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Víctor Hugo Del Río-Araiza, Karen Elizabeth Nava-Castro, Fernando Alba-Hurtado, Andrés Quintanar-Stephano, Marco Antonio Muñoz-Guzmán, Olga CUenca-Micò, Jorge Morales-Montor
Toxocara canis is the helminth causing Toxocariasis, a parasitic disease with medical and veterinary implications. Their final host are members of the family Canidae and as paratenic hosts, most of the mammals are sensitive (man, rat, mouse, among others). It has been reported that a pituitary hormone, prolactin, it is responsible for reactivation and migration of larvae to the uterus and mammary gland during the last third of gestation in bitches. In addition, this hormone has been shown to play an important role in the regulation of the immune response...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Yoshitaka Tomoda, Suguto Futami, Kosuke Sumida, Kazutoyo Tanaka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Sofia S Sánchez, Hector H García, Alessandra Nicoletti
Human toxocariasis is one of the most prevalent helminthiases worldwide. Toxocara canis larvae can cross the blood-brain barrier leading to the neurotoxocariasis. The clinical presentation consists of a wide spectrum of neurological manifestations, but asymptomatic infection is probably common. Neurotoxocariasis is not a frequent diagnosis probably due to the non-specific nature of its symptoms as well as the lack of confirmatory diagnostic tests. Diagnosis of neurotoxocariasis is based on the presence of a high titer of anti- Toxocara antibody in the cerebrospinal fluid or in the serum, presence of eosinophilia in the serum or cerebrospinal fluid, and clinical and radiological improvement after anthelmintic therapy; however, universally accepted diagnostic criteria are lacking...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
S Inchauspe, L V Echandi, E M Dodds
OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate the production of the local toxocara antibodies in the vitreous of patients with negative serology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective review of the medical records of patients seen in a Tertiary Referral Hospital, and at an Eye Institute, with an ocular diagnosis of toxocariasis who had a negative serology and positive titres in the vitreous. RESULTS: After reviewing the medical records of 40 patients with a diagnosis of ocular toxocariasis, a total of six cases (15%) were found with a negative serology and a positive vitreous titre for toxocara antibody, both of them performed using an ELISA procedure...
February 2, 2018: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
Peter J Hotez
Within the last five years, the State of Texas has experienced either transmission or outbreaks of Ebola, chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus infections. Autochthonous transmission of neglected parasitic and bacterial diseases has also become increasingly reported. The rise of such emerging and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has not occurred by accident but instead reflects rapidly evolving changes and shifts in a "new" Texas beset by modern and globalizing forces that include rapid expansions in population together with urbanization and human migrations, altered transportation patterns, climate change, steeply declining vaccination rates, and a new paradigm of poverty known as "blue marble health...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
C Dutheil, J-F Korobelnik, M-B Rougier, M-N Delyfer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Chia-Mei Chou, Yueh-Lun Lee, Chien-Wei Liao, Ying-Chieh Huang, Chia-Kwung Fan
BACKGROUND: Toxocariasis is a worldwide zoonotic parasitic disease mainly caused by Toxocara canis. Humans can be infected by accidental ingestion of T. canis embryonated ovum-contaminated food, water, or encapsulated larvae in paratenic hosts' viscera or meat. Since humans and mice are paratenic hosts of T. canis, the wandering larvae might cause mechanical tissue damage and excretory-secretory antigens may trigger inflammatory injuries to local organs. Long-term residence of T. canis larvae in a paratenic host's brain may cause cerebral toxocariasis (CT) that contributes to cerebral damage, neuroinflammation and neuropsychiatric disorders in mice and clinical patients...
December 22, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Débora Liliane Walcher, Luis Augusto Xavier Cruz, Paula de Lima Telmo, Lourdes Helena Rodrigues Martins, Luciana Farias da Costa de Avila, Maria Elisabeth Aires Berne, Carlos James Scaini
Human toxocariasis is a neglected global parasitic zoonosis. The efficacy of drug treatment for this disease has been hindered by the biological complexity of the main etiological agent, the nematode Toxocara canis. Experimental studies have shown the potential of probiotics to promote a reduction in the parasite load of T. canis larvae. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 on the parasite load of BALB/c mice with acute toxocariasis and evaluate the direct effect of this probiotic on T...
February 2018: Parasitology Research
Fouad E Sayyad, Ahmaida Zeglam, Swati Agarwal-Sinha
PURPOSE: The study reports an unusual presentation of a young female patient presenting with a granulomatous posterior pole mass and profound vision loss secondary to infection with Bartonella henselae. METHODS: A single case report in a child. RESULTS: An 8-year-old female presented with a recent history of flu-like illness associated with profound vision loss, panuveitis and leukocoria in the left eye. She was found to have a posterior granulomatous mass associated with an exudative retinal detachment presumed as a toxocara granuloma...
November 22, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Muhammad Hafiznur Yunus, Siti Naqiuyah Tan Farrizam, Izzati Zahidah Abdul Karim, Rahmah Noordin
Laboratory diagnosis of toxocariasis is still a challenge especially in developing endemic countries with polyparasitism. In this study, three Toxocara canis recombinant antigens, rTES-26, rTES-30, and rTES-120, were expressed and used to prepare lateral flow immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) dipsticks. The concordance of the results of the rapid test (comprising three dipsticks) with a commercial IgG-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Cypress Diagnostics, Belgium) was compared against the concordance of two other commercial IgG-ELISA kits (Bordier, Switzerland and NovaTec, Germany) with the Cypress kit...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Sonja Hartnack, Grace Alobo, Clovice Kankya
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Vachel Gay V Paller, Cyrelle M Besana, Isabel Kristine M Valdez
Toxocariasis is a zoonotic disease usually caused by dog and cat roundworms, Toxocara canis and T. cati. Detection and diagnosis is difficult in paratenic and accidental hosts, including humans, as they cannot be detected through conventional methods such as fecal examination. Diagnosis therefore relies on immunological methods and molecular methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western Blot, which are both time-consuming and requires sophisticated equipment. In the Philippines, only a few studies are available on Toxocara seroprevalence...
