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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896314/graph-theoretic-and-motif-analyses-of-the-hippocampal-neuron-type-potential-connectome
#1
Christopher L Rees, Diek W Wheeler, David J Hamilton, Charise M White, Alexander O Komendantov, Giorgio A Ascoli
We computed the potential connectivity map of all known neuron types in the rodent hippocampal formation by supplementing scantly available synaptic data with spatial distributions of axons and dendrites from the open-access knowledge base Hippocampome.org. The network that results from this endeavor, the broadest and most complete for a mammalian cortical region at the neuron-type level to date, contains more than 3200 connections among 122 neuron types across six subregions. Analyses of these data using graph theory metrics unveil the fundamental architectural principles of the hippocampal circuit...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875803/analysis-of-alcohol-use-disorders-from-the-nathan-kline-institute-rockland-sample-correlation-of-brain-cortical-thickness-with-neuroticism
#2
Yihong Zhao, Zhi-Liang Zheng, F Xavier Castellanos
BACKGROUND: Although differences in both neuroanatomical measures and personality traits, in particular neuroticism, have been associated with alcohol use disorders (AUD), whether lifetime AUD diagnosis alters the relationship between neuroticism and neuroanatomical structures remains to be determined. METHODS: Data from 65 patients with lifetime AUD diagnoses and 65 healthy comparisons (HC) group-matched on age, sex and race were extracted from the Nathan Kline Institute - Rockland Sample data set...
November 8, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875122/inferring-individual-level-variations-in-the-functional-parcellation-of-the-cerebral-cortex
#3
Lei Nie, Paul M Matthews, Yike Guo
OBJECTIVE: Functional parcellation of the cerebral cortex is variable across different subjects or between cognitive states. Ignoring individual-or state-dependent variations in the functional parcellation may lead to inaccurate representations of individual functional connectivity, limiting the precision of interpretations of differences in individual connectivity profiles. However, it is difficult to infer the individual-level variations due to the relatively low robustness of methods for parcellation of individual subjects...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824356/altered-gray-matter-organization-in-children-and-adolescents-with-adhd-a-structural-covariance-connectome-study
#4
K R Griffiths, S M Grieve, M R Kohn, S Clarke, L M Williams, M S Korgaonkar
Although multiple studies have reported structural deficits in multiple brain regions in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we do not yet know if these deficits reflect a more systematic disruption to the anatomical organization of large-scale brain networks. Here we used a graph theoretical approach to quantify anatomical organization in children and adolescents with ADHD. We generated anatomical networks based on covariance of gray matter volumes from 92 regions across the brain in children and adolescents with ADHD (n=34) and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n=28)...
November 8, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758115/dynamical-signatures-of-structural-connectivity-damage-to-a-model-of-the-brain-posed-at-criticality
#5
Ariel Haimovici, Pablo Balenzuela, Enzo Tagliazucchi
Synchronization of brain activity fluctuations is believed to represent communication between spatially distant neural processes. These inter-areal functional interactions develop in the background of a complex network of axonal connections linking cortical and sub-cortical neurons, termed the human "structural connectome". Theoretical considerations and experimental evidence support the view that the human brain can be modeled as a system operating at a critical point between ordered (sub-critical) and disordered (super-critical) phases...
October 19, 2016: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752540/selective-activation-of-resting-state-networks-following-focal-stimulation-in-a-connectome-based-network-model-of-the-human-brain
#6
Andreas Spiegler, Enrique C A Hansen, Christophe Bernard, Anthony R McIntosh, Viktor K Jirsa
When the brain is stimulated, for example, by sensory inputs or goal-oriented tasks, the brain initially responds with activities in specific areas. The subsequent pattern formation of functional networks is constrained by the structural connectivity (SC) of the brain. The extent to which information is processed over short- or long-range SC is unclear. Whole-brain models based on long-range axonal connections, for example, can partly describe measured functional connectivity dynamics at rest. Here, we study the effect of SC on the network response to stimulation...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739612/structural-and-functional-connectivity-of-the-precuneus-and-thalamus-to-the-default-mode-network
#7
Samantha I Cunningham, Dardo Tomasi, Nora D Volkow
Neuroimaging studies have identified functional interactions between the thalamus, precuneus, and default mode network (DMN) in studies of consciousness. However, less is known about the structural connectivity of the precuneus and thalamus to regions within the DMN. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to parcellate the precuneus and thalamus based on their probabilistic white matter connectivity to each other and DMN regions of interest (ROIs) in 37 healthy subjects from the Human Connectome Database. We further assessed resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) among the precuneus, thalamus, and DMN ROIs...
October 14, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721203/the-segregated-connectome-of-late-life-depression-a-combined-cortical-thickness-and-structural-covariance-analysis
#8
Elijah Mak, Sean J Colloby, Alan Thomas, John T O'Brien
Late-life depression (LLD) has been associated with both generalized and focal neuroanatomical changes including gray matter atrophy and white matter abnormalities. However, previous literature has not been consistent and, in particular, its impact on the topology organization of brain networks remains to be established. In this multimodal study, we first examined cortical thickness, and applied graph theory to investigate structural covariance networks in LLD. Thirty-three subjects with LLD and 25 controls underwent T1-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and clinical assessments...
