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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446207/memory-is-preserved-in-older-adults-taking-at1-receptor-blockers
#1
Jean K Ho, Daniel A Nation
BACKGROUND: Prior work suggests that some but not all antihypertensive treatments may benefit cognition and risk for Alzheimer's disease, independent of stroke. Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) have been highlighted as one antihypertensive drug class that may confer greatest benefit. METHODS: The participants comprised 1626 nondemented adults, aged 55-91 years, recruited from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative sites. Three groups were compared: ARB users (HTN-ARBs), other antihypertensive drug users (HTN-Other), and normotensives...
April 26, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443036/auditory-motor-rhythms-and-speech-processing-in-french-and-german-listeners
#2
Simone Falk, Chloé Volpi-Moncorger, Simone Dalla Bella
Moving to a speech rhythm can enhance verbal processing in the listener by increasing temporal expectancies (Falk and Dalla Bella, 2016). Here we tested whether this hypothesis holds for prosodically diverse languages such as German (a lexical stress-language) and French (a non-stress language). Moreover, we examined the relation between motor performance and the benefits for verbal processing as a function of language. Sixty-four participants, 32 German and 32 French native speakers detected subtle word changes in accented positions in metrically structured sentences to which they previously tapped with their index finger...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442422/effects-of-low-frequency-rtms-treatment-on-brain-networks-for-inner-speech-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-auditory-verbal-hallucinations
#3
Leonie Bais, Edith Liemburg, Ans Vercammen, Richard Bruggeman, Rikus Knegtering, André Aleman
INTRODUCTION: Efficacy of repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) targeting the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) for the treatment of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) remains under debate. We assessed the influence of a 1Hz rTMS treatment on neural networks involved in a cognitive mechanism proposed to subserve AVH. METHODS: Patients with schizophrenia (N=24) experiencing medication-resistant AVH completed a 10-day 1Hz rTMS treatment. Participants were randomized to active stimulation of the left or bilateral TPJ, or sham stimulation...
April 22, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433073/neurocognitive-function-in-clinically-stable-individuals-with-long-term-bipolar-i-disorder-comparisons-with-schizophrenia-patients-and-controls
#4
Pei-Yun Lin, Peng-Wei Wang, Cheng-Sheng Chen, Cheng-Fang Yen
This study compared the levels of the five domains of neurocognitive function-executive function, attention, memory, verbal comprehension, and perceptual organization-among clinically stable individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder, individuals with long-term schizophrenia, and a group of controls. We recruited a total of 93 clinically stable individuals with bipolar I disorder, 94 individuals with schizophrenia, and 106 controls in this study. Their neurocognitive function was measured using a series of neurocognitive function tests: the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III), Line Cancellation Test, Visual Form Discrimination, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Continuous Performance Task, and Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition...
May 2017: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428770/prolonged-walking-with-a-wearable-system-providing-intelligent-auditory-input-in-people-with-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Pieter Ginis, Elke Heremans, Alberto Ferrari, Kim Dockx, Colleen G Canning, Alice Nieuwboer
Rhythmic auditory cueing is a well-accepted tool for gait rehabilitation in Parkinson's disease (PD), which can now be applied in a performance-adapted fashion due to technological advance. This study investigated the immediate differences on gait during a prolonged, 30 min, walk with performance-adapted (intelligent) auditory cueing and verbal feedback provided by a wearable sensor-based system as alternatives for traditional cueing. Additionally, potential effects on self-perceived fatigue were assessed...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425814/verbal-short-term-memory-and-language-impairments-in-cantonese-speakers-after-stroke
#6
Diana Wai-Lam Ho, Anthony Pak-Hin Kong, Nim-Ting Koon
PURPOSE: The study examined the relationship between verbal short-term memory (STM) and language impairment in Cantonese speakers after stroke. It is hypothesised that Cantonese speakers with left-hemisphere (LH) stroke would perform worse than those with right hemisphere (RH) stroke and normal controls. Specific linguistic factors of Cantonese might affect results in the tasks. METHOD: Fifteen participants with LH stroke, 10 with RH stroke and 25 healthy controls were tested with auditory-verbal immediate serial recall (ISR) tasks and auditory linguistic tasks...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424614/relationship-between-cognitive-and-sleep-wake-variables-in-asymptomatic-offspring-of-patients-with-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Carolina Abulafia, Bárbara Duarte-Abritta, Mirta F Villarreal, María S Ladrón-de-Guevara, Celeste García, Geraldine Sequeyra, Gustavo Sevlever, Leticia Fiorentini, Karl-Jürgen Bär, Deborah R Gustafson, Daniel E Vigo, Salvador M Guinjoan
