Read by QxMD icon Read


Raghavendra Gowda, Rajesh Rajaiah, Nataraj Angaswamy, Sharath Krishna, Vishwanath Bannikuppe Sannanayak
Trimeresurus malabaricus is a venomous pit viper species endemic to southwestern part of India. In earlier reports, we have shown that envenomation by T. malabaricus venom leading to strong local tissue damage but the mechanism of action is not clearly revealed. Local tissue damage affected by T. malabaricus venom is of great importance since the poison has serious systemic effects including death in the case of multiple attacks. The present study details the major manifestations of T. malabaricus venom and the induction of local tissue damage, which suggests that most toxins are present in the form of hydrolytic enzymes...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Meghan B Spyres, Aaron B Skolnik, Elizabeth C Moore, Richard D Gerkin, Angela Padilla-Jones, Anne-Michelle Ruha
OBJECTIVES: This study compares maintenance with clinical- and laboratory-triggered (as-needed [PRN]) antivenom dosing strategies with regard to patient-centered outcomes after rattlesnake envenomation. DESIGN: This is a retrospective cohort study of adult rattlesnake envenomations treated at a regional toxicology center. Data on demographics, envenomation details, antivenom administration, length of stay, and laboratory and clinical outcomes were compared between the PRN and maintenance groups...
March 7, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Beata Halassy, Tihana Kurtović, Maja Lang Balija
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
João Claudio Campos Pereira, David Szpilman, Vidal Haddad Junior
The most frequent jellyfish in Southern Brazil causes mainly local pain and skin plaques. A 3-year-old female bather presented an erythematous, irregular plaque on the left forearm after contact with a jellyfish and intense facial angioedema with facial flushing. The lungs had vesicular murmur, wheezes, and snorts, and pink and spumous secretion in the airways with intercostal retraction. She was administered subcutaneous adrenaline (0.1mg/kg) and hydrocortisone intravenous (10mg/kg) with total recovery in a few minutes...
January 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Rouhullah Dehghani, Fatemeh Kamiabi, Malihe Mohammadi
Scorpions are distributed throughout Iran and the genus Hemiscorpius is particularly important in this region. Hemiscorpius lepturus is the most significant species within the genus in the country. Since scorpionism provoked by Hemiscorpius comprises a medical emergency, the present study is focused on this important issue. In order to perform the present work, a review of the medical and health-related literature was carried out in several databases. The current findings indicate that six species of Hemiscorpius are found in 15 states of Iran, mainly in the south and southwest...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Victor Morais
Antivenoms or antitoxins have been effectively used for more than a century. During this time, these products have always proven to be highly effective in the treatment of infections and envenomations. However, antivenoms did not exhibit good safety results in their initial applications. After many improvements, antivenoms have substantially better safety profiles but still have some side effects. Due to the occurrence of adverse reactions, the practice of using premedication with the intent to decrease side effects has become accepted or mandatory in many countries...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Caroline Serino-Silva, Karen Morais-Zani, Marcos Hikari Toyama, Daniela de Oliveira Toyama, Henrique Hessel Gaeta, Caroline Fabri Bittencourt Rodrigues, Wéslei da Silva Aguiar, Alexandre Keiji Tashima, Kathleen Fernandes Grego, Anita Mitico Tanaka-Azevedo
Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) are enzymes acting on the cell membrane phospholipids resulting in fatty acids and lysophospholipids and deconstructing the cell membrane. This protein is commonly found in snake venoms, causing tissue inflammation in the affected area. Evidence indicates that snakes have natural resistance to their own venom due to protective properties in plasma, that inhibit the action of proteins present in their venom. Given that, this study aimed to purify and characterize a γPLI from Bothrops jararaca serum, named γBjPLI...
2018: PloS One
Michael Levine, Steve Offerman, Rais Vohra, Brian Wolk, Jeff Lapoint, Dan Quan, Meghan Spyres, Frank LoVecchio, Stephen H Thomas
Rattlesnake envenomation is an important problem in the United States, and the management of these envenomations can be complex. Despite these complexities, however, the majority of such cases are managed without the involvement of a medical toxicologist. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of a medical toxicology service on the length of stay of such patients. METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective study at six centers in California and Arizona. Patients were included if they were admitted in the two years before the establishment of a medical toxicology service (pre-MTS) or in the two years after the creation of a medical toxicology service (post-MTS)...
