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Cortical connectome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039039/group-comparison-of-cortical-fiber-connectivity-map-an-application-between-post-stroke-patients-and-healthy-subjects
#1
Kai Liu, Teng Zhang, Winnie C W Chu, Vincent C T Mok, Defeng Wang, Lin Shi
Structural connectome measurement combined with diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and tractography allows generation of a whole-brain connectome. However, current cortical structural connectivity (SC) measurements have not been well combined with the vertex-wise multi-subjects statistical analysis. The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of using group comparison vertex-wise analysis for cortical SC measurement. A fiber connectivity density (FiCD) method based on a combination of a diffusion fiber tracking technique and cortical surface-based analysis was used to measure the whole-brain cortical SC map (FiCD map)...
December 28, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031999/sleep-duration-and-resting-fmri-functional-connectivity-examination-of-short-sleepers-with-and-without-perceived-daytime-dysfunction
#2
Brian J Curtis, Paula G Williams, Christopher R Jones, Jeffrey S Anderson
BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of the U.S. population reports recurrent short sleep; however, perceived sleep need varies widely among individuals. Some "habitual short sleepers" routinely sleep 4-6 hr/night without self-reported adverse consequences. Identifying neural mechanisms underlying individual differences in perceived sleep-related dysfunction has important implications for understanding associations between sleep duration and health. METHOD: This study utilized data from 839 subjects of the Human Connectome Project to examine resting functional connectivity associations with self-reported short sleep duration, as well as differences between short sleepers with versus without reported dysfunction...
December 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989843/cortical-rich-club-regions-can-organize-state-dependent-functional-network-formation-by-engaging-in-oscillatory-behavior
#3
Mario Senden, Niels Reuter, Martijn P van den Heuvel, Rainer Goebel, Gustavo Deco
Cognition is hypothesized to require the globally coordinated, functionally relevant integration of otherwise segregated information processing carried out by specialized brain regions. Studies of the macroscopic connectome as well as recent neuroimaging and neuromodeling research have suggested a densely connected collective of cortical hubs, termed the rich club, to provide a central workspace for such integration. In order for rich club regions to fulfill this role they must dispose of a dynamic mechanism by which they can actively shape networks of brain regions whose information processing needs to be integrated...
October 29, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939100/single-pulse-electrical-stimulation-to-probe-functional-and-pathological-connectivity-in-epilepsy
#4
Riki Matsumoto, Takeharu Kunieda, Dileep Nair
In the last decade, single pulse electrical stimulation (SPES) has been used as an investigational tool in the field of epilepsy surgery. Direct cortical stimulation applied at a frequency of ∼1Hz can probe cortico-cortical connections by averaging electrocorticogram time-lock to the stimuli (2×20-30 trials). These evoked potentials that emanate from adjacent and remote cortices have been termed cortico-cortical evoked potentials (CCEPs). Although limited to patients undergoing invasive presurgical evaluations with intracranial electrodes, CCEP provides a novel way to explore inter-areal connectivity in vivo in the living human brain to probe functional brain networks such as language and cognitive motor networks...
November 14, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930915/anatomical-dysconnectivity-in-bipolar-disorder-compared-with-schizophrenia-a-selective-review-of-structural-network-analyses-using-diffusion-mri
#5
REVIEW
Stefani O'Donoghue, Laurena Holleran, Dara M Cannon, Colm McDonald
BACKGROUND: The dysconnectivity hypothesis suggests that psychotic illnesses arise not from regionally specific focal pathophysiology, but rather from impaired neuroanatomical integration across networks of brain regions. Decreased white matter organization has been hypothesized to be a feature of psychotic illnesses in general, which is supported by meta-analyses of DTI studies in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Although many diffusion MRI studies investigate bipolar disorder and schizophrenia alone, relatively few studies directly compare structural features in these psychotic illnesses...
