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Cortical connectome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339474/robust-prediction-of-individual-creative-ability-from-brain-functional-connectivity
#1
Roger E Beaty, Yoed N Kenett, Alexander P Christensen, Monica D Rosenberg, Mathias Benedek, Qunlin Chen, Andreas Fink, Jiang Qiu, Thomas R Kwapil, Michael J Kane, Paul J Silvia
People's ability to think creatively is a primary means of technological and cultural progress, yet the neural architecture of the highly creative brain remains largely undefined. Here, we employed a recently developed method in functional brain imaging analysis-connectome-based predictive modeling-to identify a brain network associated with high-creative ability, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data acquired from 163 participants engaged in a classic divergent thinking task. At the behavioral level, we found a strong correlation between creative thinking ability and self-reported creative behavior and accomplishment in the arts and sciences (r = 0...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331877/cerebral-changes-and-disrupted-gray-matter-cortical-networks-in-asymptomatic-older-adults-at-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Jose L Cantero, Mercedes Atienza, Pascual Sanchez-Juan, Eloy Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Jose Luis Vazquez-Higuera, Ana Pozueta, Andrea Gonzalez-Suarez, Eduard Vilaplana, Jordi Pegueroles, Victor Montal, Rafael Blesa, Daniel Alcolea, Alberto Lleo, Juan Fortea
The diagnostic value of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers is well established in Alzheimer's disease, but our current knowledge about how abnormal CSF levels affect cerebral integrity, at local and network levels, is incomplete in asymptomatic older adults. Here, we have collected CSF samples and performed structural magnetic resonance imaging scans in cognitively normal elderly as part of a cross-sectional multicenter study (SIGNAL project). To identify group differences in cortical thickness, white matter volume, and properties of structural networks, participants were split into controls (N = 20), positive amyloid-β (Aβ1-42+) (N = 19), and positive phosphorylated tau (N = 18)...
December 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307012/a-method-for-pre-operative-single-subject-thalamic-segmentation-based-on-probabilistic-tractography-for-essential-tremor-deep-brain-stimulation
#3
Erik H Middlebrooks, Vanessa M Holanda, Ibrahim S Tuna, Hrishikesh D Deshpande, Markus Bredel, Leonardo Almeida, Harrison C Walker, Barton L Guthrie, Kelly D Foote, Michael S Okun
PURPOSE: Deep brain stimulation is a common treatment for medication-refractory essential tremor. Current coordinate-based targeting methods result in variable outcomes due to variation in thalamic structure and the optimal patient-specific functional location. The purpose of this study was to compare the coordinate-based pre-operative targets to patient-specific thalamic segmentation utilizing a probabilistic tractography methodology. METHODS: Using available diffusion MRI of 32 subjects from the Human Connectome Project database, probabilistic tractography was performed...
January 6, 2018: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278774/data-driven-assessment-of-structural-image-quality
#4
Adon F G Rosen, David R Roalf, Kosha Ruparel, Jason Blake, Kevin Seelaus, Lakshmi P Villa, Rastko Ciric, Philip A Cook, Christos Davatzikos, Mark A Elliott, Angel Garcia de La Garza, Efstathios D Gennatas, Megan Quarmley, J Eric Schmitt, Russell T Shinohara, M Dylan Tisdall, R Cameron Craddock, Raquel E Gur, Ruben C Gur, Theodore D Satterthwaite
Data quality is increasingly recognized as one of the most important confounding factors in brain imaging research. It is particularly important for studies of brain development, where age is systematically related to in-scanner motion and data quality. Prior work has demonstrated that in-scanner head motion biases estimates of structural neuroimaging measures. However, objective measures of data quality are not available for most structural brain images. Here we sought to identify quantitative measures of data quality for T1-weighted volumes, describe how such measures of quality relate to cortical thickness, and delineate how this in turn may bias inference regarding associations with age in youth...
