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Envenomations

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311537/secreted-phospholipases-a%C3%A2-from-animal-venoms-in-pain-and-analgesia
#1
REVIEW
Vanessa O Zambelli, Gisele Picolo, Carlos A H Fernandes, Marcos R M Fontes, Yara Cury
Animal venoms comprise a complex mixture of components that affect several biological systems. Based on the high selectivity for their molecular targets, these components are also a rich source of potential therapeutic agents. Among the main components of animal venoms are the secreted phospholipases A₂ (sPLA₂s). These PLA₂ belong to distinct PLA₂s groups. For example, snake venom sPLA₂s from Elapidae and Viperidae families, the most important families when considering envenomation, belong, respectively, to the IA and IIA/IIB groups, whereas bee venom PLA₂ belongs to group III of sPLA₂s...
December 19, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305081/extending-knowledge-of-the-clinical-picture-of-balkan-adder-vipera-berus-bosniensis-envenoming-the-first-photographically-documented-neurotoxic-case-from-south-western-hungary
#2
Csaba Varga, Tamás Malina, Viktória Alföldi, Gergely Bilics, Ferenc Nagy, Tibor Oláh
We report a severe envenoming associated with minimal local symptoms following a Balkan adder (Vipera berus bosniensis) bite in South-Western Hungary. A 63-year-old male with a history of hypertension and sinus bradycardia (45/min) was bitten by a sub-adult specimen of V. b. bosniensis in Somogy County on 04 May 2017. The patient was transported to and treated at the Emergency Department of Somogy County "Moritz Kaposi" General Hospital, Kaposvár. Locally only pain and minimal swelling with a small haematoma developed on the bitten finger...
January 2, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302018/injuries-and-envenomation-by-exotic-pets-in-hong-kong
#3
V Ch Ng, A Ch Lit, O F Wong, M L Tse, H T Fung
INTRODUCTION: Exotic pets are increasingly popular in Hong Kong and include fish, amphibians, reptiles, and arthropods. Some of these exotic animals are venomous and may cause injuries and envenomation to their owners. The clinical experience of emergency physicians in the management of injuries and envenomation by these exotic animals is limited. We reviewed the clinical features and outcomes of injuries and envenomation by exotic pets recorded by the Hong Kong Poison Information Centre...
January 5, 2018: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297814/coagulation-assessment-underutilized-diagnostic-tools-in-zoo-and-aquatic-animal-medicine
#4
Trevor J Gerlach, Ashley Barratclough, Bobbi Conner
Veterinarians specializing in nondomestic species are faced with unique challenges regarding research and diagnostic capabilities given the wild and frequently dangerous nature of their patients. Standard diagnostic techniques used in small or large animal practice are not always possible due to anatomical constraints, size, tractability, or the inherent risk of anesthesia in highly valued, rare species. Diagnostic modalities that utilize simple, relatively noninvasive techniques show promise in evaluating nondomestic species and elucidating the pathophysiology behind poorly characterized disease processes in both wild and captive populations...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285351/application-of-phage-display-for-the-development-of-a-novel-inhibitor-of-pla2-activity-in-western-cottonmouth-venom
#5
James K Titus, Matthew K Kay, Cdr Jacob J Glaser
Snakebite envenomation is an important global health concern. The current standard treatment approach for snakebite envenomation relies on antibody-based antisera, which are expensive, not universally available, and can lead to adverse physiological effects. Phage display techniques offer a powerful tool for the selection of phage-expressed peptides, which can bind with high specificity and affinity towards venom components. In this research, the amino acid sequences of Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from multiple cottonmouth species were analyzed, and a consensus peptide synthesized...
2017: Journal of Venom Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285350/outcome-determinants-of-snakebites-in-north-bihar-india-a-prospective-hospital-based-study
#6
Takanungsang Longkumer, Lois J Armstrong, Philip Finny
Bihar is the state with the third largest number of snakebite deaths per year in India. This prospective, one-year study of 608 snakebites provides the first data from Bihar on determinants of unfavourable outcomes in snakebites. Any delay in reaching hospital raised the risk of a snakebite patient for an unfavourable outcome [OR 8.88, CI 2.04-38.8]. Attending a traditional practitioner prior to presenting to the hospital was the only specific, significant delay [OR 3.52, CI 1.26-9.7]. Prevention of unfavourable outcomes occurred by presenting to hospital in less than 1...
