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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533288/apparent-affinity-estimates-and-reversal-of-the-effects-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-am-2201-cp-47-497-jwh-122-and-jwh-250-by-rimonabant-in-rhesus-monkeys
#1
Lenka Hruba, Lance R McMahon
Synthetic cannabinoids have been prohibited due to abuse liability and toxicity. Four such synthetic cannabinoids, AM-2201, CP-47,497, JWH-122, and JWH-250, were tested for their capacity to produce CB1 receptor-mediated discriminative stimulus effects in two groups of rhesus monkeys. One group (n=4) discriminated ∆9-THC (0.1 mg/kg i.v.) and a second group (n=4) discriminated the cannabinoid antagonist rimonabant (1 mg/kg i.v.) while receiving 1 mg/kg/12 h of ∆9-THC. AM-2201, JWH-122, CP-47,497, JWH-250, and ∆9-THC increased ∆9-THC-lever responding...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531767/the-standard-joint-unit
#2
Cristina Casajuana Kögel, María Mercedes Balcells-Olivero, Hugo López-Pelayo, Laia Miquel, Lídia Teixidó, Joan Colom, David John Nutt, Jürgen Rehm, Antoni Gual
OBJECTIVE: Reliable data on cannabis quantities is required to improve assessment of cannabis consumption for epidemiological analysis and clinical assessment, consequently a Standard Joint Unit (SJU) based on quantity of 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (9-THC) has been established. METHODOLOGY: Naturalistic study of a convenience sample recruited from February 2015-June 2016 in universities, leisure spaces, mental health services and cannabis clubs in Barcelona. Adults, reporting cannabis use in the last 60 days, without cognitive impairment or language barriers, answered a questionnaire on cannabis use and were asked to donate a joint to further determine their 9-THC and Cannabidiol (CBD) content...
May 16, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516479/g%C3%AE-s-signalling-of-the-cb1-receptor-and-the-influence-of-receptor-number
#3
David B Finlay, Erin E Cawston, Natasha L Grimsey, Morag R Hunter, Anisha Korde, V Kiran Vemuri, Alexandros Makriyannis, Michelle Glass
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: CB1 cannabinoid receptor signalling is canonically mediated through inhibitory Gαi proteins, but signalling through other G proteins occurs under some circumstances; Gαs being the most characterised secondary pathway. Determinants of this signalling switch identified to date include Gαi blockade, CB1 /D2 dopamine receptor co-stimulation, CB1 agonist class, and cell background. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of receptor number and ligand dependence on CB1 signalling...
May 18, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506704/a-method-to-achieve-extended-cannabis-abstinence-in-cannabis-dependent-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-non-psychiatric-controls
#4
Rachel A Rabin, Karolina Kozak, Konstantine K Zakzanis, Gary Remington, Cristiana Stefan, Alan J Budney, Tony P George
BACKGROUND: Cannabis use disorders (CUD) are common in schizophrenia (~25%) compared to the general population (~3%). Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal psychoactive component in cannabis is fat-soluble, resulting in an extended period for cannabinoid elimination. While detection of cannabinoids in urine is indicative of prior cannabis exposure, time of last use is difficult to verify sustained abstinence for extended periods (e.g., 28-days) in chronic cannabis users. Therefore, we evaluated the utility of a sustained cannabis abstinence paradigm in patients with schizophrenia and non-psychiatric controls...
May 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501518/cannabidiol-in-medical-marijuana-research-vistas-and-potential-opportunities
#5
REVIEW
Carola Rong, Yena Lee, Nicole E Carmona, Danielle S Cha, Renee-Marie Ragguett, Joshua D Rosenblat, Rodrigo B Mansur, Roger C Ho, Roger S McIntyre
The high and increasing prevalence of medical marijuana consumption in the general population invites the need for quality evidence regarding its safety and efficacy. Herein, we synthesize extant literature pertaining to the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) and its brain effects. The principle phytocannabinoid Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) and CBD are the major pharmacologically active cannabinoids. The effect of CBD on brain systems as well as on phenomenological measures (e.g. cognitive function) are distinct and in many cases opposite to that of Δ(9)-THC...
May 10, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492950/psychoactive-constituents-of-cannabis-and-their-clinical-implications-a-systematic-review
#6
Cristina Casajuana, Hugo López-Pelayo, Mª Mercedes Balcells, Joan Colom, Antoni Gual
Objective This systematic review aims to summarize current evidence on which naturally present cannabinoids contribute to cannabis psychoactivity, considering their reported concentrations and pharmacodynamics in humans. Design Following PRISMA guidelines, papers published before March 2016 in Medline, Scopus-Elsevier, Scopus, ISI-Web of Knowledge and COCHRANE, and fulfilling established a-priori selection criteria have been included. Results In 40 original papers, three naturally present cannabinoids (∆-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, ∆-8-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabinol) and one human metabolite (11-OH-THC) had clinical relevance...
