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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912864/clinical-and-epidemiological-aspects-of-scorpionism-in-the-world-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Maria S V Santos, Cláudio G L Silva, Basílio Silva Neto, Cícero R P Grangeiro Júnior, Victor H G Lopes, Antônio G Teixeira Júnior, Deryk A Bezerra, João V C P Luna, Josué B Cordeiro, Jucier Gonçalves Júnior, Marcos A P Lima
OBJECTIVE: Scorpion stings are registered worldwide, but the incidence and the features of the envenomations vary depending on the region. The aim of this review was to summarize the epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic data worldwide regarding humans stung by scorpions. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted through the online databases of the Virtual Health Library (VHL), which hosts Medline and the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Informational (LILACS) database...
December 2016: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911900/clinical-and-pharmacological-investigation-of-myotoxicity-in-sri-lankan-russell-s-viper-daboia-russelii-envenoming
#2
Anjana Silva, Christopher Johnston, Sanjaya Kuruppu, Daniela Kneisz, Kalana Maduwage, Oded Kleifeld, A Ian Smith, Sisira Siribaddana, Nicholas A Buckley, Wayne C Hodgson, Geoffrey K Isbister
BACKGROUND: Sri Lankan Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) envenoming is reported to cause myotoxicity and neurotoxicity, which are different to the effects of envenoming by most other populations of Russell's vipers. This study aimed to investigate evidence of myotoxicity in Russell's viper envenoming, response to antivenom and the toxins responsible for myotoxicity. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: Clinical features of myotoxicity were assessed in authenticated Russell's viper bite patients admitted to a Sri Lankan teaching hospital...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904261/the-north-south-divide-in-snake-bite-envenomation-in-india
#3
REVIEW
Vivek Chauhan, Suman Thakur
Snake bite envenomations are common in rural areas and the incidence peaks during monsoons in India. Prominent venomous species have been traditionally labeled as the 'big four' that includes Cobra, Krait, Russel's viper and Saw scaled viper. Systematic attempts for identification and classification of prevalent snakes in various states of India are missing till now and there is no concrete data on this aspect. The published literature however shows that some species of snakes are more prevalent in a particular region than the other parts of India e...
October 2016: Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903075/australian-taipan-oxyuranus-spp-envenoming-clinical-effects-and-potential-benefits-of-early-antivenom-therapy-australian-snakebite-project-asp-25
#4
Christopher I Johnston, Nicole M Ryan, Margaret A O'Leary, Simon G A Brown, Geoffrey K Isbister
CONTEXT: Taipans (Oxyuranus spp.) are medically important venomous snakes from Australia and Papua New Guinea. The objective of this study was to describe taipan envenoming in Australian and its response to antivenom. METHODS: Confirmed taipan bites were recruited from the Australian Snakebite Project. Data were collected prospectively on all snakebites, including patient demographics, bite circumstances, clinical effects, laboratory results, complications and treatment...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902669/an-anaphylactoid-reaction-to-rattlesnake-envenomation-in-a-pediatric-patient
#5
Logan Rencher, Joanna Schwartz, Alexandra Wilson
Rattlesnake envenomation causes a spectrum of symptoms and signs, many of which closely resemble an anaphylactic reaction. Development of airway compromise after a snake bite to an extremity is unusual, but has been previously reported. The majority of such reports detail a history of probable sensitization from previous contact with snakes or snake venom. Few reports exist without such previous contact; no reports are of pediatric cases. Here we present a 14-year-old boy with no history of prior snake exposure who presents with an anaphylactoid reaction after a rattlesnake bite...
November 29, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894563/administration-of-crofab-antivenom-by-a-helicopter-emergency-medical-service-team
#6
Michael T Steuerwald, Season R K Gabbard, Gillian A Beauchamp, Matthew K Riddle, Edward J Otten
The case presented here highlights an unconventional use of a helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) to provide a specialized medication to a critically ill patient when definitive transport was delayed. A 39-year-old man presented to a rural hospital 1 hour after sustaining a copperhead envenomation. He developed severe symptoms and was intubated. Arrangements were made for transfer to a tertiary referral center by HEMS, but because of incoming weather conditions, the team would not be able to make the return flight safely...
