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Rei Yoshimoto, Daisuke Kaida, Masaaki Furuno, A Maxwell Burroughs, Shohei Noma, Harukazu Suzuki, Yumi Kawamura, Yoshihide Hayashizaki, Akila Mayeda, Minoru Yoshida
Spliceostatin A (SSA) is a methyl ketal derivative of FR901464, a potent antitumor compound isolated from a culture broth of Pseudomonas sp. no. 2663. These compounds selectively bind to the essential spliceosome component SF3b, a subcomplex of the U2 snRNP, to inhibit pre-mRNA splicing. However, the mechanism of SSA's antitumor activity is unknown. It is noteworthy that SSA causes accumulation of a truncated form of the CDK inhibitor protein p27 translated from CDKN1B pre-mRNA, which is involved in SSA-induced cell-cycle arrest...
October 17, 2016: RNA
Constantin Cretu, Jana Schmitzová, Almudena Ponce-Salvatierra, Olexandr Dybkov, Evelina I De Laurentiis, Kundan Sharma, Cindy L Will, Henning Urlaub, Reinhard Lührmann, Vladimir Pena
SF3b is a heptameric protein complex of the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) that is essential for pre-mRNA splicing. Mutations in the largest SF3b subunit, SF3B1/SF3b155, are linked to cancer and lead to alternative branch site (BS) selection. Here we report the crystal structure of a human SF3b core complex, revealing how the distinctive conformation of SF3b155's HEAT domain is maintained by multiple contacts with SF3b130, SF3b10, and SF3b14b. Protein-protein crosslinking enabled the localization of the BS-binding proteins p14 and U2AF65 within SF3b155's HEAT-repeat superhelix, which together with SF3b14b forms a composite RNA-binding platform...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Cell
Iain A Sawyer, Gordon L Hager, Miroslav Dundr
The assembly of specialized sub-nuclear microenvironments known as nuclear bodies (NBs) is important for promoting efficient nuclear function. In particular, the Cajal body (CB), a prominent NB that facilitates spliceosomal snRNP biogenesis, assembles in response to genomic cues. Here, we detail the factors that regulate CB assembly and structural maintenance. These include the importance of transcription at nucleating gene loci, the grouping of these genes on human chromosomes 1, 6 and 17, as well as cell cycle and biochemical regulation of CB protein function...
October 7, 2016: RNA Biology
Dong Zi Zhu, Xue Fang Zhao, Chang Zhen Liu, Fang Fang Ma, Fang Wang, Xin-Qi Gao, Xian Sheng Zhang
ROOT INITIATION DEFECTIVE 1 (RID1) is an Arabidopsis DEAH/RHA RNA helicase. It functions in hypocotyl de-differentiation, de novo meristem formation, and cell specification of the mature female gametophyte (FG). However, it is unclear how RID1 regulates FG development. In this study, we observed that mutations to RID1 disrupted the developmental synchrony and retarded the progression of FG development. RID1 exhibited RNA helicase activity, with a preference for unwinding double-stranded RNA in the 3' to 5' direction...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Li Chen, Robert Weinmeister, Jana Kralovicova, Lucy P Eperon, Igor Vorechovsky, Andrew J Hudson, Ian C Eperon
The selection of 3' splice sites (3'ss) is an essential early step in mammalian RNA splicing reactions, but the processes involved are unknown. We have used single molecule methods to test whether the major components implicated in selection, the proteins U2AF35 and U2AF65 and the U2 snRNP, are able to recognize alternative candidate sites or are restricted to one pre-specified site. In the presence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), all three components bind in a 1:1 stoichiometry with a 3'ss. Pre-mRNA molecules with two alternative 3'ss can be bound concurrently by two molecules of U2AF or two U2 snRNPs, so none of the components are restricted...
September 28, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Fabian Mück, Silvia Bracharz, Rolf Marschalek
AF4/AFF1 and AF5/AFF4 are both backbones for the assembly of "super elongation complexes" (SECs) that exert 2 distinct functions after the recruitment of P-TEFb from the 7SK snRNP: (1) initiation and elongation of RNA polymerase II gene transcription, and (2) modification of transcribed gene regions by distinct histone methylation patterns. In this study we aimed to investigate one of the initial steps, namely how P-TEFb is transferred from 7SK snRNPs to the SECs. In particular, we were interested in the role of DDX6 that we have recently identified as part of the AF4 complex...
2016: American Journal of Blood Research
Catherine D Eichhorn, Rahul Chug, Juli Feigon
The 7SK small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) sequesters and inactivates the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), an essential eukaryotic mRNA transcription factor. The human La-related protein group 7 (hLARP7) is a constitutive component of the 7SK snRNP and localizes to the 3' terminus of the 7SK long noncoding RNA. hLARP7, and in particular its C-terminal domain (CTD), is essential for 7SK RNA stability and assembly with P-TEFb. The hLARP7 N-terminal La module binds and protects the 3' end from degradation, but the structural and functional role of its CTD is unclear...