February 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917138/neural-elements-for-predictive-coding
#6
REVIEW
Stewart Shipp
Predictive coding theories of sensory brain function interpret the hierarchical construction of the cerebral cortex as a Bayesian, generative model capable of predicting the sensory data consistent with any given percept. Predictions are fed backward in the hierarchy and reciprocated by prediction error in the forward direction, acting to modify the representation of the outside world at increasing levels of abstraction, and so to optimize the nature of perception over a series of iterations. This accounts for many 'illusory' instances of perception where what is seen (heard, etc...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896314/graph-theoretic-and-motif-analyses-of-the-hippocampal-neuron-type-potential-connectome
#7
Christopher L Rees, Diek W Wheeler, David J Hamilton, Charise M White, Alexander O Komendantov, Giorgio A Ascoli
We computed the potential connectivity map of all known neuron types in the rodent hippocampal formation by supplementing scantly available synaptic data with spatial distributions of axons and dendrites from the open-access knowledge base Hippocampome.org. The network that results from this endeavor, the broadest and most complete for a mammalian cortical region at the neuron-type level to date, contains more than 3200 connections among 122 neuron types across six subregions. Analyses of these data using graph theory metrics unveil the fundamental architectural principles of the hippocampal circuit...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875803/analysis-of-alcohol-use-disorders-from-the-nathan-kline-institute-rockland-sample-correlation-of-brain-cortical-thickness-with-neuroticism
#8
Yihong Zhao, Zhi-Liang Zheng, F Xavier Castellanos
BACKGROUND: Although differences in both neuroanatomical measures and personality traits, in particular neuroticism, have been associated with alcohol use disorders (AUD), whether lifetime AUD diagnosis alters the relationship between neuroticism and neuroanatomical structures remains to be determined. METHODS: Data from 65 patients with lifetime AUD diagnoses and 65 healthy comparisons (HC) group-matched on age, sex and race were extracted from the Nathan Kline Institute - Rockland Sample data set...
January 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875122/inferring-individual-level-variations-in-the-functional-parcellation-of-the-cerebral-cortex
#9
Lei Nie, Paul M Matthews, Yike Guo
OBJECTIVE: Functional parcellation of the cerebral cortex is variable across different subjects or between cognitive states. Ignoring individual-or state-dependent variations in the functional parcellation may lead to inaccurate representations of individual functional connectivity, limiting the precision of interpretations of differences in individual connectivity profiles. However, it is difficult to infer the individual-level variations due to the relatively low robustness of methods for parcellation of individual subjects...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824356/altered-gray-matter-organization-in-children-and-adolescents-with-adhd-a-structural-covariance-connectome-study
#10
K R Griffiths, S M Grieve, M R Kohn, S Clarke, L M Williams, M S Korgaonkar
Although multiple studies have reported structural deficits in multiple brain regions in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we do not yet know if these deficits reflect a more systematic disruption to the anatomical organization of large-scale brain networks. Here we used a graph theoretical approach to quantify anatomical organization in children and adolescents with ADHD. We generated anatomical networks based on covariance of gray matter volumes from 92 regions across the brain in children and adolescents with ADHD (n=34) and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n=28)...
November 8, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758115/dynamical-signatures-of-structural-connectivity-damage-to-a-model-of-the-brain-posed-at-criticality
#11
Ariel Haimovici, Pablo Balenzuela, Enzo Tagliazucchi
Synchronization of brain activity fluctuations is believed to represent communication between spatially distant neural processes. These interareal functional interactions develop in the background of a complex network of axonal connections linking cortical and subcortical neurons, termed the human "structural connectome." Theoretical considerations and experimental evidence support the view that the human brain can be modeled as a system operating at a critical point between ordered (subcritical) and disordered (supercritical) phases...
December 2016: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752540/selective-activation-of-resting-state-networks-following-focal-stimulation-in-a-connectome-based-network-model-of-the-human-brain
#12
Andreas Spiegler, Enrique C A Hansen, Christophe Bernard, Anthony R McIntosh, Viktor K Jirsa
When the brain is stimulated, for example, by sensory inputs or goal-oriented tasks, the brain initially responds with activities in specific areas. The subsequent pattern formation of functional networks is constrained by the structural connectivity (SC) of the brain. The extent to which information is processed over short- or long-range SC is unclear. Whole-brain models based on long-range axonal connections, for example, can partly describe measured functional connectivity dynamics at rest. Here, we study the effect of SC on the network response to stimulation...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739612/structural-and-functional-connectivity-of-the-precuneus-and-thalamus-to-the-default-mode-network
#13
Samantha I Cunningham, Dardo Tomasi, Nora D Volkow
Neuroimaging studies have identified functional interactions between the thalamus, precuneus, and default mode network (DMN) in studies of consciousness. However, less is known about the structural connectivity of the precuneus and thalamus to regions within the DMN. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to parcellate the precuneus and thalamus based on their probabilistic white matter connectivity to each other and DMN regions of interest (ROIs) in 37 healthy subjects from the Human Connectome Database. We further assessed resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) among the precuneus, thalamus, and DMN ROIs...
October 14, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721203/the-segregated-connectome-of-late-life-depression-a-combined-cortical-thickness-and-structural-covariance-analysis
#14
Elijah Mak, Sean J Colloby, Alan Thomas, John T O'Brien
Late-life depression (LLD) has been associated with both generalized and focal neuroanatomical changes including gray matter atrophy and white matter abnormalities. However, previous literature has not been consistent and, in particular, its impact on the topology organization of brain networks remains to be established. In this multimodal study, we first examined cortical thickness, and applied graph theory to investigate structural covariance networks in LLD. Thirty-three subjects with LLD and 25 controls underwent T1-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and clinical assessments...
