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Kazi T Ahmed, Md Ruhul Amin, Parv Shah, Declan W Ali
Marijuana is one of the most commonly used illicit recreational drugs and is widely used for medicinal purposes. The psychoactive ingredient in marijuana is ∆9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9 -THC), whereas the major non-psychoactive ingredient is cannabidiol (CBD). Here, we exposed zebrafish embryos to ∆9 -THC or CBD for 5 hours during the critical stage of development known as gastrulation. Embryos were allowed to develop normally and were examined at 2 and 5 days post fertilization. THC and CBD treated embryos exhibited reduced heart rates, axial malformations and shorter trunks...
July 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Danielle Perry, Joey Ton, G Michael Allan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
C J Lucas, P Galettis, J Schneider
There is increasing interest in the use of cannabinoids for disease and symptom management, but limited information available regarding their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics to guide prescribers. Cannabis medicines contain a wide variety of chemical compounds, including the cannabinoids delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is psychoactive, and the non-psychoactive cannabidiol (CBD). Cannabis use is associated with both pathological and behavioural toxicity and accordingly, is contraindicated in the context of significant psychiatric, cardiovascular, renal or hepatic illness...
July 12, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
M I Shafi, S Liaquat, D Auckley
Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) can be a serious and life threating condition. Illicit substance use has been associated with DAH, with cocaine being the most widely reported. Marijuana use has been associated with pulmonary complications in the form of pneumomediatsium, pneumothorax, bullous disease, and pulmonary aspergillosis. We present a case of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) resulting from marijuana inhalation, a finding rarely described in the literature. A 21-year-old male presented with several episodes of hemoptysis after drinking alcohol and smoking marijuana...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Jacob M Vigil, Sarah S Stith, Jegason P Diviant, Franco Brockelman, Keenan Keeling, Branden Hall
Background : We use a mobile software application (app) to measure for the first time, which fundamental characteristics of raw, natural medical Cannabis flower are associated with changes in perceived insomnia under naturalistic conditions. Methods : Four hundred and nine people with a specified condition of insomnia completed 1056 medical cannabis administration sessions using the Releaf AppTM educational software during which they recorded real-time ratings of self-perceived insomnia severity levels prior to and following consumption, experienced side effects, and product characteristics, including combustion method, cannabis subtypes, and/or major cannabinoid contents of cannabis consumed...
July 11, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Agnieszka Janeczek, Marcin Zawadzki, Pawel Szpot, Artur Niedzwiedz
BACKGROUND: Cannabis from hemp (Cannabis sativa and C. indica) is one of the most common illegal drugs used by drug abusers. Indian cannabis contains around 70 alkaloids, and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC) is the most psychoactive substance. Animal intoxications occur rarely and are mostly accidental. According to the US Animal Poison Control Center, cannabis intoxication mostly affects dogs (96%). The most common cause of such intoxication is unintentional ingestion of a cannabis product, but it may also occur after the exposure to marijuana smoke...
July 11, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Marjolein Soethoudt, Georgios Alachouzos, Eva J van Rooden, María Dolores Moya-Garzón, Richard J B H N van den Berg, Laura H Heitman, Mario van der Stelt
Introduction: Δ9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principle psychoactive ingredient in Cannabis , is widely used for its therapeutic effects in a large variety of diseases, but it also has numerous neurological side effects. The cannabinoid receptors (CBRs) are responsible to a large extent for these, but not all biological responses are mediated via the CBRs. Objectives: The identification of additional target proteins of THC to enable a better understanding of the (adverse) physiological effects of THC. Methods: In this study, a chemical proteomics approach using a two-step photoaffinity probe is applied to identify potential proteins that may interact with THC...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
B Cuccurazzu, E Zamberletti, C Nazzaro, P Prini, M Trusel, M Grilli, D Parolaro, R Tonini, T Rubino
Background: In rodent models, chronic exposure to cannabis' psychoactive ingredient Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) during adolescence leads to abnormal behavior in adulthood. In female rats, this maladaptive behavior is characterized by endophenotypes for depressive-like and psychotic-like disorders, as well as cognitive deficits. We have recently reported that most depressive-like behaviors triggered by adolescent THC exposure can be rescued by manipulating endocannabinoid signaling in adulthood with the anandamide inactivating enzyme FAAH inhibitor, URB597...
June 29, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Darren Reithmeier, Richard Tang-Wai, Blair Seifert, Andrew W Lyon, Jane Alcorn, Bryan Acton, Scott Corley, Erin Prosser-Loose, Darrell D Mousseau, Hyun J Lim, Jose Tellez-Zenteno, Linda Huh, Edward Leung, Lionel Carmant, Richard J Huntsman
BACKGROUND: Initial studies suggest pharmaceutical grade cannabidiol (CBD) can reduce the frequency of convulsive seizures and lead to improvements in quality of life in children affected by epileptic encephalopathies. With limited access to pharmaceutical CBD, Cannabis extracts in oil are becoming increasingly available. Physicians show reluctance to recommend Cannabis extracts given the lack of high quality safety data especially regarding the potential for harm caused by other cannabinoids, such as Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9 -THC)...
July 7, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Catherine Patenaude, Serge Brochu, Jean-Sébastien Fallu, Didier Jutras-Aswad, Laurence D'Arcy
The upcoming legalization of cannabis in Canada poses several challenges in which each province will have to respond with effective regulation. Studies show that policies alone have little impact on use rates. However, regulatory approaches and modalities seem important to reduce the possible negative consequences that may result from legalization. Although no framework system offers a perfect solution to the issues surrounding the use and sale of cannabis, it seems essential to implement a legalization model based on a public health perspective...
