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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936224/change-in-serum-bilirubin-level-as-a-predictor-of-incident-metabolic-syndrome
#1
You-Bin Lee, Seung-Eun Lee, Ji Eun Jun, Jae Hwan Jee, Ji Cheol Bae, Sang-Man Jin, Jae Hyeon Kim
AIM: Serum bilirubin level was negatively associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in previous cross-sectional studies. However, bilirubin variance preceding the development of MetS has yet to be investigated. We aimed to determine the effect of change in bilirubin concentration on the risk of incident MetS in healthy Korean adults. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective longitudinal study of subjects who had undergone at least four yearly health check-ups between 2006 and 2012...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936206/abdominal-adiposity-not-cardiorespiratory-fitness-mediates-the-exercise-induced-change-in-insulin-sensitivity-in-older-adults
#2
Gifferd Ko, Lance E Davidson, Andrea M Brennan, Miu Lam, Robert Ross
Abdominal obesity and low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with insulin resistance in older adults. Exercise is associated with improvement in insulin sensitivity. Whether this association is mediated by change in CRF and/or abdominal obesity is unclear. The current study is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial in Kingston, Ontario. Sedentary older adults (60-80 years) (N = 80) who completed the exercise (N = 59) or control (N = 21) conditions for 6 months were included...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935767/effect-of-physical-activity-and-or-healthy-eating-on-gdm-risk-the-dali-lifestyle-study
#3
David Simmons, Roland Devlieger, André van Assche, Goele Jans, Sander Galjaard, Rosa Corcoy, Juan M Adelantado, Fidelma Dunne, Gernot Desoye, Jürgen Harreiter, Alexandra Kautzky-Willer, Peter Damm, Elisabeth R Mathiesen, Dorte M Jensen, Liselotte Andersen, Annunziata Lapolla, Maria G Dalfrà, Alessandra Bertolotto, Ewa Wender-Ozegowska, Agnieszka Zawiejska, David Hill, Frank J Snoek, Judith Gm Jelsma, Mireille Nm van Poppel
CONTEXT: Lifestyle approaches for preventing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have produced mixed results. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three lifestyle interventions (Healthy eating (HE), Physical activity (PA) and both HE and PA (HE+PA)) with usual care (UC) in reducing GDM risk. DESIGN: Multicentre Randomised Controlled Trial 2012-2014: The Dali Lifestyle Study Setting: Antenatal clinics across 11 centres in 9 European countries Patients: Consecutive pregnant women <20 weeks gestation with a BMI≥29 kg/m(2) and without GDM by IADPSG criteria (n=436)...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935520/effect-of-fructose-consumption-on-insulin-sensitivity-in-nondiabetic-subjects-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-diet-intervention-trials
#4
Kasper W Ter Horst, Merle R Schene, Rebecca Holman, Johannes A Romijn, Mireille J Serlie
BACKGROUND: High fructose consumption has been suggested to contribute to several features of metabolic syndrome including insulin resistance, but to our knowledge, no previous meta-analyses have investigated the effect of fructose on insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic subjects. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled diet-intervention studies in nondiabetic subjects to determine the effect of fructose on insulin sensitivity. DESIGN: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library for relevant trials on the basis of predetermined eligibility criteria...
December 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935220/nuclear-co-repressor-ncor-is-required-to-maintain-insulin-sensitivity-in-c2-c12-myotubes
#5
Abhijeet K Choudhary, Chinmoy S Dey
Nuclear co-repressor (NCoR) regulate peripheral insulin sensitivity, however its role in modulating insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle remains elusive. Present study investigated protein expression and effect of NCoR on insulin sensitivity in murine skeletal muscle cell line C2 C12 . Myotubes as compared to myoblasts of C2 C12 cells was found to be more sensitive in response to insulin as increase in insulin stimulated phosphorylation of AKT at serine 473 residue (pAKT(S473) ) was significantly higher in myotubes...
