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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925944/a-stromal-cell-population-that-inhibits-adipogenesis-in-mammalian-fat-depots
#1
Petra C Schwalie, Hua Dong, Magda Zachara, Julie Russeil, Daniel Alpern, Nassila Akchiche, Christian Caprara, Wenfei Sun, Kai-Uwe Schlaudraff, Gianni Soldati, Christian Wolfrum, Bart Deplancke
Adipocyte development and differentiation have an important role in the aetiology of obesity and its co-morbidities1,2 . Although multiple studies have investigated the adipogenic stem and precursor cells that give rise to mature adipocytes3-14 , our understanding of their in vivo origin and properties is incomplete2,15,16 . This is partially due to the highly heterogeneous and unstructured nature of adipose tissue depots 17 , which has proven difficult to molecularly dissect using classical approaches such as fluorescence-activated cell sorting and Cre-lox lines based on candidate marker genes16,18 ...
June 20, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925744/effect-of-lipoprotein-associated-phospholipase-a2-inhibitor-on-insulin-resistance-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-pregnant-rats
#2
Guo-Hua Wang, Jun Jin, Li-Zhou Sun
This paper aims to investigate the influence of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) inhibitor, darapladib, on insulin resistance (IR) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic pregnant rats. The rat models were divided into Control (normal pregnancy), STZ + saline (STZ-induced diabetic pregnant rats), STZ + Low-dose and STZ + High-dose darapladib (STZ-induced diabetic pregnant rats treated with low-/high-dose darapladib) groups. Pathological changes were observed by Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Immunohistochemistry staining...
June 21, 2018: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925523/the-metabolic-outcomes-of-growth-hormone-treatment-in-children-are-gender-specific
#3
Alessandro Ciresi, Stefano Radellini, Valentina Guarnotta, Maria Grazia Mineo, Carla Giordano
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of gender on the clinical and metabolic parameters in prepubertal GHD children at diagnosis and during GH treatment (GHT). DESIGN: The data of 105 prepubertal children (61 males, 44 females, mean age 6.8 ± 0.7 years) affected by idiopathic GHD were retrospectively evaluated. METHODS: Body height, BMI, waist circumference (WC), IGF-I, HbA1c, lipid profile, fasting and after-OGTT glucose and insulin levels, insulin sensitivity and secretion indices were evaluated at baseline and after 24 months of GHT...
June 20, 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924632/heat-shock-protein-72-regulates-hepatic-lipid-accumulation
#4
Ashley E Archer, Robert S Rogers, Alex T Von Schulze, Joshua L Wheatley, E Matthew Morris, Colin S McCoin, John P Thyfault, Paige C Geiger
Induction of the chaperone Heat Shock Protein 72 (HSP72) through heat treatment, exercise, or overexpression improves glucose tolerance and mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Less is known about HSP72 function in the liver where lipid accumulation can result in insulin resistance and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). The purpose of this study was 1) to determine whether weekly in vivo heat treatment (HT) induces hepatic HSP72 and improves glucose tolerance in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and 2) to determine the ability of HSP72 to protect against lipid accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction in primary hepatocytes...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924631/effects-of-postweaning-calorie-restriction-on-accelerated-growth-and-adiponectin-in-nutritionally-programmed-microswine-offspring
#5
Elizabeth A DuPriest, Baoyu Lin, Philipp Kupfer, Kaiu Sekiguchi, Amruta Bhusari, Alexandra Quackenbush, Almir Celebic, Terry K Morgan, Jonathan Q Purnell, Susan Pound Bagby
Poor prenatal development followed by rapid childhood growth conveys greater cardiometabolic risk in later life. Microswine offspring exposed to perinatal maternal protein restriction (MPR; "low protein offspring", LPO) grow poorly in late-fetal/neonatal stages. After weaning to ad libitum (AL) diet, LPO-AL exhibit accelerated growth and fat deposition rates with low adiponectin mRNA despite low-normal body fat and small intra-abdominal adipocytes. We examined effects of caloric restriction (CR) on growth and metabolic status in LPO and normal protein offspring (NPO) randomized to AL or CR diets from weaning...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923910/hypoxic-training-improves-normoxic-glucose-tolerance-in-adolescents-with-obesity
#6
Estelle De Groote, Florian A Britto, Loïc Bullock, Marie François, Carine De Buck, Henri Nielens, Louise Deldicque
PURPOSE: To test whether environmental hypoxia could potentiate the effects of exercise training on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. METHODS: Fourteen adolescents with obesity were assigned to 6 weeks of exercise training either in normoxic or in hypoxic conditions (FiO2 15%). Adolescents trained 3x/w for 50-60min, including endurance and resistance exercises. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), blood and morphological analyses as well as physical performance tests were performed before and after the training period...
