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Toxocariasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781085/human-toxocariasis
#1
REVIEW
Guangxu Ma, Celia V Holland, Tao Wang, Andreas Hofmann, Chia-Kwung Fan, Rick M Maizels, Peter J Hotez, Robin B Gasser
Parasitic nematodes of the genus Toxocara are socioeconomically important zoonotic pathogens. These parasites are usually directly transmitted to the human host via the faecal-oral route and can cause toxocariasis and associated complications, including allergic and neurological disorders. Although tens of millions of people are estimated to be exposed to or infected with Toxocara spp, global epidemiological information on the relationship between seropositivity and toxocariasis is limited. Recent findings suggest that the effect of toxocariasis on human health is increasing in some countries...
August 3, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761471/detection-of-toxocara-spp-eggs-in-the-soil-of-public-places-in-and-around-of-ardabil-city-northwestern-iran
#2
Ali Pezeshki, Ali Haniloo, Asghar Alejafar, Behnam Mohammadi-Ghalehbin
BACKGROUND: Human toxocariasis is contained in the list of neglected diseases. The infection occurs after ingestion of embryonated eggs in contaminated soil. The present study was carried out to estimate the extent of soil contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs in the public places. METHODS: Soil samples were collected randomly from 41 public places in various parts in and around of Ardabil, Iran, between March 2013 and March 2014. Data were examined by microscopy following sodium nitrate flotation...
January 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761463/the-33-1-kda-excretory-secretory-protein-produced-by-toxocara-canis-larvae-serves-as-a-potential-common-biomarker-for-serodiagnosis-of-toxocariasis-in-paratenic-animals-and-human
#3
Huu-Hung Nguyen, Doan-Trung Vo, Thi-Tuyet-Trinh Thai, Thi-Thanh-Thao LE, Thanh-Dong LE, Nghia-Son Hoang
BACKGROUND: Toxocariasis is a prevalent zoonosis disease caused by the closely related nematode species Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati which parasitise Canidae and Felidae respectively. In paratenic hosts, larvae of these worms cause multiple organ damage. However, how these paratenic hosts response to these worms and whether any common biomarker can be applied for diagnosis are still unclear. METHODS: Excreted/secreted (E/S) antigens were prepared by culture of T...
January 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759601/prevalence-of-toxocara-species-infection-in-the-u-s-results-from-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2011-2014
#4
Aaron Farmer, Thomas Beltran, Young Sammy Choi
Toxocariasis is one of the most common neglected infections of poverty in the U.S. with a reported National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III (1988-1994) seroprevalence of 13.9% based on enzyme immunoassay testing. We reviewed NHANES data from 2011-2014 to assess current levels. Sera collected from NHANES 2011-2014 participants six years and older were tested for exposure using rTc-CTL-1 antigen, a more sensitive and specific recombinant antigen for IgG antibodies for Toxocara spp. These results were subdivided into children (age 6-17) and adults (age ≥ 18) and then compared between various sociodemographic characteristics...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727331/-toxocariasis-a-neglected-disease-in-switzerland
#5
Amélie Duréault, Carlos Perez Valdes, Lalensia Weber, Adam Ogna, Christine Sempoux, Oriol Manuel, Julie Delaloye
Toxocariasis is a zoonotic disease that occurs when humans are infected by the parasites Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati. Toxocariasis is highly prevalent in tropical areas, but can also be found in industrialized countries, particularly in rural areas. Clinical presentation can range from asymptomatic infection to more severe disease. Diagnosis of toxocariasis is based on suggestive clinical findings, eosinophilia and a positive serological testing. Albendazole represents the first-line treatment, associated with corticosteroids in case of severe disease...
April 12, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689247/loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-as-a-reliable-assay-for-toxocara-canis-infection-in-pet-dogs
#6
Paria Khoshakhlagh, Adel Spotin, Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei, Abbas Shahbazi, Maryam Ozlati
Keeping of infected dogs as pet results in the potential transmission risk factors for shedding helminthic infections such as toxocariasis. Lack of accurate identification of Toxocara canis eggs in non-dewormed infected pet dogs remains a diagnostic concern among researchers. In this study, dog owners were asked to fill up a questionnaire regarding their pets and their attitude towards the deworming regimen. One hundred faecal samples were collected from pet dogs (Northwest Iran) and were subsequently identified by the ZnSo4 flotation technique, PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays...
