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Randomised controlled trail

Yongfu Zhang, Yuan Yang, Wing Yt Lau, Samradhvi Garg, Jianxin Lao
AIM: This study aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge available on the effectiveness of pre-operative clown intervention on psychological distress in children and parents. METHODS: PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO databases were searched to identify relevant studies. Systematic review procedures were followed including a quality assessment. Meta-analysis of suitable studies was conducted. RESULTS: Eight studies were included; six reported that clown intervention reduced children's pre-operative anxiety, while one found that children's pre-operative distress levels were unchanged...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Dafna Merom, Erin Mathieu, Ester Cerin, Rachael L Morton, Judy M Simpson, Chris Rissel, Kaarin J Anstey, Catherine Sherrington, Stephen R Lord, Robert G Cumming
BACKGROUND: The prevention of falls among older people is a major public health challenge. Exercises that challenge balance are recognized as an efficacious fall prevention strategy. Given that small-scale trials have indicated that diverse dance styles can improve balance and gait of older adults, two of the strongest risk factors for falls in older people, this study aimed to determine whether social dance is effective in i) reducing the number of falls and ii) improving physical and cognitive fall-related risk factors...
August 2016: PLoS Medicine
Shu-Hung Chang, Miao-Chuan Chen, Nai-Hui Chien, Hsih-Fong Lin
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to change the anthropometric, clinical, biochemical indicators and the rate of metabolic syndrome among obese adults in community. BACKGROUND: Obesity is an indicator of metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic diseases. Obesity increases national health care expenditure in Taiwan. The high prevalence of obesity is not only a public health issue but also an economic problem. Changes in lifestyle can help to prevent metabolic syndrome for individuals with obesity...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Alexis Ghanem, Sandeep Pasumarthy, Vinisha Ranna, Sergio Varela Kellesarian, Tariq Abduljabbar, Fahim Vohra, Hans Malmstrom
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to review the pertinent literature on the effects of mechanical curettage (MC) with and without adjunct photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the management of peri-implantitis. METHODS: The addressed focused question was "Is PDT effective in the treatment of peri-implantitis?" A search without language or time restrictions up to March 2016 was conducted using various key words. The exclusion criteria included; review papers, in vitro Studies, case reports, commentaries, interviews, and letters to the editors...
September 2016: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Matthew D Freke, Joanne Kemp, Ida Svege, May Arna Risberg, Adam Semciw, Kay M Crossley
BACKGROUND: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and accompanying pathologies are associated with pain and reduced quality of life. Physical impairments can be associated with worse symptoms and may be an important target of rehabilitation programmes in this patient group. Knowledge regarding physical impairments in individuals with symptomatic FAI is limited. HYPOTHESIS: In adults aged 18-50 years with symptomatic FAI, to: (1) identify physical impairments in range of motion (ROM), hip muscle function and functional tasks; (2) to compare physical impairments with healthy controls; and (3) to evaluate the effects of interventions targeting physical impairments...
October 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Mareen Braunstein, Sebastian F Baumbach, Markus Regauer, Wolfgang Böcker, Hans Polzer
BACKGROUND: An anatomical reconstruction of the ankle congruity is the important prerequisite in the operative treatment of acute ankle fractures. Despite anatomic restoration patients regularly suffer from residual symptoms after these fractures. There is growing evidence, that a poor outcome is related to the concomitant traumatic intra-articular pathology. By supplementary ankle arthroscopy anatomic reduction can be confirmed and associated intra-articular injuries can be treated. Nevertheless, the vast majority of complex ankle fractures are managed by open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) only...
2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Chris Clarke, Vivian Hill, Tony Charman
Children with a diagnosis of autism are more likely to experience anxiety than their typically developing peers. Research suggests that Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) could offer a way to help children with autism manage their anxiety but most evidence is based on clinical trials. This study investigated a school-based CBT programme using a quasi-experimental design incorporating the child and parent versions of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (Spence, J Abnorm Psy 106(2):280-297, 1997) and the Coping Scale for Children and Youth (Brodzinsky et al...