April 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Samuel D Banister, Mark Connor
Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) have proliferated as new psychoactive substances (NPS) over the past decade. Relative to other classes of NPS, SCRAs are structurally heterogeneous; however, most SCRAs act as potent, high-efficacy agonists of cannabinoid type 1 and type 2 receptors (CB1 and CB2 , respectively). Characterization of the pharmacology and toxicology of these substances is hindered by the dynamic nature of the SCRA marketplace. Beyond basic pharmacological profiling at CB1 and CB2 receptors, very little is known about the acute or chronic effects of SCRAs...
July 7, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Lanfranco Pellesi, Manuela Licata, Patrizia Verri, Daniele Vandelli, Federica Palazzoli, Filippo Marchesi, Maria Michela Cainazzo, Luigi Alberto Pini, Simona Guerzoni
PURPOSE: The recent release of a medical cannabis strain has given a new impulse for the study of cannabis in Italy. The National Health Service advises to consume medical cannabis by vaporizing, in decoction or oil form. This is the first study that explores the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of a single oral dose of cannabis as decoction (200 ml) or in olive oil (1 ml), as a first step to improve the prescriptive recommendations. METHODS: This is a single-center, open-label, two-period crossover study designed to assess the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of oral cannabis administered to 13 patients with medication overuse headache (MOH)...
July 6, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
L Kristoffersen, M Langødegård, K I Gaare, I Amundsen, M N Terland, D H Strand
A high-throughput UHPLC-MS/MS method for the most frequently found compounds; tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, clonazepam, diazepam, nordiazepam, oxazepam, alprazolam, nitrazepam, morphine, and codeine, in driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) cases in whole blood, is presented. Automated sample preparation by 96-well supported liquid extraction (SLE) plates with ethyl acetate + heptane (80 + 20, v/v) as organic solvent was carried out on a Freedom Evo 200 platform from Tecan...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Jin-Wun Chen, Zwe-Ling Kong, Mei-Ling Tsai, Chih-Yu Lo, Chi-Tang Ho, Ching-Shu Lai
Elevated levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) in the liver, resulting from either increased lipolysis or imbalanced FFAs flux, is a key pathogenic factor of hepatic steatosis. This study was conducted to examine the therapeutic effect of tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), a naturally occurring curcuminoid and a metabolite of curcumin, on oleic acid (OA)-induced steatosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. HepG2 cells were incubated with OA to induce steatosis, and then treated with various concentrations of THC...
July 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Sherelle L Casey, Christopher W Vaughan
Chronic neuropathic pain is a prevalent condition that places a heavy burden on individuals and the healthcare system. Current medications have limitations and new approaches are needed, particularly given the current opioid crisis. There is some clinical evidence that the plant Cannabis sativa produces relief from neuropathic pain. However, current meta-analyses suggest that this efficacy is limited and there are problems with side effects. Most of this clinical research has examined whole cannabis, the psychoactive phytocannabinoid 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and nabiximols, which are a mixture of THC and the non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid cannabidiol...
July 1, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Zhi-Yuan Hu, Biao-Qi Lin, Cheng Huang, Hong-Li Wang, Sheng-Ao Jing, Di-Ming Lou
Two diesel buses respectively certified to meet China Ⅲ and China Ⅴ emission standards were used as prototype vehicles, fixed on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer and driven according to a typical city bus driving cycle to analyze the pollutant emissions and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The buses were fueled with diesel and waste cooking oil based biodiesel with 10 vol% blend ratio (B10). The emissions of total hydrocarbon(THC), CO, particulate matter (PM), and the number of solid particles with a diameter of 23 nm to 2...
February 8, 2018: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Michal P Dybowski, Andrzej L Dawidowicz
Purpose: Analysis of drugs and their metabolites in biofluids usually demands the application of sample preparation methods that allow for full isolation of analyzed substances from the matrix. The purpose of this study was to develop a method using the QuEChERS procedure for analysis of Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (11-COOH-THC). Methods: THC, 11-OH-THC and 11-COOH-THC were quantified in whole blood samples using QuEChERS extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
2018: Forensic Toxicology
Clara T Schoeder, Cornelius Hess, Burkhard Madea, Jens Meiler, Christa E Müller
Purpose: In the present study we characterized a series of synthetic cannabinoids containing various heterocyclic scaffolds that had been identified as constituents of "Spice", a preparation sold on the illicit drug market. All compounds were further investigated as potential ligands of the orphan receptors GPR18 and GPR55 that interact with some cannabinoids. Methods: The compounds were studied in radioligand binding assays to determine their affinity for human cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors expressed in CHO cells, and in cAMP accumulation assays to study their functionality...
2018: Forensic Toxicology
André L Castro, Sónia Tarelho, Paula Melo, João Miguel Franco
An analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC) and l1-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) in whole blood samples, for identification and quantitation purposes. Samples were prepared using solid-phase extraction, followed by gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) analysis in multiple reaction monitoring mode, with a total run time of 7.6min. MS/MS detection was achieved with two ion transitions per substance...
June 15, 2018: Forensic Science International
Amy L Patton, Joseph O Jones, Anne Nord, D W Eversole, Erin E Feazell, Kristen Mauldin, Lingyun Li, Lee D Williams, Shasha Bai, Kermit Channell, Gregory Endres, Matthew Gamette, Jeffery H Moran
Marijuana legalization has increased the demand for testing of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and THC metabolites. The THC ToxBox® test kit (THC ToxBox® ) is commercially available and supports high-throughput LC-MS/MS analytical methods designed to quantify low levels of THC and THC metabolites in blood. The purpose of this study is to determine if this new test kit meets the rigors of laboratory accreditation and produces equivalent results across six states- and locally-funded laboratories. Each laboratory followed internal method validation procedures established for their clinical (CLIA) or international (ISO17025) accreditation program...
2018: Forensic science and criminology
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