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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792423/trace-organic-pollutant-removal-by-vuv-uv-chlorine-process-feasibility-investigation-for-drinking-water-treatment-on-a-mini-fluidic-vuv-uv-photoreaction-system-and-a-pilot-photoreactor
#1
Mengkai Li, Mengyu Hao, Laxiang Yang, Hong Yao, James R Bolton, Ernest R Blatchley, Zhimin Qiang
The vacuum-ultraviolet/ultraviolet/chlorine (VUV/UV/chlorine) process, with a VUV/UV mercury lamp used as the light source, was found to be a highly efficient advanced oxidation process (AOP) in a previous study. Hence, its application feasibility for trace organic pollutant removal from drinking water becomes attractive. In this work, a bench-scale mini-fluidic VUV/UV photoreaction system was used to determine the degradation kinetics of sulfamethazine (SMN), a model sulfonamide antibiotic frequently detected with trace levels in aquatic environments...
May 24, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790918/temporal-and-tissue-specific-variability-of-smn-protein-levels-in-mouse-models-of-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#2
Ewout Jn Groen, Elena Perenthaler, Natalie L Courtney, Crispin Y Jordan, Hannah K Shorrock, Dinja van der Hoorn, Yu-Ting Huang, Lyndsay M Murray, Gabriella Viero, Thomas H Gillingwater
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a progressive motor neuron disease caused by deleterious variants in SMN1 that lead to a marked decrease in survival motor neuron (SMN) protein expression. Humans have a second SMN gene (SMN2) that is almost identical to SMN1. However, due to alternative splicing the majority of SMN2 mRNA is translated into a truncated, unstable protein that is quickly degraded. Because the presence of SMN2 provides a unique opportunity for therapy development in SMA patients, the mechanisms that regulate SMN2 splicing and mRNA expression have been elucidated in great detail...
May 22, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765630/photocatalytic-degradation-of-sulfamethazine-in-aqueous-solution-using-zno-with-different-morphologies
#3
Zhigang Yi, Juan Wang, Tao Jiang, Qiong Tang, Ying Cheng
In this study, photocatalytic experiments of 20 mg l-1 sulfamethazine (SMN) in aqueous solution containing ZnO with different morphologies, tetra-needle-like ZnO (T-ZnO), flower-like ZnO (F-ZnO) and nanoparticles ZnO (P-ZnO), were performed. The results indicated that photocatalytic degradation of SMN was effective and followed the pseudo-first-order reaction, but the degree of SMN mineralization showed obvious differences using ZnO with different shapes. After 12 h irradiation, 86%, 71% and 50% of the initial total organic carbon was eliminated in SMN suspension containing T-ZnO, F-ZnO and P-ZnO, respectively...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755981/diagnostic-test-accuracy-of-serum-anti-pla2r-autoantibodies-and-glomerular-pla2r-antigen-for-diagnosing-idiopathic-membranous-nephropathy-an-updated-meta-analysis
#4
Weiying Li, Yuliang Zhao, Ping Fu
Background: M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) is known as a major antigen on podocytes, which is involved with the pathogenesis of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (iMN). Many studies have shown that serum anti-PLA2R autoantibodies (sPLA2R) are prevalent in patients with iMN but are rarely detected in secondary membranous nephropathy (SMN) or other glomerulonephritis. The anti-PLA2R is considered as a promising serum biomarker in iMN but reports about its diagnostic value are variable and inconsistent...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754837/effects-of-exercise-on-gait-and-motor-imagery-in-people-with-parkinson-disease-and-freezing-of-gait
#5
Peter S Myers, Marie E McNeely, Kristen A Pickett, Ryan P Duncan, Gammon M Earhart
INTRODUCTION: Exercise improves gait in Parkinson disease (PD), but whether exercise differentially affects people with PD with (freezers) and without freezing of gait (non-freezers) remains unclear. This study examines exercise's effects on gait performance, neural correlates related to these effects, and potential neural activation differences between freezers and non-freezers during motor imagery (MI) of gait. METHODS: Thirty-seven participants from a larger exercise intervention completed behavioral assessments and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans before and after a 12-week exercise intervention...