December 23, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277650/macroscale-variation-in-resting-state-neuronal-activity-and-connectivity-assessed-by-simultaneous-calcium-imaging-hemodynamic-imaging-and-electrophysiology
#5
Matthew C Murphy, Kevin C Chan, Seong-Gi Kim, Alberto L Vazquez
Functional imaging of spontaneous activity continues to play an important role in the field of connectomics. The most common imaging signal used for these experiments is the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) signal, but how this signal relates to spontaneous neuronal activity remains incompletely understood. Genetically encoded calcium indicators represent a promising tool to study this problem, as they can provide brain-wide measurements of neuronal activity compared to point measurements afforded by electrophysiological recordings...
December 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276055/morphometric-similarity-networks-detect-microscale-cortical-organization-and-predict-inter-individual-cognitive-variation
#6
Jakob Seidlitz, František Váša, Maxwell Shinn, Rafael Romero-Garcia, Kirstie J Whitaker, Petra E Vértes, Konrad Wagstyl, Paul Kirkpatrick Reardon, Liv Clasen, Siyuan Liu, Adam Messinger, David A Leopold, Peter Fonagy, Raymond J Dolan, Peter B Jones, Ian M Goodyer, Armin Raznahan, Edward T Bullmore
Macroscopic cortical networks are important for cognitive function, but it remains challenging to construct anatomically plausible individual structural connectomes from human neuroimaging. We introduce a new technique for cortical network mapping based on inter-regional similarity of multiple morphometric parameters measured using multimodal MRI. In three cohorts (two human, one macaque), we find that the resulting morphometric similarity networks (MSNs) have a complex topological organization comprising modules and high-degree hubs...
December 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274746/structural-covariance-networks-are-coupled-to-expression-of-genes-enriched-in-supragranular-layers-of-the-human-cortex
#7
Rafael Romero-Garcia, Kirstie J Whitaker, František Váša, Jakob Seidlitz, Maxwell Shinn, Peter Fonagy, Raymond J Dolan, Peter B Jones, Ian M Goodyer
Complex network topology is characteristic of many biological systems, including anatomical and functional brain networks (connectomes). Here, we first constructed a structural covariance network from MRI measures of cortical thickness on 296 healthy volunteers, aged 14-24 years. Next, we designed a new algorithm for matching sample locations from the Allen Brain Atlas to the nodes of the SCN. Subsequently we used this to define, transcriptomic brain networks by estimating gene co-expression between pairs of cortical regions...
December 21, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274501/using-diffusion-mri-to-discriminate-areas-of-cortical-grey-matter
#8
Tharindu Ganepola, Zoltan Nagy, Aurobrata Ghosh, Theodore Papadopoulo, Daniel C Alexander, Martin I Sereno
Cortical area parcellation is a challenging problem that is often approached by combining structural imaging (e.g., quantitative T1, diffusion-based connectivity) with functional imaging (e.g., task activations, topological mapping, resting state correlations). Diffusion MRI (dMRI) has been widely adopted to analyse white matter microstructure, but scarcely used to distinguish grey matter regions because of the reduced anisotropy there. Nevertheless, differences in the texture of the cortical 'fabric' have long been mapped by histologists to distinguish cortical areas...
December 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258891/surface-enhanced-tractography-set
#9
Etienne St-Onge, Alessandro Daducci, Gabriel Girard, Maxime Descoteaux
In this work, we exploit the T1 weighted image in conjunction with cortical surface boundary to improve the precision of tractography under the cortex. We show that utilizing the cortical interface and a surface flow, to model the superficial white matter streamlines, enhance and improve tractography trajectory near the cortex. Our novel surface-enhanced tractography reduces the gyral bias, the length bias and the amount of false positive streamlines produced by tractography. This method improves the reproducibility and the cortical surface coverage of tractograms which are crucial for connectomics studies...
December 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209804/efferents-of-anterior-cingulate-areas-24a-and-24b-and-midcingulate-areas-24a-and-24b-in-the-mouse
#10
Clémentine Fillinger, Ipek Yalcin, Michel Barrot, Pierre Veinante
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), constituted by areas 25, 32, 24a and 24b in rodents, plays a major role in cognition, emotion and pain. In a previous study, we described the afferents of areas 24a and 24b and those of areas 24a' and 24b' of midcingulate cortex (MCC) in mice and highlighted some density differences among cingulate inputs (Fillinger et al., Brain Struct Funct 222:1509-1532, 2017). To complete this connectome, we analyzed here the efferents of ACC and MCC by injecting anterograde tracers in areas 24a/24b of ACC and 24a'/24b' of MCC...
