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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812737/human-exposure-and-sensitivity-to-globally-extreme-wildfire-events
#1
David M J S Bowman, Grant J Williamson, John T Abatzoglou, Crystal A Kolden, Mark A Cochrane, Alistair M S Smith
Extreme wildfires have substantial economic, social and environmental impacts, but there is uncertainty whether such events are inevitable features of the Earth's fire ecology or a legacy of poor management and planning. We identify 478 extreme wildfire events defined as the daily clusters of fire radiative power from MODIS, within a global 10 × 10 km lattice, between 2002 and 2013, which exceeded the 99.997th percentile of over 23 million cases of the ΣFRP 100 km(-2) in the MODIS record. These events are globally distributed across all flammable biomes, and are strongly associated with extreme fire weather conditions...
February 6, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812709/adaptation-to-deep-sea-chemosynthetic-environments-as-revealed-by-mussel-genomes
#2
Jin Sun, Yu Zhang, Ting Xu, Yang Zhang, Huawei Mu, Yanjie Zhang, Yi Lan, Christopher J Fields, Jerome Ho Lam Hui, Weipeng Zhang, Runsheng Li, Wenyan Nong, Fiona Ka Man Cheung, Jian-Wen Qiu, Pei-Yuan Qian
Hydrothermal vents and methane seeps are extreme deep-sea ecosystems that support dense populations of specialized macro-benthos such as mussels. But the lack of genome information hinders the understanding of the adaptation of these animals to such inhospitable environments. Here we report the genomes of a deep-sea vent/seep mussel (Bathymodiolus platifrons) and a shallow-water mussel (Modiolus philippinarum). Phylogenetic analysis shows that these mussel species diverged approximately 110.4 million years ago...
April 3, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812677/species-specific-responses-to-ocean-acidification-should-account-for-local-adaptation-and-adaptive-plasticity
#3
Cristian A Vargas, Nelson A Lagos, Marco A Lardies, Cristian Duarte, Patricio H Manríquez, Victor M Aguilera, Bernardo Broitman, Steve Widdicombe, Sam Dupont
Global stressors, such as ocean acidification, constitute a rapidly emerging and significant problem for marine organisms, ecosystem functioning and services. The coastal ecosystems of the Humboldt Current System (HCS) off Chile harbour a broad physical-chemical latitudinal and temporal gradient with considerable patchiness in local oceanographic conditions. This heterogeneity may, in turn, modulate the specific tolerances of organisms to climate stress in species with populations distributed along this environmental gradient...
March 13, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812652/parasites-dominate-hyperdiverse-soil-protist-communities-in-neotropical-rainforests
#4
Frédéric Mahé, Colomban de Vargas, David Bass, Lucas Czech, Alexandros Stamatakis, Enrique Lara, David Singer, Jordan Mayor, John Bunge, Sarah Sernaker, Tobias Siemensmeyer, Isabelle Trautmann, Sarah Romac, Cédric Berney, Alexey Kozlov, Edward A D Mitchell, Christophe V W Seppey, Elianne Egge, Guillaume Lentendu, Rainer Wirth, Gabriel Trueba, Micah Dunthorn
High animal and plant richness in tropical rainforest communities has long intrigued naturalists. It is unknown if similar hyperdiversity patterns are reflected at the microbial scale with unicellular eukaryotes (protists). Here we show, using environmental metabarcoding of soil samples and a phylogeny-aware cleaning step, that protist communities in Neotropical rainforests are hyperdiverse and dominated by the parasitic Apicomplexa, which infect arthropods and other animals. These host-specific parasites potentially contribute to the high animal diversity in the forests by reducing population growth in a density-dependent manner...
March 20, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812516/letter
#5
Laura J Crawford
I find this to be extremely wrong; I cannot believe it is being applauded. It is completely supporting gender discrimination.
August 16, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812467/vessel-perforation-and-false-tracking-resulting-from-umbilical-artery-catheterization-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#6
Surasak Puvabanditsin, Francisco Zaldana, Joseph Raviola, Jeffrey Suell, Karen Hussein, Lauren Walzer, Rajeev Mehta
We report an extremely low-birth-weight neonate who developed umbilical artery perforation and false tracking. There was no life-threatening event relating to the complication. Diagnosis was made at postmortem examination. Little information exists regarding the anatomic and vascular effects of umbilical artery catheterization placement in newborns. We report a new complication of umbilical artery catheterization. We raise the awareness regarding the potential life threat due to this rare but very serious complication...
