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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430165/treatments-for-latrodectism-a-systematic-review-on-their-clinical-effectiveness
#1
REVIEW
Nicole M Ryan, Nicholas A Buckley, Andis Graudins
Latrodectism or envenomation by widow-spiders is common and clinically significant worldwide. Alpha-latrotoxin is the mammalian-specific toxin in the venom that results in toxic effects observed in humans. Symptoms may be incapacitating and include severe pain that can persist for days. The management of mild to moderate latrodectism is primarily supportive while severe cases have variously been treated with intravenous calcium, muscle relaxants, widow-spider antivenom and analgesic opioids. The object of this systematic review is to examine the literature on the clinical effectiveness of past and current treatments for latrodectism...
April 21, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427959/beneficial-effects-of-heparin-and-l-arginine-on-dermonecrosis-effect-induced-by-vipera-lebetina-venom-involvement-of-no-in-skin-regeneration
#2
Nouara Bennacef-Heffar, Fatima Laraba-Djebari
It is well known that snake venoms such as Viperidae caused severe local effects such as hemorrhage, myonecrosis and dermonecrosis which can lead to permanent tissue loss or the disability. The aim of this study is to evaluate the skin regeneration using heparin and L-arginine as well as the dermonecrotic effects induced by Vipera lebetina venom (VLV). To better understand the toxic effects induced by VLV and to prevent or treat these effects, we evaluate the local effects and the skin regeneration with or without drugs...
April 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424125/thromboelastography-utilization-in-delayed-recurrent-coagulopathy-after-severe-eastern-diamondback-rattlesnake-envenomation
#3
Katherine M McBride, William Bromberg, James Dunne
Venomous snakebites are fairly common in the United States and can present with a wide range of symptoms. A 48-year-old man presented after Eastern Diamondback rattlesnake envenomation. His hospital course was complicated by right leg compartment syndrome and delayed recurrent coagulopathy, requiring multiple doses of Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (CroFab) antivenom and transfusions. Thromboelastography was used as an adjunct to standard coagulation studies in monitoring his delayed recurrent coagulopathy...
April 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422078/antivenom-for-neuromuscular-paralysis-resulting-from-snake-envenoming
#4
REVIEW
Anjana Silva, Wayne C Hodgson, Geoffrey K Isbister
Antivenom therapy is currently the standard practice for treating neuromuscular dysfunction in snake envenoming. We reviewed the clinical and experimental evidence-base for the efficacy and effectiveness of antivenom in snakebite neurotoxicity. The main site of snake neurotoxins is the neuromuscular junction, and the majority are either: (1) pre-synaptic neurotoxins irreversibly damaging the presynaptic terminal; or (2) post-synaptic neurotoxins that bind to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Pre-clinical tests of antivenom efficacy for neurotoxicity include rodent lethality tests, which are problematic, and in vitro pharmacological tests such as nerve-muscle preparation studies, that appear to provide more clinically meaningful information...
April 19, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421839/extracorporeal-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-after-brown-recluse-envenomation
#5
Shawn Berry Sood, William Banner, Roger Phillip Barton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419970/effect-of-premedication-with-subcutaneous-adrenaline-on-the-pharmacokinetics-and-immunogenicity-of-equine-whole-igg-antivenom-in-a-rabbit-model
#6
María Herrera, Melvin Sánchez, Anderson Machado, Nils Ramírez, Mariángela Vargas, Mauren Villalta, Andrés Sánchez, Álvaro Segura, Aarón Gómez, Gabriela Solano, José María Gutiérrez, Guillermo León
Subcutaneous administration of a low dose of adrenaline is used to prevent the early adverse reactions (EARs) induced by snake antivenoms. We used a rabbit model to study the effect of premedication with adrenaline on the potential of antivenoms to exert therapeutic effects and to induce late adverse reactions. We found that premedication with adrenaline did not change the heart rate or blood pressure of normal rabbits, but reduced the rise in temperature in rabbits previously sensitized with antivenom. Pharmacokinetic studies suggest that premedication with adrenaline does not affect the ability of the antivenom to exert the initial control of envenomation nor the susceptibility of rabbits to develop recurrence of antigenemia and envenomation...
April 15, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413440/predictors-of-depression-among-patients-receiving-treatment-for-snakebite-in-general-hospital-kaltungo-gombe-state-nigeria-august-2015
#7
Abdulaziz Muhammed, Mahmood M Dalhat, Babalola O Joseph, Abubakar Ahmed, Patrick Nguku, Gabriele Poggensee, Mukthar Adeiza, Garba I Yahya, Muhammad Hamza, Zaiyad G Habib, Abisola M Oladimeji, Abdulsalam Nasidi, Abubakar Balla, Ibrahim Nashabaru, Nasir Sani-Gwarzo, Ahmad M Yakasai, Joshua A Difa, Taiwo Lateef Sheikh, Abdulrazaq G Habib
BACKGROUND: Snakebite though neglected, affects 5 million people yearly. More neglected is the psychological effect of envenomation. We determined prevalence and pattern of depression among patients admitted into snakebite wards of Kaltungo General Hospital Nigeria, and percentage recognized by clinicians. We also assessed for factors associated with depression. METHODS: In a descriptive hospital based study, we used Patient Health questionnaire (PHQ-9) to make diagnosis of depression among the patients...
