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Listening and spoken language

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618823/effects-of-rhythm-and-phrase-final-lengthening-on-word-spotting-in-korean
#1
Hae-Sung Jeon, Amalia Arvaniti
A word-spotting experiment was conducted to investigate whether rhythmic consistency and phrase-final lengthening facilitate performance in Korean. Listeners had to spot disyllabic and trisyllabic words in nonsense strings organized in phrases with either the same or variable syllable count; phrase-final lengthening was absent, or occurring either in all phrases or only in the phrase immediately preceding the target. The results show that, for disyllabic targets, inconsistent syllable count and lengthening before the target led to fewer errors...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602134/the-effects-of-early-auditory-based-intervention-on-adult-bilateral-cochlear-implant-outcomes
#2
Stacey R Lim
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this exploratory study was to determine the types of improvement that sequentially implanted auditory-verbal and auditory-oral adults with prelingual and childhood hearing loss received in bilateral listening conditions, compared to their best unilateral listening condition. METHODS: Five auditory-verbal adults and five auditory-oral adults were recruited for this study. Participants were seated in the center of a 6-loudspeaker array. BKB-SIN sentences were presented from 0° azimuth, while multi-talker babble was presented from various loudspeakers...
June 12, 2017: Cochlear Implants International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559320/visual-cortex-entrains-to-sign-language
#3
Geoffrey Brookshire, Jenny Lu, Howard C Nusbaum, Susan Goldin-Meadow, Daniel Casasanto
Despite immense variability across languages, people can learn to understand any human language, spoken or signed. What neural mechanisms allow people to comprehend language across sensory modalities? When people listen to speech, electrophysiological oscillations in auditory cortex entrain to slow ([Formula: see text]8 Hz) fluctuations in the acoustic envelope. Entrainment to the speech envelope may reflect mechanisms specialized for auditory perception. Alternatively, flexible entrainment may be a general-purpose cortical mechanism that optimizes sensitivity to rhythmic information regardless of modality...
May 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554086/exposure-to-multiple-accents-supports-infants-understanding-of-novel-accents
#4
Christine E Potter, Jenny R Saffran
Accented speech poses a challenge for listeners, particularly those with limited knowledge of their language. In a series of studies, we explored the possibility that experience with variability, specifically the variability provided by multiple accents, would facilitate infants' comprehension of speech produced with an unfamiliar accent. 15- and 18-month-old American-English learning infants were exposed to brief passages of multi-talker speech and subsequently tested on their ability to distinguish between real, familiar words and nonsense words, produced in either their native accent or an unfamiliar (British) accent...
May 26, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536551/dissociating-effects-of-scrambling-and-topicalization-within-the-left-frontal-and-temporal-language-areas-an-fmri-study-in-kaqchikel-maya
#5
Shinri Ohta, Masatoshi Koizumi, Kuniyoshi L Sakai
Some natural languages grammatically allow different types of changing word orders, such as object scrambling and topicalization. Scrambling and topicalization are more related to syntax and semantics/phonology, respectively. Here we hypothesized that scrambling should activate the left frontal regions, while topicalization would affect the bilateral temporal regions. To examine such distinct effects in our functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we targeted the Kaqchikel Maya language, a Mayan language spoken in Guatemala...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525641/erp-correlates-of-motivating-voices-quality-of-motivation-and-time-course-matters
#6
Konstantina Zougkou, Netta Weinstein, Silke Paulmann
Here, we conducted the first study to explore how motivations expressed through speech are processed in real-time. Participants listened to sentences spoken in two types of well-studied motivational tones (autonomy-supportive and controlling), or a neutral tone of voice. To examine this, listeners were presented with sentences that either signaled motivations through prosody (tone of voice) and words simultaneously (e.g., "You absolutely have to do it my way" spoken in a controlling tone of voice), or lacked motivationally biasing words (e...
May 19, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496393/subtlety-of-ambient-language-effects-in-babbling-a-study-of-english-and-chinese-learning-infants-at-8-10-and-12-months
#7
Chia-Cheng Lee, Yuna Jhang, Li-Mei Chen, George Relyea, D Kimbrough Oller
Prior research on ambient-language effects in babbling has often suggested infants produce language-specific phonological features within the first year. These results have been questioned in research failing to find such effects and challenging the positive findings on methodological grounds. We studied English- and Chinese-learning infants at 8, 10, and 12 months and found listeners could not detect ambient-language effects in the vast majority of infant utterances, but only in items deemed to be words or to contain canonical syllables that may have made them sound like words with language-specific shapes...
