posterior superior temporal (pST) and inferior parietal (IP) brain regions toward the prefrontal cortex (dorsal stream) and the temporal pole (ventral stream). The ventral stream is involved in mapping sensory and phonological information onto lexical-semantic representations, whereas the dorsal stream contributes to sound-to-motor mapping, articulation, complex sequencing in the verbal domain, and to how verbal information is encoded, stored, and rehearsed from memory...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jeroen Gielen, Wietse Wiels, Jeroen Van Schependom, Jorne Laton, Wim Van Hecke, Paul M Parizel, Marie Beatrice D'hooghe, Guy Nagels
INTRODUCTION: The paced serial addition test (PSAT) is regularly used to assess cognitive deficits in various neuropsychiatric conditions. Being a complex test, it reflects the status of multiple cognitive domains such as working memory, information processing speed and executive functioning. Two versions of the PSAT exist. One uses auditory stimuli through spoken numbers and is known as the PASAT, while the other one presents patients with visual stimuli and is called PVSAT. The PASAT is considered more frustrating by patients, and hence the visual version is usually preferred...
2018: PloS One
Arun Gupta, Pratima Murthy, Shobini Rao
Chronic use of mind altering substances can lead to a wide variety of neuropsychological deficits, affecting the domains of attention, learning, memory, reasoning. Executive functions such as working memory, cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control may specifically be impaired. These deficits can impact engagement in effective psychosocial interventions. Mild to moderate cognitive dysfunction may not be picked up in routine clinical examination or through commonly used tests like the mini-mental state examination (MMSE)...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Jong Min Kim, Seung Beom Woo, Zeeihn Lee, Sung Jae Heo, Donghwi Park
RATIONALE: Verbal auditory agnosia is the selective inability to recognize verbal sounds. Patients with this disorder lose the ability to understand language, write from dictation, and repeat words with reserved ability to identify nonverbal sounds. However, to the best of our knowledge, there was no report about verbal auditory agnosia in adult patient with traumatic brain injury. PATIENT CONCERNS: He was able to clearly distinguish between language and nonverbal sounds, and he did not have any difficulty in identifying the environmental sounds...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Noriko Kudo, Hidenaga Yamamori, Tamaki Ishima, Kiyotaka Nemoto, Yuka Yasuda, Michiko Fujimoto, Hirotsugu Azechi, Tomihisa Niitsu, Shusuke Numata, Manabu Ikeda, Masaomi Iyo, Tetsuro Ohmori, Masaki Fukunaga, Yoshiyuki Watanabe, Kenji Hashimoto, Ryota Hashimoto
Background: An imbalance in the inflammatory tumor necrosis factor (TNF) system, including soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNFR2), may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Methods: We measured the plasma levels of sTNFR2 in 256 healthy controls and 250 patients with schizophrenia including antipsychotic drug-free patients and treatment-resistant patients. We also explored the possible association between plasma sTNFR2 levels and cognitive performance in healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition (WAIS-Ⅲ), the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT)...
February 24, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Iris E Sommer, Hidde Kleijer, Kenneth Hugdahl
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hallucinations are common and often stressful experiences, occurring in all sensory modalities. They frequently complicate many disorders or situations, such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, hearing or vision loss, intoxications and delirium. Although psychoeducation, coping techniques and psychotherapy may be broadly applicable, they do not address a specific underlying brain mechanism. Pharmacotherapy may effectively alleviate hallucinations if the corresponding mechanism is present, whereas in its absence, may only cause harmful side effects...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Kelsey R Thomas, Joel Eppig, Emily C Edmonds, Diane M Jacobs, David J Libon, Rhoda Au, David P Salmon, Mark W Bondi
OBJECTIVE: Preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) defined by a positive AD biomarker in the presence of normal cognition is presumed to precede mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Subtle cognitive deficits and cognitive inefficiencies in preclinical AD may be detected through process and error scores on neuropsychological tests in those at risk for progression to MCI. METHOD: Cognitively normal participants (n = 525) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative were followed for up to 5 years and classified as either stable normal (n = 305) or progressed to MCI (n = 220)...
February 2018: Neuropsychology
Ryu-Ichiro Hashimoto, Takashi Itahashi, Rieko Okada, Sayaka Hasegawa, Masayuki Tani, Nobumasa Kato, Masaru Mimura
Abnormalities in functional brain networks in schizophrenia have been studied by examining intrinsic and extrinsic brain activity under various experimental paradigms. However, the identified patterns of abnormal functional connectivity (FC) vary depending on the adopted paradigms. Thus, it is unclear whether and how these patterns are inter-related. In order to assess relationships between abnormal patterns of FC during intrinsic activity and those during extrinsic activity, we adopted a data-fusion approach and applied partial least square (PLS) analyses to FC datasets from 25 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 25 age- and sex-matched normal controls...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
M V Ivanova, O V Dragoy, S V Kuptsova, S Akinina Yu, A G Petrushevskii, O N Fedina, A Turken, V M Shklovsky, N F Dronkers
Currently, a distributed bilateral network of frontal-parietal areas is regarded as the neural substrate of working memory (WM), with the verbal WM network being more left-lateralized. This conclusion is based primarily on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data that provides correlational evidence for brain regions involved in a task. However, fMRI cannot differentiate the areas that are fundamentally required for performing a task. These data can only come from brain-injured individuals who fail the task after the loss of specific brain areas...