March 2, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Hadjer Saidi, Julie Bérubé, Fatima Laraba-Djebari, Djelila Hammoudi-Triki
Androctonus australis hector (Aah) scorpion venom is well known to induce a systemic inflammatory response associated with cell infiltration in lung and edema formation. The present study investigate (i) in vivo the evolution of lung and systemic inflammation triggered by Aah venom and (ii) analyze in vitro the signaling cascade, upstream of inflammatory cytokine expression after Aah venom-stimulated mouse alveolar macrophage (MH-S), the main resident immune cells in the lung. The inflammation induced by Aah venom was assessed in mice through inflammatory cell count, nitric oxide metabolite, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in blood, concordantly with neutrophil sequestration in tissue and lung histology...
February 28, 2018: Inflammation
Anderson da Silva Souza, Jacqueline de Almeida Gonçalves Sachett, João Arthur Alcântara, Monique Freire, Maria das Graças Costa Alecrim, Marcus Lacerda, Luiz Carlos de Lima Ferreira, Hui Wen Fan, Vanderson de Souza Sampaio, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro
Snake envenoming represents a major burden for public health worldwide. In the Amazon, the official number of cases and deaths detected is probably underestimated because of the difficulty riverine and indigenous populations have reaching health centers in order to receive medical assistance. Thus, integrated analysis of health information systems must be used in order to improve adequate health policies. The aim of this work is to describe a series of deaths and identify risk factors for lethality from snakebites in the state of Amazonas, Brazil...
February 25, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Abdelmounaim Nouri, Faez Amokrane Nait Mohamed, Fatima Laraba-Djebari
Envenoming by scorpion is a major health problem in Maghreb regions as well as in several regions of the world. Immunotherapy is the only effective treatment for scorpion stings. The immune sera are obtained from hyper-immunized animals with a formulation of venom associated to Freund's Complete Adjuvant (FCA). This formulation seems to protect against several alterations in immunized animals leading to worsening of their health due to added toxicity of native venom and FCA adjuvant. This study aims to provide a more efficient and non-toxic alternative to this formulation...
February 23, 2018: Vaccine
Dalia E Yousif, Alice R Topping, Maha F Osman, Jochen G Raimann, Elfadil M Osman, Peter Kotanko, Omar I Abboud
BACKGROUND: The burden of acute kidney injury (AKI) is high in Africa. While there are no reliable statistics about AKI in Africa, the Global Snapshot Study of the 0by25 initiative of the International Society of Nephrology has determined dehydration, infections, animal envenomation, and complications during pregnancy as the main causes. METHODS: This study was conducted at the Soba University Hospital (SUH), Khartoum, Sudan, a tertiary referral center. We included all hemodialysis patients treated for AKI at SUH between -January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2014 in the study...
January 26, 2018: Blood Purification
Elda E Sánchez, Roschman González, Sara Lucena, Stefanie García, Héctor J Finol, Montamas Suntravat, María E Girón, Irma Fernández, Alexis Rodríguez-Acosta
Crotamine is a cationic, non-enzymatic, protein integrating a minor family of myotoxins, composed of 42 amino acid residues, described in Viperidae and Crotalidae snake's families that has been used in neuroscience research, drug progressing and molecular diversity reports. Crotamine-like protein (CLP) from C.o.helleri venom was isolated in fraction 5 from 7 peaks obtained by sulfopropyl waters protein pak cationic exchange column. In tricine-SDS-PAGE under non-reduced conditions this CLP showed a single band of ~8 kDa molecular weight...