2017: Journal of Venom Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278784/elucidating-the-biogeographical-variation-of-the-venom-of-naja-naja-spectacled-cobra-from-pakistan-through-a-venom-decomplexing-proteomic-study
#7
Kin Ying Wong, Choo Hock Tan, Kae Yi Tan, Quraishi H Naeem, Nget Hong Tan
Naja naja is a medically important species that is distributed widely in South Asia. Its venom lethality and neutralization profile have been reported to vary markedly, but the understanding of this phenomenon has been limited without a comprehensive venom profile for the Pakistani N. naja. This study set to investigate the venom proteome of Pakistani N. naja applying reverse-phase HPLC, SDS-PAGE, mass spectrometry and data-mining approaches. The venom enzymatics and antigen binding activities were also studied...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276560/envenomation-seizures
#8
Ghulam Abbas Kharal, Richard Ryan Darby, Adam B Cohen
Insect sting-related envenomation rarely produces seizures. We present a patient with confusion and seizures that began 24 hours after a yellow jacket (wasp) sting. Given the rapid onset and resolution of symptoms, as well as accompanying dermatological and orbital features, and the lack of any infectious or structural abnormalities identified, the toxic effect of the wasp venom (and related anaphylaxis reaction) was believed to be the cause of his presentation.
January 2018: Neurohospitalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275044/functional-and-proteomic-comparison-of-bothrops-jararaca-venom-from-captive-specimens-and-the-brazilian-bothropic-reference-venom
#9
Iasmim Baptista de Farias, Karen de Morais-Zani, Caroline Serino-Silva, Sávio S Sant'Anna, Marisa M T da Rocha, Kathleen F Grego, Débora Andrade-Silva, Solange M T Serrano, Anita M Tanaka-Azevedo
Snake venom is a variable phenotypic trait, whose plasticity and evolution are critical for effective antivenom production. A significant reduction of the number of snake donations to Butantan Institute (São Paulo, Brazil) occurred in recent years, and this fact may impair the production of the Brazilian Bothropic Reference Venom (BBRV). Nevertheless, in the last decades a high number of Bothrops jararaca specimens have been raised in captivity in the Laboratory of Herpetology of Butantan Institute. Considering these facts, we compared the biochemical and biological profiles of B...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274419/an-overview-of-the-immune-modulating-effects-of-enzymatic-toxins-from-snake-venoms
#10
REVIEW
Sandra M Burin, Danilo L Menaldo, Suely V Sampaio, Fabiani G Frantz, Fabíola A Castro
Snake venoms are complex mixtures of organic and inorganic compounds, including proteins belonging to the protease (serine and metalloproteinases), oxidase (L-amino acid oxidases), and phospholipase (especially phospholipases A2) enzyme classes. These toxins account for the serious deleterious effects of snake envenomations, such as tissue necrosis, neurotoxicity, and hemorrhage. In addition to their toxic effects, snake venom toxins have served as important tools for investigating the mechanisms underlying envenomation and discovering new pharmacologically active compounds with immunotherapeutic potential...
December 20, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248468/suspected-anaphylaxis-and-lack-of-clinical-protection-associated-with-envenomation-in-two-dogs-previously-vaccinated-with-crotalus-atrox-toxoid
#11
Kaelyn E Petras, Raegan J Wells, Jocelyn Pronko
OBJECTIVE: to describe the clinical presentation of two canines present in anaphylactic shock secondary to rattlesnake envenomation. In both cases, there was no previous documented previous envenomation event and the initial sensitization required for anaphylactic response is believed to be secondary to Crotalus atrox toxoid vaccine. CASE DESCRIPTION: In the first case, a 12-year-old golden retriever present for collapse, severe hematochezia, and vomiting after first time envenomation from a suspected western diamondback rattlesnake...
December 14, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248447/evaluation-of-pro-inflammatory-events-induced-by-bothrops-alternatus-snake-venom
#12
Silvina Echeverría, Elbio Leiguez, Carlos Guijas, Neide Galvão do Nascimento, Ofelia Acosta, Catarina Teixeira, Laura C Leiva, Juan Pablo Rodríguez
Inflammation is a major local feature of envenomation by bothropic snakes being characterized by a prominent local edema, pain, and extensive swelling. There are reports demonstrating that whole Bothrops snake venoms and toxins isolated from them are able to activate macrophages functions, such as phagocytosis, production of reactive oxygen, cytokines and eicosanoids, however, little is known about the effects of Bothrops alternatus (B.a.) venom on macrophages. In this work, we evaluated the proinflammatory effects of B...
December 14, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244815/analysis-of-the-efficacy-of-taiwanese-freeze-dried-neurotoxic-antivenom-against-naja-kaouthia-naja-siamensis-and-ophiophagus-hannah-through-proteomics-and-animal-model-approaches
#13
Chien-Chun Liu, Chen-Hsien You, Po-Jung Wang, Jau-Song Yu, Guo-Jen Huang, Chien-Hsin Liu, Wen-Chin Hsieh, Chih-Chuan Lin
In Southeast Asia, envenoming resulting from cobra snakebites is an important public health issue in many regions, and antivenom therapy is the standard treatment for the snakebite. Because these cobras share a close evolutionary history, the amino acid sequences of major venom components in different snakes are very similar. Therefore, either monovalent or polyvalent antivenoms may offer paraspecific protection against envenomation of humans by several different snakes. In Taiwan, a bivalent antivenom-freeze-dried neurotoxic antivenom (FNAV)-against Bungarus multicinctus and Naja atra is available...