December 6, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208569/a-digital-3d-atlas-of-the-marmoset-brain-based-on-multi-modal-mri
#11
Cirong Liu, Frank Q Ye, Cecil Chern-Chyi Yen, John D Newman, Daniel Glen, David A Leopold, Afonso C Silva
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a New-World monkey of growing interest in neuroscience. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an essential tool to unveil the anatomical and functional organization of the marmoset brain. To facilitate identification of regions of interest, it is desirable to register MR images to an atlas of the brain. However, currently available atlases of the marmoset brain are mainly based on 2D histological data, which are difficult to apply to 3D imaging techniques. Here, we constructed a 3D digital atlas based on high-resolution ex-vivo MRI images, including magnetization transfer ratio (a T1-like contrast), T2w images, and multi-shell diffusion MRI...
December 2, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203852/the-dynamics-of-stress-a-longitudinal-mri-study-of-rat-brain-structure-and-connectome
#12
R Magalhães, D A Barrière, A Novais, F Marques, P Marques, J Cerqueira, J C Sousa, A Cachia, F Boumezbeur, M Bottlaender, T M Jay, S Mériaux, N Sousa
Stress is a well-established trigger for a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, as it alters both structure and function of several brain regions and its networks. Herein, we conduct a longitudinal neuroimaging study to assess how a chronic unpredictable stress protocol impacts the structure of the rat brain and its functional connectome in both high and low responders to stress. Our results reveal the changes that stress triggers in the brain, with structural atrophy affecting key regions such as the prelimbic, cingulate, insular and retrosplenial, somatosensory, motor, auditory and perirhinal/entorhinal cortices, the hippocampus, the dorsomedial striatum, nucleus accumbens, the septum, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the thalamus and several brain stem nuclei...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201283/a-comparison-of-network-definitions-for-detecting-sex-differences-in-brain-connectivity-using-support-vector-machines
#13
George W Hafzalla, Anjanibhargavi Ragothaman, Joshua Faskowitz, Neda Jahanshad, Katie L McMahon, Greig I de Zubicaray, Margaret J Wright, Meredith N Braskie, Gautam Prasad, Paul M Thompson
Human brain connectomics is a rapidly evolving area of research, using various methods to define connections or interactions between pairs of regions. Here we evaluate how the choice of (1) regions of interest, (2) definitions of a connection, and (3) normalization of connection weights to total brain connectivity and region size, affect our calculation of the structural connectome. Sex differences in the structural connectome have been established previously. We study how choices in reconstruction of the connectome affect our ability to classify subjects by sex using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier...
2017: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: from Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186356/altered-caudate-connectivity-is-associated-with-executive-dysfunction-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Sara De Simoni, Peter O Jenkins, Niall J Bourke, Jessica J Fleminger, Peter J Hellyer, Amy E Jolly, Maneesh C Patel, James H Cole, Robert Leech, David J Sharp
Traumatic brain injury often produces executive dysfunction. This characteristic cognitive impairment often causes long-term problems with behaviour and personality. Frontal lobe injuries are associated with executive dysfunction, but it is unclear how these injuries relate to corticostriatal interactions that are known to play an important role in behavioural control. We hypothesized that executive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury would be associated with abnormal corticostriatal interactions, a question that has not previously been investigated...
November 23, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100937/anatomicuts-hierarchical-clustering-of-tractography-streamlines-based-on-anatomical-similarity
#15
Viviana Siless, Ken Chang, Bruce Fischl, Anastasia Yendiki
Diffusion MRI tractography produces massive sets of streamlines that contain a wealth of information on brain connections. The size of these datasets creates a need for automated clustering methods to group the streamlines into meaningful bundles. Conventional clustering techniques group streamlines based on their spatial coordinates. Neuroanatomists, however, define white-matter bundles based on the anatomical structures that they go through or next to, rather than their spatial coordinates. Thus we propose a similarity measure for clustering streamlines based on their position relative to cortical and subcortical brain regions...