April 12, 2017: Adicciones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487656/adolescent-female-cannabinoid-exposure-diminishes-the-reward-facilitating-effects-of-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-and-d-amphetamine-in-the-adult-male-offspring
#7
George Pitsilis, Dimitrios Spyridakos, George G Nomikos, George Panagis
Marijuana is currently the most commonly abused illicit drug. According to recent studies, cannabinoid use occurring prior to pregnancy can impact brain plasticity and behavior in future generations. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether adolescent exposure of female rats to Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) induces transgenerational effects on the reward-facilitating effects of Δ(9)-THC and d-amphetamine in their adult male offspring. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received Δ(9)-THC (0...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484058/uncertainty-in-teaching-health-center-thc-funding-still-crazy-after-all-these-years
#8
Joseph W Gravel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481360/a-chronic-low-dose-of-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-thc-restores-cognitive-function-in-old-mice
#9
Andras Bilkei-Gorzo, Onder Albayram, Astrid Draffehn, Kerstin Michel, Anastasia Piyanova, Hannah Oppenheimer, Mona Dvir-Ginzberg, Ildiko Rácz, Thomas Ulas, Sophie Imbeault, Itai Bab, Joachim L Schultze, Andreas Zimmer
The balance between detrimental, pro-aging, often stochastic processes and counteracting homeostatic mechanisms largely determines the progression of aging. There is substantial evidence suggesting that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is part of the latter system because it modulates the physiological processes underlying aging. The activity of the ECS declines during aging, as CB1 receptor expression and coupling to G proteins are reduced in the brain tissues of older animals and the levels of the major endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) are lower...
May 8, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477553/the-use-of-a-0-20%C3%A2-%C3%AE-m-particulate-matter-filter-decreases-cytotoxicity-in-lung-epithelial-cells-following-air-liquid-interface-exposure-to-motorcycle-exhaust
#10
Tao Yu, Xueyan Zhang, Lei Zhong, Qiang Cui, Xiaoyu Hu, Bin Li, Zhongxu Wang, Yufei Dai, Yuxin Zheng, Ping Bin
This study was designed to investigate whether the use of a 0.20 μm particulate matter (PM) filter reduced the cytotoxicity induced by motorcycle exhaust (ME), a mixture of gases and particles, in lung epithelial cells cultured in air-liquid interface (ALI) inserts. The concentrations of PM, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, total hydrocarbons (THC), total volatile organic compounds, and nitrogen oxides in both filtered ME (fME) by a 0.20 μm filter and non-filtered ME (non-fME) were measured. Lung epithelial cells were exposed to clean air, fME, or non-fME in the ALI chamber...
May 3, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476279/medical-cannabis-use-among-patients-with-chronic-pain-in-an-interdisciplinary-pain-rehabilitation-program-characterization-and-treatment-outcomes
#11
Arya Shah, Julia Craner, Julie L Cunningham
INTRODUCTION: Cannabis is increasingly being used in the treatment of chronic pain. However, there is a lack of available research in the population of patients with chronic pain who are using cannabis. The current study examines clinical and treatment characteristics for patients who are admitted to a 3-week outpatient interdisciplinary chronic pain rehabilitation program. METHOD: Participants (N=48) included patients with a positive urine drug screen for 9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC(+); n=24) and a matched comparison sample of patients with a negative screen (THC(-); n=24)...
June 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463706/thc-and-cbd-in-blood-samples-and-seizures-in-norway-does-cbd-affect-thc-induced-impairment-in-apprehended-subjects
#12
Stine Marie Havig, Gudrun Høiseth, Maren Cecilie Strand, Ritva Anneli Karinen, Gerd-Wenche Brochmann, Dag Helge Strand, Liliana Bachs, Vigdis Vindenes
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Several publications have suggested increasing cannabis potency over the last decade, which, together with lower amounts of cannabidiol (CBD), could contribute to an increase in adverse effects after cannabis smoking. Naturalistic studies on tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and CBD in blood samples are, however, missing. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between THC- and CBD concentrations in blood samples among cannabis users, and to compare cannabinoid concentrations with the outcome of a clinical test of impairment (CTI) and between traffic accidents and non-accident driving under the influence of drugs (DUID)-cases...
April 15, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460298/laboratory-persistence-in-soil-of-thiacloprid-pendimethalin-and-fenarimol-incubated-with-treated-wastewater-and-dissolved-organic-matter-solutions-contribution-of-soil-biota
#13
José Antonio Rodríguez-Liébana, Siham ElGouzi, Aránzazu Peña
Reutilization of treated wastewater (TWW) in agriculture has continued to grow, especially in areas prone to frequent drought periods. One of the major aspects derived from this practice is the addition of important amounts of organic carbon (OC) that could interfere with the fate of organic contaminants in soils. This study has evaluated the impact of irrigation with a secondary TWW and dissolved OC (DOC) solutions from sewage sludge in the dissipation of thiacloprid (THC), pendimethalin (PDM) and fenarimol (FEN) in an OC-poor agricultural soil under laboratory conditions...
