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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634109/cannabis-associated-psychosis-neural-substrate-and-clinical-impact
#1
REVIEW
R M Murray, A Englund, A Abi-Dargham, D Lewis, M Di Forti, C Davies, M Sherif, P McGuire, C D'Souza
Prospective epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that cannabis use is associated with an increased subsequent risk of both psychotic symptoms and schizophrenia-like psychoses. Early onset of use, daily use of high-potency cannabis, and synthetic cannabinoids carry the greatest risk. The risk-increasing effects are not explained by shared genetic predisposition between schizophrenia and cannabis use. Experimental studies in healthy humans show that cannabis and its active ingredient, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), can produce transient, dose-dependent, psychotic symptoms, as well as an array of psychosis-relevant behavioral, cognitive and psychophysiological effects; the psychotogenic effects can be ameliorated by cannabidiol (CBD)...
June 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631315/a-two-year-study-of-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-concentrations-in-drivers-part-2-physiological-signs-on-drug-recognition-expert-dre-and-non-dre-examinations
#2
Kari Declues, Shelli Perez, Ariana Figueroa
Whole blood samples were examined for ∆(9) -Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) over 2 years in drivers suspected of driving under the influence. Part one of the study examined the link between [THC] and performance on field sobriety tests. This portion examined objective signs, eye examinations and physiological indicators; and their relationship to the presence of THC. Several objective signs were excellent indicators of the presence of THC: red eyes (94%), droopy eyelids (85.6%), affected speech (87.6%), tongue coating (96...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613973/the-association-of-cannabis-use-on-inpatient-psychiatric-hospital-outcomes
#3
Melanie Rylander, Helena R Winston, Haley Medlin, Madelyne Hull, Abraham Nussbaum
BACKGROUND: The associations between cannabis use and psychosis are well documented in numerous studies. There is a need to evaluate the impact of cannabis use on inpatient psychiatric utilization and outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of cannabis use on psychiatric hospital outcomes. METHODS: This study was conducted between April 20, 2015 and October 20, 2015. All patients (n = 120) admitted to Denver Health with psychotic symptoms were administered a urine toxicology screening testing for the presence of 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH, the active metabolite of cannabis)...
June 14, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611591/metabolism-of-the-endocannabinoid-anandamide-open-questions-after-25-years
#4
REVIEW
Mauro Maccarrone
Cannabis extracts have been used for centuries, but its main active principle ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) was identified about 50 years ago. Yet, it is only 25 years ago that the first endogenous ligand of the same receptors engaged by the cannabis agents was discovered. This "endocannabinoid (eCB)" was identified as N-arachidonoylethanolamine (or anandamide (AEA)), and was shown to have several receptors, metabolic enzymes and transporters that altogether drive its biological activity. Here I report on the latest advances about AEA metabolism, with the aim of focusing open questions still awaiting an answer for a deeper understanding of AEA activity, and for translating AEA-based drugs into novel therapeutics for human diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606862/pathogenicity-profile-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-in-farmed-pacific-white-shrimp-penaeus-vannamei
#5
R Ananda Raja, R Sridhar, C Balachandran, A Palanisammi, S Ramesh, K Nagarajan
A pathobiological study was conducted using Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VP) strain isolated from vibriosis affected shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) farms in Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur districts of Tamil Nadu during August 2014 to February 2015. The isolate was identified based on the morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular characters. LD50 value with intramuscular injection was determined as 2.6 × 10(4) cfu/shrimp and sequential pathology was studied giving 6.1 × 10(3) cfu/shrimp (LD25). Total plate count (TPC) and total Vibrio count (TVC) in water, pond sediment, haemolymph, muscle, HP and gut were found significantly (P < 0...
June 9, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599212/dose-related-effects-of-delta-9-thc-on-emotional-responses-to-acute-psychosocial-stress
#6
Emma Childs, Joseph A Lutz, Harriet de Wit
OBJECTIVES: Cannabis smokers often report that they use the drug to relax or to relieve emotional stress. However, few clinical studies have shown evidence of the stress-relieving effects of cannabis or cannabinoid agonists. In this study, we sought to assess the influence of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a main active ingredient of cannabis, upon emotional responses to an acute psychosocial stressor among healthy young adults. METHODS: Healthy volunteers (N=42) participated in two experimental sessions, one with psychosocial stress (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) and another with a non-stressful task, after receiving 0 (N=13), 7...
May 30, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597570/pharmaco-toxicological-effects-of-the-novel-third-generation-fluorinate-synthetic-cannabinoids-5f-adbinaca-ab-fubinaca-and-sts-135-in-mice-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#7
Isabella Canazza, Andrea Ossato, Fabrizio Vincenzi, Adolfo Gregori, Fabiana Di Rosa, Federica Nigro, Alessandro Rimessi, Paolo Pinton, Katia Varani, Pier Andrea Borea, Matteo Marti
INTRODUCTION: 5F-ADBINACA, AB-FUBINACA, and STS-135 are 3 novel third-generation fluorinate synthetic cannabinoids that are illegally marketed as incense, herbal preparations, or research chemicals for their psychoactive cannabis-like effects. METHODS: The present study aims at investigating the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activity of 5F-ADBINACA, AB-FUBINACA, and STS-135 in male CD-1 mice, comparing their in vivo effects with those caused by the administration of Δ(9) -THC and JWH-018...
