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Seungho Kang, Jeongmi Moon, Byeongjo Chun
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to help set domestic guidelines for administration of antivenom to envenomated patients after snakebites. METHODS: This retrospective observational case series comprised 128 patients with snake envenomation. The patients were divided into two groups according to the need for additional antivenom after the initial treatment based on the traditional snakebite severity grading scale. One group successfully recovered after the initial treatment and did not need any additional antivenom (n=85) and the other needed an additional administration of antivenom (n=43)...
March 2016: Clin Exp Emerg Med
Ranga M Weerakkody, Pushpa N Lokuliyana, Ruchika D Lanerolle
Hump-nosed viper (Hypnale hypnale; HNV) is one of the six major snake species in Sri Lanka that cause envenomation. Nephrotoxicity, coagulopathy, and neurotoxicity are wellrecognized features of its envenomation. Type 4 renal tubular acidosis (RTA4) has only once been described previously in this condition, and we report two further cases. Two patients aged 53 and 51 presented following HNV bites with acute kidney injury and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. Both underwent multiple cycles of hemodialysis until the polyuric phase was reached...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Nikele Nadur-Andrade, Camila Squarzoni Dale, Victoria Regina da Silva Oliveira, Elaine Flamia Toniolo, Regiane Dos Santos Feliciano, José Antonio da Silva, Stella Regina Zamuner
BACKGROUND: Envenoming induced by Bothrops snakebites is characterized by drastic local tissue damage that involves an intense inflammatory reaction and local hyperalgesia which are not neutralized by conventional antivenom treatment. Herein, the effectiveness of photobiomodulation to reduce inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by Bothrops moojeni venom (Bmv), as well as the mechanisms involved was investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bmv (1 μg) was injected through the intraplantar route in the right hind paw of mice...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Madhumita Sinha, Dan Quan, Fred W McDonald, André Valdez
OBJECTIVE: Scorpion antivenom was recently approved for use in patients with clinically significant scorpion envenomation in the United States; no formal economic analysis on its impact on cost of management has been performed. METHODS: Three different strategies of management of scorpion envenomation with systemic neurotoxic symptoms in children were compared for cost minimization from a societal perspective. In strategy I, patients were managed with supportive care only without antivenom...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Ronelle E Welton, David J Williams, Danny Liew
BACKGROUND: This study provides the first contemporary epidemiological insight into venomous injuries based on demographics and geography in Australia in the timeframe 2000-2013. METHODS: Analysis of national hospitalisation and mortality data to examine the incidence of injury and death due to envenoming in Australia. Rates were calculated using the intercensal population for all Australian age groups. RESULTS: Over the study period, deaths were due to an anaphylactic event (0...
October 17, 2016: Internal Medicine Journal
F H Matsubara, G O Meissner, V Herzig, H C Justa, B C L Dias, D Trevisan-Silva, L H Gremski, W Gremski, A Senff-Ribeiro, O M Chaim, G F King, S S Veiga
Loxosceles intermedia venom comprises a complex mixture of proteins, glycoproteins and low molecular mass peptides that act synergistically to immobilize envenomed prey. Analysis of a venom-gland transcriptome from L. intermedia revealed that knottins, also known as inhibitor cystine knot peptides, are the most abundant class of toxins expressed in this species. Knottin peptides contain a particular arrangement of intramolecular disulphide bonds, and these peptides typically act upon ion channels or receptors in the insect nervous system, triggering paralysis or other lethal effects...
October 15, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
Benjamin H Kaffenberger, David Shetlar, Scott Norton, Misha Rosenbach
Global temperatures continue to rise, reaching new records almost every year this decade. Although the causes are debated, climate change is a reality. Consequences of climate change include melting of the arctic ice cap, rising of sea levels, changes in precipitation patterns, and increased severe weather events. This article updates dermatologists about the effects of climate change on the epidemiology and geographic ranges of selected skin diseases in North America. Although globalization, travel, and trade are also important to changing disease and vector patterns, climate change creates favorable habitats and expanded access to immunologically naïve hosts...
October 11, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
A Soumana, M Kamaye, M Mamane, D Mamoudou, A Samailla, A Moussa, H Dima, T Guéro
We report a fatal case due to a massive attack by a swarm of bees in a nine-year-old child. The accident was fatal because of two aggravating factors: the cephalic location and the large number of stings (about 300). Complications were coagulopathy, anemia, hemorrhage, coma, and oligoanuria. Support was symptomatic at a facility second level. The outcome was fatal within 14 days. In view of the encountered difficulties, we recommend to build written protocols for the management of envenomation in any health training reference...
October 13, 2016: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
Schehrazad Selmane, Mohamed L'Hadj
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to highlight some epidemiological aspects of scorpion envenomations, to analyse and interpret the recorded data, and to develop a forecasting model for scorpion sting cases in Biskra province which records the highest number of scorpion stings at national level. METHODS: In addition to the epidemiological profile of scorpion stings that occurred throughout the year 2013, we carried out the Box-Jenkins approach to fit a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model to the monthly recorded scorpion sting cases in Biskra from 2000 to 2012...
October 14, 2016: Epidemiology and Health
Carlos H M Oliveira, Anderson A Simão, Marcus V C Trento, Pedro H S César, Silvana Marcussi
The enzyme inhibition by natural and/ or low-cost compounds may represent a valuable adjunct to traditional serotherapy performed in cases of snakebite, mainly with a view to mitigate the local effects of envenoming. The objective of this study was to evaluate possible interactions between vitamins and enzymes that comprise Bothrops atrox and Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms, in vitro. Proteolysis inhibition assays (substrates: azocasein, collagen, gelatin and fibrinogen), hemolysis, coagulation, hemagglutination were carried out using different proportions of vitamins in face of to inhibit minimum effective dose of each venom...
