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insulin sensitivity

K Ungethüm, M Jolink, M Hippich, L Lachmann, F Haupt, C Winkler, S Hummel, A Pitchika, O Kordonouri, A-G Ziegler, A Beyerlein
AIMS: Children and adolescents with a family history of diabetes are at increased risk of overweight, but little is known about the potentially beneficial effects of physical activity on these children. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and metabolic and inflammatory risks in children and adolescents with a family background of Type 1 diabetes or gestational diabetes. METHODS: Valid MVPA measurements, made with accelerometers, were available from 234 participants (median age, 10...
September 22, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Birgitta W van der Kolk, Nicole Vogelzangs, Johan W E Jocken, Armand Valsesia, Thomas Hankemeier, Arne Astrup, Wim H M Saris, Ilja C W Arts, Marleen M J van Greevenbroek, Ellen E Blaak
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity-associated insulin resistance (IR) may develop in multiple organs, representing different aetiologies towards cardiometabolic diseases. This study aimed to identify distinct plasma lipid profiles in overweight/obese individuals who show muscle-IR and/or liver-IR. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Baseline data of the European multicenter DiOGenes project were used (n = 640; 401 women, nondiabetic BMI: 27-45 kg/m2 ). Muscle insulin sensitivity index (MISI) and hepatic insulin resistance index (HIRI) were derived from a 5-point oral glucose tolerance test...
September 21, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Joshua W Russo, Ce Gao, Swati S Bhasin, Olga S Voznesensky, Carla Calagua, Seiji Arai, Peter S Nelson, Bruce Montgomery, Elahe A Mostaghel, Eva Corey, Mary-Ellen Taplin, Huihui Ye, Manoj Bhasin, Steven P Balk
The standard treatment for metastatic prostate cancer (PCa), androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), is designed to suppress androgen receptor (AR) activity. However, men invariably progress to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), and AR reactivation contributes to progression in most cases. To identify mechanisms that may drive CRPC, we examined a VCaP PCa xenograft model as tumors progressed from initial androgen sensitivity prior to castration to castration resistance and then on to relapse after combined therapy with further AR targeted drugs (abiraterone plus enzalutamide)...
September 21, 2018: Cancer Research
Mingyue Gao, Wei Zhao, Chunmei Li, Xianghong Xie, Meixia Li, Yalan Bi, Fude Fang, Yunfeng Du, Xiaojun Liu
In this study, treatment of high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) C57BL/6J mice with spermidine decreased body weight and subcutaneous and visceral fat content, reversed the apparent hepatosteatosis, and reduced hepatic intracellular and serum triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations. Moreover, spermidine treatment improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in DIO mice. The mechanism studies indicated that spermidine indeed increased the phosphorylation of hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and inhibited the expression of lipogenic genes in vivo and in vitro...
September 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jewon Jung, Dong-In Kim, Gi-Youn Han, Hyung Wook Kwon
High-fat diet (HFD) often causes obesity and it has detrimental effects on the sensory system. In particular, sensory-mediated responses are crucial for maintaining energy balance, as they are involved in a metabolic regulation; however, there is still no clear explanation about the relationship between HFD-induced stress and sensory system. To gain insight on how HFD-induced stress affects olfactory sensitivity and behavioral responses, we have used a Drosophila melanogaster model for olfactory and nutrient-related signaling and accessed physiological, behavioral, and transcriptional changes...
September 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Tanja Nikolova, Jukka Uotila, Natasha Nikolova, Vyacheslav M Bolotskikh, Vera Y Borisova, Gian Carlo di Renzo
BACKGROUND: Placental alpha microglobulin-1 (PAMG-1) and phosphorylated insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (phIGFBP-1) have been studied in patients at risk for preterm birth with signs and symptoms of preterm labor. However, a direct comparison between these two biomarkers, alone or in combination with cervical length measurement with an adequate sample size, has been lacking to date. OBJECTIVE: To compare PAMG-1 test and the phIGFBP-1-1 test alone and in combination with cervical length measurement for the prediction of imminent spontaneous preterm birth of testing in pregnant women with symptoms of preterm labor in a tertiary care setting...
