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Healthcare associated infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731725/skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-active-component-u-s-armed-forces-2013-2016
#1
Shauna Stahlman, Valerie F Williams, Gi-Taik Oh, Eugene V Millar, Jason W Bennett
During the 4-year surveillance period, there were 282,571 incident cases of skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) among active component U.S. military members diagnosed in inpatient or outpatient settings, corresponding to an overall incidence of 558.2 per 10,000 person-years (p-yrs). An additional 10,904 cases occurred in theater of operations (460.0 per 10,000 p-yrs). Approximately half (49.4%) were classified as "other SSTI" (e.g., folliculitis, impetigo); 45.9% were cellulitis/abscess; 4.6% were carbuncles/furuncles; and 0...
July 2017: MSMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731388/electronic-visits-for-minor-acute-illnesses-analysis-of-patient-demographics-prescription-rates-and-follow-up-care-within-an-asynchronous-text-based-online-visit
#2
Kristine S Penza, Martha A Murray, Jennifer L Pecina, Jane F Myers, Joseph W Furst
INTRODUCTION: Patients can obtain medical advice and treatment from a healthcare provider asynchronously through an electronic visit (eVisit) within a secure online portal. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective record review of Mayo Clinic Rochester primary care empaneled patients who had an eVisit for a minor acute illness and were reviewed for 30-day outcomes of follow-up. RESULTS: Of the 1,009 eVisits analyzed, a total of 340 (34%) had follow-up within 30 days, with a follow-up rate of 154 (20%) when those who were advised to follow-up were excluded...
July 20, 2017: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731269/biofilm-formation-and-antibiotic-resistance-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-urinary-strains
#3
Claudia Vuotto, Francesca Longo, Chiara Pascolini, Gianfranco Donelli, Maria Pia Balice, Maria Francesca Libori, Valentina Tiracchia, Antonino Salvia, Pietro Emanuele Varaldo
AIMS: Multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae has become a relevant healthcare-associated pathogen. Capsule, type 1 and 3 fimbriae (mrkA gene), type 2 quorum-sensing system (luxS), synthesis of D-galactan I (wbbM), LPS transport (wzm) and poly-beta-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (pgaA) seem involved in K. pneumoniae biofilm. Non-enzymatic antibiotic resistance is related to non-expression or mutation of porins (OmpK35 and OmpK36), and efflux pump (acrB) over-expression. The aim of this study was to analyse some virulence factors of K...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730918/clinical-and-economic-implications-of-urinary-tract-infections
#4
Samantha N Steiger, Rachel R Comito, David P Nicolau
Urinary tract infections represent one of the most frequent reasons for hospitalization. As a result of their prevalence from community-based origins as well as those which develop in hospital setting, this constellation of infections represents a tremendous burden to the global healthcare system. Areas Covered: Over the last several decades the management of these infections has become more complicated due to the underlying comorbid conditions of the patients as well as escalating antimicrobial resistance to many of the most frequently used oral and parenteral agents...
July 21, 2017: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729158/fixed-dose-combination-dolutegravir-abacavir-and-lamivudine-versus-ritonavir-boosted-atazanavir-plus-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-and-emtricitabine-in-previously-untreated-women-with-hiv-1-infection-aria-week-48-results-from-a-randomised-open-label-non-inferiority
#5
Catherine Orrell, Debbie P Hagins, Elena Belonosova, Norma Porteiro, Sharon Walmsley, Vicenç Falcó, Choy Y Man, Alicia Aylott, Ann M Buchanan, Brian Wynne, Cindy Vavro, Michael Aboud, Kimberly Y Smith
BACKGROUND: Dolutegravir is a once-daily integrase strand transfer inhibitor with no need for pharmacokinetic boosting that is approved for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Because women are often under-represented in HIV clinical trials, we addressed the safety and efficacy of dolutegravir in women with HIV-1. METHODS: The ARIA study is a randomised, open-label, multicentre, active-controlled, parallel-group, non-inferiority phase 3b study done in 86 hospital and university infectious disease clinics, local health clinics, and private infectious disease clinics in 12 countries and one US territory, in North America, South America, Europe, Africa, and Asia...