2017: Language Learning and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462503/influences-of-speech-familiarity-on-immediate-perception-and-final-comprehension
#8
Lynn K Perry, Emily N Mech, Maryellen C MacDonald, Mark S Seidenberg
Unfamiliar speech-spoken in a familiar language but with an accent different from the listener's-is known to increase comprehension difficulty. However, there is evidence of listeners' rapid adaptation to unfamiliar accents (although perhaps not to the level of familiar accents). This paradox might emerge from prior focus on isolated word perception and/or use of single comprehension measures. We investigated processing of fluent connected speech spoken either in a familiar or unfamiliar accent, using participants' ability to "shadow" the speech as an immediate measure as well as a comprehension test at passage end...
May 1, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418532/auditory-environment-across-the-life-span-of-cochlear-implant-users-insights-from-data-logging
#9
Tobias Busch, Filiep Vanpoucke, Astrid van Wieringen
Purpose: We describe the natural auditory environment of people with cochlear implants (CIs), how it changes across the life span, and how it varies between individuals. Method: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of Cochlear Nucleus 6 CI sound-processor data logs. The logs were obtained from 1,501 people with CIs (ages 0-96 years). They covered over 2.4 million hr of implant use and indicated how much time the CI users had spent in various acoustical environments...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406683/evaluating-the-sources-and-functions-of-gradiency-in-phoneme-categorization-an-individual-differences-approach
#10
Efthymia C Kapnoula, Matthew B Winn, Eun Jong Kong, Jan Edwards, Bob McMurray
During spoken language comprehension listeners transform continuous acoustic cues into categories (e.g., /b/ and /p/). While long-standing research suggests that phonetic categories are activated in a gradient way, there are also clear individual differences in that more gradient categorization has been linked to various communication impairments such as dyslexia and specific language impairments (Joanisse, Manis, Keating, & Seidenberg, 2000; López-Zamora, Luque, Álvarez, & Cobos, 2012; Serniclaes, Van Heghe, Mousty, Carré, & Sprenger-Charolles, 2004; Werker & Tees, 1987)...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365876/perception-of-native-english-reduced-forms-in-adverse-environments-by-chinese-undergraduate-students
#11
Simpson W L Wong, Jenny K Y Tsui, Bonnie Wing-Yin Chow, Vina W H Leung, Peggy Mok, Kevin Kien-Hoa Chung
Previous research has shown that learners of English-as-a-second-language (ESL) have difficulties in understanding connected speech spoken by native English speakers. Extending from past research limited to quiet listening condition, this study examined the perception of English connected speech presented under five adverse conditions, namely multi-talker babble noise, speech-shaped noise, factory noise, whispering and sad emotional tones. We tested a total of 64 Chinese ESL undergraduate students, using a battery of listening tasks...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292268/social-inclusion-for-children-with-hearing-loss-in-listening-and-spoken-language-early-intervention-an-exploratory-study
#12
Gabriella Constantinescu-Sharpe, Rebecca L Phillips, Aleisha Davis, Dimity Dornan, Anthony Hogan
BACKGROUND: Social inclusion is a common focus of listening and spoken language (LSL) early intervention for children with hearing loss. This exploratory study compared the social inclusion of young children with hearing loss educated using a listening and spoken language approach with population data. METHODS: A framework for understanding the scope of social inclusion is presented in the Background. This framework guided the use of a shortened, modified version of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) to measure two of the five facets of social inclusion ('education' and 'interacting with society and fulfilling social goals')...
March 14, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253637/the-influence-of-lexical-characteristics-and-talker-accent-on-the-recognition-of-english-words-by-speakers-of-japanese
#13
Kiyoko Yoneyama, Benjamin Munson
Whether or not the influence of listeners' language proficiency on L2 speech recognition was affected by the structure of the lexicon was examined. This specific experiment examined the effect of word frequency (WF) and phonological neighborhood density (PND) on word recognition in native speakers of English and second-language (L2) speakers of English whose first language was Japanese. The stimuli included English words produced by a native speaker of English and English words produced by a native speaker of Japanese (i...