September 26, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Eric Allemand, Michael P Myers, Jose Garcia-Bernardo, Annick Harel-Bellan, Adrian R Krainer, Christian Muchardt
Several studies propose an influence of chromatin on pre-mRNA splicing, but it is still unclear how widespread and how direct this phenomenon is. We find here that when assembled in vivo, the U2 snRNP co-purifies with a subset of chromatin-proteins, including histones and remodeling complexes like SWI/SNF. Yet, an unbiased RNAi screen revealed that the outcome of splicing is influenced by a much larger variety of chromatin factors not all associating with the spliceosome. The availability of this broad range of chromatin factors impacting splicing further unveiled their very context specific effect, resulting in either inclusion or skipping, depending on the exon under scrutiny...
September 2016: PLoS Genetics
Costas Koufaris, Angelos Alexandrou, Ioannis Papaevripidou, Ioanna Alexandrou, Violetta Christophidou-Anastasiadou, Carolina Sismani
Prader-Willi syndrome is a rare syndrome characterized by hypotonia, developmental delay and excessive appetite. This syndrome is caused by the loss of function of paternally-expressed genes located in an imprinting centre in 15q11-q13. Here, we report the case of a patient who was referred to us with Prader-Willi syndrome-like symptoms including obesity and developmental delay. Examination of this patient revealed that he was a carrier of a paternally inherited deletion that affected the U1B and U1B* upstream exons of the SNURF-SNRNP gene within the 15q11-q13 imprinted region...
September 2016: Journal of Genetics
Amanda C Raimer, Kelsey M Gray, A Gregory Matera
Survival Motor Neuron (SMN) protein localizes to both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic SMN is diffusely localized in large oligomeric complexes with core member proteins, called Gemins. Biochemical and cell biological studies have demonstrated that the SMN complex is required for the cytoplasmic assembly and nuclear transport of Sm-class ribonucleoproteins (RNPs). Nuclear SMN accumulates with spliceosomal small nuclear (sn)RNPs in Cajal bodies, sub-domains involved in multiple facets of snRNP maturation...
September 20, 2016: RNA Biology
David Staněk
Spliceosomal snRNPs are complex particles that proceed through a fascinating maturation pathway. Several steps of this pathway are closely linked to nuclear non-membrane structures called Cajal bodies. In this review, I summarize the last 20 y of research in this field. I primarily focus on snRNP biogenesis, specifically on the steps that involve Cajal bodies. I also evaluate the contribution of the Cajal body in snRNP quality control and discuss the role of snRNPs in Cajal body formation.
September 14, 2016: RNA Biology
Felipe Marques, Jessica Tenney, Ivan Duran, Jorge Martin, Lisette Nevarez, Robert Pogue, Deborah Krakow, Daniel H Cohn, Bing Li
The acrofacial dysostoses (AFD) are a genetically heterogeneous group of inherited disorders with craniofacial and limb abnormalities. Rodriguez syndrome is a severe, usually perinatal lethal AFD, characterized by severe retrognathia, oligodactyly and lower limb abnormalities. Rodriguez syndrome has been proposed to be a severe form of Nager syndrome, a non-lethal AFD that results from mutations in SF3B4, a component of the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (U2 snRNP). Furthermore, a case with a phenotype intermediate between Rodriguez and Nager syndromes has been shown to have an SF3B4 mutation...
September 2016: PLoS Genetics
Ramachandran Rakesh, Agnel Praveen Joseph, Ramachandra M Bhaskara, Narayanaswamy Srinivasan
Pre-mRNA splicing in eukaryotes is performed by the spliceosome, a highly complex macromolecular machine. SF3b is a multi-protein complex which recognizes the branch point adenosine of pre-mRNA as part of a larger U2 snRNP or U11/U12 di-snRNP in the dynamic spliceosome machinery. Although a cryo-EM map is available for human SF3b complex, the structure and relative spatial arrangement of all components in the complex are not yet known. We have recognized folds of domains in various proteins in the assembly and generated comparative models...
August 11, 2016: RNA Biology
Bruno Palhais, Maja Dembic, Rugivan Sabaratnam, Kira S Nielsen, Thomas Koed Doktor, Gitte Hoffmann Bruun, Brage Storstein Andresen
Fabry disease is an X-linked recessive inborn disorder of the glycosphingolipid metabolism, caused by total or partial deficiency of the lysosomal α-galactosidase A enzyme due to mutations in the GLA gene. The prevalent c.639+919 G>A mutation in GLA leads to pathogenic insertion of a 57bp pseudoexon sequence from intron 4, which is responsible for the cardiac variant phenotype. In this study we investigate the splicing regulatory mechanism leading to GLA pseudoexon activation. Splicing analysis of GLA minigenes revealed that pseudoexon activation is influenced by cell-type...