July 17, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728926/diagnostic-delays-in-537-symptomatic-cases-of-mers-cov-infection-in-saudi-arabia
#6
Anwar E Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Although the literature indicates the potential outcomes of a patient's delay in seeking medical support is associated with poor clinical outcomes, delays in the diagnosis itself remain poorly understood in patients with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome - Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). This study aims to estimate the median time interval of confirmed diagnosis after symptom onset and identify its potential predictors in Saudi Arabian MERS patients. METHODS: A retrospective study involved patients confirmed with MERS who were publicly reported by the World Health Organization (WHO)...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727229/volatile-organic-compound-detection-as-a-potential-means-of-diagnosing-cutaneous-wound-infections
#7
Mohammed Ashrafi, Matt Bates, Mohamed Baguneid, Teresa Alonso-Rasgado, Riina Rautemaa-Richardson, Ardeshir Bayat
Chronic cutaneous wound infections and surgical site infections (SSIs) present a huge burden on the healthcare system and can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Current diagnostic methods of identifying and confirming infection involve culture-based and molecular methods. Both techniques are time consuming and delays commonly lead to un-targeted empirical treatment. An ideal diagnostic method would be non-invasive and highly sensitive and detect pathogenic organisms with a high degree of accuracy in order to allow targeted treatment...
July 20, 2017: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726737/respiratory-tract-infections-and-the-role-of-biologically-active-polysaccharides-in-their-management-and-prevention
#8
REVIEW
Milos Jesenak, Ingrid Urbancikova, Peter Banovcin
Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are the most common form of infections in every age category. Recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTIs), a specific form of RTIs, represent a typical and common problem associated with early childhood, causing high indirect and direct costs on the healthcare system. They are usually the consequence of immature immunity in children and high exposure to various respiratory pathogens. Their rational management should aim at excluding other severe chronic diseases associated with increased morbidity (e...
July 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723858/maternal-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-and-pregnancy-outcomes-a-hospital-based-case-control-study-in-wuhan-china
#9
Zhihua Wan, Aifen Zhou, Huiping Zhu, Xiaofang Lin, Dan Hu, Songxu Peng, Bin Zhang, Yukai Du
GOALS: To examine the impact of maternal hepatitis B virus infection on pregnancy outcomes. BACKGROUND: Studies regarding hepatitis B virus infection and pregnancy outcomes are limited with inconsistent results, and none of them have evaluated the effect of maternal viral load in pregnancy on pregnancy outcomes. STUDY: A hospital-based case-control study was conducted. In total, 1728 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive women who delivered consecutively at Wuhan Women and Children Medical and Healthcare Center, Wuhan, China, from June 2008 to May 2015, were compared with 1497 HBsAg-negative women giving birth in the same hospital during the same period who were randomly identified and selected from the computerized medical record database in parallel...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723723/sociodemographic-predictors-of-anal-cancer-screening-and-follow-up-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-individuals
#10
Jessica S Wells, Marcia M Holstad, Deborah Watkins Bruner
BACKGROUND: Anal cancer in the United States is generally rare; however, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are 28 times more likely to be given a diagnosis of anal cancer than the general population. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the rates and sociodemographic predictors of anal cancer screening and follow-up anoscopy in a sample of HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: Data for this study (n = 200) were derived from a retrospective chart review of randomly selected HIV-infected individuals...
July 14, 2017: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721575/gastroparesis-medical-and-therapeutic-advances
#11
REVIEW
Christopher M Navas, Nihal K Patel, Brian E Lacy
Gastroparesis is a chronic, bothersome, and often disabling neuromuscular disorder of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The most frequently reported symptoms of gastroparesis include nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, early satiety, and unintentional weight loss. Etiologies of gastroparesis include diabetes, connective tissue disorders, prior infection, mesenteric ischemia, and post-surgical complications. The largest category of gastroparesis patients is comprised of those in whom no definitive cause can be identified (idiopathic gastroparesis)...
