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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458019/raffinose-from-costus-speciosus-attenuates-lipid-synthesis-through-modulation-of-ppars-srebp1c-and-improves-insulin-sensitivity-through-pi3k-akt
#1
Muthukumaran Padmanaban, Thiyagarajan Gopal, Arun Babu Rajendran, Baddireddi Subhadra Lakshmi
Among several metabolic disorders, the pathogenesis of insulin resistance is considered to be multifactorial. Raffinose, an oligosaccharide isolated from the rhizome of Costus speciosus showed ≤50% inhibition of lipid accumulation in differentiated HepG2 and 3T3-L1 cells through exhibiting partial agonism to PPARγ, and, an enhanced secretion of adiponectin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Raffinose was also observed to attenuate the expression of SREBP1c, ACC and FAS which are involved in the fatty acid synthesis. A corresponding upregulation of PPARα and ACO involved in fatty acid oxidation was observed in steatotic HepG2 hepatocytes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes...
February 16, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457996/the-tyg-index-cutoff-point-and-its-association-with-body-adiposity-and-lifestyle-in-children
#2
Sarah A Vieira Ribeiro, Poliana C A Fonseca, Cristiana S Andreoli, Andréia Q Ribeiro, Helen H M Hermsdorff, Patrícia F Pereira, Silvia E Priore, Sylvia C C Franceschini
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the factors associated with insulin resistance in children aged 4-7 years, and to identify the cutoff point of the triglyceride-glucose index for the prediction of IR in this population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 403 children from a retrospective cohort. Insulin resistance was also evaluated in a sub-sample using the HOMA index. Four indicators of body adiposity were assessed: body mass index, waist-to-height ratio, and the percentages of total and central body fat...
February 16, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455364/hyperirisinemia-is-independently-associated-with-subclinical-hypothyroidism-correlations-with-cardiometabolic-biomarkers-and-risk-factors
#3
Theodora Stratigou, Maria Dalamaga, Georgios Antonakos, Ioanna Marinou, Evaggelos Vogiatzakis, Gerasimos Socrates Christodoulatos, Irene Karampela, Athanasios G Papavassiliou
PURPOSE: Irisin, a newly discovered adipo-myokine, is implicated in the modulation of the adipose phenotype, increasing energy expenditure and ameliorating systemic metabolism. Our aim was to investigate circulating irisin in subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and study its associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: In a large case-control study, serum irisin, insulin resistance and lipid parameters, classic adipokines, inflammatory and hepatic biomarkers, and cardiovascular risk factors were determined in 120 consecutive patients with SH and 120 healthy controls matched on age, gender, and date of blood draw...
February 17, 2018: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455275/the-effect-of-different-levels-of-dietary-restriction-on-glucose-homeostasis-and-metabolic-memory
#4
Stephanie Matyi, Jordan Jackson, Karla Garrett, Sathyaseelan S Deepa, Archana Unnikrishnan
Over the past 50 years, dietary restriction (DR) has been shown to extend the life span of a wide variety of organisms. A hallmark feature of DR is improved glucose homeostasis resulting in increased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity of animals ranging from rodents to humans. In this study, we demonstrate the early effects of varying levels of DR on glucose tolerance. Within 10 days of 40% DR, glucose tolerance was significantly improved and by 120 days; 10 and 20% DR also showed enhanced glucose tolerance...
