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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938250/listening-effort-how-the-cognitive-consequences-of-acoustic-challenge-are-reflected-in-brain-and-behavior
#1
Jonathan E Peelle
Everyday conversation frequently includes challenges to the clarity of the acoustic speech signal, including hearing impairment, background noise, and foreign accents. Although an obvious problem is the increased risk of making word identification errors, extracting meaning from a degraded acoustic signal is also cognitively demanding, which contributes to increased listening effort. The concepts of cognitive demand and listening effort are critical in understanding the challenges listeners face in comprehension, which are not fully predicted by audiometric measures...
September 21, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936548/auditory-feature-perception-and-auditory-hallucinatory-experiences-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorder
#2
Ashley M Schnakenberg Martin, Lisa Bartolomeo, Josselyn Howell, William P Hetrick, Amanda R Bolbecker, Alan Breier, Gary Kidd, Brian F O'Donnell
Schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SZ) is associated with deficits in auditory perception as well as auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). However, the relationship between auditory feature perception and auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH), one of the most commonly occurring symptoms in psychosis, has not been well characterized. This study evaluated perception of a broad range of auditory features in SZ and determined whether current AVHs relate to auditory feature perception. Auditory perception, including frequency, intensity, duration, pulse-train and temporal order discrimination, as well as an embedded tone task, was assessed in both AVH (n = 20) and non-AVH (n = 24) SZ individuals and in healthy controls (n = 29) with the Test of Basic Auditory Capabilities (TBAC)...
September 21, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934526/mechanisms-of-memory-retrieval-in-slow-wave-sleep
#3
Scott A Cairney, Justyna M Sobczak, Shane Lindsay, M Gareth Gaskell
Study Objectives: Memories are strengthened during sleep. The benefits of sleep for memory can be enhanced by re-exposing the sleeping brain to auditory cues; a technique known as targeted memory reactivation (TMR). Prior studies have not assessed the nature of the retrieval mechanisms underpinning TMR: the matching process between auditory stimuli encountered during sleep and previously encoded memories. We carried out two experiments to address this issue. Methods: In Experiment 1, participants associated words with verbal and nonverbal auditory stimuli before an overnight interval in which subsets of these stimuli were replayed in slow-wave sleep...
September 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929305/auditory-display-for-fluorescence-guided-open-brain-tumor-surgery
#4
David Black, Horst K Hahn, Ron Kikinis, Karin Wårdell, Neda Haj-Hosseini
PURPOSE: Protoporphyrin (PpIX) fluorescence allows discrimination of tumor and normal brain tissue during neurosurgery. A handheld fluorescence (HHF) probe can be used for spectroscopic measurement of 5-ALA-induced PpIX to enable objective detection compared to visual evaluation of fluorescence. However, current technology requires that the surgeon either views the measured values on a screen or employs an assistant to verbally relay the values. An auditory feedback system was developed and evaluated for communicating measured fluorescence intensity values directly to the surgeon...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928645/auditory-motor-mapping-training-in-a-more-verbal-child-with-autism
#5
Karen V Chenausky, Andrea C Norton, Gottfried Schlaug
We tested the effect of Auditory-Motor Mapping Training (AMMT), a novel, intonation-based treatment for spoken language originally developed for minimally verbal (MV) children with autism, on a more-verbal child with autism. We compared this child's performance after 25 therapy sessions with that of: (1) a child matched on age, autism severity, and expressive language level who received 25 sessions of a non-intonation-based control treatment Speech Repetition Therapy (SRT); and (2) a matched pair of MV children (one of whom received AMMT; the other, SRT)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922960/cognitive-performance-in-transient-global-hypoxic-brain-injury-due-to-moderate-drowning
#6
Mariana Penteado Nucci, Katerina Lukasova, Gilson Vieira, João Ricardo Sato, Edson Amaro Júnior
INTRODUCTION: Drowning is a serious and frequently neglected public health threat. Primary respiratory impairment after submersion often leads to brain dysfunction. Depending on the period of global hypoxia (respiratory failure), clinical aspects of neurological dysfunction are evident on the first evaluation after the water rescue. Nowadays, many neuropsychological assessments after drowning are inconclusive, with some studies reporting only minor neurological or cognitive impairments...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922507/randomized-controlled-trial-evaluating-the-temporal-effects-of-high-intensity-exercise-on-learning-short-term-and-long-term-memory-and-prospective-memory
#7
Emily Frith, Eveleen Sng, Paul D Loprinzi
To examine the temporal effects of high-intensity exercise on learning, short-term and long-term retrospective memory and prospective memory. Among a sample of 88 young adult participants, 22 were randomized into one of four different groups: exercise before learning, control group, exercise during learning and exercise after learning. The retrospective assessments (learning, short-term and long-term memory) were assessed using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Short-term memory included a 20-min delay assessment, with long-term memory including a 24-hour follow-up assessment...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901210/does-working-memory-impact-functional-outcomes-in-individuals-with-adhd-a-qualitative-and-comprehensive-literature-review
#8
Ronna Fried, Jessica Abrams, Anna Hall, Leah Feinberg, Amanda Pope, Joseph Biederman
OBJECTIVE: Working Memory (WM) is a domain of executive functioning often impaired in individuals with ADHD. Although assumed to cause difficulties across functioning, the scope of impairments from WM deficits in ADHD has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine outcomes associated with WM deficits in ADHD. METHOD: We conducted a search of the scientific literature on WM deficits, and Freedom From Distractibility (FFD), in ADHD using PubMed and PsycInfo databases...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899422/moderating-effects-of-sex-on-the-impact-of-diagnosis-and-amyloid-positivity-on-verbal-memory-and-hippocampal-volume
#9
Jessica Z K Caldwell, Jody-Lynn Berg, Jeffrey L Cummings, Sarah J Banks
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) impacts men and women differently, but the effect of sex on predementia stages is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine whether sex moderates the impact of florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET) amyloid positivity (A(+)) on verbal learning and memory performance and hippocampal volume (HV) in normal cognition (NC) and early mild cognitive impairment (eMCI). METHODS: Seven hundred forty-two participants with NC and participants with eMCI from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (second cohort [ADNI2] and Grand Opportunity Cohort [ADNI-GO]) were included...