December 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Guita Rubinsky-Elefant, Joyce H Yamamoto, Carlos E Hirata, Luiz E Prestes-Carneiro
PURPOSE: To analyze the contribution of IgG anti-Toxocara antibodies in the diagnosis of ocular toxocariasis (OT) in serum samples of patients attending a public referral center for ophthalmology in Brazil and to determine the most frequent ocular signs and symptoms. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective descriptive study of a cohort of outpatients followed from December 1989 to May 2006. METHODS: IgG anti-Toxocara antibody titers were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
October 25, 2017: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
Felix Lötsch, Rieke Vingerling, Rene Spijker, Martin Peter Grobusch
BACKGROUND: Toxocariasis is a globally distributed zoonosis. The most important definitive hosts are dogs, whereas humans serve as paratenic hosts. Transmission to humans occurs by accidental ingestion of eggs, e.g. by consumption of contaminated fruits or vegetables. Although exposure to Toxocara is usually considered as relatively benign, it is implicated in a range of neurological, ophthalmologic and other organ-specific conditions, some of them with grave consequences. This review provides an overview on the epidemiology, presentation and risk factors of exposure to Toxocara in Africa...
November 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Eugene W Liu, Holly M Chastain, Sun Hee Shin, Ryan Wiegand, Deanna Kruszon-Moran, Sukwan Handali, Jeffrey L Jones
Background: Toxocariasis results from infection with larval stages of a dog and cat intestinal nematode and causes human morbidity. The current US estimate of Toxocara exposure is 13.9% (NHANES III 1988-1994). Methods: We used a multiplex bead based assay (Tc-CTL-1MBA) with purified Toxocara canis antigen to estimate Toxocara antibody seroprevalence in serum of 13,509 persons six years and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2011-2014 and identified seropositivity risk factors...
September 4, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Andrew N Berrett, Lance D Erickson, Shawn D Gale, Allison Stone, Bruce L Brown, Dawson W Hedges
Caused by the parasitic nematodes Toxocara canis and cati , toxocariasis in humans can result in covert toxocariasis, ocular toxocariasis, visceral larval migrans, and neurotoxocariasis. A common infection, toxocariasis exposure varies widely within and between countries, with a previous estimate of Toxocara seroprevalence using data from 1988 to 1994 in the United States of approximately 13%. Age, poverty, sex, educational attainment, ethnicity, and region have been associated with Toxocara seroprevalence...
December 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Qian Chen, Junxiang Gu, Rui Jiang, Min Zhou, Qing Chang
PURPOSE: To investigate ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) characteristics of patients with ocular toxocariasis (OT) and to explore the role of UBM in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of OT. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: 78 eyes of 77 patients clinically consistent with OT and confirmed by serum and/or intraocular antibodies in a single tertiary centre (Fudan University Eye and ENT Hospital, Shanghai) between July 2009 and July 2016 were included in the study...
September 19, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Yslla Fernanda Fitz Balo Merigueti, Vamilton Alvares Santarém, Lívia Magosso Ramires, Aline da Silveira Batista, Layron Vinícus da Costa Beserra, Amábyle Lopes Nuci, Talita Mirella de Paula Esposte
Toxocariasis is one of the most prevalent parasitic zoonoses in the world. The disease is principally caused by the nematode Toxocara canis, whose definitive host is the dog. The transmission of toxocariasis to humans is mainly caused by accidental ingestion of embryonated eggs of the parasite, present in the soil. Studies have shown that dog hair has the capacity to harbor eggs of the parasite and represents a risk for transmission of the zoonosis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the frequency and factors associated with the contamination of dog hair by Toxocara spp...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
Tania O Rojas, Camilo Romero, Rafael Heredia, Linda G Bautista, Galia Sheinberg
AIM: The aim of the study was to identify the presence of eggs of Toxocaraspp. in dog hair and to identify any risk factors associated with this. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 96 dogs were sampled collecting hair from the head, perianal and hindquarters. Epidemiologic data from each animal were recorded to identify risk factors. The samples of hair were washed with solutions of distilled water, phosphate-buffered saline and Tween 20 detergent. Microscopic analysis was subsequently performed for the identification of eggs...
July 2017: Veterinary World
Dana M Woodhall, Amanda P Garcia, Craig A Shapiro, Shequenta L Wray, Andi L Shane, Chitra S Mani, Kelly K Stimpert, LeAnne M Fox, Susan P Montgomery
Toxocariasis, one of a group of parasitic diseases known as neglected parasitic infections, is a disease caused by the larvae of two species of Toxocara roundworms, Toxocara canis, from dogs, and less commonly Toxocara cati, from cats. Although most infected individuals are asymptomatic, clinical manifestations may include fever, fatigue, coughing, wheezing, or abdominal pain (visceral toxocariasis) or vision loss, retina damage, or eye inflammation (ocular toxocariasis). To assess U.S. pediatrician knowledge of toxocariasis, we conducted an electronic survey of American Academy of Pediatrics members...
October 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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