October 10, 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Fesih Aktar, Safak Aktar, Ilyas Yolbas, Recep Tekin
BACKGROUND: Snakebites are an emergency medical condition and require rapid treatment procedures in children. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to present an overview of the demographic characteristics, clinical presentations, laboratory findings, severity, and complications that developed in pediatric patients due to snakebites. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 151 children with snakebite were enrolled in the study. All patients had a history of snakebite obtained between June 2006 and August 2015 retrospectively...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
David M Housley, Gary D Housley, Michael J Liddell, Ernest A Jennings
This review categorizes functionally validated actions of defined scorpion toxin (SCTX) neuropeptides across ion channel subclasses, highlighting key trends in this rapidly evolving field. Scorpion envenomation is a common event in many tropical and subtropical countries, with neuropharmacological actions, particularly autonomic nervous system modulation, causing significant mortality. The primary active agents within scorpion venoms are a diverse group of small neuropeptides that elicit specific potent actions across a wide range of ion channel classes...
October 8, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Aneez Joseph, Sowmya Sathyendra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Shivchhand A, Surana G, Gupta V, Karnik N
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Eduardo Coriolano de Oliveira, Rodrigo Alves Soares Cruz, Nayanna de Mello Amorim, Marcelo Guerra Santos, Luiz Carlos Simas Pereira Junior, Eladio Oswaldo Flores Sanchez, Caio Pinho Fernandes, Rafael Garrett, Leandro Machado Rocha, André Lopes Fuly
Snake venoms are composed of a complex mixture of active proteins that induce toxic effects, such as edema, hemorrhage, and death. Lachesis muta has the highest lethality indices in Brazil. In most cases, antivenom fails to neutralize local effects, leading to disabilities in victims. Thus, alternative treatments are under investigation, and plant extracts are promising candidates. The objective of this work was to investigate the ability of crude extracts, fractions, or isolated products of Erythroxylum ovalifolium and Erythroxylum subsessile to neutralize some toxic effects of L...
October 11, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Rupinder Sharma, Varundeep Dogra, Gurudutt Sharma, Vivek Chauhan
INTRODUCTION: In North India snake bite deaths are predominantly seen with neurotoxic envenomations (NEs) whereas in South India the hemotoxic envenomation (HE) is more common. Krait is responsible for most deaths in North India. It bites people sleeping on the floors, mostly at night. We describe the profile of venomous snake bites over 1 year in 2013. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in a rural tertiary care hospital in North India. Demographics, circumstances of bite, envenomation, first aid, delay, consultation, treatment, anti-venom, and outcomes were recorded for all victims of snake bite...
July 2016: International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science
Mauren Villalta, Andrés Sánchez, María Herrera, Mariángela Vargas, Álvaro Segura, Maykel Cerdas, Ricardo Estrada, Indika Gawarammana, Dan E Keyler, Kimberly McWhorter, Roy Malleappah, Alberto Alape-Girón, Guillermo León, José María Gutiérrez
A new whole IgG, freeze-dried, polyspecific antivenom was prepared from the plasma of horses immunized with the venoms of the snakes Daboia russelii, Echis carinatus, Hypnale hypnale, and Naja naja from Sri Lanka. The preclinical neutralizing ability of this antivenom against several toxic and enzymatic activities of these four venoms was analyzed, and compared with that of a batch of VINS antivenom (India) being currently used in Sri Lanka. The activities tested were: lethality, hemorrhagic, in vitro coagulant, proteinase and phospholipase A2...
October 6, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
María Emilia Garcia Denegri, Gladys P Teibler, Silvana L Maruñak, David R Hernández, Ofelia C Acosta, Laura C Leiva
Bothrops alternatus snake venom is particularly characterized for inducing a prominent haemorrhage and affecting hemostasis as a consequence of 43.1% of metallo-proteinases and less than 10% of PLA2 (almost all non-myotoxic phospholipases) in its venomics. In addition, myonecrosis is the major local effect in viper envenoming which might lead to permanent sequela. Then, the rebuilding of the microvasculature at the local injured site acquires significance since represents one of the pivotal stages for subsequent skeletal muscle regeneration either at morphological or functional aspects...
October 6, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Claire F Komives, Elda E Sanchez, Anurag S Rathore, Brandon White, Montamas Suntravat, Michael Balderrama, Angela Cifelli, Varsha Joshi
An eleven amino acid ribosomal peptide was shown to completely neutralize Western Diamondback Rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) venom in mice when a lethal dose of the venom was pre-incubated with the peptide prior to intravenous injection. We have expressed the peptide as a concatenated chain of peptides and cleaved them apart from an immobilized metal affinity column using a protease. After ultrafiltration steps, the mixture was shown to partially neutralize rattlesnake venom in mice. Preliminary experiments are described here that suggest a potential life-saving therapy could be developed...
October 7, 2016: Biotechnology Progress
N Osnaya-Romero, L C Acosta-Saavedra, R Goytia-Acevedo, I Lares-Asseff, G Basurto-Celaya, G Perez-Guille, L D Possani, E S Calderón-Aranda
The scorpion Centruroides limpidus limpidus (C.l.l.) is endemic in México, producing hundreds of accidents in humans; children being one of the most susceptible targets. Few studies reported that severe envenoming by scorpion venom induces cardiac damage and electrolytes abnormalities in children, but the relationship of envenoming severity and toxic blood levels is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship among clinical status of envenoming, serum electrolyte, electrocardiographic abnormalities, and serum toxin levels in 44 children stung by scorpion over a period of 6 months in the State of Morelos, Mexico...
September 29, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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