April 26, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456895/cannabis-use-medication-management-and-adherence-among-persons-living-with-hiv
#14
Denise C Vidot, Brenda Lerner, Raul Gonzalez
Cannabis is used to relieve nausea, trigger weight gain, and reduce pain among adults living with HIV; however, the relationship between its use and medication adherence and management is unclear. Participants (N = 107) were from an ongoing cohort study of community-dwelling HIV+ adults, stratified by cannabis (CB) use: HIV+/CB+ (n = 41) and HIV+/CB- (n = 66). CB+ participants either tested positive in a urine toxicology screen for THC or had a self-reported history of regular and recent use. HIV-status was provided by physician results and/or biomarker assessment...
April 29, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456476/the-acute-effect-of-cannabis-on-plasma-liver-and-brain-ammonia-dynamics-a-translational-study
#15
Osama A Abulseoud, Maria Laura Zuccoli, Lifeng Zhang, Allan Barnes, Marilyn A Huestis, Da-Ting Lin
Recent reports of ammonia released during cannabis smoking raise concerns about putative neurotoxic effects. Cannabis (54mg) was administered in a double-blind, placebo-controlled design to healthy cannabis users (n=15) either orally, or through smoking (6.9%THC cigarette) or inhalation of vaporized cannabis (Volcano®). Serial assay of plasma ammonia concentrations at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15, 30, and 90min from onset of cannabis administration showed significant time (P=0.016), and treatment (P=0.0004) effects with robust differences between placebo and edible at 30 (P=0...
April 26, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455844/open-probe-fast-gc-ms-combining-ambient-sampling-ultra-fast-separation-and-in-vacuum-ionization-for-real-time-analysis
#16
Uri Keshet, Tal Alon, Alexander B Fialkov, Aviv Amirav
An Open Probe inlet was combined with a low thermal mass ultra-fast gas chromatograph (GC), in-vacuum electron eonization (EI) ion source and a mass spectrometer (MS) of GC-MS for obtaining real time analysis with separation. The Open Probe enables ambient sampling via sample vaporization in an oven that is open to room air and the ultra-fast GC provides ~30 s separation while if no separation is required it can act as a transfer line with 2-3 s sample transfer time. Sample analysis is as simple as touching the sample, pushing the sample holder into the open probe oven and getting the results in 30 s...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452604/effects-of-dexmedetomidine-on-renal-tissue-after-lower-limb-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#17
Meral Erdal Erbatur, Şaban Cem Sezen, Aslıhan Cavunt Bayraktar, Mustafa Arslan, Mustafa Kavutçu, Muhammed Enes Aydın
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate whether dexmedetomidine - administered before ischemia - has protective effects against lower extremity ischemia reperfusion injury that induced by clamping and subsequent declamping of infra-renal abdominal aorta in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: After obtaining ethical committee approval, four study groups each containing six rats were created (Control (Group C), diabetes-control (Group DM-C), diabetes I/R (Group DM-I/R), and diabetes-I/R-dexmedetomidine (Group DM-I/R-D)...
December 2017: Libyan Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449191/perceived-harms-and-benefits-of-tobacco-marijuana-and-electronic-vaporizers-among-young-adults-in-colorado-implications-for-health-education-and-research
#18
Lucy Popova, Emily Anne McDonald, Sohrab Sidhu, Rachel Barry, Tracey A Richers Maruyama, Nicolas M Sheon, Pamela M Ling
AIMS: To evaluate how young adults perceive and compare harms and benefits of marijuana and tobacco products in the context of a legal marijuana market in Colorado. DESIGN: Semi-structured qualitative interviews. SETTING: Denver, Colorado, USA. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-two young adults (18-26 years old) who used tobacco/marijuana/vaporizers. Semi-structured interviews addressed perceived harms and benefits of various tobacco and marijuana products and personal experiences with these products...
April 27, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448164/increasing-use-of-cannabis-among-arrested-drivers-in-norway
#19
Anja Valen, Stig Tore Bogstrand, Vigdis Vindenes, Hallvard Gjerde
OBJECTIVE: The availability of cannabis in Norway seems to have increased according to seizures by customs and police. On the other hand, national population surveys have not found any increase in self-reported use of cannabis. This investigation aimed at studying trends in cannabis use among suspected drug-impaired drivers apprehended by the police in Norway. METHODS: A time series observational study of cannabis use among all drivers tested for drugs during 2000-2015 was performed...
April 27, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445853/cannabidiol-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-interactions-on-acute-pain-and-locomotor-activity
#20
Stevie C Britch, Jenny L Wiley, Zhihao Yu, Brian H Clowers, Rebecca M Craft
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that cannabidiol (CBD) may potentiate or antagonize Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol's (THC) effects. The current study examined sex differences in CBD modulation of THC-induced antinociception, hypolocomotion, and metabolism. METHODS: In Experiment 1, CBD (0, 10 or 30mg/kg) was administered 15min before THC (0, 1.8, 3.2, 5.6 or 10mg/kg), and rats were tested for antinociception and locomotion 15-360min post-THC injection. In Experiments 2 and 3, CBD (30mg/kg) was administered 13h or 15min before THC (1...
June 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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