March 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Isadora Sousa de Oliveira, Iara Aimê Cardoso, Karla de Castro Figueiredo Bordon, Sante Emmanuel Imai Carone, Johara Boldrini-França, Manuela Berto Pucca, Karina Furlani Zoccal, Lúcia Helena Faccioli, Suely Vilela Sampaio, José César Rosa, Eliane Candiani Arantes
Individual variations studies are important to understand the snakebite envenoming and to improve the antivenom production and its effectiveness. In this way, the objective of this study was a comparative analysis of intraspecific variation in the venom composition of 22 Crotalus durissus collilineatus specimens through proteomic techniques. Venoms were fractionated by RP-FPLC, and analyzed by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. Although similar, chromatographic and electrophoretic profiles showed significant qualitative and quantitative differences...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Aaron Cunningham, Marc Auerbach, Mark Cicero, Mubeen Jafri
BACKGROUND: Recent mass casualty events in the United States have highlighted the need for public preparedness to prevent death from uncontrolled hemorrhage. The Pediatric Trauma Society (PTS) reviewed the literature regarding pediatric tourniquet usage with the aim to provide recommendations about the utility of this adjunct for hemorrhage control in children. METHODS: Search terms "pediatric" and "tourniquet" were used to query the US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health for pertinent literature...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Joy R Makdisi, Dennis P Kim, Paytra A Klein, Jeffrey A Klein
BACKGROUND: Snake envenomation is a neglected global health problem. There is a need for a prehospital treatment of neurotoxic snakebite that prolongs survival and allows time for a victim to reach a hospital for antivenom therapy. Tumescent epinephrine consists of a large volume of dilute epinephrine (2 mg/l) injected subcutaneously. It functions as "contravenom" by causing capillary vasoconstriction and delaying venom absorption. METHODS: A murine model of neurotoxic envenomation using lidocaine as a surrogate for neurotoxic snake venom was first developed in a pilot study...
February 20, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
Maanoj N Sasidaran, Stephen P Samuel, Soundararaj ChinnaRaju, Michael Antonysamy, Tommaso C Bulfone, Matthew R Lewin
Parotid swelling, an unusual and poorly understood sign, is associated with poor prognosis in the setting of Russell's viper envenomation. The large, aggressive Russell's viper is one of the most deadly snakes causing severe hematological and neurological manifestations. Research into this sign should be initiated and understanding could lead to improved outcomes.
February 2018: Clinical Case Reports
Yiding Wang, Jing Zhang, Denghong Zhang, Huixiang Xiao, Shengwei Xiong, Chunhong Huang
Phospholipase A₂s (PLA₂) is a major component of snake venom with diverse pathologic toxicities and, therefore, a potential target for antivenom therapy. Varespladib was initially designed as an inhibitor of mammal PLA₂s, and was recently repurposed to a broad-spectrum inhibitor of PLA₂ in snake venom. To evaluate the protective abilities of varespladib to hemorrhage, myonecrosis, and systemic toxicities that are inflicted by different crude snake venoms, subcutaneous ecchymosis, muscle damage, and biochemical variation in serum enzymes derived from the envenomed mice were determined, respectively...
February 12, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Anitha Abimannane, Ramachandran Rameshkumar, Ponnarmeni Satheesh, Subramanian Mahadevan
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of the second dose of scorpion antivenom in children with non-resolving or worsening scorpion sting envenomation. METHODS: 72 children aged ≤12 years with scorpion sting envenomation grade 2 and above were enrolled. 61 received the first dose of three vials of antivenom at admission (group A). Children with persistent/worsening envenomation at 6 hours received the second dose (group B). The time required for resolution of autonomic symptoms, myocardial dysfunction, predictors of the second dose and side effects were studied...
February 9, 2018: Indian Pediatrics
Ana Leonor Abrahão Nencioni, Emidio Beraldo Neto, Lucas Alves de Freitas, Valquiria Abrão Coronado Dorce
In Brazil, the scorpion species responsible for most severe incidents belong to the Tityus genus and, among this group, T. serrulatus, T. bahiensis, T. stigmurus and T. obscurus are the most dangerous ones. Other species such as T. metuendus, T. silvestres, T. brazilae, T. confluens, T. costatus, T. fasciolatus and T. neglectus are also found in the country, but the incidence and severity of accidents caused by them are lower. The main effects caused by scorpion venoms - such as myocardial damage, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary edema and shock - are mainly due to the release of mediators from the autonomic nervous system...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"