December 9, 2016: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934653/leucine-and-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-dependent-activation-of-muscle-protein-synthesis-in-aging
#6
REVIEW
Jean-Pascal De Bandt
The preservation or restoration of muscle mass is of prime importance for healthy aging. However, aging has been repeatedly shown to be associated with resistance of muscle to the anabolic effects of feeding. Leucine supplementation has been proposed as a possible strategy because of its regulatory role on protein homeostasis. Indeed, it acts independently of growth factors and leads to enhanced cap-dependent mRNA translation initiation and increased protein synthesis. Leucine acts as a signaling molecule directly at the muscle level via the activation of mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)...
December 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934605/generation-of-an-abcc8-heterozygous-mutation-human-embryonic-stem-cell-line-using-crispr-cas9
#7
Dongsheng Guo, Haikun Liu, Ge Gao, Aynisahan Ruzi, Kepin Wang, Han Wu, Keyu Lai, Yanli Liu, Fan Yang, Liangxue Lai, Yin-Xiong Li
The gene of ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 8 (Abcc8) is cytogenetically located at 11p15.1 and encodes the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR1). SUR1 is a subunit of ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KAPT) in the β-cell regulating insulin secretion. Mutations of ABCC8 are responsible for congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI). Here we reported that an Abcc8 heterozygous mutant cell line was generated by CRISPR/Cas9 technique with 1bp insertion resulting in abnormal splicing on human embryonic stem cell line H1. The phenotypic characteristics of this cell line reveal defective KATP channel and diazoxide-responsive that provides ideal model for molecular pathology research and drug screening for CHI...
November 5, 2016: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934599/generation-of-an-abcc8-homozygous-mutation-human-embryonic-stem-cell-line-using-crispr-cas9
#8
Dongsheng Guo, Haikun Liu, Ge Gao, Aynisahan Ruzi, Kepin Wang, Han Wu, Keyu Lai, Yanli Liu, Fan Yang, Liangxue Lai, Yin-Xiong Li
The gene of ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 8 (Abcc8) is cytogenetically located at 11p15.1 and encodes the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR1). SUR1 is a subunit of ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KAPT) in the β-cell regulating insulin secretion. Mutations of ABCC8 are responsible for congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI). Here we generated an Abcc8 homozygous mutant cell line by CRISPR/Cas9 technique with 22bp deletion resulting in abnormal splicing on human embryonic stem cell line H1. The phenotypic characteristics of this cell line reveal defective KATP channel and diazoxide-unresponsive that provides an ideal model for molecular pathology research and drug screening for CHI...
November 9, 2016: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933891/an-n-n-bis-benzimidazolylpicolinoyl-piperazine-bt-11-a-novel-lanthionine-synthetase-c-like-2-based-therapeutic-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#9
Adria Carbo, Richard D Gandour, Raquel Hontecillas, Noah Philipson, Aykut Uren, Josep Bassaganya-Riera
Lanthionine synthetase C-like 2 (LANCL2), a novel therapeutic target for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases and diabetes, exerts anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects. This study reports the first LANCL2-based therapeutics for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Analogues of 1 (ABA) and 2 (NSC61610) were screened by molecular docking, then synthesized and analyzed for binding to LANCL2 by surface plasmon resonance. Piperazine-1,4-diylbis(6-benzo[d]imidazole-2-yl)pyridine-2-yl)methanone, 7, was identified as the lead LANCL2-binding compound for treating IBD...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933334/improved-glycaemia-in-high-fat-fed-neprilysin-deficient-mice-is-associated-with-reduced-dpp-4-activity-and-increased-active-glp-1-levels
#10
Joshua R Willard, Breanne M Barrow, Sakeneh Zraika
AIM/HYPOTHESIS: Neprilysin, a widely expressed peptidase, is upregulated in metabolically altered states such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Like dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), neprilysin can degrade and inactivate the insulinotropic peptide glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Thus, we investigated whether neprilysin deficiency enhances active GLP-1 levels and improves glycaemia in a mouse model of high fat feeding. METHODS: Nep (+/+) and Nep (-/-) mice were fed a 60% fat diet for 16 weeks, after which active GLP-1 and DPP-4 activity levels were measured, as were glucose, insulin and C-peptide levels during an OGTT...