Early neuropathological changes characteristic of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) involve brain stem and limbic structures that regulate neurovegetative functions, including sleep-wake rhythm. Indeed, sleep pattern is an emerging biomarker and a potential pathophysiological mechanism in LOAD. We hypothesized that cognitively asymptomatic, middle-aged offspring of patients with LOAD (O-LOAD) would display a series of circadian rhythm abnormalities prior to the onset of objective cognitive alterations. We tested 31 children of patients with LOAD (O-LOAD) and 19 healthy individuals without family history of Alzheimer's disease (control subjects, CS) with basic tests of cognitive function, as well as actigraphy measures of sleep-wake rhythm, cardiac autonomic function, and bodily temperature...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424605/white-matter-integrity-and-treatment-based-change-in-speech-performance-in-minimally-verbal-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Karen Chenausky, Julius Kernbach, Andrea Norton, Gottfried Schlaug
We investigated the relationship between imaging variables for two language/speech-motor tracts and speech fluency variables in 10 minimally verbal (MV) children with autism. Specifically, we tested whether measures of white matter integrity-fractional anisotropy (FA) of the arcuate fasciculus (AF) and frontal aslant tract (FAT)-were related to change in percent syllable-initial consonants correct, percent items responded to, and percent syllable insertion errors (from best baseline to post 25 treatment sessions)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422354/auditory-verbal-experience-and-agency-in-waking-sleep-onset-rem-and-non-rem-sleep
#9
Jana Speth, Trevor A Harley, Clemens Speth
We present one of the first quantitative studies on auditory verbal experiences ("hearing voices") and auditory verbal agency (inner speech, and specifically "talking to (imaginary) voices or characters") in healthy participants across states of consciousness. Tools of quantitative linguistic analysis were used to measure participants' implicit knowledge of auditory verbal experiences (VE) and auditory verbal agencies (VA), displayed in mentation reports from four different states. Analysis was conducted on a total of 569 mentation reports from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, non-REM sleep, sleep onset, and waking...
April 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411444/continuous-and-difficult-discrete-cognitive-tasks-promote-improved-stability-in-older-adults
#10
Yves Lajoie, Deborah A Jehu, Natalie Richer, Alan Chan
Directing attention away from postural control and onto a cognitive task affords the emergence of automatic control processes. Perhaps the continuous withdrawal of attention from the postural task facilitates an automatization of posture as opposed to only intermittent withdrawal; however this is unknown in the aging population. Twenty older adults (69.9±3.5years) stood with feet together on a force platform for 60s while performing randomly assigned discrete and continuous cognitive tasks. Participants were instructed to stand comfortably with their arms by their sides while verbally responding to the auditory stimuli as fast as possible during the discrete tasks, or mentally performing the continuous cognitive tasks...
April 3, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409050/correlation-of-mri-visual-scales-with-neuropsychological-profile-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-of-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Luiz Felipe Vasconcellos, João Santos Pereira, Marcelo Adachi, Denise Greca, Manuela Cruz, Ana Lara Malak, Helenice Charchat-Fichman, Mariana Spitz
Few studies have evaluated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) visual scales in Parkinson's disease-Mild Cognitive Impairment (PD-MCI). We selected 79 PD patients and 92 controls (CO) to perform neurologic and neuropsychological evaluation. Brain MRI was performed to evaluate the following scales: Global Cortical Atrophy (GCA), Fazekas, and medial temporal atrophy (MTA). The analysis revealed that both PD groups (amnestic and nonamnestic) showed worse performance on several tests when compared to CO. Memory, executive function, and attention impairment were more severe in amnestic PD-MCI group...
2017: Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399442/spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-working-memory-maintenance-and-scanning-of-verbal-information
#12
Toshimune Kambara, Erik C Brown, Jeong-Won Jeong, Noa Ofen, Yasuo Nakai, Eishi Asano
OBJECTIVE: During verbal communication, humans briefly maintain mental representations of speech sounds conveying verbal information, and constantly scan these representations for comparison to incoming information. We determined the spatio-temporal dynamics of such short-term maintenance and subsequent scanning of verbal information, by intracranially measuring high-gamma activity at 70-110Hz during a working memory task. METHODS: Patients listened to a stimulus set of two or four spoken letters and were instructed to remember those letters over a two-second interval, following which they were asked to determine if a subsequent target letter had been presented earlier in that trial's stimulus set...
March 14, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392209/verbal-working-memory-in-schizophrenia-the-role-of-syntax-in-facilitating-serial-recall
#13
Adrienne W Y Li, Nestor Viñas-Guasch, Christy L M Hui, Wing-Chung Chang, Sherry K W Chan, Edwin H M Lee, Eric Y H Chen
BACKGROUND: Deficits in verbal working memory (VWM) have consistently been observed in schizophrenia, ranging from impairments in capacity, encoding, to irregular semantic organisation. However, syntactic deficits are less well-characterised, despite its crucial role in language construction. This study examines the role of simple syntactic structure (basis of the "sentence superiority effect") in VWM of patients with psychotic disorders. METHODS: Patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (n=40) and healthy controls matched on age, sex and education (n=40) were administered an auditory serial recall task containing word lists with low semantic coherence and either syntactically familiar structure (noun-verb-noun sequence) or syntactically unfamiliar structure...