September 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812465/melanotic-neuroectodermal-tumor-of-infancy-presenting-with-fast-growing-scrotal-swelling-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#7
Corinthia Fabien-Dupuis, Benjamin Niver, Nick Shillingford, Larry Wang, Paul J Kokorowski, Shengmei Zhou
Testicular melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI) is extremely rare, with 2 cases reported in the literature. Its rarity and rapid and infiltrative growth pattern pose a diagnostic challenge. A previously healthy 3-month-old male, presented with a history of worsening left hemiscrotal swelling for 1 week. An outside ultrasound was suggestive of testicular torsion. Left orchiectomy demonstrated a mass occupying almost entire testicle with a variegated cut surface, with areas of pigmentation, necrosis, and hemorrhage...
September 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812464/congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia-with-liver-herniation-into-the-pericardial-sac-in-a-30-week-gestation-infant
#8
Nisha Patel, Christina Sollinger, Carl T D'Angio, Jeffrey M Vinocur, Kate G Ackerman, Philip J Katzman
Anterior diaphragmatic defects with pericardial involvement are extremely rare and diagnostically challenging entities encountered perinatally. While a majority of diaphragmatic defects occur in isolation, others are associated with multiple defects forming a complex of syndromes such as Pentalogy of Cantrell. Liver herniation into the pericardial sac poses a particular challenge and can mimic a pericardial tumor on prenatal ultrasound, yielding a different management course. The following case is an unusual presentation of a 30-week gestation female with an anterior midline diaphragmatic defect with liver herniation mimicking as a pericardial tumor, diagnosed at time of autopsy...
September 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812450/sexual-satisfaction-among-older-australian-heterosexual-men-and-women-findings-from-the-sex-age-me-study
#9
Wendy Heywood, Anthony Lyons, Bianca Fileborn, Sharron Hinchliff, Victor Minichiello, Sue Malta, Catherine Barrett, Briony Dow
This study explored sexual satisfaction in older heterosexual Australians using data from a national sample of 1,583 men and women aged 60+ who hoped or planned to have sex in the future. Data collection took place in 2015; participants were recruited using a variety of online and offline advertisements. Less than half the sample (46%) reported they were very or extremely satisfied with their sexual lives. Those who had sex more often and were more interested in sex were more likely to be satisfied, while those who wanted sex more often in the future were less likely to be satisfied, as were men who had experienced sexual difficulties...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812392/psychometric-properties-of-the-performing-arts-module-of-the-disabilities-of-the-arm-shoulder-and-hand-questionnaire
#10
Vera Baadjou, Rob de Bie, Christine Guptill, Rob Smeets
BACKGROUND: The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire (DASH) offers an optional performing arts module. The goal was to examine the psychometric properties of this module in musicians. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of a biopsychosocial intervention to prevent or reduce playing-related disability in conservatory students. Baseline data were used to examine internal consistency and discriminative validity of the performing arts module of the DASH questionnaire...
August 16, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812348/inhibition-of-heterogeneous-ice-nucleation-by-bioinspired-coatings-of-polyampholytes
#11
Zhiyuan He, Liuchun Zheng, Zhenqi Liu, Shenglin Jin, Chuncheng Li, Jianjun Wang
Controlling of heterogeneous ice nucleation (HIN) on foreign surfaces is of great importance for anti-ice nucleation material design. In this work, we studied the HIN behaviors on various ion-modified poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) surfaces via chain-extension reaction. Inspired by antifreeze proteins (AFPs), the PBS-based polyampholytes, containing both negative and positive charge groups on a single chain, show excellent performance of ice nucleation inhibition and freezing delay. Unlike the extremely high price and low availability of AFPs, these PBS-based polyampholytes can be commercially synthesized under mild reaction conditions...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812110/-extra-axial-tumors-of-the-central-nervous-system
#12
REVIEW
R Mühl-Benninghaus
Extra-axial tumors are intracranial neoplasms but are not located within the brain parenchyma. The localization of intracranial neoplasms helps to narrow down the possible differential diagnoses and also plays a deciding role in the treatment strategy and the prognosis. For this reason exact localization of these lesions is extremely important. Extra-axial tumors are the most common neoplasms among adults. They can be divided in a broad spectrum of histopathological subgroups. The most common extra-axial tumors are meningiomas, which arise from the dura mater...
August 15, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812040/effect-of-changes-in-artificial-turf-on-sports-injuries-in-male-university-soccer-players
#13
Kohei Fujitaka, Akira Taniguchi, Tsukasa Kumai, Shingo Otuki, Mamoru Okubo, Yasuhito Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Studies comparing the types and severity of trauma and injuries caused by different types of field surfaces have been conducted. However, there have been no studies on sports injuries caused by temporal deterioration of long-pile artificial turf fields and related decreases in the rubber chip and silica sand infill. PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of an artificial turf field on sports injuries in a university soccer team. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiological study...