April 30, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Weiping Sun, Chunping Zeng, Lizhen Liao, Juan Chen, Ying Wang
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of acarbose and metformin in overweight and/or obese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: A total of 108 drug-naïve patients with newly diagnosed T2DM, whose hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was between 7% and 10% and body mass index was greater than 24 kg/m(2), were enrolled in the First People's Hospital and Municipal Central Hospital of Xiangtan City, Xiangtan, China, from 1 February 2010 to 1 August 2011...
August 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Hamish Michael Evans, Peter Ranald Charles Howe, Rachel Heloise Xiwen Wong
BACKGROUND: This methodological paper presents both a scientific rationale and a methodological approach for investigating the effects of resveratrol supplementation on mood and cognitive performance in postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women have an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia, which may be at least partly due to loss of beneficial effects of estrogen on the cerebrovasculature. We hypothesise that resveratrol, a phytoestrogen, may counteract this risk by enhancing cerebrovascular function and improving regional blood flow in response to cognitive demands...
March 2016: Nutrients
Andrea Siebenhofer, Stefanie Erckenbrecht, Gudrun Pregartner, Andrea Berghold, Christiane Muth
INTRODUCTION: Most studies conducted at general practices investigate complex interventions and increasingly use cluster-randomised controlled trail (c-RCT) designs to do so. Our primary objective is to evaluate how frequently complex interventions are shown to be more, equally or less effective than routine care in c-RCTs with a superior design. The secondary aim is to discover whether the quality of a c-RCT determines the likelihood of the complex intervention being effective. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: All c-RCTs of any design that have a patient-relevant primary outcome and with a duration of at least 1 year will be included...
2016: BMJ Open
Daniela Harnacke, Kathrin Stein, Patrick Stein, Jutta Margraf-Stiksrud, Renate Deinzer
AIM: This study aims to assess plaque scores after oral hygiene in an unselected sample of young German adults and to compare the effects of computer-based training of the Fones versus the modified Bass technique on these scores. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy 18- to 19-year olds received computer-based training of the Fones technique, the modified Bass technique or basic instructions of oral hygiene alone (control group). The marginal plaque index (MPI; percentage of sections adjacent to the gingiva showing plaque) and BOP were assessed at baseline and after 6, 12 and 28 weeks...
January 2016: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
Jia Huang, Michael A McCaskey, Shanli Yang, Haicheng Ye, Jing Tao, Cai Jiang, Corina Schuster-Amft, Christian Balzer, Thierry Ettlin, Wilfried Schupp, Hartwig Kulke, Lidian Chen
BACKGROUND: A majority of stroke survivors present with cognitive impairments. Attention disturbance, which leads to impaired concentration and overall reduced cognitive functions, is strongly associated with stroke. The clinical efficacy of acupuncture with Baihui (GV20) and Shenting (GV24) as well as computer-assisted cognitive training in stroke and post-stroke cognitive impairment have both been demonstrated in previous studies. To date, no systematic comparison of these exists and the potential beneficial effects of a combined application are yet to be examined...
2015: Trials
Andrew Kambugu, Jennifer Thompson, James Hakim, Dinah Tumukunde, Joep J van Oosterhout, Raymond Mwebaze, Anne Hoppe, James Abach, Charles Kwobah, Alejandro Arenas-Pinto, Sarah A Walker, Nicholas I Paton
OBJECTIVE: To assess neurocognitive function at the first-line antiretroviral therapy failure and change on the second-line therapy. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial was conducted in 5 sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS: Patients failing the first-line therapy according to WHO criteria after >12 months on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors-based regimens were randomized to the second-line therapy (open-label) with lopinavir/ritonavir (400 mg/100 mg twice daily) plus either 2-3 clinician-selected nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, raltegravir, or as monotherapy after 12-week induction with raltegravir...