August 27, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Federico A De Maio, Guillermo Risso, Nestor G Iglesias, Priya Shah, Berta Pozzi, Leopoldo G Gebhard, Pablo Mammi, Estefania Mancini, Marcelo J Yanovsky, Raul Andino, Nevan Krogan, Anabella Srebrow, Andrea V Gamarnik
Dengue virus NS5 protein plays multiple functions in the cytoplasm of infected cells, enabling viral RNA replication and counteracting host antiviral responses. Here, we demonstrate a novel function of NS5 in the nucleus where it interferes with cellular splicing. Using global proteomic analysis of infected cells together with functional studies, we found that NS5 binds spliceosome complexes and modulates endogenous splicing as well as minigene-derived alternative splicing patterns. In particular, we show that NS5 alone, or in the context of viral infection, interacts with core components of the U5 snRNP particle, CD2BP2 and DDX23, alters the inclusion/exclusion ratio of alternative splicing events, and changes mRNA isoform abundance of known antiviral factors...
August 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Yang Zhao, John Karijolich, Britt Glaunsinger, Qiang Zhou
The 7SK snRNA sequesters P-TEFb, a general transcription elongation factor and human co-factor for HIV-1 Tat protein, into the catalytically inactive 7SK snRNP Little is known about how 7SK RNA is regulated to perform this function. Here, we show that most of 7SK is pseudouridylated at position U250 by the predominant cellular pseudouridine synthase machinery, the DKC1-box H/ACA RNP Pseudouridylation is critical to stabilize 7SK snRNP, as its abolishment by either mutation at or around U250 or depletion of DKC1, the catalytic component of the box H/ACA RNP, disrupts 7SK snRNP and releases P-TEFb to form the super elongation complex (SEC) and the Brd4-P-TEFb complex...
October 2016: EMBO Reports
Thomas Koed Doktor, Yimin Hua, Henriette Skovgaard Andersen, Sabrina Brøner, Ying Hsiu Liu, Anna Wieckowska, Maja Dembic, Gitte Hoffmann Bruun, Adrian R Krainer, Brage Storstein Andresen
Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disorder caused by insufficient levels of the Survival of Motor Neuron (SMN) protein. SMN is expressed ubiquitously and functions in RNA processing pathways that include trafficking of mRNA and assembly of snRNP complexes. Importantly, SMA severity is correlated with decreased snRNP assembly activity. In particular, the minor spliceosomal snRNPs are affected, and some U12-dependent introns have been reported to be aberrantly spliced in patient cells and animal models...
August 23, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Dror Hollander, Shiran Naftelberg, Galit Lev-Maor, Alberto R Kornblihtt, Gil Ast
The splice sites (SSs) delimiting an intron are brought together in the earliest step of spliceosome assembly yet it remains obscure how SS pairing occurs, especially when introns are thousands of nucleotides long. Splicing occurs in vivo in mammals within minutes regardless of intron length, implying that SS pairing can instantly follow transcription. Also, factors required for SS pairing, such as the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) and U2AF65, associate with RNA polymerase II (RNAPII), while nucleosomes preferentially bind exonic sequences and associate with U2 snRNP...
October 2016: Trends in Genetics: TIG
Lekh N Dahal, Neil Basu, Hazem Youssef, Rahul C Khanolkar, Robert N Barker, Lars P Erwig, Frank J Ward
BACKGROUND: The inhibitory CTLA-4 molecule is a crucial regulator of immune responses and a target for therapeutic intervention in both autoimmunity and cancer. In particular, CTLA-4 is important in controlling antigen-specific immunity, including responses to autoantigens associated with autoimmune disease. Here, we investigate cytokine responses to a range of lupus-associated autoantigens and assess whether the alternatively spliced isoform of CTLA-4, soluble CTLA-4 (sCTLA-4), contributes to immune regulation of autoantigen-specific immunity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)...
2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Margaret L Rodgers, Allison L Didychuk, Samuel E Butcher, David A Brow, Aaron A Hoskins
The small nuclear RNA (snRNA) components of the spliceosome undergo many conformational rearrangements during its assembly, catalytic activation and disassembly. The U4 and U6 snRNAs are incorporated into the spliceosome as a base-paired complex within the U4/U6.U5 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (tri-snRNP). U4 and U6 are then unwound in order for U6 to pair with U2 to form the spliceosome's active site. After splicing, U2/U6 is unwound and U6 annealed to U4 to reassemble the tri-snRNP. U6 rearrangements are crucial for spliceosome formation but are poorly understood...
August 2, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
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