February 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241307/rhythm-perception-and-its-role-in-perception-and-learning-of-dysrhythmic-speech
#14
Stephanie A Borrie, Kaitlin L Lansford, Tyson S Barrett
Purpose: The perception of rhythm cues plays an important role in recognizing spoken language, especially in adverse listening conditions. Indeed, this has been shown to hold true even when the rhythm cues themselves are dysrhythmic. This study investigates whether expertise in rhythm perception provides a processing advantage for perception (initial intelligibility) and learning (intelligibility improvement) of naturally dysrhythmic speech, dysarthria. Method: Fifty young adults with typical hearing participated in 3 key tests, including a rhythm perception test, a receptive vocabulary test, and a speech perception and learning test, with standard pretest, familiarization, and posttest phases...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193452/the-core-and-beyond-in-the-language-ready-brain
#15
REVIEW
Peter Hagoort
In this paper a general cognitive architecture of spoken language processing is specified. This is followed by an account of how this cognitive architecture is instantiated in the human brain. Both the spatial aspects of the networks for language are discussed, as well as the temporal dynamics and the underlying neurophysiology. A distinction is proposed between networks for coding/decoding linguistic information and additional networks for getting from coded meaning to speaker meaning, i.e. for making the inferences that enable the listener to understand the intentions of the speaker...
February 11, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174545/categorization-of-natural-whistled-vowels-by-na%C3%A3-ve-listeners-of-different-language-background
#16
Julien Meyer, Laure Dentel, Fanny Meunier
Whistled speech in a non-tonal language consists of the natural emulation of vocalic and consonantal qualities in a simple modulated whistled signal. This special speech register represents a natural telecommunication system that enables high levels of sentence intelligibility by trained speakers and is not directly intelligible to naïve listeners. Yet, it is easily learned by speakers of the language that is being whistled, as attested by the current efforts of the revitalization of whistled Spanish in the Canary Islands...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065607/integer-ratio-priors-on-musical-rhythm-revealed-cross-culturally-by-iterated-reproduction
#17
Nori Jacoby, Josh H McDermott
Probability distributions over external states (priors) are essential to the interpretation of sensory signals. Priors for cultural artifacts such as music and language remain largely uncharacterized, but likely constrain cultural transmission, because only those signals with high probability under the prior can be reliably reproduced and communicated. We developed a method to estimate priors for simple rhythms via iterated reproduction of random temporal sequences. Listeners were asked to reproduce random "seed" rhythms; their reproductions were fed back as the stimulus and over time became dominated by internal biases, such that the prior could be estimated by applying the procedure multiple times...
February 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045787/some-neurocognitive-correlates-of-noise-vocoded-speech-perception-in-children-with-normal-hearing-a-replication-and-extension-of
#18
Adrienne S Roman, David B Pisoni, William G Kronenberger, Kathleen F Faulkner
OBJECTIVES: Noise-vocoded speech is a valuable research tool for testing experimental hypotheses about the effects of spectral degradation on speech recognition in adults with normal hearing (NH). However, very little research has utilized noise-vocoded speech with children with NH. Earlier studies with children with NH focused primarily on the amount of spectral information needed for speech recognition without assessing the contribution of neurocognitive processes to speech perception and spoken word recognition...
May 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032652/the-specificity-of-sound-symbolic-correspondences-in-spoken-language
#19
Christina Y Tzeng, Lynne C Nygaard, Laura L Namy
Although language has long been regarded as a primarily arbitrary system, sound symbolism, or non-arbitrary correspondences between the sound of a word and its meaning, also exists in natural language. Previous research suggests that listeners are sensitive to sound symbolism. However, little is known about the specificity of these mappings. This study investigated whether sound symbolic properties correspond to specific meanings, or whether these properties generalize across semantic dimensions. In three experiments, native English-speaking adults heard sound symbolic foreign words for dimensional adjective pairs (big/small, round/pointy, fast/slow, moving/still) and for each foreign word, selected a translation among English antonyms that either matched or mismatched with the correct meaning dimension...
December 29, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018132/the-gender-congruency-effect-during-bilingual-spoken-word-recognition
#20
Luis Morales, Daniela Paolieri, Paola E Dussias, Jorge R Valdés Kroff, Chip Gerfen, María Teresa Bajo
We investigate the 'gender-congruency' effect during a spoken-word recognition task using the visual world paradigm. Eye movements of Italian-Spanish bilinguals and Spanish monolinguals were monitored while they viewed a pair of objects on a computer screen. Participants listened to instructions in Spanish (encuentra la bufanda / 'find the scarf') and clicked on the object named in the instruction. Grammatical gender of the objects' name was manipulated so that pairs of objects had the same (congruent) or different (incongruent) gender in Italian, but gender in Spanish was always congruent...
March 2016: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition
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