April 15, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Barbara Nussbaumer, Angela Kaminski-Hartenthaler, Catherine A Forneris, Laura C Morgan, Jeffrey H Sonis, Bradley N Gaynes, Amy Greenblatt, Jörg Wipplinger, Linda J Lux, Dietmar Winkler, Megan G Van Noord, Julia Hofmann, Gerald Gartlehner
BACKGROUND: Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a seasonal pattern of recurrent major depressive episodes that most commonly occurs during autumn or winter and remits in spring. The prevalence of SAD ranges from 1.5% to 9%, depending on latitude. The predictable seasonal aspect of SAD provides a promising opportunity for prevention. This review - one of four reviews on efficacy and safety of interventions to prevent SAD - focuses on light therapy as a preventive intervention. Light therapy is a non-pharmacological treatment that exposes people to artificial light...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Wendy Underwood, Chris A Rogers, Zoe Plummer, Barnaby C Reeves, Massimo Caputo, Peter Murphy, Karen Sheehan, Jessica Harris, Lucy Culliford, Andrew Mumford
BACKGROUND: Each year in the UK, ≈3000 children undergo major cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. Approximately 40 % of these experience excessive bleeding necessitating red cell transfusion or treatment with other blood components. A further 40 % receive blood components because of the perception by clinicians that the risk of bleeding is high. Excessive bleeding and treatment with red cell transfusion or blood components are associated with post-operative complications such as infection and renal injury and are independently associated with increased morbidity and mortality...
2015: BMC Hematology
Enzo Iuliano, Alessandra di Cagno, Giovanna Aquino, Giovanni Fiorilli, Pasquale Mignogna, Giuseppe Calcagno, Alfonso Di Costanzo
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different types of exercise on cognition. Eighty participants, 32 males and 48 females, aged 66.96 ± 11.73, volunteered for this study. The participants were randomly divided into the four following groups: Resistance Group (RG; n=20), involved in high intensity strength training; Cardiovascular Group (CVG; n=20), involved in high intensity cardiovascular training; Postural Group (PG; n=20) involved in low intensity training, based on postural and balance exercises; and Control Group (CG; n=20)...
October 2015: Experimental Gerontology
J Manuel Sarmiento, Andrew S Venteicher, Chirag G Patil
BACKGROUND: In most people with low-grade gliomas (LGG), the primary treatment regimen remains a combination of surgery followed by postoperative radiotherapy. However, the optimal timing of radiotherapy is controversial. It is unclear whether to use radiotherapy in the early postoperative period, or whether radiotherapy should be delayed until tumour progression occurs. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of early postoperative radiotherapy versus radiotherapy delayed until tumour progression for low-grade intracranial gliomas in people who had initial biopsy or surgical resection...
June 29, 2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Mats Hallgren, Martin Kraepelien, Agneta Öjehagen, Nils Lindefors, Zangin Zeebari, Viktor Kaldo, Yvonne Forsell
BACKGROUND: Depression is common and tends to be recurrent. Alternative treatments are needed that are non-stigmatising, accessible and can be prescribed by general medical practitioners. AIMS: To compare the effectiveness of three interventions for depression: physical exercise, internet-based cognitive-behavioural therapy (ICBT) and treatment as usual (TAU). A secondary aim was to assess changes in self-rated work capacity. METHOD: A total of 946 patients diagnosed with mild to moderate depression were recruited through primary healthcare centres across Sweden and randomly assigned to one of three 12-week interventions (trail registry: KCTR study ID: KT20110063)...
September 2015: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Rahul S Koti, Christopher J Davidson, Brian R Davidson
BACKGROUND: Acute cholecystitis occurs in approximately 1% of patients with known gallstones. It presents as a surgical emergency and usually requires hospitalisation for treatment. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in the elderly. Cholecystectomy is advocated for acute cholecystitis; however, the timing of cholecystectomy and the value of the additional treatments have been a matter of debate. This review examines the available evidence regarding the optimal surgical management of patients with acute cholecystitis...
May 2015: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
Stephan Milosavljevic, Lynne Clay, Brenna Bath, Catherine Trask, Erika Penz, Sam Stewart, Paul Hendrick, G David Baxter, Deirdre A Hurley, Suzanne M McDonough
BACKGROUND: Low back pain is highly prevalent and a significant public health burden in Western society. Feasibility studies suggest personalised pedometer-driven walking is an acceptable and effective motivating tool in the management of chronic low back pain (CLBP ≥ 12 weeks). The proposed study will investigate pedometer-driven walking as a low cost, easily accessible, and sustainable means of physical activity to improve disability and clinical outcomes for people with CLBP in Saskatchewan, Canada...
2015: BMC Public Health
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