December 8, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933186/effect-of-type-and-amount-of-dietary-carbohydrate-on-biomarkers-of-glucose-homeostasis-and-c-reactive-protein-in-overweight-or-obese-adults-results-from-the-omnicarb-trial
#11
Stephen P Juraschek, Edgar R Miller, Elizabeth Selvin, Vincent J Carey, Lawrence J Appel, Robert H Christenson, Frank M Sacks
OBJECTIVE: The glycemic index (GI) of dietary carbohydrate is thought to affect glucose homeostasis. Recently, the Effect of Amount and Type of Dietary Carbohydrates on Risk for Cardiovascular Heart Disease and Diabetes Study (OmniCarb) trial reported that a low-GI diet did not improve insulin sensitivity. We conducted this ancillary study of the OmniCarb trial to determine the effects of GI and carbohydrate content on glucose homeostasis and inflammation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: OmniCarb was a randomized cross-over feeding study conducted in overweight or obese adults without diabetes (N=163)...
2016: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933062/no-role-for-mast-cells-in-obesity-related-metabolic-dysregulation
#12
Jindřich Chmelař, Antonios Chatzigeorgiou, Kyoung-Jin Chung, Marta Prucnal, David Voehringer, Axel Roers, Triantafyllos Chavakis
Obesity-related adipose tissue (AT) inflammation that promotes metabolic dysregulation is associated with increased AT mast cell numbers. Mast cells are potent inducers of inflammatory responses and could potentially contribute to obesity-induced AT inflammation and metabolic dysregulation. Conflicting findings were reported on obesity-related metabolic dysfunction in mast cell-deficient mice, thus creating a controversy that has not been resolved to date. Whereas traditional Kit hypomorphic mast cell-deficient strains featured reduced diet-induced obesity and diabetes, a Kit-independent model of mast cell deficiency, Cpa3(Cre/+) mice, displayed no alterations in obesity and insulin sensitivity...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932354/longitudinal-impact-of-smoking-and-smoking-cessation-on-inflammatory-markers-of-cardiovascular-disease-risk
#13
Cecile C King, Megan E Piper, Adam D Gepner, Michael C Fiore, Timothy B Baker, James H Stein
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate longitudinal changes in 6 inflammatory markers that predict cardiovascular disease events among smokers making a quit attempt and to characterize their cross-sectional associations between smoking and smoking heaviness. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In a longitudinal cohort study of contemporary smokers (n=1652), we evaluated (1) independent associations of smoking heaviness markers (exhaled carbon monoxide, cigarettes/d, pack-years) with inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, D-dimer, fibrinogen, urinary F2 isoprostane:creatinine [F2:Cr] ratio, white blood cell [WBC] count, myeloperoxidase) and (2) the effects of smoking cessation and continued smoking on these inflammatory markers after 1 year, among the 888 smokers who made an aided quit attempt as part of a randomized comparative effectiveness trial or standard care...
December 8, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932304/vitamin-d-and-type-2-diabetes
#14
REVIEW
Paul Lips, Marelise Eekhoff, Natasja Vzn Schoor, Mirjam Oosterwerff, Renate de Jongh, Yvonne Krul-Poel, Suat Simsek
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a decreased insulin release, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in experimental and epidemiological studies. Animal studies show that 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) stimulates the pancreatic β-cell to secrete insulin. The relationship between vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance could develop through inflammation, as vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased inflammatory markers. In addition, genetic polymorphisms of vitamin D -related genes may predispose to impaired glycemic control and type 2 diabetes...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931981/relative-contribution-of-muscle-and-liver-insulin-resistance-to-dysglycemia-in-postmenopausal-overweight-and-obese-women-a-monet-group-study
#15
Belinda Elisha, Emmanuel Disse, Katherine Chabot, Nadine Taleb, Denis Prud'homme, Sophie Bernard, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret, Jean-Philippe Bastard
OBJECTIVES: The relative contribution of muscle and liver insulin resistance (IR) in the development of dysglycemia and metabolic abnormalities is difficult to establish. The present study aimed to investigate the relative contribution of muscle IR vs. liver IR to dysglycemia in non-diabetic overweight or obese postmenopausal women and to determine differences in body composition and cardiometabolic indicators associated with hepatic or muscle IR. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Secondary analysis of 156 non-diabetic overweight or obese postmenopausal women...