June 9, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596765/enzymatic-degradation-of-aromatic-and-aliphatic-polyesters-by-p-pastoris-expressed-cutinase-1-from-thermobifida-cellulosilytica
#8
Caroline Gamerith, Marco Vastano, Sahar M Ghorbanpour, Sabine Zitzenbacher, Doris Ribitsch, Michael T Zumstein, Michael Sander, Enrique Herrero Acero, Alessandro Pellis, Georg M Guebitz
To study hydrolysis of aromatic and aliphatic polyesters cutinase 1 from Thermobifida cellulosilytica (Thc_Cut1) was expressed in P. pastoris. No significant differences between the expression of native Thc_Cut1 and of two glycosylation site knock out mutants (Thc_Cut1_koAsn and Thc_Cut1_koST) concerning the total extracellular protein concentration and volumetric activity were observed. Hydrolysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was shown for all three enzymes based on quantification of released products by HPLC and similar concentrations of released terephthalic acid (TPA) and mono(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate (MHET) were detected for all enzymes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595684/marijuana-use-in-the-elderly-implications-and-considerations
#9
Tracy D Mahvan, Michelle L Hilaire, Allison Mann, Antoinette Brown, Becky Linn, Taylor Gardner, Beryen Lai
OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the literature on the use of marijuana in the elderly. Pharmacists play an important role in the management of medications including drug use of potentially illegal drugs, including marijuana. The use of both recreational and medical marijuana has grown exponentially in the general population, including in older adults. As of 2017, marijuana for medical use is legal in 26 states and the District of Columbia. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and Internet search using the following terms: marijuana, cannabis, delta-9-tetrhydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol, cannabinoid, elderly, geriatric, and pharmacology...
June 1, 2017: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590798/beyond-ketamine-and-phencyclidine-analytically-confirmed-use-of-multiple-novel-arylcyclohexylamines
#10
Stephen Thornton, David Lisbon, Thomas Lin, Roy Gerona
BACKGROUND: Methoxetamine and 3-methoxy-phencyclidine are novel arylcyclohexylamines whose use and clinical toxicity are poorly reported in the medical literature. We report a case of analytically confirmed use of both methoxetamine and 3-methoxy-phencyclidine. CASE REPORT: A 27-year-old male presented 10 hours after insufflating an Internet-obtained powder. He was hypertensive, tachycardic, and demonstrated dissociated affect, a delayed verbal response to questions, ataxia, and vertical nystagmus...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583800/analysis-of-natural-product-regulation-of-cannabinoid-receptors-in-the-treatment-of-human-disease
#11
REVIEW
S Badal, K N Smith, R Rajnarayanan
The organized tightly regulated signaling relays engaged by the cannabinoid receptors (CBs) and their ligands, G proteins and other effectors, together constitute the endocannabinoid system (ECS). This system governs many biological functions including cell proliferation, regulation of ion transport and neuronal messaging. This review will firstly examine the physiology of the ECS, briefly discussing some anomalies in the relay of the ECS signaling as these are consequently linked to maladies of global concern including neurological disorders, cardiovascular disease and cancer...
June 2, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582737/oxidative-stress-response-in-the-seagrass-posidonia-oceanica-and-the-seaweed-dasycladus-vermicularis-associated-to-the-invasive-tropical-green-seaweed-halimeda-incrassata
#12
Antoni Sureda, Silvia Tejada, Xavier Capó, Catalina Melià, Pere Ferriol, Samuel Pinya, Guillem Mateu-Vicens
The Mediterranean Sea is one of the most affected areas by the presence of invasive species. Halimeda incrassata (J Ellis) JV Lamoroux is newly arrived tropical seaweed in waters of the Mallorca Island (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean). The aim was to evaluate the effect of a potential competition between the invasive Halimeda incrassata, the native Posidonia oceanica and Dasycladus vermicularis, by means of antioxidant-related biomarkers in waters of Mallorca. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes-catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRd)-, the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde as indicator of lipid peroxidation were evaluated...