November 2016: Air Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890775/expanding-the-neutralization-scope-of-the-echitab-plus-icp-antivenom-to-include-venoms-of-elapids-from-southern-africa
#7
Andrés Sánchez, Álvaro Segura, Mariángela Vargas, María Herrera, Mauren Villalta, Ricardo Estrada, Francisco Wu, Thea Litschka-Koen, Michael Alfred Perry, Alberto Alape-Girón, Guillermo León
EchiTAb-plus-ICP is an antivenom prepared from plasma of horses hyperimmunized with the venoms of the carpet viper (Echis ocellatus), the puff adder (Bitis arietans) and the black-necked spitting cobra (Naja nigricollis). Therefore, the use of this antivenom has been limited to Western Africa. In order to expand the neutralization scope of EchiTAb-plus-ICP, we supplemented the immunogenic mixture with the venoms of B. arietans, the black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis), the Mozambique spitting cobra (Naja mossambica), the snouted cobra (N...
November 24, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890774/inhibition-of-local-effects-induced-by-bothrops-erythromelas-snake-venom-assessment-of-the-effectiveness-of-brazilian-polyvalent-bothropic-antivenom-and-aqueous-leaf-extract-of-jatropha-gossypiifolia
#8
Juliana Félix-Silva, Jacyra A S Gomes, Jacinthia B Xavier-Santos, Júlia G R Passos, Arnóbio A Silva-Junior, Denise V Tambourgi, Matheus F Fernandes-Pedrosa
Bothrops erythromelas is a snake of medical importance responsible for most of the venomous incidents in Northeastern Brazil. However, this species is not included in the pool of venoms that are used in the Brazilian polyvalent bothropic antivenom (BAv) production. Furthermore, it is well known that antivenom therapy has limited efficacy against venom-induced local effects, making the search for complementary alternatives to treat snakebites an important task. Jatropha gossypiifolia is a medicinal plant widely indicated in folk medicine as an antidote for snakebites, whose effectiveness against Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV) has been previously demonstrated in mice...
November 24, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888371/protective-effect-of-the-sulfated-agaran-isolated-from-the-red-seaweed-laurencia-aldingensis-against-toxic-effects-of-the-venom-of-the-snake-lachesis-muta
#9
Ana Cláudia Rodrigues da Silva, Luciana Garcia Ferreira, Maria Eugênia Rabello Duarte, Mutue Toyota Fujii, Eladio Flores Sanchez, Miguel Daniel Noseda, André Lopes Fuly
Snakebite is a serious occupational hazard affecting mainly rural populations of tropical and subtropical developing countries. Lachesis muta (Bushmaster) bites are extremely serious but are rarely reported in the literature. Bushmaster envenomings are characterized by intense local pain, edema, neurotoxicity, hypotension, local hemorrhage, and dramatic systemic alterations. Antivenom treatment has regularly been used for more than a century; however, it fails to neutralize local tissue damage and hemorrhage, leading to morbidity or disabilities in victims...
November 25, 2016: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886134/priority-actions-and-progress-to-substantially-and-sustainably-reduce-the-mortality-morbidity-and-socioeconomic-burden-of-tropical-snakebite
#10
Robert A Harrison, José María Gutiérrez
The deliberations and conclusions of a Hinxton Retreat convened in September 2015, entitled "Mechanisms to reverse the public health neglect of snakebite victims" are reported. The participants recommended that the following priority actions be included in strategies to reduce the global impact of snake envenoming: (a) collection of accurate global snakebite incidence, mortality and morbidity data to underpin advocacy efforts and help design public health campaigns; (b) promotion of (i) public education prevention campaigns; (ii) transport systems to improve access to hospitals and (iii) establishment of regional antivenom-efficacy testing facilities to ensure antivenoms' effectiveness and safety;...