December 5, 2016: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931513/immunogenicity-of-anti-hla-antibodies-in-pancreas-and-islet-transplantation
#16
Benjamin Chaigne, Kirsten Geneugelijk, Benot Bdat, Mohamed Alibashe Ahmed, Gideon Hnger, Sophie de Seigneux, Sandrine Demuylder-Mischler, Thierry Berney, Eric Spierings, Sylvie Ferrari-Lacraz, Jean Villard
The aim of the current study was to characterize the anti-HLA antibodies before and after pancreatic islet or pancreas transplantation. We assessed the risk of anti-donor-specific antibody (DSA) sensitization in a single-center, retrospective clinical study at Geneva University Hospital. Data regarding clinical characteristics, graft outcome, HLA mismatch, donor HLA immunogenicity, and anti-HLA antibody characteristics were collected. Between January 2008 and July 2014, 18 patients received islet transplants, and 26 patients received a pancreas transplant...
November 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931122/modulation-of-pancreatic-islets-function-and-survival-during-aging-involves-the-differential-regulation-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-by-p21-and-chop
#17
Chrysovalantou Mihailidou, Ioulia Chatzistamou, Athanasios Papavassiliou, Hippokratis Kiaris
AIMS: While endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is recognized as a major mechanism causing pancreatic dysfunction in diabetes, little is known on how aging modulates the process. Here we compared the response to ER stress, viability and insulin release from pancreatic islets of young (6 weeks) or aged (14 months) mice. RESULTS: Islets from aged mice were more sensitive to ER stress than their younger counterparts, they exhibited more pronounced unfolded protein response (UPR) and caspase activation and displayed compromised insulin release after high glucose stimulation...
December 8, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930544/adiponectin-fbg%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-fins-as-a-predictor-of-insulin-sensitivity-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-patients-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#18
Xiaohui Xu, Yerui Lai, Gangyi Yang, Mengliu Yang, Ling Li, Qin Zhang, Hua Liu, Hongting Zheng, Danping Zhu
The euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp is not available in most clinical settings. An accessible and inexpensive measurement for identifying insulin resistance (IR) is necessary. Our aim is to assess whether the adiponectin (ADI) index (ADI/[FBG × FIns]) is a better surrogate index for the assessment of IR or metabolic syndrome (MetS).A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted including 100 healthy women and 99 polycystic ovary syndrome patients. The euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp was performed...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929200/obesity-insulin-resistance-rather-than-liver-fat-increases-coagulation-factor-activities-and-expression-in-humans
#19
Susanna Lallukka, Panu K Luukkonen, You Zhou, Elina M Petäjä, Marja Leivonen, Anne Juuti, Antti Hakkarainen, Marju Orho-Melander, Nina Lundbom, Vesa M Olkkonen, Riitta Lassila, Hannele Yki-Järvinen
Increased liver fat may be caused by insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation or by the common I148M variant in PNPLA3 at rs738409, which lacks both of these features. We hypothesised that obesity/insulin resistance rather than liver fat increases circulating coagulation factor activities. We measured plasma prothrombin time (PT, Owren method), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), activities of several coagulation factors, VWF:RCo and fibrinogen, and D-dimer concentration in 92 subjects divided into groups based on insulin sensitivity [insulin-resistant ('IR') versus insulin-sensitive ('IS')] and PNPLA3 genotype (PNPLA3(148MM/MI) vs PNPLA3(148II))...
December 8, 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928721/clinical-and-metabolic-response-to-selenium-supplementation-in-pregnant-women-at-risk-for-intrauterine-growth-restriction-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#20
Elaheh Mesdaghinia, Azam Rahavi, Fereshteh Bahmani, Nasrin Sharifi, Zatollah Asemi
Data on the effects of selenium supplementation on clinical signs and metabolic profiles in women at risk for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are scarce. This study was designed to assess the effects of selenium supplementation on clinical signs and metabolic status in pregnant women at risk for IUGR. This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed among 60 women at risk for IUGR according to abnormal uterine artery Doppler waveform. Participants were randomly assigned to intake either 100 μg selenium supplements as tablet (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) for 10 weeks between 17 and 27 weeks of gestation...
December 7, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
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