April 6, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391035/selective-verbal-recognition-memory-impairments-are-associated-with-atrophy-of-the-language-network-in-non-semantic-variants-of-primary-progressive-aphasia
#14
Aneesha S Nilakantan, Joel L Voss, Sandra Weintraub, M-Marsel Mesulam, Emily J Rogalski
Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is clinically defined by an initial loss of language function and preservation of other cognitive abilities, including episodic memory. While PPA primarily affects the left-lateralized perisylvian language network, some clinical neuropsychological tests suggest concurrent initial memory loss. The goal of this study was to test recognition memory of objects and words in the visual and auditory modality to separate language-processing impairments from retentive memory in PPA...
April 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391031/evaluation-of-the-language-profile-in-children-with-rolandic-epilepsy-and-developmental-dysphasia-evidence-for-distinct-strengths-and-weaknesses
#15
M Verly, R Gerrits, L Lagae, S Sunaert, N Rommel, I Zink
Although benign, rolandic epilepsy (RE) or benign childhood epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes is often associated with language impairment. Recently, fronto-rolandic EEG abnormalities have been described in children with developmental dysphasia (DD), suggesting an interaction between language impairment and interictal epileptiform discharges. To investigate if a behavioral-linguistic continuum between RE and DD exists, a clinical prospective study was carried out to evaluate the language profile of 15 children with RE and 22 children with DD...
April 6, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389551/on-shame-and-voice-hearing
#16
Angela Woods
Hearing voices in the absence of another speaker-what psychiatry terms an auditory verbal hallucination-is often associated with a wide range of negative emotions. Mainstream clinical research addressing the emotional dimensions of voice-hearing has tended to treat these as self-evident, undifferentiated and so effectively interchangeable. But what happens when a richer, more nuanced understanding of specific emotions is brought to bear on the analysis of distressing voices? This article draws findings from the 'What is it like to hear voices' study conducted as part of the interdisciplinary Hearing the Voice project into conversation with philosopher Dan Zahavi's Self and Other: Exploring Subjectivity, Empathy and Shame to consider how a focus on shame can open up new questions about the experience of hearing voices...
April 7, 2017: Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385127/retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-thickness-and-neuropsychiatric-manifestations-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#17
S Shulman, R Shorer, J Wollman, G Dotan, D Paran
Background Cognitive impairment is frequent in systemic lupus erythematosus. Atrophy of the corpus callosum and hippocampus have been reported in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, and diffusion tensor imaging studies have shown impaired white matter integrity, suggesting that white matter damage in systemic lupus erythematosus may underlie the cognitive impairment as well as other neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus manifestations. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, as assessed by optical coherence tomography, has been suggested as a biomarker for white matter damage in neurologic disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383971/an-evaluation-of-language-in-brain-tumor-patients-using-a-new-cognitively-motivated-testing-protocol
#18
Josh W Faulkner, Carolyn E Wilshire, Andrew J Parker, Kay Cunningham
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the language impairments that occur in brain tumor patients using a cognitively oriented theoretical framework. METHOD: Forty-nine preoperative brain tumor patients completed a new testing protocol (the BLAST) which assesses 8 well documented, "core" cognitive skills required for language: auditory word recognition, accessing semantic knowledge, lexical selection, phonological encoding, verbal short-term memory, goal-driven language selection, verb retrieval, and articulatory-motor planning...
April 6, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375761/children-and-adolescents-performance-on-a-medium-length-nonsemantic-word-list-test
#19
Julio César Flores-Lázaro, María Alejandra Salgado Soruco, Igor I Stepanov
Word-list learning tasks are among the most important and frequently used tests for declarative memory evaluation. For example, the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C) and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test provide important information about different cognitive-neuropsychological processes. However, the impact of test length (i.e., number of words) and semantic organization (i.e., type of words) on children's and adolescents' memory performance remains to be clarified, especially during this developmental stage...
April 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372076/auditory-display-of-seismic-data-on-the-use-of-experts-categorizations-and-verbal-descriptions-as-heuristics-for-geoscience
#20
Arthur Paté, Lapo Boschi, Danièle Dubois, Jean-Loïc Le Carrou, Benjamin Holtzman
Auditory display can complement visual representations in order to better interpret scientific data. A previous article showed that the free categorization of "audified seismic signals" operated by listeners can be explained by various geophysical parameters. The present article confirms this result and shows that cognitive representations of listeners can be used as heuristics for the characterization of seismic signals. Free sorting tests are conducted with audified seismic signals, with the earthquake/seismometer relative location, playback audification speed, and earthquake magnitude as controlled variables...
March 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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