May 8, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742241/therapeutic-advances-in-5q-linked-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#6
Umbertina Conti Reed, Edmar Zanoteli
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a severe and clinically-heterogeneous motor neuron disease caused, in most cases, by a homozygous mutation in the SMN1 gene. Regarding the age of onset and motor involvement, at least four distinct clinical phenotypes have been recognized. This clinical variability is, in part, related to the SMN2 copy number. By now, only supportive therapies have been available. However, promising specific therapies are currently being developed based on different mechanisms to increase the level of SMN protein; in particular, intrathecal antisense oligonucleotides that prevent the skipping of exon 7 during SMN2 transcription, and intravenous SMN1 insertion using viral vector...
April 2018: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739252/evaluation-of-the-rivastigmine-role-against-botulinum-toxin-a-induced-osteoporosis-in-albino-rats-a-biochemical-histological-and-immunohistochemical-study
#7
D M Ali, W Y Abdelzaher, Smn Abdel-Hafez
The present study aimed to evaluate the role of rivastigmine against the effect of a single unilateral botulinum toxin-A (BTX-A) injection on the bone and bone marrow of adult albino rats 4 weeks after injection. Twenty-four Wistar albino rats were divided into four equal groups: group I, which received distilled water; group II, which received rivastigmine (0.3 mg/kg daily, intraperitoneally for 4 weeks); group III, which received BTX-A (4 IU in 0.2 mL physiological saline) single dose, intramuscularly; and group IV, which received BTX-A + rivastigmine...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735415/interventions-targeting-glucocorticoid-kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factor-15-branched-chain-amino-acid-signaling-improve-disease-phenotypes-in-spinal-muscular-atrophy-mice
#8
Lisa M Walter, Marc-Olivier Deguise, Katharina E Meijboom, Corinne A Betts, Nina Ahlskog, Tirsa L E van Westering, Gareth Hazell, Emily McFall, Anna Kordala, Suzan M Hammond, Frank Abendroth, Lyndsay M Murray, Hannah K Shorrock, Domenick A Prosdocimo, Saptarsi M Haldar, Mukesh K Jain, Thomas H Gillingwater, Peter Claus, Rashmi Kothary, Matthew J A Wood, Melissa Bowerman
The circadian glucocorticoid-Krüppel-like factor 15-branched-chain amino acid (GC-KLF15-BCAA) signaling pathway is a key regulatory axis in muscle, whose imbalance has wide-reaching effects on metabolic homeostasis. Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disorder also characterized by intrinsic muscle pathologies, metabolic abnormalities and disrupted sleep patterns, which can influence or be influenced by circadian regulatory networks that control behavioral and metabolic rhythms. We therefore set out to investigate the contribution of the GC-KLF15-BCAA pathway in SMA pathophysiology of Taiwanese Smn-/- ;SMN2 and Smn2B/- mouse models...
May 4, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729277/connectivity-patterns-in-cognitive-control-networks-predict-naturalistic-multitasking-ability
#9
Tanya Wen, De-Cyuan Liu, Shulan Hsieh
Multitasking is a fundamental aspect of everyday life activities. To achieve a complex, multi-component goal, the tasks must be subdivided into sub-tasks and component steps, a critical function of prefrontal networks. The prefrontal cortex is considered to be organized in a cascade of executive processes from the sensorimotor to anterior prefrontal cortex, which includes execution of specific goal-directed action, to encoding and maintaining task rules, and finally monitoring distal goals. In the current study, we used a virtual multitasking paradigm to tap into real-world performance and relate it to each individual's resting-state functional connectivity in fMRI...