2017: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411932/arthropod-envenomation-in-north-america
#8
REVIEW
Timothy B Erickson, Navneet Cheema
Arthropods (phylum Arthopoda) account for a higher percentage of morbidity and mortality to humans than do mammalian bites, snake bites, or marine envenomation. They are ubiquitous in domestic dwellings, caves, and campsites and in wilderness settings such as deserts, forests, and lakes. Although arthropods are most intrusive during warmer months, many are active throughout the winter, particularly indoors. Arthropods are also nocturnal and often bite unsuspecting victims while they are sleeping. Encounters with humans are generally defensive, accidental, or reactive...
May 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411931/north-american-snake-envenomation
#9
REVIEW
Bryan Corbett, Richard F Clark
Native US snakes that produce clinically significant envenomation can be divided into 2 groups, crotalids and elapids. The crotalids include rattlesnakes, cottonmouths, and copperheads. Crotalid envenomation can result in significant local tissue damage as well as thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy. Rarely are bites fatal. Native US elapids are all coral snakes that possess neurotoxic venom that can cause weakness, respiratory paralysis, and rarely death. Treatment of both types of envenomation revolves around general supportive care and antivenom administration when indicated...
May 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411930/marine-envenomation
#10
REVIEW
Kirsten B Hornbeak, Paul S Auerbach
Venomous aquatic animals are hazardous to swimmers, surfers, divers, and fishermen. Exposures include mild stings, bites, abrasions, and lacerations. Severe envenomations can be life threatening. This article reviews common marine envenomations, exploring causative species, clinical presentation, and current treatment recommendations. Recommendations are included for cnidaria, sponges, bristle worms, crown-of-thorns starfish, sea urchins, venomous fish, stingrays, cone snails, stonefish, blue-ringed octopus, and sea snakes...
May 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406417/a-rare-complication-of-viper-envenomation-cardiac-failure-a-case-report
#11
K Chara, N Baccouche, O Turki, K Regaig, A Chaari, M Bahloul, M Bouaziz
Viper envenomation is common in North Africa. Cardiac complications are not common features of snakebites, the clinical picture of which is usually dominated by toxin-associated neurological, hematological, and vascular damage. There are rare reports of acute myocardial infarction and/or ischemia caused by snakebites, while myocarditis after envenomation has not yet been reported, to our knowledge. We report the case of a 43-year-old woman admitted to our intensive care unit after viper envenomation complicated by acute heart failure with acute pulmonary edema, in a state of cardiogenic shock, accompanied by multi-organ failure, intravascular disseminated coagulation, and neurological damage...
February 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406403/rhabdomyolysis-during-envenomation-by-physalia-sp-envenomation-in-new-caldonia
#12
E Maldonado, C Maillaud, Y Barguil, M Labadie
We report the first case of rhabdomyolysis following envenomation by a Physalia sp in New Caledonia. Systemic envenomation by this marine hydrozoan is well known, including myalgia as a commonly reported clinical feature. Nonetheless, a related increase in muscle enzymes, featuring rhabdomyolysis, has not previously been described. In this case report, we describe a patient with rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. Rhabdomyolysis should be checked in case of systemic physalia envenomation.
February 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405853/age-related-changes-in-inflammatory-response-after-experimental-envenomation-impact-on-the-susceptibility-to-androctonus-australis-hector-venom
#13
Wassila Haddad-Ishak-Boushaki, Fatima Laraba-Djebari
In regions at risk of scorpion envenomation, children remain the principal victims; they exhibit severe symptoms and represent a higher mortality rate compared to adults. The pathophysiology of envenomation is related to an excessive inflammatory response; however, no studies have identified the differences in immune responses to scorpion stings and mainly the mechanisms of inflammation between children and adults, which may be a determinant key of the susceptibility of children to scorpion envenomation. In this study, we compared the systemic (blood and lung) and the central (brain) inflammatory responses after injection of Androctonus australis hector (Aah) venom to 7 and 21 postnatal days (pnds) and adult mice by subcutaneous route...
April 13, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400263/peptidomimetic-hydroxamate-metalloproteinase-inhibitors-abrogate-local-and-systemic-toxicity-induced-by-echis-ocellatus-saw-scaled-snake-venom
#14
Ana Silvia Arias, Alexandra Rucavado, José María Gutiérrez
The ability of two peptidomimetic hydroxamate metalloproteinase inhibitors, Batimastat and Marimastat, to abrogate toxic and proteinase activities of the venom of Echis ocellatus from Cameroon and Ghana was assessed. Since this venom largely relies for its toxicity on the action of zinc-dependent metalloproteinases (SVMPs), the hypothesis was raised that toxicity could be largely eliminated by using SVMP inhibitors. Both hydroxamate molecules inhibited local and pulmonary hemorrhagic, in vitro coagulant, defibrinogenating, and proteinase activities of the venoms in conditions in which venom and inhibitors were incubated prior to the test...