November 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081731/human-fetal-brain-connectome-structural-network-development-from-middle-fetal-stage-to-birth
#16
Limei Song, Virendra Mishra, Minhui Ouyang, Qinmu Peng, Michelle Slinger, Shuwei Liu, Hao Huang
Complicated molecular and cellular processes take place in a spatiotemporally heterogeneous and precisely regulated pattern in the human fetal brain, yielding not only dramatic morphological and microstructural changes, but also macroscale connectomic transitions. As the underlying substrate of the fetal brain structural network, both dynamic neuronal migration pathways and rapid developing fetal white matter (WM) fibers could fundamentally reshape early fetal brain connectome. Quantifying structural connectome development can not only shed light on the brain reconfiguration in this critical yet rarely studied developmental period, but also reveal alterations of the connectome under neuropathological conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060607/resting-state-brain-correlates-of-cardiovascular-complexity
#17
G Valenza, A Duggento, L Passamonti, S Diciotti, C Tessa, N Toschi, R Barbieri
While estimates of complex heartbeat dynamics have provided effective prognostic and diagnostic markers for a wide range of pathologies, brain correlates of complex cardiac measures in general and of complex sympatho-vagal dynamics in particular are still unknown. In this study we combine resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and physiological signal acquisition from 34 healthy subjects selected from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) repository with inhomogeneous point-process approximate and sample heartbeat entropy measures (ipApEn and ipSampEn) to investigate brain areas involved in complex cardiovascular control...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050387/temporal-lobe-networks-supporting-the-comprehension-of-spoken-words
#18
Leonardo Bonilha, Argye E Hillis, Gregory Hickok, Dirk B den Ouden, Chris Rorden, Julius Fridriksson
Auditory word comprehension is a cognitive process that involves the transformation of auditory signals into abstract concepts. Traditional lesion-based studies of stroke survivors with aphasia have suggested that neocortical regions adjacent to auditory cortex are primarily responsible for word comprehension. However, recent primary progressive aphasia and normal neurophysiological studies have challenged this concept, suggesting that the left temporal pole is crucial for word comprehension. Due to its vasculature, the temporal pole is not commonly completely lesioned in stroke survivors and this heterogeneity may have prevented its identification in lesion-based studies of auditory comprehension...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046902/holistic-mapping-of-striatum-surfaces-in-the-laplace-beltrami-embedding-space
#19
Jin Kyu Gahm, Yonggang Shi
In brain shape analysis, the striatum is typically divided into three parts: the caudate, putamen, and accumbens nuclei for its analysis. Recent connectivity and animal studies, however, indicate striatum-cortical inter-connections do not always follow such subdivisions. For the holistic mapping of striatum surfaces, conventional spherical registration techniques are not suitable due to the large metric distortions in spherical parameterization of striatal surfaces. To overcome this difficulty, we develop a novel striatal surface mapping method using the recently proposed Riemannian metric optimization techniques in the Laplace-Beltrami (LB) embedding space...
September 2017: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989049/individual-variability-of-the-human-cerebral-cortex-identified-using-intraoperative-mapping
#20
Johan Pallud, Marc Zanello, Grégory Kuchcinski, Alexandre Roux, Jun Muto, Charles Mellerio, Edouard Dezamis, Catherine Oppenheim
BACKGROUND: The intraoperative functional cortical mapping using direct electrical stimulation may show a wider individual variability than those suggested by non-invasive imaging data on healthy subjects. METHODS: We assessed the intraoperative variability of the frontal eye fields and of the speech arrest sites in adult patients having undergone a wide-awake craniotomy with direct electrostimulation for diffuse gliomas located within eloquent regions and we compared with the human cortical parcellation of the Human Connectome Project (Glasser, Nature, 2016)...
October 5, 2017: World Neurosurgery
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