September 18, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Ibiye Owei, Nidhi Jain, David Jones, Nkiru Umekwe, Sam Dagogo-Jack
Background: The hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HEC) is the "gold standard" for measuring insulin sensitivity, but glycemic recovery/stabilization after the procedure has not been well-studied. Here, we assessed the physiological determinants of post-clamp recovery. Methods: We analyzed data from 207 healthy subjects (102 African American, AA) and (105 European American, EA) who underwent HEC in the Pathobiology of Prediabetes in a Biracial Cohort study...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Laurie R Braun, Meghan N Feldpausch, Natalia Czerwonka, Julian Weiss, Karen Branch, Hang Lee, Edgar L Martinez-Salazar, Martin Torriani, Craig A Sponseller, Steven K Grinspoon, Takara L Stanley
Context: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are widely prescribed. Statins may have important metabolic effects on insulin sensitivity and liver fat, but limited studies have assessed these effects using euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, stable isotopes, and 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) for liver fat quantification. Objective: To study the effects of pitavastatin on hepatic fat and insulin sensitivity. Design: Six month, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Fiona S Atkinson, Dale Hancock, Peter Petocz, Jennie C Brand-Miller
Background: Salivary α-amylase gene (AMY1) copy number (CN) correlates with the amount of salivary α-amylase, but beyond this, the physiologic significance is uncertain. Objective: We hypothesized that individuals with higher AMY1 CN would digest starchy foods faster and show higher postprandial responses and lower breath hydrogen excretion compared with those with low CN. Design: Four linked studies were conducted. In Study 1, we genotyped 201 healthy subjects with the use of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and determined glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, salivary α-amylase activity, body mass index (BMI), and macronutrient intake...
September 18, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Henrik H Thomsen, Nikolaj Rittig, Mogens Johannsen, Andreas B Møller, Jens Otto Jørgensen, Niels Jessen, Niels Møller
Background: Acute inflammation, and subsequent release of bacterial products (e.g. LPS), inflammatory cytokines, and stress hormones, is catabolic, and the loss of lean body mass predicts morbidity and mortality. Lipid intermediates may reduce protein loss, but the roles of free fatty acids (FFAs) and ketone bodies during acute inflammation are unclear. Objective: We aimed to test whether infusions of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3OHB), FFAs, and saline reduce protein catabolism during exposure to LPS and Acipimox (to restrict and control endogenous lipolysis)...
September 18, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Ele Ferrannini, Patricia Iozzo, Kirsi A Virtanen, Miikka-Juhani Honka, Marco Bucci, Pirjo Nuutila
Background: Adipose tissue glucose uptake is impaired in insulin-resistant states, but ex vivo studies of human adipose tissue have yielded heterogeneous results. This discrepancy may be due to different regulation of blood supply. Objective: The aim of this study was to test the flow dependency of in vivo insulin-mediated glucose uptake in fat tissues, and to contrast it with that of skeletal muscle. Design: We reanalyzed data from 159 individuals in which adipose tissue depots-subcutaneous abdominal and femoral, and intraperitoneal-and femoral skeletal muscle were identified by MRI, and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake ([18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose) and blood flow ([15O]-H2O) were measured simultaneously by positron emission tomography scanning...
September 18, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Juliana M A Almeida, Adaliene V M Ferreira, Verena B Oliveira, Marina C Oliveira, Mauro M Teixeira, Maria G L Brandão
Obesity is characterized by a chronic low-grade inflammation, which has been shown to be involved in the development of comorbidities such as insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and liver damage. Phytochemicals found in plants may modulate inflammation and improve health problems associated with the excess of adiposity. Teas prepared with many plants are used in Brazil for losing weight. In this study, we evaluated the potential of Rudgea viburnoides (Cham.) Benth. on metabolic and inflammatory disarrangement induced by high refined carbohydrate (HC)-containing diet in mice...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
Yoshifumi Kasuga, Kei Miyakoshi, Atsushi Tajima, Yoshifumi Saisho, Satoru Ikenoue, Daigo Ochiai, Tadashi Matsumoto, Naoko Arata, Kenichiro Hata, Mamoru Tanaka
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Japanese women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus are unknown. Our objective was to investigate the clinical and genetic characteristics associated with postpartum abnormal glucose tolerance in Japanese women with gestational diabetes mellitus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 213 Japanese women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus who underwent postpartum 2-h oral glucose-tolerance test were investigated...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Jonatan Zorea, Manu Prasad, Limor Cohen, Nan Li, Roman Schefzik, Susmita Ghosh, Barak Rotblat, Benedikt Brors, Moshe Elkabets
Genomic alterations (GA) in PIK3CA leads to the hyper-activation of the phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway in more than 20% of ovarian cancer (OC) patients. Therefore, PI3K therapies are under clinical evaluation for this subset of patients. Evidently, in clinical trials testing the efficacy of isoform-specific inhibitors of PI3K (PI3Ki), patients having a stable disease eventually relapse, as tumors become resistant to treatment. Hence, there is an urgent clinical need to develop new therapeutic combinations to improve the efficacy of PI3Ki in PIK3CA-driven OC patients...
