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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426670/mice-expressing-a-hyper-sensitive-form-of-the-cb1-cannabinoid-receptor-cb1-show-modestly-enhanced-alcohol-preference-and-consumption
#1
David J Marcus, Angela N Henderson-Redmond, Maciej Gonek, Michael L Zee, Jill C Farnsworth, Randa A Amin, Mary-Jeanette Andrews, Brian J Davis, Ken Mackie, Daniel J Morgan
We recently characterized S426A/S430A mutant mice expressing a desensitization-resistant form of the CB1 receptor. These mice display an enhanced response to endocannabinoids and ∆9-THC. In this study, S426A/S430A mutants were used as a novel model to test whether ethanol consumption, morphine dependence, and reward for these drugs are potentiated in mice with a "hyper-sensitive" form of CB1. Using an unlimited-access, two-bottle choice, voluntary drinking paradigm, S426A/S430A mutants exhibit modestly increased intake and preference for low (6%) but not higher concentrations of ethanol...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424834/effect-of-prior-foot-shock-stress-and-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-cannabidiolic-acid-and-cannabidiol-on-anxiety-like-responding-in-the-light-dark-emergence-test-in-rats
#2
Erin M Rock, Cheryl L Limebeer, Gavin N Petrie, Lauren A Williams, Raphael Mechoulam, Linda A Parker
RATIONALE: Cannabis is commonly used by humans to relieve stress. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: Here, we evaluate the potential of intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabiol (THC) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA, the precursor of cannabidiol [CBD]) to produce dose-dependent effects on anxiety-like responding in the light-dark (LD) emergence test of anxiety-like responding in rats, when administered acutely or chronically (21 days). As well, we evaluate the potential of THC, CBDA, and CBD to reduce anxiogenic responding produced by foot shock (FS) stress 24 h prior to the LD test...
April 20, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422145/compromised-external-validity-federally-produced-cannabis-does-not-reflect-legal-markets
#3
Daniela Vergara, L Cinnamon Bidwell, Reggie Gaudino, Anthony Torres, Gary Du, Travis C Ruthenburg, Kymron deCesare, Donald P Land, Kent E Hutchison, Nolan C Kane
As the most widely used illicit drug worldwide, and as a source of numerous under-studied pharmacologically-active compounds, a precise understanding of variability in psychological and physiological effects of Cannabis varieties is essential. The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is designated as the sole legal producer of Cannabis for use in US research studies. We sought to compare the chemical profiles of Cannabis varieties that are available to consumers in states that have state-legalized use versus what is available to researchers interested in studying the plant and its effects...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419252/sensitive-determination-of-cannabinoids-in-whole-blood-by-lc-ms-ms-after-rapid-removal-of-phospholipids-by-filtration
#4
Lambert K Sørensen, Jørgen B Hasselstrøm
Direct analysis of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids in crude acetonitrile extracts of whole blood by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using pneumatically assisted electrospray ionization (LC-ESI-MS-MS) was subjected to pronounced ion suppression from co-eluting phospholipids (PLs). The interferences were mainly caused by the lysophosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylethanolamine classes of PLs. The PLs were easily removed from crude extracts by filtration through a sorbent with Lewis acid properties, which typically increased the THC and cannabinol (CBN) signal intensities by a factor of 5...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416863/protective-effects-of-tetrahydrocurcumin-thc-on-fibroblast-and-melanoma-cell-lines-in-vitro-it-s-implication-for-wound-healing
#5
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Mayank Gangwar, Sambhu Charan Mondal, Snehasis Jana
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) against various skin health parameters using in vitro human foreskin fibroblast and melanoma cell lines (i.e. HFF-1 and B16-F10). The study was assessed using cell viability by MTT assay, identification of extracellular matrix component in HFF-1 cell line (i.e. collagen, elastin and hyaluronic acid), melanin synthesis in B16-F10 cells, cell viability against UVB-induced stress in HFF-1 cells, and in vitro wound healing by the scratch assay...