September 12, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889790/auditory-verbal-practice-family-centered-early-intervention
#10
Elizabeth Tyszkiewicz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2017: Cochlear Implants International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887900/atypical-brain-responses-to-auditory-spatial-cues-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
Veema Lodhia, Michael J Hautus, Blake W Johnson, Jon Brock
The auditory processing atypicalities experienced by many individuals on the autism spectrum disorder might be understood in terms of difficulties parsing the sound energy arriving at the ears into discrete auditory "objects." Here we asked whether autistic adults are able to make use of two important spatial cues to auditory object formation - the relative timing and amplitude of sound energy at the left and right ears. Using electroencephalography, we measured the brain responses of 15 autistic adults and 15 age-and verbal-IQ-matched control participants as they listened to dichotic pitch stimuli - white noise stimuli in which interaural timing or amplitude differences applied to a narrow frequency band of noise typically lead to the perception of a pitch sound that is spatially segregated from the noise...
September 9, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870562/genetic-variation-in-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-affects-the-white-matter-integrity-and-cognitive-function-of-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-patients
#12
Yanzhi Li, Zhengsheng Zhang, Linglong Deng, Feng Bai, Yongmei Shi, Hui Yu, Chunming Xie, Yonggui Yuan, Zhijun Zhang
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been implicated in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Most human genetic studies have focused on ACE insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism and yielded conflicting results. In this work, we evaluated the relationships between cognitive function, serum ACE level, brain white matter (WM) integrity, and ACE I/D polymorphism in 48 patients with aMCI and 36 well matched control subjects from south China. In aMCI patients, D allele frequency was higher (D/I ratio=0...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870331/atypical-non-verbal-sensorimotor-synchronization-in-adults-who-stutter-may-be-modulated-by-auditory-feedback
#13
Robert van de Vorst, Vincent L Gracco
PURPOSE: To investigate if non-verbal sensorimotor synchronization abilities in adult individuals who stutter (IWS) differ from non-stuttering controls (NS) under various performance conditions (tempo, auditory feedback, use of hands [single/both] and rhythm). METHODS: Participants were 11 IWS (5 males, 6 females, Mean age=25.8, SD=8.7) and 11 age- and gender-matched controls (Mean age=24.4, SD=8.4). During the experiment, participants were asked to prepare three melodies and subsequently perform them with a metronome at different rates and auditory feedback modalities (non-altered and suppressed)...