February 17, 2018: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455245/chronic-hyperinsulinemia-induced-mir-27b-is-linked-to-adipocyte-insulin-resistance-by-targeting-insulin-receptor
#5
Ankita Srivastava, Kripa Shankar, Muheeb Beg, Sujith Rajan, Abhishek Gupta, Salil Varshney, Durgesh Kumar, Sanchita Gupta, Raj Kumar Mishra, Anil Nilkanth Gaikwad
Defect in insulin signaling leads to the development of insulin resistance followed by type 2 diabetes. Exploiting our previously developed physiological chronic hyperinsulinemia (CI)-mediated insulin resistance (IR) model, we wanted to understand how miRNAs contribute to the development of IR. Amongst the identified and validate miRNAs, the expression of miR-27b was found to be highly upregulated during CI-induced IR in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also validated the expression of miR-27b in CI-induced IR in human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC)-derived adipocytes and in vivo high fat diet (HFD)-induced IR mice model...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455095/establishment-of-pancreatic-microenvironment-model-of-er-stress-quercetin-attenuates-%C3%AE-cell-apoptosis-by-invoking-nitric-oxide-cgmp-signaling-in-endothelial-cells
#6
Natarajan Suganya, Krishna Priya Mani, Dornadula Sireesh, Palanisamy Rajaguru, Mariappanadar Vairamani, Thiruppathi Suresh, Takayoshi Suzuki, Suvro Chatterjee, Kunka Mohanram Ramkumar
The involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in endothelial dysfunction and diabetes-associated complications has been well documented. Inhibition of ER stress represents a promising therapeutic strategy to attenuate endothelial dysfunction in diabetes. Recent attention has focused on the development of small molecule inhibitors of ER stress to maintain endothelial homeostasis in diabetes. Here we have developed a reliable, robust co-culture system that allows a study on the endothelial cells and pancreatic β-cells crosstalk under ER stress and validated using a known ER stress modulator, quercetin...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454501/postoperative-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-relation-to-body-composition-adiposity-and-carbohydrate-treatment-a-randomised-controlled-study
#7
Nilanjana Tewari, Sherif Awad, František Duška, Julian P Williams, Andrew Bennett, Ian A Macdonald, Dileep N Lobo
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The aims of this study were to identify whether differences in distribution of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in obese and non-obese individuals contribute to the magnitude of the postoperative inflammatory response and insulin resistance, with and without preoperative treatment with carbohydrate drinks. METHODS: Thirty-two adults (16 obese/16 non-obese) undergoing elective major open abdominal surgery participated in this 2 × 2 factorial, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453986/sterol-o-acyltransferase-1-deficiency-improves-defective-insulin-signaling-in-the-brains-of-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#8
Ning Xu, Hao Meng, Tian-Yi Liu, Ying-Li Feng, Yuan Qi, Dong-Huan Zhang, Hong-Lei Wang
Insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) is related to metabolic diseases, and sterol O-acyltransferase 1 (SOAT1) is a key enzyme for the biosynthesis of cholesteryl ester. In the present study, wild-type (WT) mice and SOAT1-knockout (KO) mice with a C57BL6 background fed a HFD were used to explore the role of SOAT1 in the hypothalamus. The results show that the WT mice exhibited a significant increase in body weight as well as hepatic histologic changes; they also had a lower glucose and insulin tolerance than the WT mice fed a normal diet...
February 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453923/magnesium-upregulates-insulin-receptor-and-glucose-transporter-4-in-streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced-type-2-diabetic-rats
#9
Ayodele Olufemi Morakinyo, Titilola Aderonke Samuel, Daniel Abiodun Adekunbi
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of magnesium supplementation on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, oxidative stress as well as the concentration of insulin receptor and glucose transporter-4 in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type-2 diabetic (T2D) rats. METHODS: Rats were divided into four groups designated as: 1) control (CTR); 2) diabetic untreated (DU); 3) diabetic treated with 1 mg of Mg/kg diet (Mg1-D); and 4) diabetic treated with 2 mg of Mg/kg diet (Mg2-D)...
January 1, 2018: Endocrine Regulations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453899/the-role-of-dna-pk-in-aging-and-energy-metabolism
#10
REVIEW
Jay H Chung
DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a very large holoenzyme comprised of the p470 kDa DNA-PK catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs ) and the Ku heterodimer consisting of the p86 (Ku 80) and p70 (Ku 70) subunits. It is best known for its non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) activity, which repairs double-strand DNA (dsDNA) breaks (DSBs). As expected, the absence of DNA-PK activity results in sensitivity to ionizing radiation, which generates DSBs and defect in lymphocyte development, which requires NHEJ of the V(D)J region in the immunoglobulin and T cell receptor loci...
