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Envenomations

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784029/giant-honey-bee-apis-dorsata-sting-and-acute-limb-ischemia-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Gowri M Ratnayake, P N Weerathunga, Matharage Shani Apsara Dilrukshi, E W R Amara Witharana, Saroj Jayasinghe
BACKGROUND: Clinically significant manifestations of Hymenopteran envenomation is increasingly recognized in Sri Lanka. These clinical manifestations range from localized allergic reactions to end-organ failure and thrombotic-episodes. We report a case of 65 year old male who developed acute lower limb ischaemia after a sting of the hymenopteran Apis dorsata. CASE PRESENTATION: A 65 year old male with hypertension and hyperlipidaemia presented with envenomation from an attack of a swarm of A...
May 21, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782952/the-snakebite-problem-and-antivenom-crisis-from-a-health-economic-perspective
#2
Abdulrazaq G Habib, Nicholas I Brown
The scourge of snakebite has been well documented but largely ignored by the global health community for several decades, especially the role that economics has played in causing and exacerbating this crisis. Every year millions of people in low and middle-income countries face death, disability and disadvantage from snakebite envenoming (SBE) without access to appropriate treatment. Health-economic factors pervade every aspect of this neglected problem. A multitude of financial and commercial factors helped to cause, and now perpetuate, shortages of high quality, affordable and region-appropriate antivenom in areas where they are most needed...
May 18, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782951/clinical-consequences-of-toxic-envenomations-by-hymenoptera
#3
Justin O Schmidt
Many familiar Hymenoptera are brightly colored and can sting painfully-thus, their threat and clinical importance may be exaggerated. Most stinging insects only sting to defend themselves or their colonies from predators. The clinical nature of Hymenoptera envenomations contrasts that of other venomous animals, including other arthropods, primarily because allergic reaction, not direct intoxication, is the usual main concern. This review focuses mainly on the clinical features of direct toxicity to Hymenoptera envenomations, which can induce a high incidence of acute renal failure, liver failure, multiple organ failures, and death...
May 18, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776445/community-based-audits-of-snake-envenomations-in-a-resource-challenged-setting-of-cameroon-case-series
#4
Frank-Leonel Tianyi, Valirie Ndip Agbor, Joel Noutakdie Tochie, Benjamin Momo Kadia, Armand Seraphin Nkwescheu
BACKGROUND: Snakebites are a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide with the highest mortality burden in poor rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Inadequate surveillance systems result in loss of morbidity and mortality data in these settings. Although rarely reported in these resource-constraint environments, community-based audits are recognised pivotal tools which could help update existing data and indicate key public health interventions to curb snakebite-related mortality...
May 18, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774760/safety-of-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-in-copperhead-snakebite-patients
#5
Hoang X Pham, Michael E Mullins
INTRODUCTION: Current management guidelines for pit viper envenomations recommend against the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for pain control due to concern for platelet dysfunction and resulting coagulopathy. However, prior research suggests that copperhead snakes generally do not cause coagulopathy and they are responsible for most of the venomous snakebites in the USA. Thus, we compared the occurrences of clinically apparent bleeding and most abnormal laboratory values of coagulation between copperhead envenomation patients who received NSAIDs and those who did not...
May 18, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764824/achieving-full-neurological-recovery-in-snakebite-using-best-supportive-care
#6
Sally Wright, Genevieve Haddock
A 29-year-old woman presented to a community hospital in Sierra Leone 2 hours after being bitten by an unknown snake. On arrival, she was agitated though alert, however deteriorated into respiratory arrest. There was no local availability of antivenom. The patient remained in respiratory arrest undergoing best supportive care in a low-resource setting for 2 hours 55 minutes before returning to spontaneous ventilation. She went on to make a full neurological recovery. Though spontaneous recovery following snakebite envenoming is rare, this case showcases that good communication and basic manoeuvres can have a hugely positive impact on patient outcome...
May 14, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758383/does-size-matter-venom-proteomic-and-functional-comparison-between-night-adder-species-viperidae-causus-with-short-and-long-venom-glands
#7
Francisco C P Coimbra, James Dobson, Christina N Zdenek, Bianca Op den Brouw, Brett Hamilton, Jordan Debono, Paul Masci, Nathaniel Frank, Lilin Ge, Hang Fai Kwok, Bryan G Fry
Night adders (Causus species within the Viperidae family) are amphibian specialists and a common source of snakebite in Africa. Some species are unique in that they have the longest venom glands of any viper, extending approximately 10% of the body length. Despite their potential medical importance and evolutionary novelty, their venom has received almost no research attention. In this study, venoms from a short-glanded species (C. lichtensteinii) and from a long-glanded species (C. rhombeatus) were compared using a series of proteomic and bioactivity testing techniques to investigate and compare the toxin composition and functioning of the venoms of these two species...