December 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720199/connectome-disconnectivity-and-cortical-gene-expression-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#15
Ingrid A C Romme, Marcel A de Reus, Roel A Ophoff, René S Kahn, Martijn P van den Heuvel
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified several common risk loci for schizophrenia (SCZ). In parallel, neuroimaging studies have shown consistent findings of widespread white matter disconnectivity in patients with SCZ. METHODS: We examined the role of genes in brain connectivity in patients with SCZ by combining transcriptional profiles of 43 SCZ risk genes identified by the recent genome-wide association study of the Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium with data on macroscale connectivity reductions in patients with SCZ...
July 27, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693796/automated-individual-level-parcellation-of-broca-s-region-based-on-functional-connectivity
#16
Estrid Jakobsen, Franziskus Liem, Manousos A Klados, Seyma Bayrak, Michael Petrides, Daniel S Margulies
Broca's region can be subdivided into its constituent areas 44 and 45 based on established differences in connectivity to superior temporal and inferior parietal regions. The current study builds on our previous work manually parcellating Broca's area on the individual-level by applying these anatomical criteria to functional connectivity data. Here we present an automated observer-independent and anatomy-informed parcellation pipeline with comparable precision to the manual labels at the individual-level. The method first extracts individualized connectivity templates of areas 44 and 45 by assigning to each surface vertex within the ventrolateral frontal cortex the partial correlation value of its functional connectivity to group-level templates of areas 44 and 45, accounting for other template connectivity patterns...
September 30, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631433/principles-of-network-architecture-emerging-from-comparisons-of-the-cerebral-cortex-in-large-and-small-brains
#17
Barbara L Finlay
The cerebral cortex retains its fundamental organization, layering, and input-output relations as it scales in volume over many orders of magnitude in mammals. How is its network architecture affected by size scaling? By comparing network organization of the mouse and rhesus macaque cortical connectome derived from complete neuroanatomical tracing studies, a recent study in PLOS Biology shows that an exponential distance rule emerges that reveals the falloff in connection probability with distance in the two brains that in turn determines common organizational features...
September 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617835/statistical-analysis-of-tract-tracing-experiments-demonstrates-a-dense-complex-cortical-network-in-the-mouse
#18
Rolf J F Ypma, Edward T Bullmore
Anatomical tract tracing methods are the gold standard for estimating the weight of axonal connectivity between a pair of pre-defined brain regions. Large studies, comprising hundreds of experiments, have become feasible by automated methods. However, this comes at the cost of positive-mean noise making it difficult to detect weak connections, which are of particular interest as recent high resolution tract-tracing studies of the macaque have identified many more weak connections, adding up to greater connection density of cortical networks, than previously recognized...
September 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613921/resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-basal-nucleus-of-meynert-in-cigarette-smokers-dependence-level-and-gender-differences
#19
Sheng Zhang, Sien Hu, Lisa M Fucito, Xingguang Luo, Carolyn M Mazure, Laszlo Zaborszky, Chiang-Shan R Li
INTRODUCTION: Numerous studies have characterized impaired cerebral functioning in nicotine-addicted individuals. Whereas nicotine interacts with multiple neurotransmitters in cortical and subcortical circuits, it directly targets the cholinergic system, sourced primarily from the basal nucleus of Meynert (BNM). However, no studies have examined how this cholinergic system is influenced by cigarette smoking. Here, we addressed this gap of research. METHODS: Using a dataset from the Functional Connectome Projects, we investigated this issue by contrasting seed-based BNM connectivity of 40 current smokers and 170 age- and gender-matched nonsmokers...
August 17, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608442/temporal-dynamics-assessment-of-spatial-overlap-pattern-of-functional-brain-networks-reveals-novel-functional-architecture-of-cerebral-cortex
#20
Xi Jiang, Xiang Li, Jinglei Lv, Shijie Zhao, Shu Zhang, Wei Zhang, Tuo Zhang, Junwei Han, Lei Guo, Tianming Liu
OBJECTIVE: Various studies in the brain mapping field have demonstrated that there exist multiple concurrent functional networks that are spatially overlapped and interacting with each other during specific task performance to jointly realize the total brain function. Assessing such spatial overlap patterns of functional networks (SOPFNs) based on fMRI has thus received increasing interest for brain function studies. However, there are still two crucial issues to be addressed. First, the SOPFNs are assessed over the entire fMRI scan assuming the temporal stationarity, while possibly time-dependent dynamics of the SOPFNs is not sufficiently explored...
August 10, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
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