June 20, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923299/short-term-effects-of-dapagliflozin-on-insulin-sensitivity-postprandial-glucose-excursion-and-ketogenesis-in-type-1-diabetes-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-cross-over-pilot-study
#7
A Melmer, P Kempf, L Lunger, T R Pieber, J K Mader, C Stettler, H Tilg, C F Ebenbichler, M Laimer
We investigated short-term effects of dapagliflozin as adjunct to insulin on insulin sensitivity, postprandial glucose excursions, and ketone body production in T1DM. Seven male patients completed the randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled cross-over trial and received 10mg of dapagliflozin daily for 3 days followed by placebo, or reverse. At day 3, hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamps and oral glucose tolerance test clamps with repeated blood sampling were performed. Required glucose infusion and blood glucose excursions did not differ significantly between dapagliflozin and placebo (p=0...
June 19, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921567/diagnosis-and-follow-up-of-type-2-diabetes-in-women-with-pcos-a-role-of-ogtt
#8
Marianne Skovsager Andersen, Dorte Glintborg
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is common in premenopausal women. The majority of women with PCOS have insulin resistance and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is higher in women with PCOS compared to controls. In non-pregnant women with PCOS, glycemic status may be assessed by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), or HbA1c. OGTT has been reckoned gold standard test for diagnosing T2D, but OGTT is rarely used for diagnostic purpose in other non-pregnant individuals at risk of T2D, apart from PCOS...
June 19, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921434/no-362-ovulation-induction-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#9
David S Smithson, Tannys D R Vause, Anthony P Cheung
OBJECTIVE: To review current non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic options for ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). OPTIONS: This guideline reviews the evidence for the various options for ovulation induction in PCOS. OUTCOMES: Ovulation, pregnancy and live birth rates, risks, and side effects are the outcomes of interest. EVIDENCE: Published literature was retrieved through searches of Medline using appropriate controlled vocabulary and key words spanning from 2000 to 2016...
July 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920825/prediction-of-preterm-delivery-in-symptomatic-women-using-placental-alpha-microglobulin-1-fetal-fibronectin-and-phosphorylated-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-1-tests-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-stratified-by-risk
#10
REVIEW
Juan Carlos Melchor, Asma Khalil, Deborah Wing, Ekkehard Schleussner, Daniel Surbek
OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of placental alpha- microglobulin-1 (PAMG-1), fetal fibronectin (fFN), and phosphorylated insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (phIGFBP-1) tests in the prediction of spontaneous preterm birth in women with symptoms of preterm labor within 7 days (sPTB≤7d) of testing using formal methods for systematic review. Further analysis looking into performance in low, intermediate and high-risk patient groups. METHODS: Two reviewers independently searched the Cochrane, MEDLINE, PubMed and ResearchGate bibliographic databases...