November 24, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886129/insights-into-the-hypertensive-effects-of-tityus-serrulatus-scorpion-venom-purification-of-an-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-like-peptidase
#11
Daniela Cajado-Carvalho, Alexandre Kazuo Kuniyoshi, Bruno Duzzi, Leo Kei Iwai, Úrsula Castro de Oliveira, Inácio de Loiola Meirelles Junqueira de Azevedo, Roberto Tadashi Kodama, Fernanda Vieira Portaro
The number of cases of envenomation by scorpions has grown significantly in Brazil since 2007, with the most severe cases being caused by the Tityus serrulatus scorpion. Although envenomed patients mostly suffer neurotoxic manifestations, other symptoms, such as hypertension, cannot be exclusively attributed to neurotoxins. Omics analyses have detected plentiful amounts of metalloproteases in T. serrulatus venom. However, the roles played by these enzymes in envenomation are still unclear. Endeavoring to investigate the functions of scorpion venom proteases, we describe here for the first time an Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme-like peptidase (ACE-like) purified from T...
November 24, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886127/viperid-envenomation-wound-exudate-contributes-to-increased-vascular-permeability-via-a-damps-tlr-4-mediated-pathway
#12
Alexandra Rucavado, Carolina A Nicolau, Teresa Escalante, Junho Kim, Cristina Herrera, José María Gutiérrez, Jay W Fox
Viperid snakebite envenomation is characterized by inflammatory events including increase in vascular permeability. A copious exudate is generated in tissue injected with venom, whose proteomics analysis has provided insights into the mechanisms of venom-induced tissue damage. Hereby it is reported that wound exudate itself has the ability to induce increase in vascular permeability in the skin of mice. Proteomics analysis of exudate revealed the presence of cytokines and chemokines, together with abundant damage associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) resulting from both proteolysis of extracellular matrix and cellular lysis...
November 24, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886057/age-related-modulations-of-aqp4-and-caveolin-1-in-the-hippocampus-predispose-the-toxic-effect-of-phoneutria-nigriventer-spider-venom
#13
Edilene S Soares, Leila M Stávale, Monique C P Mendonça, Andressa Coope, Maria Alice da Cruz-Höfling
We have previously demonstrated that Phoneutria nigriventer venom (PNV) causes blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, swelling of astrocytes end-feet and fluid permeation into brain interstitium in rats. Caveolae and water channels respond to BBB alterations by co-participation in shear stress response and edema formation/resolution. Herein, we showed post-natal developmental-related changes of two BBB-associated transporter proteins: the endothelial caveolin-1 (Cav-1), the major scaffolding protein from caveolae frame, and the astroglial aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the main water channel protein expressed in astrocytic peri-vascular end-feet processes, in the hippocampus of rats intraperitoneally-administered PNV...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880678/evidence-for-an-alternative-mechanism-of-toxin-production-in-the-box-jellyfish-alatina-alata
#14
Cheryl Lewis Ames, Jason Macrander
Cubozoans (box jellyfish) have a reputation as the most venomous animals on the planet. Herein, we provide a review of cubozoan prey capture and digestion informed by the scientific literature. Like all cnidarians, box jellyfish envenomation originates from structures secreted within nematocyte post-Golgi vesicles called nematocysts. When tentacles come in contact with prey or would-be predators, a cocktail of toxins is rapidly deployed from nematocysts via a long spiny tubule that serves to immobilize the target organism...
November 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876196/clinically-significant-envenomation-from-postmortem-copperhead-agkistrodon-contortrix
#15
Michael P Emswiler, F Phillip Griffith, Kirk L Cumpston
Over 14,000 copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) bites were reported to United States poison centers between 1983 and 2008, and 1809 cases were reported to poison centers in 2014. The copperhead is primarily found in the southeastern United States and belongs to the pit viper subfamily Crotalinae, which also includes the water moccasin (Agkistrodon piscivorus) and rattlesnakes (Crotalus and Sistrurus genera). Postmortem rattlesnakes have been reported to cause clinically significant envenomation; we report a case of a postmortem copperhead causing clinically significant envenomation after inadvertent puncture with the deceased copperhead fang...