September 20, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Xiaofang Sun, Wei Li, Yujie Deng, Bingzi Dong, Ying Sun, Yu Xue, Yangang Wang
The liver is a central metabolic organ. Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) acts as an ER stress responsive gene and is reported to attenuate hepatic steatosis. Over expressing a dominant-negative form of ATF6 exacerbates glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. In the present study, we used the conditional knockout technique to specifically knockout ATF6 in the mouse liver. We used qPCR to detect the mRNA levels of related genes. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate protein levels. Flow cytometry assay showed the apoptosis status...
September 17, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Alfonso Galderisi, Cosimo Giannini, Ram Weiss, Grace Kim, Veronika Shabanova, Nicola Santoro, Bridget Pierpont, Mary Savoye, Sonia Caprio
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is preceded by a prediabetic stage of impaired glucose tolerance that affects 10-23% of youth and is expected to double over the next decade. The natural history of impaired glucose tolerance and the determinants of β-cell dynamic response have never been investigated longitudinally in young people. We aimed to investigate the clinical and metabolic determinants of longitudinal glucose tolerance changes and β-cell function in a multiethnic cohort of obese youth...
October 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Yilun Zhou, Yin Zhang, Yuesong Pan, Jing Jing, Xingquan Zhao, Liping Liu, Chunxue Wang, Hao Li, Hongyi Yan, Xia Meng, Yilong Wang, Yongjun Wang
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the general population. However, the relationship between insulin resistance and health outcomes is controversial in patients with impaired renal function. Our study aimed to investigate the association between insulin resistance and prognosis in a cohort of non-diabetic stroke patients with different estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) strata. METHODS: Data were derived from Abnormal Glucose Regulation in Patients with Acute Stroke across China (ACROSS-China) registry...
September 20, 2018: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Maroua Ferhat, Katsuhiko Funai, Sihem Boudina
SIGNIFICANCE: Alterations in adipose tissue function have profound consequences on whole body energy homeostasis because this tissue is central for fat accumulation, energy expenditure, glucose and insulin metabolism and hormonal regulation. With the obesity reaching epidemic proportions globally, it is important to understand the mechanisms leading to adipose tissue malfunction. Recent Advances: Autophagy has originally been viewed as an adaptive response to cellular stress, but in recent years, this process was shown to regulate important cellular processes...
September 20, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Inez Trouwborst, Suzanne M Bowser, Gijs H Goossens, Ellen E Blaak
Cardiometabolic diseases are one of the leading causes for disability and mortality in the Western world. The prevalence of these chronic diseases is expected to rise even further in the next decades. Insulin resistance (IR) and related metabolic disturbances are linked to ectopic fat deposition, which is the storage of excess lipids in metabolic organs such as liver and muscle. Notably, a vicious circle exists between IR and ectopic fat, together increasing the risk for the development of cardiometabolic diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Sadia Mehmood, Myles Margolis, Chang Ye, Louise Maple-Brown, Anthony J Hanley, Philip W Connelly, Mathew Sermer, Bernard Zinman, Ravi Retnakaran
Objective: Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have an elevated risk of ultimately developing pre-diabetes and diabetes later in life. They also have an increased prevalence of fatty liver, but recent studies have reported conflicting findings on whether hepatic fat affects their risk of pre-diabetes/diabetes. Thus, we sought to evaluate the associations of liver fat with glucose homeostasis and determinants thereof in women with and without recent gestational dysglycemia...
2018: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
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