August 24, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720199/connectome-disconnectivity-and-cortical-gene-expression-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#9
Ingrid A C Romme, Marcel A de Reus, Roel A Ophoff, René S Kahn, Martijn P van den Heuvel
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified several common risk loci for schizophrenia (SCZ). In parallel, neuroimaging studies have shown consistent findings of widespread white matter disconnectivity in patients with SCZ. METHODS: We examined the role of genes in brain connectivity in patients with SCZ by combining transcriptional profiles of 43 SCZ risk genes identified by the recent genome-wide association study of the Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium with data on macroscale connectivity reductions in patients with SCZ...
July 27, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693796/automated-individual-level-parcellation-of-broca-s-region-based-on-functional-connectivity
#10
Estrid Jakobsen, Franziskus Liem, Manousos A Klados, Seyma Bayrak, Michael Petrides, Daniel S Margulies
Broca's region can be subdivided into its constituent areas 44 and 45 based on established differences in connectivity to superior temporal and inferior parietal regions. The current study builds on our previous work manually parcellating Broca's area on the individual-level by applying these anatomical criteria to functional connectivity data. Here we present an automated observer-independent and anatomy-informed parcellation pipeline with comparable precision to the manual labels at the individual-level. The method first extracts individualized connectivity templates of areas 44 and 45 by assigning to each surface vertex within the ventrolateral frontal cortex the partial correlation value of its functional connectivity to group-level templates of areas 44 and 45, accounting for other template connectivity patterns...
September 30, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631433/principles-of-network-architecture-emerging-from-comparisons-of-the-cerebral-cortex-in-large-and-small-brains
#11
Barbara L Finlay
The cerebral cortex retains its fundamental organization, layering, and input-output relations as it scales in volume over many orders of magnitude in mammals. How is its network architecture affected by size scaling? By comparing network organization of the mouse and rhesus macaque cortical connectome derived from complete neuroanatomical tracing studies, a recent study in PLOS Biology shows that an exponential distance rule emerges that reveals the falloff in connection probability with distance in the two brains that in turn determines common organizational features...
September 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617835/statistical-analysis-of-tract-tracing-experiments-demonstrates-a-dense-complex-cortical-network-in-the-mouse
#12
Rolf J F Ypma, Edward T Bullmore
Anatomical tract tracing methods are the gold standard for estimating the weight of axonal connectivity between a pair of pre-defined brain regions. Large studies, comprising hundreds of experiments, have become feasible by automated methods. However, this comes at the cost of positive-mean noise making it difficult to detect weak connections, which are of particular interest as recent high resolution tract-tracing studies of the macaque have identified many more weak connections, adding up to greater connection density of cortical networks, than previously recognized...
September 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613921/resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-basal-nucleus-of-meynert-in-cigarette-smokers-dependence-level-and-gender-differences
#13
Sheng Zhang, Sien Hu, Lisa M Fucito, Xingguang Luo, Carolyn M Mazure, Laszlo Zaborszky, Chiang-Shan R Li
INTRODUCTION: Numerous studies have characterized impaired cerebral functioning in nicotine-addicted individuals. Whereas nicotine interacts with multiple neurotransmitters in cortical and subcortical circuits, it directly targets the cholinergic system, sourced primarily from the basal nucleus of Meynert (BNM). However, no studies have examined how this cholinergic system is influenced by cigarette smoking. Here, we addressed this gap of research. METHODS: Using a dataset from the Functional Connectome Projects, we investigated this issue by contrasting seed-based BNM connectivity of 40 current smokers and 170 age- and gender-matched nonsmokers...
August 17, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608442/temporal-dynamics-assessment-of-spatial-overlap-pattern-of-functional-brain-networks-reveals-novel-functional-architecture-of-cerebral-cortex
#14
Xi Jiang, Xiang Li, Jinglei Lv, Shijie Zhao, Shu Zhang, Wei Zhang, Tuo Zhang, Junwei Han, Lei Guo, Tianming Liu
OBJECTIVE: Various studies in the brain mapping field have demonstrated that there exist multiple concurrent functional networks that are spatially overlapped and interacting with each other during specific task performance to jointly realize the total brain function. Assessing such spatial overlap patterns of functional networks (SOPFNs) based on fMRI has thus received increasing interest for brain function studies. However, there are still two crucial issues to be addressed. First, the SOPFNs are assessed over the entire fMRI scan assuming the temporal stationarity, while possibly time-dependent dynamics of the SOPFNs is not sufficiently explored...