September 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869475/effect-of-attention-training-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-patients-with-subcortical-vascular-changes-the-rehatt-study
#14
Leonardo Pantoni, Anna Poggesi, Stefano Diciotti, Raffaella Valenti, Stefano Orsolini, Eleonora Della Rocca, Domenico Inzitari, Mario Mascalchi, Emilia Salvadori
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients with small vessel disease (SVD) are at high dementia risk. We tested the effects of cognitive rehabilitation in these patients using the Attention Process Training-II (APT-II) program in a single-blinded, randomized clinical trial. METHODS: Patients were randomized to APT-II or standard care and evaluated at baseline, 6, and 12 months with functional, quality of life, cognitive tests, and resting state functional MRI (rsfMRI)...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869471/prevalence-risk-factors-and-complaints-screening-tool-exploration-of-subjective-cognitive-decline-in-a-large-cohort-of-the-chinese-population
#15
Lixiao Hao, Xiaoni Wang, Ling Zhang, Yue Xing, Qihao Guo, Xiaochen Hu, Bin Mu, Yili Chen, Guanqun Chen, Jing Cao, Xiaodong Zhi, Jiaojiao Liu, Xuanyu Li, Liu Yang, Jiachen Li, Wenying Du, Yu Sun, Ting Wang, Zhen Liu, Zheng Liu, Xuexue Zhao, Hongyan Li, Yang Yu, Xue Wang, Jianguo Jia, Ying Han
BACKGROUND: Substantial studies have reported the prevalence and the affecting factors of subjective cognitive decline (SCD). The complaints screening scale has also been used for probing. However, little is known in China. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of SCD, and explore an SCD complaints screening scale in China. METHODS: Stratified cluster random sampling was conducted. 2,689 residents aged 60-80 years completed questionnaire 1...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866447/efficacy-of-fronto-temporal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-for-refractory-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-in-schizophrenia-a-randomized-double-blind-sham-controlled-study
#16
Anushree Bose, Venkataram Shivakumar, Sri Mahavir Agarwal, Sunil V Kalmady, Sonia Shenoy, Vanteemar S Sreeraj, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian
Persistent auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) that are refractory to antipsychotic medications are reported in about 20-30% of schizophrenia patients. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive and safe neuromodulatory technique, has attracted significant interest as an add-on treatment for refractory AVH in schizophrenia. Studies examining the efficacy of tDCS for refractory AVH in schizophrenia have reported inconsistent findings. In this study, using a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled design (RCT), we sought to examine the effect of add-on tDCS [anode corresponding to left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and cathode to left temporo-parietal junction; 2-mA, twice-daily sessions for 5-days] to treat refractory AVH in schizophrenia patients (N=25); following this RCT phase, patients that had <30% reduction in AVH severity were offered an open-label extension (OLE) active stimulation to evaluate the effect of cross-over to verum tDCS...
August 30, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862531/unisensory-and-multisensory-self-referential-stimulation-of-the-lower-limb-an-exploratory-fmri-study-on-healthy-subjects
#17
Ana Isabel Vieira, Patrícia Almeida, Nádia Canário, Miguel Castelo-Branco, Maria Vânia Nunes, Alexandre Castro-Caldas
BACKGROUND: The holistic view of the person is the essence of the physiotherapy. Knowledge of approaches that develop the whole person promotes better patient outcomes. Multisensory Self-referential stimulation, more than a unisensory one, seems to produce a holistic experience of the Self ("Core-Self"). OBJECTIVES: (1) To analyze the somatotopic brain activation during unisensory and multisensorial Self-referential stimulus; and (2) to understand if the areas activated by multisensorial Self-referential stimulation are the ones responsible for the "Core-Self...
September 1, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844841/effect-of-resveratrol-on-cognitive-and-memory-performance-and-mood-a-meta-analysis-of-225-patients
#18
REVIEW
Mohammad Hosein Farzaei, Roja Rahimi, Shekoufeh Nikfar, Mohammad Abdollahi
Resveratrol is a natural dietary phenolic compound which is extensively present in many edible fruits, including grape, berries, pomegranates, and peanuts. Reseveratrol has a broad spectrum of biological activities including anti-aging, chemopreventive, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and thus it is effective in related diseases. Particularly, the positive effects of resveratrol in neuropsychological diseases have been proven in in-vitro and in-vivo studies. Some clinical trials have reported that resveratrol possesses preventive and therapeutic effects in cognitive disorders...
August 24, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843414/disentangling-conscious-from-unconscious-cognitive-processing-with-event-related-eeg-potentials
#19
REVIEW
B Rohaut, L Naccache
By looking for properties of consciousness, cognitive neuroscience studies have dramatically enlarged the scope of unconscious cognitive processing. This emerging knowledge inspired the development of new approaches allowing clinicians to probe and disentangle conscious from unconscious cognitive processes in non-communicating brain-injured patients both in terms of behaviour and brain activity. This information is extremely valuable in order to improve diagnosis and prognosis in such patients both at acute and chronic settings...
August 23, 2017: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828217/a-pilot-study-on-the-effects-of-probiotic-supplementation-on-neuropsychological-performance-and-microrna-29a-c-levels-in-antiretroviral-treated-hiv-1-infected-patients
#20
Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Mariangela Fratino, Carla Selvaggi, Noemi Giustini, Sara Serafino, Ivan Schietroma, Giuseppe Corano Scheri, Paolo Pavone, Giulia Passavanti, Danilo Alunni Fegatelli, Ivano Mezzaroma, Guido Antonelli, Vincenzo Vullo, Carolina Scagnolari, Gabriella d'Ettorre
INTRODUCTION: The gut microbiota is involved in the regulation of cognition, mood, anxiety, and pain, and can impact cognitive functions by producing neuroactive substances or releasing bacterial by-products and metabolites. No information is available on the effects of a probiotic supplementation on brain function of HIV+ subjects. In light of the above considerations, we performed a pilot study in cART-treated HIV-1-positive patients with long-term virologic suppression. The aims were to analyze the effect of high-concentration multistrain probiotic supplementation (Vivomixx®; Visbiome®) on several neurocognitive abilities and to evaluate the safety of this supplementation...
August 2017: Brain and Behavior
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