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Cortical connectome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934529/traveling-slow-oscillations-during-sleep-a-marker-of-brain-connectivity-in-childhood
#1
Salome Kurth, Brady A Riedner, Douglas C Dean, Jonathan O'Muircheartaigh, Reto Huber, Oskar G Jenni, Sean C L Deoni, Monique K LeBourgeois
Slow oscillations, a defining characteristic of the nonrapid eye movement sleep electroencephalogram (EEG), proliferate across the scalp in highly reproducible patterns. In adults, the propagation of slow oscillations is a recognized fingerprint of brain connectivity and excitability. In this study, we (1) describe for the first time maturational features of sleep slow oscillation propagation in children (n = 23; 2-13 years) using high-density (hd) EEG and (2) examine associations between sleep slow oscillatory propagation characteristics (ie, distance, traveling speed, cortical involvement) and white matter myelin microstructure as measured with multicomponent Driven Equilibrium Single Pulse Observation of T1 and T2-magnetic resonance imaging (mcDESPOT-MRI)...
September 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926154/brain-functional-connectome-abnormalities-in-als-are-associated-with-disability-and-cortical-hyperexcitability
#2
Nimeshan Geevasinga, Mayuresh S Korgaonkar, Parvathi Menon, Mehdi Van den Bos, Lavier Gomes, Sheryl Foster, Matthew C Kiernan, Steve Vucic
OBJECTIVE: The present study utilized a multimodality approach encompassing connectome network combined with brain volume analysis, and assessment of cortical excitability to provide novel insights into amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis. METHODS: Magnetic resonance images (MRI) were acquired using a 3.0 Tesla GE Signa HDx scanner, using an 8-channel head coil. MR images for the resting state scan were acquired using echo planar imaging MR sequence, acquiring 40 contiguous axial/oblique slices...
September 19, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921634/the-role-of-whole-brain-diffusion-mri-as-a-tool-for-studying-human-in-vivo-cortical-segregation-based-on-a-measure-of-neurite-density
#3
Fernando Calamante, Ben Jeurissen, Robert E Smith, Jacques-Donald Tournier, Alan Connelly
PURPOSE: To investigate whether diffusion MRI can be used to study cortical segregation based on a contrast related to neurite density, thus providing a complementary tool to myelin-based MRI techniques used for myeloarchitecture. METHODS: Several myelin-sensitive MRI methods (e.g., based on T1 , T2 , and T2*) have been proposed to parcellate cortical areas based on their myeloarchitecture. Recent improvements in hardware, acquisition, and analysis methods have opened the possibility of achieving a more robust characterization of cortical microstructure using diffusion MRI...
September 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899992/depletion-of-progranulin-reduces-glun2b-containing-nmda-receptor-density-tau-phosphorylation-and-dendritic-arborization-in-mouse-primary-cortical-neurons
#4
Francesca Longhena, Michela Zaltieri, Jessica Grigoletto, Gaia Faustini, Luca La Via, Roberta Ghidoni, Luisa Benussi, Cristina Missale, PierFranco Spano, Arianna Bellucci
Loss-of-function mutations in the progranulin (PGRN) gene are a common cause of familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). This an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by brain atrophy in the frontal and temporal lobes and with typical symptoms such as cognitive and memory impairment, profound behavioral abnormalities and personality changes, that are thought to be related to connectome dysfunctions. Recently, PGRN reduction has been found to induce a behavioural phenotype reminiscent of FTLD symptoms in mice by affecting neuron spine density and morphology, suggesting that the protein can influence neuronal structural plasticity...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893608/adaptive-cortical-parcellations-for-source-reconstructed-eeg-meg-connectomes
#5
Seyedeh-Rezvan Farahibozorg, Richard N Henson, Olaf Hauk
There is growing interest in the rich temporal and spectral properties of the brain's functional connectome that are provided by Electro- and Magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG). However, the problem of leakage between brain sources that arises when reconstructing brain activity from EEG/MEG recordings outside the head makes it difficult to distinguish true connections from spurious connections, even when connections are based on measures that ignore zero-lag dependencies. In particular, standard anatomical parcellations for potential cortical sources tend to over- or under-sample the real spatial resolution of EEG/MEG...
September 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889005/a-flexible-graphical-model-for-multi-modal-parcellation-of-the-cortex
#6
Sarah Parisot, Ben Glocker, Sofia Ira Ktena, Salim Arslan, Markus D Schirmer, Daniel Rueckert
Advances in neuroimaging have provided a tremendous amount of in-vivo information on the brain's organisation. Its anatomy and cortical organisation can be investigated from the point of view of several imaging modalities, many of which have been studied for mapping functionally specialised cortical areas. There is strong evidence that a single modality is not sufficient to fully identify the brain's cortical organisation. Combining multiple modalities in the same parcellation task has the potential to provide more accurate and robust subdivisions of the cortex...