August 10, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598966/connectomics-based-structural-network-alterations-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#15
T J Reess, O G Rus, R Schmidt, M A de Reus, M Zaudig, G Wagner, C Zimmer, M P van den Heuvel, K Koch
Given the strong involvement of affect in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and recent findings, the current cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) model of pathophysiology has repeatedly been questioned regarding the specific role of regions involved in emotion processing such as limbic areas. Employing a connectomics approach enables us to characterize structural connectivity on a whole-brain level, extending beyond the CSTC circuitry. Whole-brain structural networks of 41 patients and 42 matched healthy controls were analyzed based on 83 × 83 connectivity matrices derived from cortical and subcortical parcellation of structural T1-weighted magnetic resonance scans and deterministic fiber tracking based on diffusion tensor imaging data...
2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27584714/broca-and-wernicke-are-dead-or-moving-past-the-classic-model-of-language-neurobiology
#16
Pascale Tremblay, Anthony Steven Dick
With the advancement of cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychological research, the field of language neurobiology is at a cross-roads with respect to its framing theories. The central thesis of this article is that the major historical framing model, the Classic "Wernicke-Lichtheim-Geschwind" model, and associated terminology, is no longer adequate for contemporary investigations into the neurobiology of language. We argue that the Classic model (1) is based on an outdated brain anatomy; (2) does not adequately represent the distributed connectivity relevant for language, (3) offers a modular and "language centric" perspective, and (4) focuses on cortical structures, for the most part leaving out subcortical regions and relevant connections...
August 29, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571196/the-human-connectome-project-s-neuroimaging-approach
#17
REVIEW
Matthew F Glasser, Stephen M Smith, Daniel S Marcus, Jesper L R Andersson, Edward J Auerbach, Timothy E J Behrens, Timothy S Coalson, Michael P Harms, Mark Jenkinson, Steen Moeller, Emma C Robinson, Stamatios N Sotiropoulos, Junqian Xu, Essa Yacoub, Kamil Ugurbil, David C Van Essen
Noninvasive human neuroimaging has yielded many discoveries about the brain. Numerous methodological advances have also occurred, though inertia has slowed their adoption. This paper presents an integrated approach to data acquisition, analysis and sharing that builds upon recent advances, particularly from the Human Connectome Project (HCP). The 'HCP-style' paradigm has seven core tenets: (i) collect multimodal imaging data from many subjects; (ii) acquire data at high spatial and temporal resolution; (iii) preprocess data to minimize distortions, blurring and temporal artifacts; (iv) represent data using the natural geometry of cortical and subcortical structures; (v) accurately align corresponding brain areas across subjects and studies; (vi) analyze data using neurobiologically accurate brain parcellations; and (vii) share published data via user-friendly databases...
August 26, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567817/topographical-information-based-high-order-functional-connectivity-and-its-application-in-abnormality-detection-for%C3%A2-mild-cognitive-impairment
#18
Han Zhang, Xiaobo Chen, Feng Shi, Gang Li, Minjeong Kim, Panteleimon Giannakopoulos, Sven Haller, Dinggang Shen
Temporal synchronization-based functional connectivity (FC) has long been used by the neuroscience community. However, topographical FC information may provide additional information to characterize the advanced relationship between two brain regions. Accordingly, we proposed a novel method, namely high-order functional connectivity (HOFC), to capture this second-level relationship using inter-regional resemblance of the FC topographical profiles. Specifically, HOFC first calculates an FC profile for each brain region, notably between the given brain region and other brain regions...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541686/functional-brain-network-alterations-in-clinically-isolated-syndrome-and-multiple-sclerosis-a-graph-based-connectome-study
#19
Yaou Liu, Hao Wang, Yunyun Duan, Jing Huang, Zhuoqiong Ren, Jing Ye, Huiqing Dong, Fudong Shi, Kuncheng Li, Jinhui Wang
Purpose To investigate the topological organization of functional brain networks in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and multiple sclerosis (MS) and examine the clinical relevance. Materials and Methods The institutional review board of Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People's Republic of China, approved the study, and written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Functional brain networks were constructed for 34 patients with MS, 34 patients with CIS, and 36 matched healthy control subjects by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging data...
August 19, 2016: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535082/white-matter-disruptions-in-schizophrenia-are-spatially-widespread-and-topologically-converge-on-brain-network-hubs
#20
Paul Klauser, Simon T Baker, Vanessa L Cropley, Chad Bousman, Alex Fornito, Luca Cocchi, Janice M Fullerton, Paul Rasser, Ulrich Schall, Frans Henskens, Patricia T Michie, Carmel Loughland, Stanley V Catts, Bryan Mowry, Thomas W Weickert, Cynthia Shannon Weickert, Vaughan Carr, Rhoshel Lenroot, Christos Pantelis, Andrew Zalesky
White matter abnormalities associated with schizophrenia have been widely reported, although the consistency of findings across studies is moderate. In this study, neuroimaging was used to investigate white matter pathology and its impact on whole-brain white matter connectivity in one of the largest samples of patients with schizophrenia. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were compared between patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n = 326) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 197)...
August 17, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
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