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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916089/-estrogen-exerts-anti-inflammatory-effects-by-inhibiting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-through-binding-with-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-on-synovicytes-of-osteoarthritis
#1
Enwei Zhang, Hongtao Zhang, Fengzhou Liu, Chuan Dong, Yun Yao, Zhe Yun, Weiming Jian, Bao'an Ma
Objective To investigate the mechanism of estrogen's anti-inflammatory effects on synovial cells during the pathogenic process of osteoarthritis. Methods We isolated synovicytes from synovium tissues and identified the cells with flow cytometry. Then we detected the expression level of estrogen receptor β (ERβ) in synovicytes with immunofluorescence staining. The synovicytes were divided into control group, group pretreated with 10 ng/mL IL-1β, group pretreated with 10 ng/mL IL-1β and 10(-7) mol/L estrogen, group pretreated with 10 ng/mL IL-1β, 10(-7) mol/L estrogen and specific antagonist of ERβ, 10(-5) mol/L tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)...
December 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911435/detecting-biomarkers-of-secondhand-marijuana-smoke-in-young-children
#2
Karen M Wilson, Michelle R Torok, Binnian Wei, Lanqing Wang, Michelle Robinson, Connie S Sosnoff, Benjamin C Blount
BACKGROUND: The impact of secondhand marijuana smoke exposure on children is unknown. New methods allow detection of secondhand marijuana smoke in children. METHODS: We studied children ages 1 month to 2 years hospitalized with bronchiolitis in Colorado from 2013-2015. Parents completed a survey, and urine samples were analyzed for cotinine using LC/MS/MS (LOD 0.03 ng/ml) and marijuana metabolites including COOH-THC (LOD 0.015 ng/ml). RESULTS: A total of 43 subjects had urine samples available for analysis...
December 2, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905004/ocular-disposition-of-%C3%A2-8-tetrahydrocannabinol-from-various-topical-ophthalmic-formulations
#3
Nagendra S Punyamurthula, Goutham R Adelli, Waseem Gul, Michael A Repka, Mahmoud A ElSohly, Soumyajit Majumdar
The purposes of this project are to enhance the trans-membrane penetration of Δ(8)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(8)-THC) and to study the effect of various lipid based systems in delivering the compound, non-invasively, to anterior and posterior ocular chambers. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), fast gelling films were manufactured using high pressure homogenization and melt cast techniques, respectively. The formulations were characterized for drug content, entrapment efficiency, particle size and subsequently evaluated in vitro for trans-corneal permeation...
November 30, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904961/muscle-elastography-a-new-imaging-technique-for-multiple-sclerosis-spasticity-measurement
#4
G Illomei, G Spinicci, E Locci, M G Marrosu
Multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity is currently evaluated on the basis of neurological examinations such as Ashworth Scale (AS) and 0-10 NRS. Severity of spasticity is difficult to quantify. We investigated the use of real time elastography (RTHE) ultrasounds for evaluating objectively the muscle fibers status in MS spasticity patients and their changes after a new antispasticity treatment. Two studies were performed. In study A, 110 MS patients underwent a neurological evaluation based on the AS and RTHE. The RTHE images were scored with the new 1-5 muscle fibers rigidity imaging scale, here called MEMSs (Muscle Elastography Multiple Sclerosis Score)...
November 30, 2016: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899456/free-and-glucuronide-whole-blood-cannabinoids-pharmacokinetics-after-controlled-smoked-vaporized-and-oral-cannabis-administration-in-frequent-and-occasional-cannabis-users-identification-of-recent-cannabis-intake
#5
Matthew N Newmeyer, Madeleine J Swortwood, Allan J Barnes, Osama A Abulseoud, Karl B Scheidweiler, Marilyn A Huestis
BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in markers of recent cannabis use because following frequent cannabis intake, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) may be detected in blood for up to 30 days. The minor cannabinoids cannabidiol, cannabinol (CBN), and THC-glucuronide were previously detected for ≤2.1 h in frequent and occasional smokers' blood after cannabis smoking. Cannabigerol (CBG), Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THCV might also be recent use markers, but their blood pharmacokinetics have not been investigated...
December 2016: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885307/epidemiology-of-testicular-cancer-in-oklahoma-and-the-united-states
#6
Shannon Smith, Amanda Janitz, Janis Campbell
Testicular cancer is a rare cause of morbidity and mortality in the US. Marked disparities in the development of this cancer exist, with testicular cancer being more common in Caucasian men and men of higher socioeconomic status. The incidence of testicular cancer is increasing worldwide, and the reasons for this have not been well documented. It has been proposed that this increase may be due to highly prevalent environmental factors, or from exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls, polyvinyl chloride, cigarette smoking, and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)...