February 17, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453570/molecular-mechanisms-and-signaling-pathways-involved-in-the-nutritional-support-of-spermatogenesis-by-sertoli-cells
#11
Luís Crisóstomo, Marco G Alves, Agostina Gorga, Mário Sousa, María F Riera, María N Galardo, Silvina B Meroni, Pedro F Oliveira
Sertoli cells play a central role in spermatogenesis. They maintain the blood-testis barrier, an essential feature of seminiferous tubules which creates the proper environment for the occurrence of the spermatogenesis. However, this confinement renders germ cells almost exclusively dependent on Sertoli cells' nursing function and support. Throughout spermatogenesis, differentiating sperm cells become more specialized, and their biochemical machinery is insufficient to meet their metabolic demands. Although the needs are not the same at all differentiation stages, Sertoli cells are able to satisfy their needs...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453463/impact-of-gastric-emptying-and-small-intestinal-transit-on-blood-glucose-intestinal-hormones-glucose-absorption-in-the-morbidly-obese
#12
Nam Q Nguyen, Tamara L Debreceni, Jenna E Burgess, Max Bellon, Judith Wishart, Scott Standfield, Charles-Henri Malbert, Michael Horowitz
This study evaluated gastric emptying (GE) and small intestinal (SI) transit in people with morbid obesity and their relationships to glycaemia, incretin hormones, and glucose absorption METHODS: GE and caecal arrival time (CAT) of a mixed meal were assessed in 22 morbidly obese (50.2 ± 2.5 years; 13 F:9 M; BMI: 48.6 ± 1.8 kg/m2 ) and 10 lean (38.6 ± 8.4 years; 5 F:5 M; BMI: 23.9 ± 0.7 kg/m2 ) subjects, using scintigraphy. Blood glucose, plasma 3-O-methylglucose, insulin, glucagon, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were measured...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453462/gq-11-a-new-ppar-agonist-improves-obesity-induced-metabolic-alterations-in-ldlr-mice
#13
Jacqueline C Silva, Edson M de Oliveira, Walter M Turato, Gustavo H G Trossini, Vinícius G Maltarollo, Marina G R Pitta, Ivan R Pitta, Beatriz de Las Heras, Lisardo Boscá, Martina Rudnicki, Dulcineia S P Abdalla
BACKGROUND: Obesity and insulin resistance/diabetes are important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and demand safe and efficacious therapeutics. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a new thiazolidine compound-GQ-11-on obesity and insulin resistance induced by a diabetogenic diet in LDL receptor-deficient (LDLr -/- ) mice. METHODS: Molecular docking simulations of GQ-11, PPARα and PPARγ structures were performed. Male C57BL/6J LDLr -/- mice fed a diabetogenic diet for 24 weeks were treated with vehicle, GQ-11 or pioglitazone or (20 mg/kg/day) for 28 days by oral gavage...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453154/unique-pharmacology-of-a-novel-allosteric-agonist-sensitizer-insulin-receptor-monoclonal-antibody
#14
Simon A Hinke, Anne M Cieniewicz, Thomas Kirchner, Katharine D'Aquino, Rupesh Nanjunda, Jason Aligo, Robert Perkinson, Philip Cooper, Ken Boayke, Mark L Chiu, Steve Jarantow, Eilyn R Lacy, Yin Liang, Dana L Johnson, Jean M Whaley, Russell B Lingham, Anthony J Kihm
OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance is a key feature of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D), and improving insulin sensitivity is important for disease management. Allosteric modulation of the insulin receptor (IR) with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can enhance insulin sensitivity and restore glycemic control in animal models of T2D. METHODS: A novel human mAb, IRAB-A, was identified by phage screening using competition binding and surface plasmon resonance assays with the IR extracellular domain...
February 3, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452568/primary-cilia-regulated-transcriptome-in-the-renal-collecting-duct
#15
Sami G Mohammed, Francisco J Arjona, Eric H J Verschuren, Zeineb Bakey, Wynand Alkema, Sacha van Hijum, Miriam Schmidts, René J M Bindels, Joost G J Hoenderop
Renal tubular cells respond to mechanical stimuli generated by urinary flow to regulate the activity and transcript abundance of important genes for ion handling, cellular homeostasis, and proper renal development. The primary cilium, a mechanosensory organelle, is postulated to regulate this mRNA response. The aim of this study is to reveal the transcriptome changes of tubular epithelia in response to fluid flow and determine the role of primary cilia in this process. Inner-medullary collecting duct (CD) cells were subjected to either static or physiologically relevant fluid flow (∼0...