July 9, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606326/evaluation-of-the-transcription-of-interleukin-12-in-the-intestinal-mucosa-of-mice-subjected-to-experimental-toxocariasis-and-supplemented-with-saccharomyces-boulardii
#7
Micaele Quintana de Moura, Wesley Douglas da Silva Terto, Sabrina Taiza Jeske, Leonardo Mortagua de Castro, Natália Berne Pinto, Luciana Farias da Costa Avila, Fabio Pereira Leivas Leite, Maria Elisabeth Aires Berne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591555/seroepidemiological-study-and-associated-risk-factors-of-toxocara-canis-infection-among-preschool-children-in-osun-state-nigeria
#8
Oluyomi A Sowemimo, Yueh-Lun Lee, Samuel O Asaolu, Ting-Wu Chuang, Olaoluwa P Akinwale, Bolaji O Badejoko, Vincent P Gyang, Timothy Nwafor, Emmanuel Henry, Chia-Kwung Fan
Human toxocariasis is caused by the nematode, Toxocara canis and it is a poorly understood phenomenon in Nigeria. Seroepidemiological studies have not been previously carried out among the preschool aged children in Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted in pre-school children in four communities from Osun State, Nigeria between January and July 2016. A total of 308 children Aged 9 months and 5 years were studied comprising 53.2% (164/308) male and 46.8% (144/308) female. Blood samples were collected and screened for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies by Western blot analysis based on the excretory-secretory antigens of larva T...
June 4, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543101/immunoglobulin-m-antibodies-are-not-specific-for-serodiagnosis-of-human-toxocariasis
#9
W H Roldán, G R Elefant, A W Ferreira
Serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis is established by detecting serum anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies, but there is little knowledge regarding the reactivity of human IgM antibodies against the Toxocara antigens. In this study, we have evaluated the reactivity of IgM antibodies in sera from patients with toxocariasis, patients with other helminth infections, and healthy individuals, against Toxocara larval excretory-secretory (TES) antigens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot (WB). Anti-Toxocara IgM were detected in 91...
May 25, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537523/the-pattern-of-uveitis-in-sri-lanka
#10
Jay Siak, Mirna Kumaradas, Soon-Phaik Chee
PURPOSE: To describe the pattern of uveitis at a tertiary uveitis referral clinic in Sri Lanka. METHODS: Consecutive charts identified from a registry between January 2010 and December 2014 at the Mediclinic Hospital, Colombo were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Among 750 patients, anterior uveitis (AU) was the most common (285, 38%), followed by posterior uveitis (187, 25%), intermediate uveitis (150, 20%), and panuveitis (128, 17%). 485 (65%) were idiopathic...
May 24, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443979/experimental-toxocariasis-in-balb-c-mice-relationship-between-parasite-inoculum-and-the-igg-immune-response
#11
Gabriela Rodrigues E Fonseca, Sergio Vieira Dos Santos, Pedro Paulo Chieffi, Fabiana Martins de Paula, Ronaldo Cesar Borges Gryschek, Susana Angélica Zevallos Lescano
BALB/c mice were inoculated with 5-500 Toxocara canis infective eggs, and bled at 15-120 days post infection (dpi) to evaluate the dynamics of IgG antibody response and larvae distribution. Positive results were observed in all occasions for every inoculum, and a direct proportional relationship between antibody detection and the parasitic load was observed. In samples collected at 60 dpi, detection of IgG was more intense, especially with the 50 and 500 egg doses; also, a correlation between antibody level and egg count was observed with these two inocula...
May 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438141/prevalence-of-toxocara-antibodies-among-patients-clinically-suspected-to-have-ocular-toxocariasis-a-retrospective-descriptive-study-in-sri-lanka
#12
Devika Iddawela, Kiruthiha Ehambaram, Pemindra Bandara
BACKGROUND: Human toxocariasis, caused by Toxocara canis, T. cati, and T. vitulorum of dogs, cats and ruminants respectively, is recognized as an important zoonotic infection worldwide. The typical clinical syndromes of toxocariasis in humans are ocular larva migrans (OLM) and visceral larva migrans (VLM). The most commonly affected sites of OLM are the peripheral retina and/or vitreous humor. In Sri Lanka, there is a dearth of information on prevalence of ocular infection in our population...
April 24, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434412/molecular-characterization-and-transcriptional-analysis-of-the-female-enriched-chondroitin-proteoglycan-2-of-toxocara-canis
#13
G X Ma, R Q Zhou, L Hu, Y L Luo, Y F Luo, H H Zhu
Toxocara canis is an important but neglected zoonotic parasite, and is the causative agent of human toxocariasis. Chondroitin proteoglycans are biological macromolecules, widely distributed in extracellular matrices, with a great diversity of functions in mammals. However, there is limited information regarding chondroitin proteoglycans in nematode parasites. In the present study, a female-enriched chondroitin proteoglycan 2 gene of T. canis (Tc-cpg-2) was cloned and characterized. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was employed to measure the transcription levels of Tc-cpg-2 among tissues of male and female adult worms...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352060/evaluation-of-the-prevalence-and-clinical-impact-of-toxocariasis-in-patients-with-eosinophilia-of-unknown-origin
#14
Hong-Beum Kim, Jun-Won Seo, Jun-Hyung Lee, Byung-Seok Choi, Sang-Gon Park
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Eosinophilia has numerous diverse causes, and in many patients, it is not possible to establish the cause of eosinophilia. Recently, toxocariasis was introduced as one cause of eosinophilia. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of toxocariasis and the clinical impact of albendazole treatment for toxocariasis in patients suspected of eosinophilia of unknown origin. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review. After evaluation of cause of eosinophilia, the patients suspected of eosinophilia of unknown origin performed immunoglobulin G antibody specific assay for the Toxocara canis larval antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
May 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351684/tissue-distribution-and-functional-analysis-of-vitellogenin-6-of-toxocara-canis
#15
Hong-Hong Zhu, Guang-Xu Ma, Yong-Fang Luo, Yong-Li Luo, Sha-Sha Yin, Yi Xiong, Rong-Qiong Zhou
Toxocara canis is an common intestinal nematode of canids and the principal causative agent of human toxocariasis. Vitellogenin (Vg), a source of amino acids and lipids in the eggs, are considered to play an important role in embryo development of a wide range of organisms. In the present study, the transcriptional levels of Tc-vit-6 gene in male and female adult T. canis were determined by quantitative real-time PCR, which indicated high transcription of Tc-vit-6 in the intestine, reproductive tract and body wall of male and female adult T...