July 2016: Journal of the Oklahoma State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884751/a-systematic-review-of-the-effect-of-cannabidiol-on-cognitive-function-relevance-to-schizophrenia
#7
REVIEW
Ashleigh L Osborne, Nadia Solowij, Katrina Weston-Green
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive impairment is a core symptom domain of schizophrenia, neurological disorders and substance abuse. It is characterised by deficits in learning, memory, attention and executive functioning and can severely impact daily living. Antipsychotic drugs prescribed to treat schizophrenia provide limited cognitive benefits and novel therapeutic targets are required. Cannabidiol (CBD), a component of the cannabis plant, has anti-inflammatory and antipsychotic-like properties; however, its ability to improve cognitive impairment has not been thoroughly explored...
November 21, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884725/endocannabinoid-system-in-sexual-motivational-processes-is-it-a-novel-therapeutic-horizon
#8
REVIEW
Renata Androvicova, Jiri Horacek, Tibor Stark, Filippo Drago, Vincenzo Micale
The endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is composed of the cannabinoid receptors types 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2) for marijuana's psychoactive ingredient Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), the endogenous ligands (AEA and 2-AG) and the enzymatic systems involved in their biosynthesis and degradation, recently emerged as important modulator of emotional and non-emotional behaviors. For centuries, in addition to its recreational actions, several contradictory claims regarding the effects of Cannabis use in sexual functioning and behavior (e...
November 21, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883985/a-systematic-review-of-passive-exposure-to-cannabis
#9
REVIEW
Aurélie Berthet, Mariangela De Cesare, Bernard Favrat, Frank Sporkert, Marc Augsburger, Aurélien Thomas, Christian Giroud
Passive exposure to cannabis smoke may induce effects on behavior and psychomotor skills, and have legal consequences, including the risk of being falsely considered as a cannabis user. This can become a concern, especially in occupational contexts or when driving vehicles. In order to enable a differentiation between a passive and an active exposure to cannabis and to limit the likeliness to be detected positive following passive exposure, this review identified specific biomarkers of passive exposure in urine, blood, oral fluid, hair, and sebum...
December 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877130/cannabidiol-as-a-potential-new-type-of-an-antipsychotic-a-critical-review-of-the-evidence
#10
REVIEW
Cathrin Rohleder, Juliane K Müller, Bettina Lange, F M Leweke
There is urgent need for the development of mechanistically different and less side-effect prone antipsychotic compounds. The endocannabinoid system has been suggested to represent a potential new target in this indication. While the chronic use of cannabis itself has been considered a risk factor contributing to the development of schizophrenia, triggered by the phytocannabinoid delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), cannabidiol, the second most important phytocannabinoid, appears to have no psychotomimetic potential...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867358/biased-agonism-of-three-different-cannabinoid-receptor-agonists-in-mouse-brain-cortex
#11
Rebeca Diez-Alarcia, Inés Ibarra-Lecue, Ángela P Lopez-Cardona, Javier Meana, Alfonso Gutierrez-Adán, Luis F Callado, Ekaitz Agirregoitia, Leyre Urigüen
Cannabinoid receptors are able to couple to different families of G proteins when activated by an agonist drug. It has been suggested that different intracellular responses may be activated depending on the ligand. The goal of the present study was to characterize the pattern of G protein subunit stimulation triggered by three different cannabinoid ligands, Δ(9)-THC, WIN55212-2, and ACEA in mouse brain cortex. Stimulation of the [(35)S]GTPγS binding coupled to specific immunoprecipitation with antibodies against different subtypes of G proteins (Gαi1, Gαi2, Gαi3, Gαo, Gαz, Gαs, Gαq/11, and Gα12/13), in the presence of Δ(9)-THC, WIN55212-2 and ACEA (submaximal concentration 10 μM) was determined by scintillation proximity assay (SPA) technique in mouse cortex of wild type, CB1 knock-out, CB2 knock-out and CB1/CB2 double knock-out mice...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866486/the-effects-of-cannabis-use-on-salience-attribution-a-systematic-review
#12
Surapi Bhairavi Wijayendran, Aisling O'Neill, Sagnik Bhattacharyya
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between cannabis use and the onset of psychosis is well established. Aberrant salience processing is widely thought to underpin many of these symptoms. Literature explicitly investigating the relationship between aberrant salience processing and cannabis use is scarce; with those few studies finding that acute tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration (the main psychoactive component of cannabis) can result in abnormal salience processing in healthy cohorts, mirroring that observed in psychosis...
November 21, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862053/fluorescence-based-lateral-flow-assays-for-rapid-oral-fluid-roadside-detection-of-cannabis-use
#13
Brian D Plouffe, Shashi K Murthy
With the recent worldwide changes in the legalization of marijuana, there is a significant need for rapid, road-side screening test for driving under the influence of drugs. A robust, sensitive, lateral flow assay has been developed to detect recent use via oral-fluid testing for Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). This proof-of-concept assay uses a fluorescent-based immunoassay detection of polymeric beads, conjugated to antibodies against native THC. The fluorescent technique allows for significantly lower limits of detection and higher precision determination of recent marijuana use without the use of urine or blood sampling - thus allowing for roadside identification...