May 11, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756423/persistent-hyponatraemia-following-suspected-krait-envenomation-in-a-5-year-old-sri-lankan-child-a-case-report
#8
I Kankananarachchi, M P Fernando, T Denipitiya, P Navabalasooriyar, N C Kitulwatte
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 31, 2018: Ceylon Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755470/cd36-shunts-eicosanoid-metabolism-to-repress-cd14-licensed-interleukin-1%C3%AE-release-and-inflammation
#9
Karina F Zoccal, Luiz G Gardinassi, Carlos A Sorgi, Alyne F G Meirelles, Karla C F Bordon, Isaias Glezer, Palmira Cupo, Alessandra K Matsuno, Valdes R Bollela, Eliane C Arantes, Francisco S Guimarães, Lúcia Helena Faccioli
Interleukin (IL)-1β is a potential target for treatment of several inflammatory diseases, including envenomation by the scorpion Tityus serrulatus . In this context, bioactive lipids such as prostaglandin (PG)E2 and leukotriene (LT)B4 modulate the production of IL-1β by innate immune cells. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that perceive T. serrulatus venom (TsV), and orchestrate LTB4 , PGE2 , and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production to regulate IL-1β release are unknown. Furthermore, molecular mechanisms driving human cell responses to TsV remain uncharacterized...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746978/clinical-studies-of-the-effectiveness-and-safety-of-antivenoms
#10
David J Williams, Abdulrazaq G Habib, David A Warrell
In the 1890s, hyperimmune sera proved effective in animals against challenge by the snake venom against which they had been raised. They were first used, apparently successfully, in a human patient in about 1895. Since then, antivenoms have become accepted as the only reliable specific treatment for snake-bite envenoming. Despite decades of accumulated clinical experience and a number of published randomised comparative and observational studies, the clinical effectiveness and safety of some antivenoms remain open to question, due to a lack of robust randomised controlled trial data...
May 7, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746977/antivenoms-life-saving-drugs-for-envenomings-by-animal-bites-and-stings
#11
EDITORIAL
José María Gutiérrez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 7, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741405/envenomation-by-atractaspis-irregularis-variable-burrowing-asp-a-case-report
#12
Bradley R Burmeister, Jacqueline A Schabold, Amy E Zosel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 9, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731539/venom-is-beneficial-but-not-essential-for-development-and-survival-of-nasonia
#13
Ellen O Martinson, John H Werren
Parasitoid wasps sting and inject venom in arthropod hosts, which alters host metabolism and development while keeping the host alive for several days, presumably to induce benefits for the parasitoid young.Here we investigate the consequences of host envenomation on development and fitness of wasp larvae in the ectoparasitoid Nasonia vitripennis , by comparing wasps reared on live unstung, previously stung, and cold-killed hosts. Developmental arrest and suppression of host response to larvae are major venom effects that occur in both stung and cold-killed hosts, but not unstung hosts; while cold-killed hosts lack venom effects that require a living host...
April 2018: Ecological Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730150/neurotoxicity-fingerprinting-of-venoms-using-on-line-microfluidic-achbp-profiling
#14
Julien Slagboom, Reka A Otvos, Fernanda C Cardoso, Janaki Iyer, Jeroen C Visser, Bjorn R van Doodewaerd, Ryan J R McCleary, Wilfried M A Niessen, Govert W Somsen, Richard J Lewis, R Manjunatha Kini, August B Smit, Nicholas R Casewell, Jeroen Kool
Venoms from snakes are rich sources of highly active proteins with potent affinity towards a variety of enzymes and receptors. Of the many distinct toxicities caused by envenomation, neurotoxicity plays an important role in the paralysis of prey by snakes as well as by venomous sea snails and insects. In order to improve the analytical discovery component of venom toxicity profiling, this paper describes the implementation of microfluidic high-resolution screening (HRS) to obtain neurotoxicity fingerprints from venoms that facilitates identification of the neurotoxic components of envenomation...