June 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580580/illicit-drug-delivery-via-administration-of-human-blood
#13
Laura M Labay, Charles A Catanese
The physiological, psychological, and social consequences associated with illicit drug use are well documented. In addition to the effects directly related to the drug(s), the delivery mechanism can precipitate other serious health conditions. A case is reported where an individual stopped by law enforcement was discovered to be in possession of a vial containing a red-colored fluid, which the person stated was blood and contained fentanyl. Analysis by headspace GC, ELISA, and LC-TOF/MS screening in with mass spectral confirmation revealed the presence of several substances, including ethanol, methamphetamine, amphetamine, MDA, 6-monoacetylmorphine, codeine, morphine, alprazolam, delta-9 THC, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and norpseudoephedrine; serology testing verified the fluid was consistent with human blood...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580227/does-cannabis-composition-matter-differential-effects-of-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-and-cannabidiol-on-human-cognition
#14
REVIEW
Marco Colizzi, Sagnik Bhattacharyya
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The lack of clarity about the effect of cannabis use on cognition may be attributable to the considerable heterogeneity among studies in terms of cannabis composition. This article selectively reviews studies examining the distinctive effects of cannabinoids on human cognition, particularly those of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). RECENT FINDINGS: Research indicates that ∆9-THC administration acutely impairs cognition, particularly memory and emotional processing...
2017: Current Addiction Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579491/recommendation-to-reconsider-examining-cannabis-subtypes-together-due-to-opposing-effects-on-brain-cognition-and-behavior
#15
Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Mette Buhl Callesen, Sarah W Feldstein Ewing
Cannabis use represents a major public health issue throughout the globe. Yet, we still lack the most fundamental knowledge on long-term effects of cannabis on neural, cognitive, and behavioral function. Part of this stems from how cannabis has been measured historically. To this end, most empirical examinations of cannabis have consolidated all types of cannabis collectively. However, this approach obscures differences in how cannabinoids operate. In this commentary, we address the contrasting properties of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) and their opposing effects on cognitive function...
June 1, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578322/suppression-of-stat3-signaling-by-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-thc-induces-trophoblast-dysfunction
#16
Xinwen Chang, Yiding Bian, Qizhi He, Julei Yao, Jingping Zhu, Jinting Wu, Kai Wang, Tao Duan
AIMS: Marijuana is a widely used illicit drug and its consumption during pregnancy has been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of chronic intake of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major component of marijuana, on trophoblast function, placental development, and birth outcomes. METHODS: The pathological characteristics and distribution of cannabinoid receptors in placenta were observed by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining...
June 5, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578174/maternal-marijuana-use-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-and-neonatal-morbidity
#17
Torri D Metz, Amanda A Allshouse, Carol J Rowland Hogue, Robert L Goldenberg, Donald J Dudley, Michael W Varner, Deborah L Conway, George R Saade, Robert M Silver
BACKGROUND: The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network previously demonstrated an association between stillbirth and maternal marijuana use as defined by the presence of tetrahydrocannabinol in the umbilical cord homogenate. However, the relationship between marijuana use and perinatal complications in live births is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine if maternal marijuana use is associated with increased odds of adverse pregnancy outcomes and neonatal morbidity among live-born controls in the Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network cohort...
May 31, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570781/the-effect-of-antioxidants-on-the-long-term-stability-of-thc-and-related-cannabinoids-in-sampled-whole-blood
#18
Lambert K Sørensen, Jørgen B Hasselstrøm
The stability of cannabinoids is complex, and crucial for the assessment of impaired driving caused by cannabis. Therefore, the effect of antioxidants on the long-term stability of Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN), cannabidiol (CBD), 11-hydroxy-Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-OH) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) in whole blood samples preserved with fluoride citrate (FC) and fluoride oxalate (FX) mixtures was investigated at different temperatures. The measured concentrations of the cannabinoids in authentic whole blood preserved solely with FC or FX mixtures decreased significantly during prolonged storage at -20°C...
June 1, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560628/fate-of-selected-drugs-in-the-wastewater-treatment-plants-wwtps-for-domestic-sewage
#19
Agostina Chiavola, Pierpaolo Tedesco, Maria Rosaria Boni
The wide diffusion of Emerging Organic Micropollutants (EOMs) in the environment is receiving increasing attention due to their potential toxicological effects on living organisms. So far, the Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) have not been designed with the purpose to remove these contaminants; therefore, they can represent the major source of release into the environment both through the effluent and the wasted sludge. The fate of EOMs in the WWTPs is still not completely known; further investigations are therefore needed to assess if it is possible to exploit the existing treatment units to reduce EOM concentrations or which processes must be implemented to this purpose...
May 30, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560402/anticancer-effects-of-phytocannabinoids-used-with-chemotherapy-in-leukaemia-cells-can-be-improved-by-altering-the-sequence-of-their-administration
#20
Katherine A Scott, Angus G Dalgleish, Wai M Liu
Phytocannabinoids possess anticancer activity when used alone, and a number have also been shown to combine favourably with each other in vitro in leukaemia cells to generate improved activity. We have investigated the effect of pairing cannabinoids and assessed their anticancer activity in cell line models. Those most effective were then used with the common anti-leukaemia drugs cytarabine and vincristine, and the effects of this combination therapy on cell death studied in vitro. Results show a number of cannabinoids could be paired together to generate an effect superior to that achieved if the components were used individually...
May 29, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
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