September 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884073/connectome-based-lesion-symptom-mapping-clsm-a-novel-approach-to-map-neurological-function
#7
REVIEW
Ezequiel Gleichgerrcht, Julius Fridriksson, Chris Rorden, Leonardo Bonilha
Lesion-symptom mapping is a key tool in understanding the relationship between structure and function in neuroscience as it can provide objective evidence about which regions are crucial for a given process. Initial limitations with this approach were largely overcome by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM), a method introduced in the early 2000s, which allows for a whole-brain approach to study the association between damaged areas and behavioral impairment by applying an independent statistical test at every voxel...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882062/remodeling-of-sensorimotor-brain-connectivity-in-gpr88-deficient-mice
#8
Tanzil Arefin, Anna E Mechling, Carole Aura Meirsman, Thomas Bienert, Neele Saskia Huebner, Hsu-Lei Lee, Sami Ben Hamida, Aliza Ehrlich, Daniel Roquet, Juergen Hennig, Dominik von Elverfeldt, Brigitte Lina Kieffer, Laura-Adela Harsan
Recent studies have demonstrated that orchestrated gene activity and expression supports synchronous activity of brain networks. However, there is a paucity of information on the consequences of single gene function on overall brain functional organization and connectivity, and how this translates at behavioral level. Here we combined mouse mutagenesis with functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine whether targeted inactivation of a single gene would modify whole brain connectivity in live animals...
September 7, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863720/harmonic-brain-modes-a-unifying-framework-for-linking-space-and-time-in-brain-dynamics
#9
Selen Atasoy, Gustavo Deco, Morten L Kringelbach, Joel Pearson
A fundamental characteristic of spontaneous brain activity is coherent oscillations covering a wide range of frequencies. Interestingly, these temporal oscillations are highly correlated among spatially distributed cortical areas forming structured correlation patterns known as the resting state networks, although the brain is never truly at "rest." Here, we introduce the concept of harmonic brain modes-fundamental building blocks of complex spatiotemporal patterns of neural activity. We define these elementary harmonic brain modes as harmonic modes of structural connectivity; that is, connectome harmonics, yielding fully synchronous neural activity patterns with different frequency oscillations emerging on and constrained by the particular structure of the brain...
September 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834322/lipid-metabolism-abdominal-adiposity-and-cerebral-health-in-the-amish
#10
Meghann Ryan, Peter Kochunov, Laura M Rowland, Braxton D Mitchell, S Andrea Wijtenburg, Els Fieremans, Jelle Veraart, Dmitry S Novikov, Xiaoming Du, Bhim Adhikari, Feven Fisseha, Heather Bruce, Joshua Chiappelli, Hemalatha Sampath, Seth Ament, Jeffrey O'Connell, Alan R Shuldiner, L Elliot Hong
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between peripheral lipid/fat profiles and cerebral gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) in healthy Old Order Amish (OOA). METHODS: Blood lipids, abdominal adiposity, liver lipid contents, and cerebral microstructure were assessed in OOA (N = 64, 31 males/33 females, ages 18-77). Orthogonal factors were extracted from lipid and imaging adiposity measures. GM assessment used the Human Connectome Project protocol to measure whole-brain average cortical thickness...
August 20, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830764/sensory-biased-attention-networks-in-human-lateral-frontal-cortex-revealed-by-intrinsic-functional-connectivity
#11
Sean M Tobyne, David E Osher, Samantha W Michalka, David C Somers
Human frontal cortex is commonly described as being insensitive to sensory modality, however several recent studies cast doubt on this view. Our laboratory previously reported two visual-biased attention regions interleaved with two auditory-biased attention regions bilaterally within lateral frontal cortex. These regions selectively formed functional networks with posterior visual-biased and auditory-biased attention regions. Here, we conducted a series of functional connectivity analyses to validate and expand this analysis to 469 subjects from the Human Connectome Project (HCP)...
August 19, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826495/anatomical-and-functional-organization-of-the-human-substantia-nigra-and-its-connections
#12
Yu Zhang, Kevin Michel-Herve Larcher, Bratislav Misic, Alain Dagher
We investigated the anatomical and functional organization of the human substantia nigra (SN) using diffusion and functional MRI data from the Human Connectome Project. We identified a tripartite connectivity-based parcellation of SN with a limbic, cognitive, motor arrangement. The medial SN connects with limbic striatal and cortical regions and encodes value (greater response to monetary wins than losses during fMRI), while the ventral SN connects with associative regions of cortex and striatum and encodes salience (equal response to wins and losses)...
August 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779909/resting-state-functional-under-connectivity-within-and-between-large-scale-cortical-networks-across-three-low-frequency-bands-in-adolescents-with-autism
#13
Xujun Duan, Heng Chen, Changchun He, Zhiliang Long, Xiaonan Guo, Yuanyue Zhou, Lucina Q Uddin, Huafu Chen
Although evidence is accumulating that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with disruption of functional connections between and within brain networks, it remains largely unknown whether these abnormalities are related to specific frequency bands. To address this question, network contingency analysis was performed on brain functional connectomes obtained from 213 adolescent participants across nine sites in the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) multisite sample, to determine the disrupted connections between and within seven major cortical networks in adolescents with ASD at Slow-5, Slow-4 and Slow-3 frequency bands and further assess whether the aberrant intra- and inter-network connectivity varied as a function of ASD symptoms...