April 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414664/gonococcal-endocarditis-the-gift-that-stops-giving-an-uncommon-presentation-of-a-common-disease
#6
G Olayemi, M Oferczak, A Elagizi, I El-Abbassi, M Eschete, J Crowe
INTRODUCTION: Gonorrhea is the 2nd most common sexually transmitted disease in the US with 800,000 cases of gonorrhea each year. Disseminated gonorrhea infection occurs in 0.5 percent - 3 percent of these patients and is more frequent in woman younger than 40 years of age. CASE: A 36 year old woman with a history of polysubstance abuse presented with 10 day history of feeling generally unwell. At presentation, vitals were remarkable for tachycardia and hypotension...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412920/neuropsychiatric-and-general-interactions-of-natural-and-synthetic-cannabinoids-with-drugs-of-abuse-and-medicines
#7
Ana Lucia Arellano, Esther Papaseit, Anna Romaguera, Marta Torrens, Magi Farré
Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug. The two most important natural cannabinoids are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). The THC content of cannabis has been increasing during the last years and recently appeared in the market a series of synthetic cannabinoids with potent agonist activity. Recreational users frequently combine cannabis with other drugs of abuse as alcohol, amphetamines and derivatives, nicotine and cocaine. In addition these subjects can be taking medicines for acute and chronic medical conditions...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412919/neurological-disorders-in-medical-use-of-cannabis-an-update
#8
Renata Solimini, Maria Concetta Rotolo, Simona Pichini, Roberta Pacifici
Medical cannabis is increasingly used as a treatment or adjunct treatment with different levels of efficacy in several neurological disorders or related symptoms (such as multiple sclerosis, autism, Parkinson and Alzheimer disease, Tourette's syndrome, Huntington's disease, neuropathic pain, epilepsy, headache), as well as in other medical conditions (e.g. nausea and vomiting, glaucoma, appetite stimulation, cancer, inflammatory conditions, asthma). Nevertheless, a number of neurological adverse effects from use of medical cannabis on the short- and on the long- term have been reported, in addition to other adverse health events...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412574/work-place-drug-testing-of-police-officers-after-thc-exposure-during-large-volume-cannabis-seizures
#9
Gregory S Doran, Ralph Deans, Carlo De Filippis, Chris Kostakis, Julia A Howitt
Police officers responsible for the seizure and removal of illegally grown cannabis plants from indoor and outdoor growing operations face the prospect of THC exposure while performing their work duties. As a result, a study investigating the amount of THC on hands and uniforms of officers during raids on cannabis growing houses (CGHs) and forest cannabis plantations (FCPs) and in the air at these sites was conducted. Swabs of gloves/hands, chests, and heads/necks were collected and analysed for THC. Results of hand swabs indicated that officers removing plants from FCPs were exposed to THC concentrations up to 20 times those involved in raids at CGHs, which was mainly associated with the number and size of plants seized...
April 2, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407543/subjective-and-physiological-effects-and-expired-carbon-monoxide-concentrations-in-frequent-and-occasional-cannabis-smokers-following-smoked-vaporized-and-oral-cannabis-administration
#10
Matthew N Newmeyer, Madeleine J Swortwood, Osama A Abulseoud, Marilyn A Huestis
BACKGROUND: Although smoking is the most common cannabis administration route, vaporization and consumption of cannabis edibles are common. Few studies directly compare cannabis' subjective and physiological effects following multiple administration routes. METHODS: Subjective and physiological effects, and expired carbon monoxide (CO) were evaluated in frequent and occasional cannabis users following placebo (0.001% Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC]), smoked, vaporized, and oral cannabis (6...
March 29, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402427/bdnf-overexpression-prevents-cognitive-deficit-elicited-by-adolescent-cannabis-exposure-and-host-susceptibility-interaction
#11
Hadar Segal-Gavish, Neta Gazit, Yael Barhum, Tali Ben-Zur, Michal Taler, Shay Henry Hornfeld, Irit Gil-Ad, Abraham Weizman, Inna Slutsky, Minae Niwa, Atsushi Kamiya, Akira Sawa, Daniel Offen, Ran Barzilay
Cannabis abuse in adolescence is associated with increased risk of psychotic disorders. Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the primary psychoactive component of cannabis. Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) protein is a driver for major mental illness by influencing neurodevelopmental processes. Here, utilizing a unique mouse model based on host (DISC1) X environment (THC administration) interaction, we aimed at studying the pathobiological basis through which THC exposure elicits psychiatric manifestations...
April 11, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399267/development-of-a-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-amino-acid-dicarboxylate-prodrug-with-improved-ocular-bioavailability
#12
Goutham R Adelli, Prakash Bhagav, Pranjal Taskar, Tushar Hingorani, Sara Pettaway, Waseem Gul, Mahmoud A ElSohly, Michael A Repka, Soumyajit Majumdar
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of the relatively hydrophilic Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) prodrugs, mono and di-valine esters (THC-Val and THC-Val-Val) and the amino acid (valine)-dicarboxylic acid (hemisuccinate) ester (THC-Val-HS), with respect to ocular penetration and intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering activity. THC, timolol, and pilocarpine eye drops were used as controls. Methods: THC-Val, THC-Val-Val, and THC-Val-HS were synthesized and chemically characterized...
April 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396142/atypical-binding-at-dopamine-and-serotonin-transporters-contribute-to-the-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-mephedrone
#13
Alyssa F DeLarge, Laura L Erwin, Peter J Winsauer
Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone), a constituent of the recreational substances known as "bath salts", is a synthetic cathinone that can produce auditory and visual hallucinations, as well as problematic cardiovascular effects. This study compared the discriminative stimulus effects of mephedrone (0.32-10 mg/kg) with other prototypical drugs of abuse: cocaine (0.56-32 mg/kg), d-amphetamine (0.18-3.2 mg/kg), ketamine (1.8-18 mg/kg), phencyclidine (PCP, 1-5.6 mg/kg), heroin (1-10 mg/kg), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (R-DOI, 0...