November 10, 2016: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853201/the-effects-of-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-on-the-dopamine-system
#14
Michael A P Bloomfield, Abhishekh H Ashok, Nora D Volkow, Oliver D Howes
The effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, are a pressing concern for global mental health. Patterns of cannabis use are changing drastically owing to legalization, the availability of synthetic analogues (commonly termed spice), cannavaping and an emphasis on the purported therapeutic effects of cannabis. Many of the reinforcing effects of THC are mediated by the dopamine system. Owing to the complexity of the cannabinoid-dopamine interactions that take place, there is conflicting evidence from human and animal studies concerning the effects of THC on the dopamine system...
November 16, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851727/high-resolution-crystal-structure-of-the-human-cb1-cannabinoid-receptor
#15
Zhenhua Shao, Jie Yin, Karen Chapman, Magdalena Grzemska, Lindsay Clark, Junmei Wang, Daniel M Rosenbaum
The human cannabinoid G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) CB1 and CB2 mediate the functional responses to the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG), as well as the widely consumed plant (phyto)cannabinoid Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)(1). The cannabinoid receptors have been the targets of intensive drug discovery efforts owing to the therapeutic potential of modulators for controlling pain(2), epilepsy(3), obesity(4), and other maladies. Although much progress has recently been made in understanding the biophysical properties of GPCRs, investigations of the molecular mechanisms of the cannabinoids and their receptors have lacked high-resolution structural data...
November 16, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846289/spatial-variability-in-condition-of-southern-rock-lobsters-jasus-edwardsii-at-the-start-of-the-tasmanian-fishing-season
#16
Tania Mendo, Cedric Simon, Bridget Green, Caleb Gardner
The southern rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) industry in Australia favours red lobsters, which are usually caught in shallow waters, over paler (brindle) lobsters. This preference is driven partly by the Chinese market, where red is associated with luck and prosperity, and additionally, by the widely held perception within the industry that brindles have greater mortality rates during out of water transport than reds. Limited scientific evidence supports these industry observations; however, these studies did not evaluate the initial condition of lobsters...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835662/marijuana-use-is-associated-with-behavioral-approach-and-depressive-symptoms-in-adolescents-and-emerging-adults
#17
Natasha E Wright, Danny Scerpella, Krista M Lisdahl
BACKGROUND: Repeated CB1 binding due to THC results in downregulation of the endocannabinoid system in cortex and limbic regions, perhaps disrupting frontolimbic functioning. This is particularly a concern in young adults who are still undergoing neurodevelopment in frontal and limbic regions. Such disruptions may be linked to increased depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and executive dysfunction, and decreased behavioral approach. OBJECTIVES: Here we examine the influence of young adult marijuana use on anxiety, depressive symptoms, behavioral approach, and executive dysfunction...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834143/distribution-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-jwh-210-rcs-4-and-%C3%A2-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-after-intravenous-administration-to-pigs
#18
Nadine Schaefer, Mattias Kettner, Matthias W Laschke, Julia Schlote, Andreas H Ewald, Michael D Menger, Hans H Maurer, Peter H Schmidt
Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) have become an increasing issue in forensic toxicology. Controlled human studies evaluating pharmacokinetic data of SCs are lacking and only few animal studies have been published. Thus, an interpretation of analytical results found in intoxicated or poisoned individuals is difficult. Therefore, the distribution of two selected SCs, namely 4-ethylnaphthalen-1-yl-(1-pentylindol-3-yl)methanone (JWH-210) and 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-(1-pentyl-indol-3-yl)methanone (RCS-4) as well as ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as reference were examined in pigs...
November 11, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826249/cannabinoid-cb1-receptors-are-localized-in-striated-muscle-mitochondria-and-regulate-mitochondrial-respiration
#19
Juan Mendizabal-Zubiaga, Su Melser, Giovanni Bénard, Almudena Ramos, Leire Reguero, Sergio Arrabal, Izaskun Elezgarai, Inmaculada Gerrikagoitia, Juan Suarez, Fernando Rodríguez De Fonseca, Nagore Puente, Giovanni Marsicano, Pedro Grandes
The cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor is widely distributed in the brain and peripheral organs where it regulates cellular functions and metabolism. In the brain, CB1 is mainly localized on presynaptic axon terminals but is also found on mitochondria (mtCB1), where it regulates cellular respiration and energy production. Likewise, CB1 is localized on muscle mitochondria, but very little is known about it. The aim of this study was to further investigate in detail the distribution and functional role of mtCB1 in three different striated muscles...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815614/cannabinoids-assessment-in-plasma-and-urine-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-after-molecularly-imprinted-polymer-microsolid-phase-extraction
#20
Juan Sánchez-González, Rocío Salgueiro-Fernández, Pamela Cabarcos, Ana María Bermejo, Pilar Bermejo-Barrera, Antonio Moreda-Piñeiro
A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) selective for cannabinoids [Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC-COOH), and 11-hydroxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC-OH)] has been synthesized, fully characterized, and applied to the assessment of plasma and urine analysis of marijuana abuse by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Δ9-THC-COOH was used as a template molecule, whereas ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) was used as a functional monomer, divinylbenzene (DVB) as a cross-linker, and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as an initiator...
November 4, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
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