July 18, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717120/new-delhi-metallo-beta-lactamase-ndm-1-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolated-from-a-burned-patient
#12
Santiago Petersen-Morfin, Paola Bocanegra-Ibarias, Rayo Morfin-Otero, Elvira Garza-González, Hector Raul Perez-Gomez, Esteban González-Diaz, Sergio Esparza-Ahumada, Gerardo León-Garnica, Gabriel Amezcua-Salazar, Eduardo Rodriguez-Noriega
BACKGROUND Infections affecting burn patients are frequently caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacteriaceae species. Infections with these pathogens have become increasingly difficult to treat due to evolving antibiotic resistance mechanisms, including the production of carbapenemases. CASE REPORT The present case report describes the evolution of a burn patient with polymicrobial healthcare-associated burn infections, including a bloodstream infection due to an emergent multidrug-resistant New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM-1)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae...
July 18, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716451/multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-the-intensive-care-unit-prevalence-and-risk-factors
#13
Trang D Trinh, Evan J Zasowski, Kimberly C Claeys, Abdalhamid M Lagnf, Shravya Kidambi, Susan L Davis, Michael J Rybak
Intensive care unit (ICU) admission is a risk for multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but factors specific to critically ill pneumonia patients are not fully characterized. Objective was to determine risk factors associated with MDR P. aeruginosa pneumonia among ICU patients. This was a retrospective case-control study of P. aeruginosa pneumonia in the ICU; cystic fibrosis and colonizers were excluded. Risk factors included comorbid conditions and prior healthcare exposure (anti-pseudomonal antibiotics, hospitalizations, nursing home, P...
June 19, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716359/predictors-of-polymyxin-b-treatment-failure-in-gram-negative-healthcare-associated-infections-among-critically-ill-patients
#14
Bahiah Ismail, Mohd Nazri Shafei, Azian Harun, Saedah Ali, Mahamarowi Omar, Zakuan Zainy Deris
BACKGROUND: With increasing prevalence and spread of multidrug resistant Gram-negative infections, parenteral polymyxins resurged in clinical practice. The primary aim of the study was to determine the predictors of treatment failure and in-hospital mortality among critically ill patients treated with polymyxin B. METHODS: Demographic data, underlying diseases, procedures and details on polymyxin B therapy were retrospectively analyzed in a cohort of 84 patients who received intravenous polymyxin B in an intensive care unit from 2010 to 2014...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714782/delayed-antibiotic-prescription-for-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-in-children-under-primary-care-physicians-views
#15
Camilla Flintholm Raft, Lars Bjerrum, Magnus Arpi, Jens Otto Jarløv, Jette Nygaard Jensen
BACKGROUND: Overprescribing antibiotics for common or inaccurately diagnosed childhood infections is a frequent problem in primary healthcare in most countries. Delayed antibiotic prescriptions have been shown to reduce the use of antibiotics in primary healthcare. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to examine primary care physicians' views on delayed antibiotic prescriptions to preschool children with symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to 1180 physicians working in general practice in the Capital Region of Denmark, between January and March 2015...
December 2017: European Journal of General Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712748/chi-a-contemporaneous-health-index-for-degenerative-disease-monitoring-using-longitudinal-measurements
#16
Yijun Huang, Qiang Meng, Heather Evans, William Lober, Yu Cheng, Xiaoning Qian, Ji Liu, Shuai Huang
In this paper, we develop a novel formulation for contemporaneous patient risk monitoring by exploiting the emerging data-rich environment in many healthcare applications, where an abundance of longitudinal data that reflect the degeneration of the health condition can be continuously collected. Our objective, and the developed formulation, is fundamentally different from many existing risk score models for different healthcare applications, which mostly focus on predicting the likelihood of a certain outcome at a pre-specified time...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712104/do-bacteria-isolated-from-icu-patients-eskape-antibiotic-treatment-in-vitro-susceptibility-of-the-enterobacteriaceae-family-to-tigecycline
#17
Katarzyna Talaga-Ćwiertnia, Paweł Krzyściak, Małgorzata Bulanda
BACKGROUND: Enterobacteriaceae are currently causing the majority of healthcare-associated infections (HAI) and simultaneously expressing increasing levels of antibiotic resistance. The purpose of this study is to assess the in vitro sensitivity of MDR strains from the family Enterobacteriaceae to tigecycline in relation to their origin from patients hospitalized in intensive care units (ICUs) and non-ICUs. METHODS: The study involved 156 clinically-significant strains of the Enterobacteriaceae family isolated from patients with cIAIs and/or cSSSIs hospitalized in ICUs and other surgical departments...