May 2, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712963/publisher-correction-functional-interaction-between-fus-and-smn-underlies-sma-like-splicing-changes-in-wild-type-hfus-mice
#10
Alessia Mirra, Simona Rossi, Silvia Scaricamazza, Michela Di Salvio, Illari Salvatori, Cristiana Valle, Paola Rusmini, Angelo Poletti, Gianluca Cestra, Maria Teresa Carrì, Mauro Cozzolino
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
April 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712837/mechanistic-studies-of-a-small-molecule-modulator-of-smn2-splicing
#11
Jingxin Wang, Peter G Schultz, Kristen A Johnson
RG-7916 is a first-in-class drug candidate for the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) that functions by modulating pre-mRNA splicing of the SMN2 gene, resulting in a 2.5-fold increase in survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein level, a key protein lacking in SMA patients. RG-7916 is currently in three interventional phase 2 clinical trials for various types of SMA. In this report, we show that SMN-C2 and -C3, close analogs of RG-7916, act as selective RNA-binding ligands that modulate pre-mRNA splicing...
April 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709491/resting-state-network-connectivity-and-metastability-predict-clinical-symptoms-in-schizophrenia
#12
Won Hee Lee, Gaelle E Doucet, Evan Leibu, Sophia Frangou
BACKGROUND: The functional architecture of resting-state networks (RSNs) is defined by their connectivity and metastability. Disrupted RSN connectivity has been amply demonstrated in schizophrenia while the role of metastability remains poorly defined. Here, we undertake a comprehensive characterisation of RSN organization in schizophrenia and test its contribution to the clinical profile of this disorder. METHODS: We extracted RSNs representing the default mode (DMN), central executive (CEN), salience (SAL), language (LAN), sensorimotor (SMN), auditory (AN) and visual (VN) networks from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from patients with schizophrenia (n = 85) and healthy individuals (n = 48)...
April 27, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703692/new-and-developing-therapies-in-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#13
REVIEW
Didu Kariyawasam, Kate A Carey, Kristi J Jones, Michelle A Farrar
Great progress has been made in the clinical translation of several therapeutic strategies for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), including measures to selectively address Survival Motor Neuron (SMN) protein deficiency with SMN1 gene replacement or modulation of SMN2 encoded protein levels, as well as neuroprotective approaches and supporting muscle strength and function. This review highlights these novel therapies. This is particularly vital with the advent of the first disease modifying therapy, which has brought to the fore an array of questions surrounding who, how and when to treat, and stimulated challenges in resource limited healthcare systems to streamline access for those eligible for drug therapy...
April 5, 2018: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697536/chronic-pain-patients-exhibit-a-complex-relationship-triad-between-pain-resilience-and-within-and-cross-network-functional-connectivity-of-the-default-mode-network
#14
Kasey S Hemington, Anton Rogachov, Joshua C Cheng, Rachael L Bosma, Junseok Andrew Kim, Natalie R Osborne, Robert D Inman, Karen D Davis
Resilience is a psychological trait that strongly predicts chronic pain-related health outcomes. The neural correlates of both pain and trait resilience are critical to understanding the brain-behaviour relationship in chronic pain, yet neural correlates of resilience in chronic pain states are unknown. However, measures of pain perception and a wide range of psychological health measures have been linked to function of the default mode network (DMN). Thus, we aimed to determine the relationships between resilience, pain perception, and functional connectivity (FC) within the DMN and between the DMN and other brain networks...
April 23, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695961/altered-functional-connectivity-of-insular-subregions-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Xingyun Liu, Xiaodan Chen, Weimin Zheng, Mingrui Xia, Ying Han, Haiqing Song, Kuncheng Li, Yong He, Zhiqun Wang
Recent researches have demonstrated that the insula is the crucial hub of the human brain networks and most vulnerable region of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, little is known about the changes of functional connectivity of insular subregions in the AD patients. In this study, we collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data including 32 AD patients and 38 healthy controls (HCs). By defining three subregions of insula, we mapped whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and identified several distinct RSFC patterns of the insular subregions: For positive connectivity, three cognitive-related RSFC patterns were identified within insula that suggest anterior-to-posterior functional subdivisions: (1) an dorsal anterior zone of the insula that exhibits RSFC with executive control network (ECN); (2) a ventral anterior zone of insula, exhibits functional connectivity with the salience network (SN); (3) a posterior zone along the insula exhibits functional connectivity with the sensorimotor network (SMN)...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693784/meta-analysis-of-the-incidence-and-patterns-of-second-neoplasms-after-photon-craniospinal-irradiation-in-children-with-medulloblastoma
#16
Abhishek Bavle, Sayani Tewari, Amy Sisson, Murali Chintagumpala, Michael Anderson, Arnold C Paulino
BACKGROUND: Second neoplasms (SNs) are a well-established long-term adverse effect of radiation therapy (RT), but there are limited data regarding their incidence and location relative to the radiation field, specific to medulloblastoma (MB) survivors after craniospinal irradiation (CSI). METHODS: A systematic literature review, per Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, identified six studies reporting the incidence and locations of SNs for 1,114 patients with MB, after CSI, with a median follow-up of ∼9 years (7...