November 18, 2016: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871786/ischemic-brain-infarcts-and-intracranial-haemorrhages-following-russell-s-viper-daboia-russelii-bite-in-sri-lanka
#16
R M M K Namal Rathnayaka, S A M Kularatne, K D M Kumarasinghe, Janaka Ranaweera, P E A Nishanthi Ranathunga
Snakebite is an important medical problem in Sri Lanka. Of the deadly venomous snakes, Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) is widely distributed and responsible for most of the fatalities of snakebite in the country. It is not uncommon to see atypical manifestations in Russell's viper bite. We report the events of intracranial haemorrhages and multiple ischemic brain infarcts following Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) bite of a previously healthy 43-years-old male who succumbed to envenoming.
November 18, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866407/forecasting-and-prediction-of-scorpion-sting-cases-in-biskra-province-algeria-using-a-seasonal-autoregressive-integrated-moving-average-model
#17
Schehrazad Selmane, Mohamed L'Hadj
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to highlight some epidemiological aspects of scorpion envenomations, to analyse and interpret the available data for Biskra province, Algeria, and to develop a forecasting model for scorpion sting cases in Biskra province, which records the highest number of scorpion stings in Algeria. METHODS: In addition to analysing the epidemiological profile of scorpion stings that occurred throughout the year 2013, we used the Box-Jenkins approach to fit a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model to the monthly recorded scorpion sting cases in Biskra from 2000 to 2012...
2016: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855764/-lymphoedema-after-an-adder-bite
#18
Shems Al-Hayder, Jonas Raymond Duffy
Bites from the adder, Vipera berus, are well known for causing local and general toxicity. We report a case of a 63-year-old female who was bitten in one of her lower extremities. She was seen twice in the emergency department with symptoms and signs consistent with severe envenomation. Despite treatment with antihistamines and corticosteroids the oedema persisted. A lymphoscintigraphy was performed showing dermal backflow in the right leg, confirming the diagnosis of lymphoedema. Based on the present case report and review of the literature antivenom therapy should be considered more actively...
November 14, 2016: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845059/envenomation-by-bothrops-punctatus-in-southwestern-colombia
#19
Carlos A Cañas, Alexandra Vallejo
Bothrops punctatus (Chocoan forest lancehead) is a semi-arboreal pitviper species distributed in Panamá, Colombia, and Ecuador, whose human envenomation is poorly characterized. We describe two patients bitten by B. punctatus, whose most relevant clinical feature was the development of a severe coagulopathy with few local manifestations (mild edema without signs of necrosis) at the site of the bite. Patients quickly improved their clinical and laboratory abnormalities after polyvalent antivenom application...
December 15, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845058/identification-of-the-immunogenic-epitopes-of-the-whole-venom-component-of-the-hemiscorpius-lepturus-scorpion-using-the-phage-display-peptide-library
#20
Roghaye Jahdasani, Fatemeh Rahimi Jamnani, Mahdi Behdani, Mahdi Habibi-Anbouhi, Najmeh Yardehnavi, Delavar Shahbazzadeh, Fatemeh Kazemi-Lomedasht
The venom of the Hemiscorpius lepturus scorpion contains mixtures of bioactive compounds that disturb biochemical and physiological functions of the victims. Hemiscorpius lepturus envenomation is recognized as a serious health concern in tropical regions. So far, there is no preventive procedure, and the main focus is on treatment of victims with an antiserum purified from hyper-immunized horses. Although antisera can neutralize the venom, they, in some cases, lead to anaphylactic shock and even death. Selection of peptides mimicking antigenic and immunogenic epitopes of toxins from random peptide libraries is a novel approach for the development of recombinant toxins and poly-epitopic vaccine...
December 15, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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