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Cortical connectome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100937/anatomicuts-hierarchical-clustering-of-tractography-streamlines-based-on-anatomical-similarity
#1
Viviana Siless, Ken Chang, Bruce Fischl, Anastasia Yendiki
Diffusion MRI tractography produces massive sets of streamlines that contain a wealth of information on brain connections. The size of these datasets creates a need for automated clustering methods to group the streamlines into meaningful bundles. Conventional clustering techniques group streamlines based on their spatial coordinates. Neuroanatomists, however, define white-matter bundles based on the anatomical structures that they go through or next to, rather than their spatial coordinates. Thus we propose a similarity measure for clustering streamlines based on their position relative to cortical and subcortical brain regions...
November 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081731/human-fetal-brain-connectome-structural-network-development-from-middle-fetal-stage-to-birth
#2
Limei Song, Virendra Mishra, Minhui Ouyang, Qinmu Peng, Michelle Slinger, Shuwei Liu, Hao Huang
Complicated molecular and cellular processes take place in a spatiotemporally heterogeneous and precisely regulated pattern in the human fetal brain, yielding not only dramatic morphological and microstructural changes, but also macroscale connectomic transitions. As the underlying substrate of the fetal brain structural network, both dynamic neuronal migration pathways and rapid developing fetal white matter (WM) fibers could fundamentally reshape early fetal brain connectome. Quantifying structural connectome development can not only shed light on the brain reconfiguration in this critical yet rarely studied developmental period, but also reveal alterations of the connectome under neuropathological conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060607/resting-state-brain-correlates-of-cardiovascular-complexity
#3
G Valenza, A Duggento, L Passamonti, S Diciotti, C Tessa, N Toschi, R Barbieri
While estimates of complex heartbeat dynamics have provided effective prognostic and diagnostic markers for a wide range of pathologies, brain correlates of complex cardiac measures in general and of complex sympatho-vagal dynamics in particular are still unknown. In this study we combine resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and physiological signal acquisition from 34 healthy subjects selected from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) repository with inhomogeneous point-process approximate and sample heartbeat entropy measures (ipApEn and ipSampEn) to investigate brain areas involved in complex cardiovascular control...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050387/temporal-lobe-networks-supporting-the-comprehension-of-spoken-words
#4
Leonardo Bonilha, Argye E Hillis, Gregory Hickok, Dirk B den Ouden, Chris Rorden, Julius Fridriksson
Auditory word comprehension is a cognitive process that involves the transformation of auditory signals into abstract concepts. Traditional lesion-based studies of stroke survivors with aphasia have suggested that neocortical regions adjacent to auditory cortex are primarily responsible for word comprehension. However, recent primary progressive aphasia and normal neurophysiological studies have challenged this concept, suggesting that the left temporal pole is crucial for word comprehension. Due to its vasculature, the temporal pole is not commonly completely lesioned in stroke survivors and this heterogeneity may have prevented its identification in lesion-based studies of auditory comprehension...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046902/holistic-mapping-of-striatum-surfaces-in-the-laplace-beltrami-embedding-space
#5
Jin Kyu Gahm, Yonggang Shi
In brain shape analysis, the striatum is typically divided into three parts: the caudate, putamen, and accumbens nuclei for its analysis. Recent connectivity and animal studies, however, indicate striatum-cortical inter-connections do not always follow such subdivisions. For the holistic mapping of striatum surfaces, conventional spherical registration techniques are not suitable due to the large metric distortions in spherical parameterization of striatal surfaces. To overcome this difficulty, we develop a novel striatal surface mapping method using the recently proposed Riemannian metric optimization techniques in the Laplace-Beltrami (LB) embedding space...
September 2017: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989049/individual-variability-of-the-human-cerebral-cortex-identified-using-intraoperative-mapping
#6
Johan Pallud, Marc Zanello, Grégory Kuchcinski, Alexandre Roux, Jun Muto, Charles Mellerio, Edouard Dezamis, Catherine Oppenheim
BACKGROUND: The intraoperative functional cortical mapping using direct electrical stimulation may show a wider individual variability than those suggested by non-invasive imaging data on healthy subjects. METHODS: We assessed the intraoperative variability of the frontal eye fields and of the speech arrest sites in adult patients having undergone a wide-awake craniotomy with direct electrostimulation for diffuse gliomas located within eloquent regions and we compared with the human cortical parcellation of the Human Connectome Project (Glasser, Nature, 2016)...
October 5, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988973/comparative-connectomics-mapping-the-inter-individual-variability-of-connections-within-the-regions-of-the-human-brain
#7
Csaba Kerepesi, Balázs Szalkai, Bálint Varga, Vince Grolmusz
The human braingraph, or connectome is a description of the connections of the brain: the nodes of the graph correspond to small areas of the gray matter, and two nodes are connected by an edge if a diffusion MRI-based workflow finds fibers between those brain areas. We have constructed 1015-vertex graphs from the diffusion MRI brain images of 392 human subjects and compared the individual graphs with respect to several different areas of the brain. The inter-individual variability of the graphs within different brain regions was discovered and described...