December 15, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234603/a-retrospective-study-of-clinico-epidemiological-profile-of-snakebite-related-deaths-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-midnapore-west-bengal-india
#14
Rituparna Ghosh, Koushik Mana, Kripasindhu Gantait, Sumana Sarkhel
Objective: Snakebite is one of the neglected tropical diseases that World Health Organization (WHO) aimed to eradicate. The objective of the study is to investigate the mortality and morbidity due to snakebite at Midnapore Medical College & Hospital in Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal, India. Methods & materials: This is a record-based, retrospective, descriptive epidemiological study conducted from January 2012 to December 2016 at Midnapore Medical College and Hospital(MMCH), Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal...
2018: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230332/mechanisms-involving-myocardial-injury-in-tropical-stings-and-bites
#15
Thirunavukarasu Kumanan, Mahesan Guruparan, Ratnasamy Vithiya, Indika Gawarammana
It is known that a number of toxic substances produce myocardial injury by several mechanisms involving interruption of coronary blood flow due to stimulation of clotting mechanism and coronary vasospasm. Number of toxic substances may cause direct myocardial toxicity independent of coronary blood flow. Acute myocardial injury due to stings and bites is a rare entity and not well understood. Here we illustrate a case of myocardial injury due to Russell's viper envenomation.
2017: Case Reports in Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215036/proteomics-and-antivenomics-of-echis-carinatus-carinatus-venom-correlation-with-pharmacological-properties-and-pathophysiology-of-envenomation
#16
Aparup Patra, Bhargab Kalita, Abhishek Chanda, Ashis K Mukherjee
The proteome composition of Echis carinatus carinatus venom (ECV) from India was studied for the first time by tandem mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 90, 47, and 22 distinct enzymatic and non-enzymatic proteins belonging to 15, 10, and 6 snake venom protein families were identified in ECV by searching the ESI-LC-MS/MS data against non-redundant protein databases of Viperidae (taxid 8689), Echis (taxid 8699) and Echis carinatus (taxid 40353), respectively. However, analysis of MS/MS data against the Transcriptome Shotgun Assembly sequences (87 entries) of conger E...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203373/betulinic-oleanolic-and-ursolic-acids-inhibit-the-enzymatic-and-biological-effects-induced-by-a-p-i-snake-venom-metalloproteinase
#17
Lina María Preciado, Paola Rey-Suárez, Isabel Cristina Henao, Jaime Andrés Pereañez
Betulinic acid (BA), Oleanolic acid (OA) and Ursolic acid (UA), are pentacyclic triterpenoids with widespread occurrence throughout the plant kingdom, these compounds are widely recognized by their pharmacological and biological properties, such as, anti-tumoral, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and hepatoprotective activity. In this work we determined the inhibitory ability of these compounds on the enzymatic, hemorrhagic, myotoxic and edema-inducing activities of Batx-I, a P-I metalloproteinase isolated from Bothrops atrox venom...
December 1, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201959/demographics-of-scorpion-sting-in-iran-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Babak Mahshidfar, Hamed Basir Ghafouri, Mohammad Reza Yasinzadeh, Mani Mofidi, Mahdi Rezai, Davood Farsi, Saeed Abbasi, Peyman Hafezimoghadam
Introduction: Scorpion sting is an important public health problem in some countries, including Iran. This study aimed to describe the demographics of a large number of these victims in some endemic areas of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated baseline characteristics, clinical findings, management, and disposition of scorpion stung cases in 26 cities of 4 provinces in the southwest quarter of Iran, during one year. Results: 3008 cases of scorpion sting with mean age of 27...
2017: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201102/enzymatic-analysis-of-iranian-echis-carinatus-venom-using-zymography
#19
Mostafa Kamyab, Euikyung Kim, Seyed Mehdi Hoseiny, Ramin Seyedian
Snakebite is a common problem especially in tropical areas all over the world including Iran. Echis carinatus as one of the most dangerous Iranian snakes is spreading in this country excluding central and northwest provinces. In this study gelatinase and fibrinogenolytic properties as two disintegrating matrix metalloproteinase enzymes were evaluated by a strong clear halo between 56-72 kDa in addition to another band located 76-102 kDa for gelatinase and one major band around 38 kDa for fibrinogenolytic enzyme respectively...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186818/multipurpose-hts-coagulation-analysis-assay-development-and-assessment-of-coagulopathic-snake-venoms
#20
(no author information available yet)
Coagulation assays currently employed are often low throughput, require specialized equipment and/or require large blood/plasma samples. This study describes the development, optimization and early application of a generic low-volume and high-throughput screening (HTS) assay for coagulation activity. The assay is a time-course spectrophotometric measurement which kinetically measures the clotting profile of bovine or human plasma incubated with Ca2+ and a test compound. The HTS assay can be a valuable new tool for coagulation diagnostics in hospitals, for research in coagulation disorders, for drug discovery and for venom research...
November 25, 2017: Toxins
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