April 8, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390429/management-of-scorpion-envenoming-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-controlled-clinical-trials
#15
Chaturaka Rodrigo, Ariaranee Gnanathasan
BACKGROUND: Scorpion stings cause an estimated 3000 deaths per annum worldwide. We conducted a systematic review of all controlled clinical trials related to scorpion sting management. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science and CINAHL and included controlled prospective clinical trials (randomized or non-randomized). The following interventions were assessed: adults and children with scorpion stings treated with (a) steroids vs. placebo, (b) different methods of pain relief, (c) antivenom vs...
April 8, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379166/phospholipase-d-from-loxosceles-laeta-spider-venom-induces-il-6-il-8-cxcl1-gro-%C3%AE-and-ccl2-mcp-1-production-in-human-skin-fibroblasts-and-stimulates-monocytes-migration
#16
José M Rojas, Tomás Arán-Sekul, Emmanuel Cortés, Romina Jaldín, Kely Ordenes, Patricio R Orrego, Jorge González, Jorge E Araya, Alejandro Catalán
Cutaneous loxoscelism envenomation by Loxosceles spiders is characterized by the development of a dermonecrotic lesion, strong inflammatory response, the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, and leukocyte migration to the bite site. The role of phospholipase D (PLD) from Loxosceles in the recruitment and migration of monocytes to the envenomation site has not yet been described. This study reports on the expression and production profiles of cytokines and chemokines in human skin fibroblasts treated with catalytically active and inactive recombinant PLDs from Loxosceles laeta (rLlPLD) and lipid inflammatory mediators ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), and the evaluation of their roles in monocyte migration...
April 5, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356233/pine-processionary-caterpillar-thaumetopoea-pityocampa-envenomation-in-109-dogs-a-retrospective-study
#17
Céline Pouzot-Nevoret, Maxime Cambournac, Amandine Violé, Isabelle Goy-Thollot, Gilles Bourdoiseau, Anthony Barthélemy
Contact with the caterpillars of the pine processionary moth (CPPM) Thaumetopoea pityocampa induces severe local allergic reactions. The purpose of this large-scale retrospective cohort-study was to describe the clinical manifestations and related risk factors of CPPM exposure. This cohort-study included 109 dogs between the years of 2000 and 2016. Tongue lesions ranging from oedema to severe necrosis were observed in 94/109 dogs (86%). The following systemic signs were observed in 60/109 dogs (55%): vomiting (52/109, 48%), dyspnoea (6/109, 5%), hypovolemia (4/109, 4%) and diarrhoea (2/109, 2%)...
March 27, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353659/a-pharmacological-examination-of-the-cardiovascular-effects-of-malayan-krait-bungarus-candidus-venoms
#18
Janeyuth Chaisakul, Muhamad Rusdi Ahmad Rusmili, Wayne C Hodgson, Panadda Hatthachote, Kijja Suwan, Anjaree Inchan, Lawan Chanhome, Iekhsan Othman, Krongkarn Chootip
Cardiovascular effects (e.g., tachycardia, hypo- and/or hypertension) are often clinical outcomes of snake envenoming. Malayan krait (Bungarus candidus) envenoming has been reported to cause cardiovascular effects that may be related to abnormalities in parasympathetic activity. However, the exact mechanism for this effect has yet to be determined. In the present study, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro cardiovascular effects of B. candidus venoms from Southern (BC-S) and Northeastern (BC-NE) Thailand...
March 29, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352289/prevention-of-krait-bites-by-sleeping-above-ground-preliminary-results-from-an-observational-pilot-study
#19
Chaturaka Rodrigo, Selvanayagam Kirushanthan, Ariaranee Gnanathasan
INTRODUCTION: Neurotoxic envenoming following the bites of kraits (Bungarus spp.) is a common cause of death in the dry zone of Sri Lanka and elsewhere in South Asia. Most of these bites occur at night and are inflicted on people sleeping on the ground. Thus we hypothesized that the simple measure of sleeping above ground would help to reduce the number of observed krait bites. METHODS: This study was conducted in two villages of the Kilinochchi district of Sri Lanka which had reported a high number of krait bites in the two years preceding the study...
2017: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349771/antivenom-for-european-vipera-species-envenoming
#20
Thomas Lamb, Luc de Haro, Davide Lonati, Miran Brvar, Michael Eddleston
BACKGROUND: European viper bite is relatively uncommon but can cause serious envenoming, particularly swelling and hemorrhage spreading from limb to trunk that can cause long term disability. Systemic features are relatively mild compared to many other venomous species. Moderate-to-severe envenoming requires antivenom, which is given many hundreds of times each year across the continent. Several Vipera spp antivenoms are produced in Europe, but there is little comparative information available for the antivenoms and none is licensed with the European Medicines Agency...
March 28, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
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