October 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968754/influences-on-the-test-retest-reliability-of-functional-connectivity-mri-and-its-relationship-with-behavioral-utility
#8
Stephanie Noble, Marisa N Spann, Fuyuze Tokoglu, Xilin Shen, R Todd Constable, Dustin Scheinost
Best practices are currently being developed for the acquisition and processing of resting-state magnetic resonance imaging data used to estimate brain functional organization-or "functional connectivity." Standards have been proposed based on test-retest reliability, but open questions remain. These include how amount of data per subject influences whole-brain reliability, the influence of increasing runs versus sessions, the spatial distribution of reliability, the reliability of multivariate methods, and, crucially, how reliability maps onto prediction of behavior...
September 12, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967386/structural-neuroimaging-of-anorexia-nervosa-future-directions-in-the-quest-for-mechanisms-underlying-dynamic-alterations
#9
REVIEW
Joseph A King, Guido K W Frank, Paul M Thompson, Stefan Ehrlich
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious eating disorder characterized by self-starvation and extreme weight loss. Pseudoatrophic brain changes are often readily visible in individual brain scans, and AN may be a valuable model disorder to study structural neuroplasticity. Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies have found reduced gray matter volume and cortical thinning in acutely underweight patients to normalize following successful treatment. However, some well-controlled studies have found regionally greater gray matter and persistence of structural alterations following long-term recovery...
August 24, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961235/features-of-spatial-and-functional-segregation-and-integration-of-the-primate-connectome-revealed-by-trade-off-between-wiring-cost-and-efficiency
#10
Yuhan Chen, Shengjun Wang, Claus C Hilgetag, Changsong Zhou
The primate connectome, possessing a characteristic global topology and specific regional connectivity profiles, is well organized to support both segregated and integrated brain function. However, the organization mechanisms shaping the characteristic connectivity and its relationship to functional requirements remain unclear. The primate brain connectome is shaped by metabolic economy as well as functional values. Here, we explored the influence of two competing factors and additional advanced functional requirements on the primate connectome employing an optimal trade-off model between neural wiring cost and the representative functional requirement of processing efficiency...
September 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960629/a-multisample-study-of-longitudinal-changes-in-brain-network-architecture-in-4-13-year-old-children
#11
Lara M Wierenga, Martijn P van den Heuvel, Bob Oranje, Jay N Giedd, Sarah Durston, Jiska S Peper, Timothy T Brown, Eveline A Crone
Recent advances in human neuroimaging research have revealed that white-matter connectivity can be described in terms of an integrated network, which is the basis of the human connectome. However, the developmental changes of this connectome in childhood are not well understood. This study made use of two independent longitudinal diffusion-weighted imaging data sets to characterize developmental changes in the connectome by estimating age-related changes in fractional anisotropy (FA) for reconstructed fibers (edges) between 68 cortical regions...
September 28, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934529/traveling-slow-oscillations-during-sleep-a-marker-of-brain-connectivity-in-childhood
#12
Salome Kurth, Brady A Riedner, Douglas C Dean, Jonathan O'Muircheartaigh, Reto Huber, Oskar G Jenni, Sean C L Deoni, Monique K LeBourgeois
Slow oscillations, a defining characteristic of the nonrapid eye movement sleep electroencephalogram (EEG), proliferate across the scalp in highly reproducible patterns. In adults, the propagation of slow oscillations is a recognized fingerprint of brain connectivity and excitability. In this study, we (1) describe for the first time maturational features of sleep slow oscillation propagation in children (n = 23; 2-13 years) using high-density (hd) EEG and (2) examine associations between sleep slow oscillatory propagation characteristics (ie, distance, traveling speed, cortical involvement) and white matter myelin microstructure as measured with multicomponent Driven Equilibrium Single Pulse Observation of T1 and T2-magnetic resonance imaging (mcDESPOT-MRI)...
September 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926154/brain-functional-connectome-abnormalities-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-are-associated-with-disability-and-cortical-hyperexcitability
#13
N Geevasinga, M S Korgaonkar, P Menon, M Van den Bos, L Gomes, S Foster, M C Kiernan, S Vucic
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The present study utilized a multimodal approach encompassing connectome networks combined with brain volume analysis, and assessment of cortical excitability to provide novel insights into amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis. METHODS: Magnetic resonance images were acquired using a 3.0-Tesla Signa HDx scanner (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI, USA), using an eight-channel head coil. Magnetic resonance images for the resting-state scan were acquired using an echo-planar imaging magnetic resonance sequence, acquiring 40 contiguous axial/oblique slices...