July 16, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711585/global-outbreak-of-severe-mycobacterium-chimaera-disease-after-cardiac-surgery-a-molecular-epidemiological-study
#18
Jakko van Ingen, Thomas A Kohl, Katharina Kranzer, Barbara Hasse, Peter M Keller, Anna Katarzyna Szafrańska, Doris Hillemann, Meera Chand, Peter Werner Schreiber, Rami Sommerstein, Christoph Berger, Michele Genoni, Christian Rüegg, Nicolas Troillet, Andreas F Widmer, Sören L Becker, Mathias Herrmann, Tim Eckmanns, Sebastian Haller, Christiane Höller, Sylvia B Debast, Maurice J Wolfhagen, Joost Hopman, Jan Kluytmans, Merel Langelaar, Daan W Notermans, Jaap Ten Oever, Peter van den Barselaar, Alexander B A Vonk, Margreet C Vos, Nada Ahmed, Timothy Brown, Derrick Crook, Theresa Lamagni, Nick Phin, E Grace Smith, Maria Zambon, Annerose Serr, Tim Götting, Winfried Ebner, Alexander Thürmer, Christian Utpatel, Cathrin Spröer, Boyke Bunk, Ulrich Nübel, Guido V Bloemberg, Erik C Böttger, Stefan Niemann, Dirk Wagner, Hugo Sax
BACKGROUND: Since 2013, over 100 cases of Mycobacterium chimaera prosthetic valve endocarditis and disseminated disease were notified in Europe and the USA, linked to contaminated heater-cooler units (HCUs) used during cardiac surgery. We did a molecular epidemiological investigation to establish the source of these patients' disease. METHODS: We included 24 M chimaera isolates from 21 cardiac surgery-related patients in Switzerland, Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK, 218 M chimaera isolates from various types of HCUs in hospitals, from LivaNova (formerly Sorin; London, UK) and Maquet (Rastatt, Germany) brand HCU production sites, and unrelated environmental sources and patients, as well as eight Mycobacterium intracellulare isolates...
July 12, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709077/phytonanotherapy-for-management-of-diabetes-using-green-synthesis-nanoparticles
#19
K Anand, C Tiloke, Pragalathan Naidoo, A A Chuturgoon
The world has a rich diversity of indigenous medicinal plants. The World Health Organization (WHO) gives high priority to eco-friendly, non-hazardous and cost effective healthcare such as the use of medicinal plants to treat various illnesses, including Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), tuberculosis (TB), diabetes mellitus (DM), malaria, and cancer. In developing countries, a high proportion of the population tends to use complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) together with conventional prescription drugs...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708463/epidemiological-trends-observed-from-molecular-characterization-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-blood-cultures-at-a-japanese-university-hospital-2012-2015
#20
Yuri Miura, Tetsuo Yamaguchi, Itaru Nakamura, Shinobu Koyama, Kiyoko Tamai, Takashi Okanda, Tetsuya Matsumoto
Despite increasing reports of skin and soft tissue infections caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in Japan, the extent to which these strains cause nosocomial infections remains unknown, and this is especially true for bloodstream infections. In this study, we molecularly characterized MRSA isolates from Japanese blood samples. Among the 151 MRSA isolates collected from 53 medical facilities in 2011, 115 (76%) and 30 (20%) were classified as staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types II and IV, respectively, while the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene was detected in only two isolates...
July 14, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
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