February 8, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452240/the-effect-of-non-anti-tnf-targeting-biologics-and-small-molecules-on-insulin-resistance-in-inflammatory-arthritis
#16
REVIEW
Francesco Ursini, Emilio Russo, Piero Ruscitti, Roberto Giacomelli, Giovambattista De Sarro
Inflammatory arthritides are chronic diseases characterised by an increase in cardiovascular risk, largely attributable to the synergy between high-grade systemic inflammation and an elevated prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Amongst the latter, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D) play a key position. Previous studies demonstrated a potential insulin-sensiting effect of anti-TNF biologic medications. For converse, less is known about the role of newer biologics or small molecules...
February 13, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452178/effects-of-canagliflozin-versus-glimepiride-on-adipokines-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-in-type-2-diabetes
#17
W Timothy Garvey, Luc Van Gaal, Lawrence A Leiter, Ujjwala Vijapurkar, James List, Robert Cuddihy, Jimmy Ren, Michael J Davies
OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes and obesity are pro-inflammatory states associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Canagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, demonstrated superiority in lowering HbA1c versus glimepiride with less hypoglycemia and greater weight reduction via loss of fat mass in a 52-week trial of type 2 diabetes patients. This post hoc, exploratory analysis assessed the effects of canagliflozin versus glimepiride on select adipokines, inflammatory biomarkers, and chemokines...
February 13, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451987/association-of-adiponectin-leptin-ratio-with-carbohydrate-and-lipid-metabolism-parameters-in-hiv-infected-patients-during-antiretroviral-therapy
#18
Catalin Tiliscan, Victoria Arama, Raluca Mihailescu, Daniela Munteanu, Diana Gabriela Iacob, Cristina Popescu, Remulus Catana, Anca Negru, Alina Lobodan, Stefan Sorin Arama
BACKGROUND: Adiponectin and leptin are adipose tissue hormones that regulate important lipid and glucose metabolic pathways. Our objective was to evaluate the interplay of these hormones described by the adiponectin/leptin ratio (ALR) in correlation to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism parameters in nondiabetic HIV-infected patients during antiretroviral therapy (ART). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled consecutive nondiabetic patients with confirmed HIV infection, undergoing stable ART regimens for at least six months...
February 16, 2018: Endocrine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451831/high-dose-perinatal-folic-acid-supplementation-alters-insulin-sensitivity-in-sprague-dawley-rats-and-diminishes-the-expression-of-adiponectin
#19
Ayodele Olufemi Morakinyo, Titilola Aderonke Samuel, Funmileyi Olubajo Awobajo, Gabriel Olorunleke Oludare, Adekunle Mofolorunso
The possible intake of folate in excess of the recommended upper levels is a matter of critical importance. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of prenatal and postnatal high folic acid supplementation (FAS) on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism, and expression of adiponectin in rats. The study included 20 female rats divided into two groups: control group and FAS group (receiving high folic acid supplemented diet). Both groups of female rats were mated and pregnancy confirmed...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451743/serum-adiponectin-and-insulin-secretion-a-direct-or-inverse-association
#20
Akinobu Nakamura, Hideaki Miyoshi, Shigekazu Ukawa, Koshi Nakamura, Takafumi Nakagawa, Yasuo Terauchi, Akiko Tamakoshi, Tatsuya Atsumi
We investigated the association between serum high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and insulin secretion in a population-based study, with or without adjustment for insulin sensitivity. A total of 488 participants (263 women) were included in the present study. Insulin secretion was estimated using the homeostasis model assessment of beta-cell function (HOMA-β%) ± adjustment for insulin resistance (IR) using the disposition index (DI). Multivariate analysis revealed that HMW adiponectin was significantly and inversely associated with HOMA-β% (partial regression coefficient: -0...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
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