September 19, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921634/the-role-of-whole-brain-diffusion-mri-as-a-tool-for-studying-human-in-vivo-cortical-segregation-based-on-a-measure-of-neurite-density
#14
Fernando Calamante, Ben Jeurissen, Robert E Smith, Jacques-Donald Tournier, Alan Connelly
PURPOSE: To investigate whether diffusion MRI can be used to study cortical segregation based on a contrast related to neurite density, thus providing a complementary tool to myelin-based MRI techniques used for myeloarchitecture. METHODS: Several myelin-sensitive MRI methods (e.g., based on T1 , T2 , and T2*) have been proposed to parcellate cortical areas based on their myeloarchitecture. Recent improvements in hardware, acquisition, and analysis methods have opened the possibility of achieving a more robust characterization of cortical microstructure using diffusion MRI...
September 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899992/depletion-of-progranulin-reduces-glun2b-containing-nmda-receptor-density-tau-phosphorylation-and-dendritic-arborization-in-mouse-primary-cortical-neurons
#15
Francesca Longhena, Michela Zaltieri, Jessica Grigoletto, Gaia Faustini, Luca La Via, Roberta Ghidoni, Luisa Benussi, Cristina Missale, PierFranco Spano, Arianna Bellucci
Loss-of-function mutations in the progranulin (PGRN) gene are a common cause of familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). This age-related neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by brain atrophy in the frontal and temporal lobes and such typical symptoms as cognitive and memory impairment, profound behavioral abnormalities, and personality changes is thought to be related to connectome dysfunctions. Recently, PGRN reduction has been found to induce a behavioral phenotype reminiscent of FTLD symptoms in mice by affecting neuron spine density and morphology, suggesting that the protein can influence neuronal structural plasticity...
November 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893608/adaptive-cortical-parcellations-for-source-reconstructed-eeg-meg-connectomes
#16
Seyedeh-Rezvan Farahibozorg, Richard N Henson, Olaf Hauk
There is growing interest in the rich temporal and spectral properties of the brain's functional connectome that are provided by Electro- and Magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG). However, the problem of leakage between brain sources that arises when reconstructing brain activity from EEG/MEG recordings outside the head makes it difficult to distinguish true connections from spurious connections, even when connections are based on measures that ignore zero-lag dependencies. In particular, standard anatomical parcellations for potential cortical sources tend to over- or under-sample the real spatial resolution of EEG/MEG...
September 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889005/a-flexible-graphical-model-for-multi-modal-parcellation-of-the-cortex
#17
Sarah Parisot, Ben Glocker, Sofia Ira Ktena, Salim Arslan, Markus D Schirmer, Daniel Rueckert
Advances in neuroimaging have provided a tremendous amount of in-vivo information on the brain's organisation. Its anatomy and cortical organisation can be investigated from the point of view of several imaging modalities, many of which have been studied for mapping functionally specialised cortical areas. There is strong evidence that a single modality is not sufficient to fully identify the brain's cortical organisation. Combining multiple modalities in the same parcellation task has the potential to provide more accurate and robust subdivisions of the cortex...
September 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884073/connectome-based-lesion-symptom-mapping-clsm-a-novel-approach-to-map-neurological-function
#18
REVIEW
Ezequiel Gleichgerrcht, Julius Fridriksson, Chris Rorden, Leonardo Bonilha
Lesion-symptom mapping is a key tool in understanding the relationship between structure and function in neuroscience as it can provide objective evidence about which regions are crucial for a given process. Initial limitations with this approach were largely overcome by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM), a method introduced in the early 2000s, which allows for a whole-brain approach to study the association between damaged areas and behavioral impairment by applying an independent statistical test at every voxel...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882062/remodeling-of-sensorimotor-brain-connectivity-in-gpr88-deficient-mice
#19
Tanzil Mahmud Arefin, Anna E Mechling, Aura Carole Meirsman, Thomas Bienert, Neele Saskia Hübner, Hsu-Lei Lee, Sami Ben Hamida, Aliza Ehrlich, Dan Roquet, Jürgen Hennig, Dominik von Elverfeldt, Brigitte Lina Kieffer, Laura-Adela Harsan
Recent studies have demonstrated that orchestrated gene activity and expression support synchronous activity of brain networks. However, there is a paucity of information on the consequences of single gene function on overall brain functional organization and connectivity and how this translates at the behavioral level. In this study, we combined mouse mutagenesis with functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine whether targeted inactivation of a single gene would modify whole-brain connectivity in live animals...
October 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863720/harmonic-brain-modes-a-unifying-framework-for-linking-space-and-time-in-brain-dynamics
#20
Selen Atasoy, Gustavo Deco, Morten L Kringelbach, Joel Pearson
A fundamental characteristic of spontaneous brain activity is coherent oscillations covering a wide range of frequencies. Interestingly, these temporal oscillations are highly correlated among spatially distributed cortical areas forming structured correlation patterns known as the resting state networks, although the brain is never truly at "rest." Here, we introduce the concept of harmonic brain modes-fundamental building blocks of complex spatiotemporal patterns of neural activity. We define these elementary harmonic brain modes as harmonic modes of structural connectivity; that is, connectome harmonics, yielding fully synchronous neural activity patterns with different frequency oscillations emerging on and constrained by the particular structure of the brain...
September 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
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