May 3, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729992/proteomics-functional-characterization-and-antivenom-neutralization-of-the-venom-of-pakistani-russell-s-viper-daboia-russelii-from-the-wild
#15
Tasnim Faisal, Kae Yi Tan, Si Mui Sim, Naeem Quraishi, Nget Hong Tan, Choo Hock Tan
The venom proteome of wild Pakistani Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) was investigated through nano-ESI-LCMS/MS of the reverse-phase HPLC fractions. A total of 54 venom proteins were identified and clustered into 11 protein families. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2 , 63.8%) and Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor (KSPI, 16.0%) were most abundant, followed by snake venom serine protease (SVSP, 5.5%, mainly Factor V activating enzyme), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, 4.3%), snake venom metalloprotease (SVMP, 2...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723952/why-is-skeletal-muscle-regeneration-impaired-after-myonecrosis-induced-by-viperid-snake-venoms
#16
REVIEW
José María Gutiérrez, Teresa Escalante, Rosario Hernández, Stefano Gastaldello, Patricia Saravia-Otten, Alexandra Rucavado
Skeletal muscle regeneration after myonecrosis involves the activation, proliferation and fusion of myogenic cells, and a coordinated inflammatory response encompassing phagocytosis of necrotic cell debris, and the concerted synthesis of cytokines and growth factors. Myonecrosis often occurs in snakebite envenomings. In the case of venoms that cause myotoxicity without affecting the vasculature, such as those of many elapid snakes, regeneration proceeds successfully. In contrast, in envenomings by most viperid snakes, which affect the vasculature and extracellular matrix in addition to muscle fibers, regeneration is largely impaired and, therefore, the muscle mass is reduced and replaced by fibro-adipose tissue...
May 1, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716988/structures-of-n-glycans-of-bothrops-venoms-revealed-as-molecular-signatures-that-contribute-to-venom-phenotype-in-viperid-snakes
#17
Débora Andrade-Silva, David Ashline, Thuy Tran, Aline S Lopes, Silvia Regina Travaglia Cardoso, Marcelo S Reis, André Zelanis, Solange M T Serrano, Vernon N Reinhold
The complexity of snake venoms has long been investigated to explore a myriad of biologically active proteins and peptides that are used for immobilizing or killing prey, and are responsible for the pathological effects observed upon envenomation. Glycosylation is the main post-translational modification (PTM) of viperid venoms but currently there is little understanding of how protein glycosylation impacts the variation of venom proteomes. We have previously reported that Bothrops venom glycoproteomes contain a core of components that markedly define their composition and parallel their phylogenetic classification...
May 1, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715467/diversity-of-peptidic-and-proteinaceous-toxins-from-social-hymenoptera-venoms
#18
José Roberto Aparecido Dos Santos-Pinto, Amilcar Perez-Riverol, Alexis Musacchio Lasa, Mario Sergio Palma
Among venomous animals, Hymenoptera have been suggested as a rich source of natural toxins. Due to their broad ecological diversity, venom from Hymenoptera insects (bees, wasps and ants) have evolved differentially thus widening the types and biological functions of their components. To date, insect toxinology analysis have scarcely uncovered the complex composition of bee, wasp and ant venoms which include low molecular weight compounds, highly abundant peptides and proteins, including several allergens. In Hymenoptera, these complex mixtures of toxins represent a potent arsenal of biological weapons that are used for self-defense, to repel intruders and to capture prey...
April 28, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705150/a-myotoxic-lys49-phospholipase-a-2-homologue-is-the-major-component-of-the-venom-of-bothrops-cotiara-from-misiones-argentina
#19
Adolfo de Roodt, Julián Fernández, Daniela Solano, Bruno Lomonte
Bothrops cotiara is a pitviper found in Southeastern Brazil and, scarcely, in the Misiones province of Argentina. In contrast to considerable information available on the venom of the Brazilian snake population, that of Misiones has received little attention. While exploring the chromatographic venom profile of Argentinean B. cotiara, a major protein peak was found which, according to a previous study, is not present in the venom of Brazilian origin. The corresponding protein was isolated by RP-HPLC, and characterized by electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, phospholipase A2 (PLA2 ) assay, and myotoxic activities...
April 26, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704534/toxin-resolved-antivenomics-guided-assessment-of-the-immunorecognition-landscape-of-antivenoms
#20
Juan J Calvete, Yania Rodríguez, Sarai Quesada-Bernat, Davinia Pla
Snakebite envenoming represents a major issue in rural areas of tropical and subtropical regions across sub-Saharan Africa, South to Southeast Asia, Latin America and Oceania. Antivenoms constitute the only scientifically validated therapy for snakebite envenomings, provided they are safe, effective, affordable, accessible and administered appropriately. However, the lack of financial incentives in a technology that has remained relatively unchanged for more than a century, has contributed to some manufacturers leaving the market and others downscaling production or increasing the prices, leading to a decline in the availability and accessibility for these life-saving antidotes to millions of rural poor most at risk from snakebites in low income countries...
April 25, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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