August 3, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760438/elucidating-functional-differences-between-cortical-gyri-and-sulci-via-sparse-representation-hcp-grayordinate-fmri-data
#14
Huan Liu, Xi Jiang, Tuo Zhang, Yudan Ren, Xintao Hu, Lei Guo, Junwei Han, Tianming Liu
The highly convoluted cerebral cortex is characterized by two different topographic structures: convex gyri and concave sulci. Increasing studies have demonstrated that cortical gyri and sulci exhibit different structural connectivity patterns. Inspired by the intrinsic structural differences between gyri and sulci, in this paper, we present a data-driven framework based on sparse representation of fMRI data for functional network inferences, then examine the interactions within and across gyral and sulcal functional networks and finally elucidate possible functional differences using graph theory based properties...
October 1, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751859/probabilistic-white-matter-atlases-of-human-auditory-basal-ganglia-language-precuneus-sensorimotor-visual-and-visuospatial-networks
#15
Teresa D Figley, Behnoush Mortazavi Moghadam, Navdeep Bhullar, Jennifer Kornelsen, Susan M Courtney, Chase R Figley
Background: Despite the popularity of functional connectivity analyses and the well-known topology of several intrinsic cortical networks, relatively little is known about the white matter regions (i.e., structural connectivity) underlying these networks. In the current study, we have therefore performed fMRI-guided diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography to create probabilistic white matter atlases for eight previously identified functional brain networks, including the Auditory, Basal Ganglia, Language, Precuneus, Sensorimotor, Primary Visual, Higher Visual and Visuospatial Networks...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749606/perceived-stress-is-associated-with-increased-rostral-middle-frontal-gyrus-cortical-thickness-a-family-based-and-discordant-sibling-investigation
#16
L J Michalski, C H Demers, D A A Baranger, D M Barch, M P Harms, G C Burgess, R Bogdan
Elevated stress perception and depression commonly co-occur, suggesting that they share a common neurobiology. Cortical thickness of the rostral middle frontal gyrus (RMFG), a region critical for executive function, has been associated with depression- and stress-related phenotypes. Here, we examined whether RMFG cortical thickness is associated with these phenotypes in a large family-based community sample. RMFG cortical thickness was estimated using FreeSurfer among participants (n = 879) who completed the ongoing Human Connectome Project...
July 27, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745584/the-heritability-of-multi-modal-connectivity-in-human-brain-activity
#17
Giles L Colclough, Stephen M Smith, Thomas E Nichols, Anderson M Winkler, Stamatios N Sotiropoulos, Matthew F Glasser, David C Van Essen, Mark W Woolrich
Patterns of intrinsic human brain activity exhibit a profile of functional connectivity that is associated with behaviour and cognitive performance, and deteriorates with disease. This paper investigates the relative importance of genetic factors and the common environment between twins in determining this functional connectivity profile. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on 820 subjects from the Human Connectome Project, and magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings from a subset, the heritability of connectivity between 39 cortical regions was estimated...
July 26, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739119/structural-and-functional-empirical-and-modeled-connectivity-in-the-cerebral-cortex-of-the-rat
#18
Antonio Díaz-Parra, Zachary Osborn, Santiago Canals, David Moratal, Olaf Sporns
Connectomics data from animal models provide an invaluable opportunity to reveal the complex interplay between structure and function in the mammalian brain. In this work, we investigate the relationship between structural and functional connectivity in the rat brain cortex using a directed anatomical network generated from a carefully curated meta-analysis of published tracing data, along with resting-state functional MRI data obtained from a group of 14 anesthetized Wistar rats. We found a high correspondence between the strength of functional connections, measured as blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal correlations between cortical regions, and the weight of the corresponding anatomical links in the connectome graph (maximum Spearman rank-order correlation ρ=0...
July 21, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716961/structural-basis-of-large-scale-functional-connectivity-in-the-mouse
#19
Joanes Grandjean, Valerio Zerbi, Joshua Henk Balsters, Nicole Wenderoth, Markus Rudin
Translational neuroimaging requires approaches and techniques that can bridge between multiple different species and disease states. One candidate method that offers insights into the brain's functional connectivity (FC) is resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI). In both humans and nonhuman primates, patterns of FC (often referred to as the functional connectome) have been related to the underlying structural connectivity (SC; also called the structural connectome). Given the recent rise in preclinical neuroimaging of mouse models, it is an important question whether the mouse functional connectome conforms to the underlying SC...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708060/synem-automated-synapse-detection-for-connectomics
#20
Benedikt Staffler, Manuel Berning, Kevin M Boergens, Anjali Gour, Patrick van der Smagt, Moritz Helmstaedter
Nerve tissue contains a high density of chemical synapses, about 1 per µm(3) in the mammalian cerebral cortex. Thus, even for small blocks of nerve tissue, dense connectomic mapping requires the identification of millions to billions of synapses. While the focus of connectomic data analysis has been on neurite reconstruction, synapse detection becomes limiting when datasets grow in size and dense mapping is required. Here, we report SynEM, a method for automated detection of synapses from conventionally en-bloc stained 3D electron microscopy image stacks...
July 14, 2017: ELife
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