March 8, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Scott A Cairney, Anna Á Váli Guttesen, Nicole El Marj, Bernhard P Staresina
How are brief encounters transformed into lasting memories? Previous research has established the role of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, along with its electrophysiological signatures of slow oscillations (SOs) and spindles, for memory consolidation [1-4]. In related work, experimental manipulations have demonstrated that NREM sleep provides a window of opportunity to selectively strengthen particular memory traces via the delivery of auditory cues [5-10], a procedure known as targeted memory reactivation (TMR)...
March 2, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Stephanie L Harrison, Kate E Laver, Kayla Ninnis, Cherie Rowett, Natasha A Lannin, Maria Crotty
PURPOSE: To examine in people with neurological disorders, which method/s of providing external cues to improve task performance are most effective. METHODS: Medline, EMBASE, and PsycINFO were systematically searched. Two reviewers independently screened, extracted data, and assessed the quality of the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). RESULTS: Twenty six studies were included. Studies examined a wide-range of cues including visual, tactile, auditory, verbal, and multi-component cues...
March 9, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Ri-Xing Jing, Shen Li, Xin-Jun Zhang, Jing Long, Tian-Hong Zhou, Chuan-Jun Zhuo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Won Hee Lee, Nigel I Kennedy, Marom Bikson, Sophia Frangou
We use auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) to illustrate the challenges in defining and assessing target engagement in the context of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for psychiatric disorders. We defined the target network as the cluster of regions of interest (ROIs) that are consistently implicated in AVH based on the conjunction of multimodal meta-analytic neuroimaging data. These were prescribed in the New York Head (a population derived model) and head models of four single individuals. We appraised two potential measures of target engagement, tDCS-induced peak electric field strength and tDCS-modulated volume defined as the percentage of the volume of the AVH network exposed to electric field magnitude stronger than the postulated threshold for neuronal excitability...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Sengottuvel Kuppuraj, Mihaela Duta, Paul Thompson, Dorothy Bishop
Statistical learning has been proposed as a key mechanism in language learning. Our main goal was to examine whether adults are capable of simultaneously extracting statistical dependencies in a task where stimuli include a range of structures amenable to statistical learning within a single paradigm. We devised an online statistical learning task using real word auditory-picture sequences that vary in two dimensions: (i) predictability and (ii) adjacency of dependent elements. This task was followed by an offline recall task to probe learning of each sequence type...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Marion Psomiades, Marine Mondino, Clara Fonteneau, Remy Bation, Frederic Haesebaert, Marie-Françoise Suaud-Chagny, Jerome Brunelin
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in patients with schizophrenia are linked to abnormalities within a large cerebral network including frontal and temporal regions. Whilst abnormalities of frontal speech production and temporal speech perception regions have been extensively studied, alterations of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), a region critically involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, have rarely been studied in relation to AVH. Using 1.5 T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, this study examined the relationship between right and left DLPFCs N-AcetylAspartate (NAA) levels and the severity of AVH in patients with schizophrenia...
March 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ying Chen, Simona Monaco, Douglas J Crawford
Targets for goal-directed action can be encoded in allocentric coordinates (relative to another visual landmark), but it is not known how these are converted into egocentric commands for action. Here, we investigated this using a slow event-related fMRI paradigm, based on our previous behavioral finding that the Allocentric to Egocentric (Allo-Ego) conversion for reach is done at the first possible opportunity. Participants were asked to remember (and eventually reach toward) the location of a briefly presented target relative to another visual landmark...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Alyssa Jongeneel, Dorien Scheffers, Nynke Tromp, Chani Nuij, Philippe Delespaul, Heleen Riper, Mark van der Gaag, David van den Berg
INTRODUCTION: Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are prevalent experiences that can induce distress and impede social functioning. While most voice hearers benefit from antipsychotic medication or cognitive-behavioural therapy, additional effective interventions are needed to reduce the burden of experiencing AVH. 'Temstem' is an easily accessible and useable smartphone application that was developed by designers in close cooperation with voice hearers and experts. By using language games, Temstem aims to reduce distress and improve social functioning...
March 6, 2018: BMJ Open
Rita Schüler, Nicole Seebeck, Martin A Osterhoff, Veronica Witte, Agnes Flöel, Andreas Busjahn, Alexander Jais, Jens C Brüning, Turid Frahnow, Stefan Kabisch, Olga Pivovarova, Silke Hornemann, Michael Kruse, Andreas F H Pfeiffer
OBJECTIVE: Reduction of brain glucose transporter GLUT1 results in severe neurological dysfunction. VEGF is required to restore and maintain brain glucose uptake across the blood brain barrier via GLUT1, which was shown to be acutely diminished in response to a high fat diet (HFD) in mice. The genetic and HFD-related regulation and association of VEGF and GLUT1 (SLC2A1) in humans was investigated in the NUtriGenomic Analysis in Twins (NUGAT) study. METHODS: 92 healthy and non-obese twins were standardized to a high-carbohydrate low-fat diet for 6 weeks before switched to a 6-week HFD under isocaloric conditions...
February 12, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Richard J Stevenson, Heather M Francis, Megan J Oaten, Rebecca Schilt
The hippocampus is involved in interoceptive processing (i.e., perceiving internal bodily states), with much of this evidence relating to hunger and fullness. Here we examine whether cardiac and self-report measures of interoception are related to two measures of hippocampal dependent learning and memory (HDLM) - the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) and Logical Memory. Healthy adults completed a neuropsychological test battery including all of these measures, along with assessments of intelligence and executive function...
March 2, 2018: Brain and Cognition
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