June 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302681/ultrasound-biomicroscopic-imaging-in-paediatric-ocular-toxocariasis
#16
Jinghua Liu, Songfeng Li, Guangda Deng, Wenli Yang, Wei Chen, Hai Lu
PURPOSE: To determine the potential and usefulness of ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) as a diagnostic procedure on a larger cohort of paediatric patients with ocular toxocariasis. METHODS: UBM was performed on 41 eyes of 41 patients with ocular toxocariasis in order to determine configuration of peripheral retina, pars plana and vitreous. Location and range of peripheral pathology using ophthalmoscopy with scleral indentation, UBM and intraoperative confirmation were recorded and compared...
March 16, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259548/seroprevalence-of-five-neglected-parasitic-diseases-among-immigrants-accessing-five-infectious-and-tropical-diseases-units-in-italy-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
G Martelli, C Di Girolamo, L Zammarchi, A Angheben, M Morandi, S Tais, M Degani, I El Hamad, S Caligaris, A Ciannameo, E Grilli, L Urbinati, G B Monteiro, C Scarcella, N Petrosillo, M Digaetano, L Rabbi, N Bazzanini, F Cacciatore, B L Marta, M L Moro, A Bartoloni, P Viale, G Verucchi
OBJECTIVE: This multicentre cross-sectional study aims to estimate the prevalence of five neglected tropical diseases (Chagas disease, filariasis, schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis and toxocariasis) among immigrants accessing health care facilities in five Italian cities (Bologna, Brescia, Florence, Rome, Verona). METHODS: Individuals underwent a different set of serological tests, according to country of origin and presence of eosinophilia. Seropositive patients were treated and further followed up...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188768/frequency-of-toxocara-spp-antibodies-in-umbilical-cords-of-newborns-attended-atthe-university-hospital-in-southern-brazil-and-factors-associated-with-infection
#18
Paula Costa Santos, Paula Lima Telmo, Lis Maurente Lehmann, Carolina Lorenzi, Carolina Hirsch, Gabriela Torres Mattos, Gabriel Baracy Klafke, Maria Elisabeth Aires Berne, Carla Vitola Gonçalves, Carlos James Scaini
Toxocariasis is a neglected and geographically widespread parasitic disease. The detection of specific antibodies associated with this disease is required to confirm its clinical diagnosis and to aid in prevention. Although helminth infection during pregnancy can promote foetal immune responses with long-term effects, specific information regarding the risk of Toxocara spp. infection to the human foetus during pregnancy is lacking. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the frequency of antibodies against Toxocara spp...
June 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164001/abdominal-mass-secondary-to-human-toxocariasis
#19
Javad Ghoroobi, Leily Mohajerzadeh, Maliheh Khoddami, Alireza Mirshemirani, Naser Sadeghian, Alireza Mahdavi, Sayeh Hatefi
Toxocariasis is an extensive helminthic infection that leads to visceral larva migrans in humans. A 2.5-year-old girl referred for abdominal mass. She had history of pharyngitis for two weeks. There were no other symptoms. Abdominal examination revealed an irregular solid mass in right lower quadrant (RLQ). Abdominal ultrasonography revealed an echohetrogenic large mass in RLQ, liver, and retroperitoneal area. Abdominal CT scan showed a huge mass. At laparotomy a large retroperitoneal mass that involved right liver lobe, bladder, ileocecal valve, small and large intestines was found...
January 2017: APSP Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157623/toxocariasis-of-the-central-nervous-system-with-report-of-two-cases
#20
Bouthouri Abir, Mansour Malek, Mrissa Ridha
Toxocariasis is a parasitic infection caused by the roundworms Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati, mostly due to accidental ingestion of embryonated eggs. Clinical manifestations vary and are classified according to the organs affected. Central nervous system involvement is an unusual complication. Here, we report two cases with neurological manifestations, in which there was cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) eosinophilia with marked blood eosinophilia and a positive serology for Toxocara both in serum and CSF. Improvement of signs and symptoms after specific treatment was observed in the two cases...
March 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
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