April 25, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692717/disrupted-module-efficiency-of-structural-and-functional-brain-connectomes-in-clinically-isolated-syndrome-and-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Yaou Liu, Yunyun Duan, Huiqing Dong, Frederik Barkhof, Kuncheng Li, Ni Shu
Recent studies have demonstrated disrupted topological organization of brain connectome in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, whether the communication efficiency between different functional systems is affected in the early stage of MS remained largely unknown. In this study, we constructed the structural connectivity (SC) and functional connectivity (FC) networks in 41 patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), 32 MS patients and 35 healthy controls (HC) based on diffusion and resting-state functional MRI...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688520/comparison-of-2-anti-pla2r-immunoassays-for-the-diagnosis-of-primary-membranous-nephropathy
#18
Weihao Li, Yaping Guo, Zhiping Zhang, Feifei Zhang, Xiaomei Liu, Xin Ji, Lixia Liu, Hong Wang
Background: Anti-phospholipase A2 receptor (anti-PLA2R) is a promising biomarker for diagnosis, activity evaluation, therapy monitoring, and prognostic estimation of primary membranous neuropathy (pMN). Difference in methodology may be one cause of the discrepancy in anti-PLA2R-positive percentages in reported studies. In this study, we evaluated the determination consistency of anti-PLA2R using indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIF) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Methods: A total of 113 patients with pMN, 34 with secondary membranous neuropathy (sMN), and 53 healthy control individuals were enrolled...
April 23, 2018: Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687752/electrocardiographic-evaluation-in-patients-with-spinal-muscular-atrophy-a-case-control-study
#19
Raffaele Falsaperla, Giovanna Vitaliti, Ausilia Desiree Collotta, Chiara Fiorillo, Alfredo Pulvirenti, Salvatore Alaimo, Catia Romano, Martino Ruggieri
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to show the impairment of autonomic cardiac conduction causing bradycardia and/or electrocardiographic alterations in children affected by spinal muscular atrophy type 1 and 2 (SMA 1 and 2). METHODS: We included 25 spinal muscular atrophy patients, admitted from November 2016 to May 2017. All patients underwent an electrocardiographic examination and we studied PR and QRS intervals, P-waves and QRS amplitudes, and heart rate in spinal muscular atrophy patients compared to a control group...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672276/blocking-p62-sqstm1-dependent-smn-degradation-ameliorates-spinal-muscular-atrophy-disease-phenotypes
#20
Natalia Rodriguez-Muela, Andrey Parkhitko, Tobias Grass, Rebecca M Gibbs, Erika M Norabuena, Norbert Perrimon, Rajat Singh, Lee L Rubin
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a degenerative motor neuron (MN) disease caused by loss of functional SMN protein due to SMN1 gene mutations, is a leading cause of infant mortality. Increasing SMN levels ameliorates the disease phenotype and is unanimously accepted as a therapeutic approach for SMA patients. The ubiquitin/proteasome system is known to regulate SMN protein levels; however whether autophagy controls SMN levels remains poorly explored. Here we show that SMN protein is degraded by autophagy. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of autophagy increase SMN levels, while induction of autophagy decreases SMN...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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