June 19, 2018: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920783/food-intake-and-energy-expenditure-in-growing-cats-with-and-without-a-predisposition-to-overweight
#11
Vivien Ghielmetti, Brigitta Wichert, Simon Rüegg, Diana Frey, Annette Liesegang
Overweight and obesity are multifactorial diseases caused by an imbalance in energy metabolism. An underlying genetic predisposition is often a factor in these conditions. In the cat breeding family of the Institute of Animal Nutrition at the Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, a segregating overweight phenotype with a genetic contribution was observed. From this breeding family, 26 kittens were followed from birth up to 8 months of age. During this time, food intake was measured using an automatic feeding station, and energy expenditure was investigated using indirect calorimetry at the ages of 4 and 6 months...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920224/increased-capillary-density-in-skeletal-muscle-is-not-associated-with-impaired-insulin-sensitivity-induced-by-bed-rest-in-healthy-young-men
#12
David Montero, Laura Oberholzer, Thomas Haider, Andreas Breenfeldt Andersen, Sune Dandanell, Anne-Kristine Meinild-Lundby, Hannah Maconochie, Carsten Lundby
Physical inactivity alters glucose homeostasis in skeletal muscle, potentially developing into overt metabolic disease. The present study sought to investigate the role of skeletal muscle capillarization in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity (IS) using a classic human model of physical inactivity. Thirteen healthy males (age=23±2 yr) underwent 4 days of full-time supervised and diet-controlled bed rest. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), indices of insulin sensitivity (IS) (quantitative IS check index (QUICKI), Matsuda index) as well as skeletal muscle biopsies with measurement of fiber type distribution, fiber cross-sectional area (FCSA), capillary-to-fiber ratio (C/F ratio) and capillary density (CD) were assessed prior to and after bed rest...
June 19, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917037/high-plasma-apolipoprotein-b-identifies-obese-subjects-who-best-ameliorate-white-adipose-tissue-dysfunction-and-glucose-induced-hyperinsulinemia-after-a-hypocaloric-diet
#13
Simon Bissonnette, Nathalie Saint-Pierre, Valerie Lamantia, Catherine Leroux, Viviane Provost, Yannick Cyr, Remi Rabasa-Lhoret, May Faraj
Background: To optimize the prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D), high-risk obese subjects with the best metabolic recovery after a hypocaloric diet should be targeted. Apolipoprotein B lipoproteins (apoB lipoproteins) induce white adipose tissue (WAT) dysfunction, which in turn promotes postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance (IR), and hyperinsulinemia. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore whether high plasma apoB, or number of plasma apoB lipoproteins, identifies subjects who best ameliorate WAT dysfunction and related risk factors after a hypocaloric diet...
June 18, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916740/preserving-skin-integrity-with-chronic-device-use-in-diabetes
#14
Laurel H Messer, Cari Berget, Christie Beatson, Sarit Polsky, Gregory P Forlenza
Skin integrity and diabetes device placement are ongoing concerns for people with diabetes who utilize continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pumps. This is especially significant for individuals with skin sensitivities, pediatric patients, and those who use devices chronically. Dermatological complications are often cited as a barrier to device use and a reason for device discontinuation. Furthermore, it is a frequent topic of discussion in diabetes follow-up visits, although little evidence-based literature exists to guide providers in managing skin integrity issues...
June 2018: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916387/genomic-insights-into-the-causes-of-type-2-diabetes
#15
REVIEW
Claudia Langenberg, Luca A Lotta
Genome-wide association studies have implicated around 250 genomic regions in predisposition to type 2 diabetes, with evidence for causal variants and genes emerging for several of these regions. Understanding of the underlying mechanisms, including the interplay between β-cell failure, insulin sensitivity, appetite regulation, and adipose storage has been facilitated by the integration of multidimensional data for diabetes-related intermediate phenotypes, detailed genomic annotations, functional experiments, and now multiomic molecular features...