August 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812039/three-dimensional-biomechanical-analysis-of-rearfoot-and-forefoot-running
#14
Sebastian Knorz, Felix Kluge, Kolja Gelse, Stefan Schulz-Drost, Thilo Hotfiel, Matthias Lochmann, Björn Eskofier, Sebastian Krinner
BACKGROUND: In the running community, a forefoot strike (FFS) pattern is increasingly preferred compared with a rearfoot strike (RFS) pattern. However, it has not been fully understood which strike pattern may better reduce adverse joint forces within the different joints of the lower extremity. PURPOSE: To analyze the 3-dimensional (3D) stress pattern in the ankle, knee, and hip joint in runners with either a FFS or RFS pattern. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study...
July 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811905/surgical-sympathectomy-for-buerger-s-disease
#15
REVIEW
Daniel G Cacione, Daniel H Moreno, Luis Cu Nakano, José Cc Baptista-Silva
Buerger's disease is characterized by recurring progressive inflammation and occlusions in small and medium arteries and veins of the limbs. Its cause is unknown, but it is most common in young men with a history of tobacco use. It is responsible for ischemic ulcers and extreme pain in the hands and feet. In many cases, notably in patients with the most severe presentations, there is no possibility of improving the condition with surgery (limb revascularisation), and therefore, alternative therapies (e.g. sympathectomy) is used...
August 2017: JRSM Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811884/factors-contributing-to-the-accumulation-of-reproductive-isolation-a-mixed-model-approach
#16
Dean M Castillo
The analysis of large datasets describing reproductive isolation between species has been extremely influential in the study of speciation. However, the statistical methods currently used for these data limit the ability to make direct inferences about the factors predicting the evolution of reproductive isolation. As a result, our understanding of iconic patterns and rules of speciation rely on indirect analyses that have clear statistical limitations. Phylogenetic mixed models are commonly used in ecology and evolution, but have not been applied to studies of reproductive isolation...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811875/ecosystem-size-predicts-eco-morphological-variability-in-a-postglacial-diversification
#17
Hans Recknagel, Oliver E Hooker, Colin E Adams, Kathryn R Elmer
Identifying the processes by which new phenotypes and species emerge has been a long-standing effort in evolutionary biology. Young adaptive radiations provide a model to study patterns of morphological and ecological diversification in environmental context. Here, we use the recent radiation (ca. 12k years old) of the freshwater fish Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) to identify abiotic and biotic environmental factors associated with adaptive morphological variation. Arctic charr are exceptionally diverse, and in postglacial lakes there is strong evidence of repeated parallel evolution of similar morphologies associated with foraging...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811812/lower-thoracic-syndrome
#18
Muhammad Nazim Farooq
The role of thoracic spine related dysfunction in producing lower extremity symptoms is not clear. This case study describes the assessment and treatment of a patient with low back pain and bilateral lower extremity (BLE) symptoms. It was found that patient education about postural awareness and passive mobilization are valuable aids to decrease BLE symptoms due to sympathetic nervous system (SNS) dysfunction and lower thoracic hypomobility. The clinicians need to consider examination and treatment of the lower thoracic area in patients with BLE symptoms...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811662/fractal-properties-of-shoreline-changes-on-a-storm-exposed-island
#19
Xiaojing Zhong, Peng Yu, Shenliang Chen
Extreme storm events and their consequent shoreline changes are of great importance for understanding coastal evolution and assessing storm hazards. This work investigates the fractal properties of the spatial distributions of shoreline changes caused by storms. Wavelet analysis and upper-truncated power law (UTPL) fitting are used to study the power spectra of shoreline changes and to evaluate the upper limits of the cross-shore erosion and accretion. During a period affected by storms, the alongshore shoreline change patterns are strong on the 15 km scale but are weak with lower spectral power on the 20 km scale...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811632/atomic-scale-study-of-the-amorphous-to-crystalline-phase-transition-mechanism-in-gete-thin-films
#20
R Mantovan, R Fallica, A Mokhles Gerami, T E Mølholt, C Wiemer, M Longo, H P Gunnlaugsson, K Johnston, H Masenda, D Naidoo, M Ncube, K Bharuth-Ram, M Fanciulli, H P Gislason, G Langouche, S Ólafsson, G Weyer
The underlying mechanism driving the structural amorphous-to-crystalline transition in Group VI chalcogenides is still a matter of debate even in the simplest GeTe system. We exploit the extreme sensitivity of (57)Fe emission Mössbauer spectroscopy, following dilute implantation of (57)Mn (T½ = 1.5 min) at ISOLDE/CERN, to study the electronic charge distribution in the immediate vicinity of the (57)Fe probe substituting Ge (FeGe), and to interrogate the local environment of FeGe over the amorphous-crystalline phase transition in GeTe thin films...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
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