April 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395309/bivariate-left-censored-bayesian-model-for-predicting-exposure-preliminary-analysis-of-worker-exposure-during-the-deepwater-horizon-oil-spill
#14
Caroline Groth, Sudipto Banerjee, Gurumurthy Ramachandran, Mark R Stenzel, Dale P Sandler, Aaron Blair, Lawrence S Engel, Richard K Kwok, Patricia A Stewart
In April 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil rig caught fire and exploded, releasing almost 5 million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico over the ensuing 3 months. Thousands of oil spill workers participated in the spill response and clean-up efforts. The GuLF STUDY being conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences is an epidemiological study to investigate potential adverse health effects among these oil spill clean-up workers. Many volatile chemicals were released from the oil into the air, including total hydrocarbons (THC), which is a composite of the volatile components of oil including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and hexane (BTEXH)...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392338/cannabis-exercise-performance-and-sport-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Michael C Kennedy
OBJECTIVES: To review the evidence relating to the effect of cannabis on exercise performance. DESIGN: A systematic review of published literature METHODS: Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. A search was conducted using PUB med, Medline and Embase searching for cannabis, marijuana, cannabinoids and THC, in sport and exercise; the contents of sports medicine journals for the last 10 years; as well as cross references from journals and a personal collection of reprints...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392266/cannabinoids-as-hippocampal-network-administrators
#16
REVIEW
Carl R Lupica, Yuhan Hu, Orrin Devinsky, Alexander F Hoffman
Extensive pioneering studies performed in the hippocampus have greatly contributed to our knowledge of an endogenous cannabinoid system comprised of the molecular machinery necessary to process these endocannabinoid lipid messengers and their associated cannabinoid receptors. Moreover, a foundation of knowledge regarding the function of hippocampal circuits, and its role in supporting synaptic plasticity has facilitated our understanding of the roles cannabinoids play in the diverse behaviors in which the hippocampus participates in both normal and pathological states...
April 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386319/tetrahydrocurcumin-reduces-oxidative-stress-induced-apoptosis-via-the-mitochondrial-apoptotic-pathway-by-modulating-autophagy-in-rats-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Yongyue Gao, Zong Zhuang, Shanting Gao, Xiang Li, Zihuan Zhang, Zhennan Ye, Liwen Li, Chao Tang, Mengliang Zhou, Xiao Han, Jie Li
Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) has been identified as a multi-functional neuroprotective agent in numerous neurological disorders. Oxidative stress as a result of injury may induce neuronal apoptosis after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Treatment with THC may improve neurological function following TBI by attenuating oxidative stress and apoptosis and by enhancing autophagy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of neuroprotection by THC against oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis after TBI...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377876/cannabinoid-type-1-receptor-containing-axons-innervate-npy-agrp-neurons-in-the-mouse-arcuate-nucleus
#18
Yury M Morozov, Marco Koch, Pasko Rakic, Tamas L Horvath
OBJECTIVES: Phytocannabinoids, such as THC and endocannabinoids, are well known to promote feeding behavior and to control energy metabolism through cannabinoid type 1 receptors (CB1R). However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Generally, cannabinoid-conducted retrograde dis-inhibition of hunger-promoting neurons has been suggested to promote food intake, but so far it has not been demonstrated due to technical limitations. METHODS: We applied immunohistochemical labeling of CB1R for light microscopy and electron microscopy combined with three-dimensional reconstruction from serial sections in CB1R-expressing and CB1R-null mice, which served as a negative control...
April 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377200/molecular-cloning-characterization-and-function-of-a-germinal-center-kinase-mst4-gene-from-litopenaeus-vannamei-in-response-to-vibrio-alginolyticus-challenge-in-tlr-traf6-signaling-pathway
#19
Chang-Sheng Zhao, Di Huang, Ting Peng, Ming-Zhu Huang, Chen-Ying Xie, Jun Chen, Jing-Rong Kong, Ren-Chong Xie, Yuan Liu, Wei-Na Wang
The serine/threonine protein kinase MST4 plays multiple roles in the regulation of signaling pathways that govern cellular processes including mitosis, migration, homeostasis, polarity, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Here we report the identification and characterization of the full-length sequence of LvMST4 from the shrimp L. vannamei, and investigations into its role in the shrimp's immune response to infection by the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus. Subcellular localization assays demonstrated the enzyme's presence in the shrimp's cytoplasm, and tissue-specific expression analysis revealed that it is expressed ubiquitously but at different levels in different tissues...
April 6, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373077/new-vistas-on-cannabis-use-disorder
#20
REVIEW
Miriam Melis, Roberto Frau, Peter W Kalivas, Sade Spencer, Vivian Chioma, Erica Zamberletti, Tiziana Rubino, Daniela Parolaro
Cannabis sativa preparations are the most consumed illicit drugs for recreational purposes worldwide, and the number of people seeking treatment for cannabis use disorder has dramatically increased in the last decades. Due to the recent decriminalization or legalization of cannabis use in the Western Countries, we may predict that the number of people suffering from cannabis use disorder will increase. Despite the increasing number of cannabis studies over the past two decades, we have gaps of scientific knowledge pertaining to the neurobiological consequences of long-term cannabis use...
March 31, 2017: Neuropharmacology
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