June 16, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915365/metabolic-effects-of-genetic-variation-in-the-human-repin1-gene
#16
Jacqueline Krüger, Claudia Berger, Kerstin Weidle, Dorit Schleinitz, Anke Tönjes, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Peter Kovacs, Nora Klöting
BACKGROUND: Replication initiator 1 (Repin1) is a zinc finger protein highly expressed in liver and adipose tissue. The Repin1 resides within a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for body weight and triglyceride levels in the rat, and its hepatic deletion in mice results in improved insulin sensitivity and lower body weight. Here, we analyzed whether genetic variation within the Repin1 affects parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism. METHODS: We sequenced REPIN1 in 48 non-related Caucasian subjects...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915142/impaired-%C3%AE-cell-glucokinase-as-an-underlying-mechanism-in-diet-induced-diabetes
#17
Brian Lu, Kiran Kurmi, Miguel Munoz-Gomez, Egon J Jacobus Ambuludi, Jason M Tonne, Kuntol Rakshit, Taro Hitosugi, Yogish C Kudva, Aleksey V Matveyenko, Yasuhiro Ikeda
High-fat diet (HFD)-fed mouse models have been widely used to study early type 2 diabetes. Decreased β-cell glucokinase (GCK) expression has been observed in HFD-induced diabetes. However, owing to its crucial roles in glucose metabolism in the liver and in islet β-cells, the contribution of decreased GCK expression to the development of HFD-induced diabetes is unclear. Here, we employed a β-cell-targeted gene transfer vector and determined the impact of β-cell-specific increase in GCK expression on β-cell function and glucose handling in vitro and in vivo Overexpression of GCK enhanced glycolytic flux, ATP-sensitive potassium channel activation and membrane depolarization, and increased proliferation in Min6 cells...
June 13, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914854/pancreatic-deletion-of-the-interleukin-1-receptor-disrupts-whole-body-glucose-homeostasis-and-promotes-islet-%C3%AE-cell-de-differentiation
#18
Susan J Burke, Heidi M Batdorf, David H Burk, Thomas M Martin, Tamra Mendoza, Krisztian Stadler, Wateen Alami, Michael D Karlstad, Matthew J Robson, Randy D Blakely, Randall L Mynatt, J Jason Collier
OBJECTIVE: Pancreatic tissue, and islets in particular, are enriched in expression of the interleukin-1 receptor type I (IL-1R). Because of this enrichment, islet β-cells are exquisitely sensitive to the IL-1R ligands IL-1α and IL-1β, suggesting that signaling through this pathway regulates health and function of islet β-cells. METHODS: Herein, we report a targeted deletion of IL-1R in pancreatic tissue (IL-1RPdx1-/- ) in C57BL/6J mice and in db/db mice on the C57 genetic background...
June 6, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914537/combination-therapy-of-ipilimumab-and-nivolumab-induced-thyroid-storm-in-a-patient-with-hashimoto-s-disease-and-diabetes-mellitus-a-case-report
#19
Kazuko Yonezaki, Toshihiro Kobayashi, Hitomi Imachi, Takuo Yoshimoto, Fumi Kikuchi, Kensaku Fukunaga, Seisuke Sato, Tomohiro Ibata, Nao Yamaji, Jingya Lyu, Tao Dong, Koji Murao
BACKGROUND: Recently, immune checkpoint inhibitors have widely been used for the management of advanced melanoma. However, high-grade immune-related adverse events can occur, particularly with combination immunotherapy. We report a case of a patient with melanoma who developed thyroid storm following treatment with ipilimumab and nivolumab. CASE PRESENTATION: An 85-year-old Japanese man with a history of malignant melanoma presented to our department with severe thyrotoxicosis and poor blood glucose control...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914251/visfatin-levels-in-hormonally-inactive-adrenal-adenoma-and-their-association-with-metabolic-parameters
#20
Alp Atasoy, Evrim Çakır, Süleyman Ahbab, Yasemin Erdoğan Döventaş, Macit Koldaş, Esra Ataoğlu, Mustafa Yenigün
Background/aim: In parallel with increased frequency and higher quality of imaging techniques, the prevalence of adrenal adenoma has gradually increased. However, despite the growing incidence, the metabolic and tumorigenesis processes involved in its etiology are still unclear. Although visfatin has been reported to be associated with inflammation and tumorigenesis, its role in adrenal adenoma has not yet been investigated. Therefore, the present study was performed with an aim to evaluate visfatin levels and cardiometabolic risk factors in patients with adrenal adenoma...
June 14, 2018: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
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