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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351661/estimation-of-measurement-uncertainty-in-quantitation-of-benzoylecgonine-bze-and-11-nor-%C3%AE-9-thc-9-carboxylic-acid-thca
#1
Darryl P Arfsten, Erick Roman Perez, Neal C Goebel
Calculating measurement uncertainty is a helpful exercise for identifying components or steps in a forensic analytical procedure that contribute to measurement variance. In this study, we used a bottom up approach to identify components in our procedures that contribute to measurement variance in our Department of Defense (DoD) Drug Demand Reduction Program (DDRP) Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GCMS) analytical procedures for benzoylecgonine (BZE) and the THC metabolite, 11-nor-Δ9-THC-9-carboxylic acid (THCA) at 125% the DDRP concentration threshold (cutoff)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344464/cannabinoids-in-the-treatment-of-epilepsy-hard-evidence-at-last
#2
REVIEW
Emilio Perucca
The interest in cannabis-based products for the treatment of refractory epilepsy has skyrocketed in recent years. Marijuana and other cannabis products with high content in Δ(9) - tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), utilized primarily for recreational purposes, are generally unsuitable for this indication, primarily because THC is associated with many undesired effects. Compared with THC, cannabidiol (CBD) shows a better defined anticonvulsant profile in animal models and is largely devoid of adverse psychoactive effects and abuse liability...
December 2017: Journal of Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340893/a-prospective-study-of-humoral-and-cellular-immune-responses-to-hepatitis-b-vaccination-in-habitual-marijuana-smokers
#3
Sylvia M Kiertscher, Pallavi R Gangalum, Grace Ibrahim, Donald P Tashkin, Michael D Roth
Exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in vitro and in animal models can significantly impair the differentiation, activation and function of dendritic cells, T cells and B cells. However, studies directly assessing the impact of marijuana smoking on human immunity are lacking. A prospective study of immune responses to a standard hepatitis B vaccination was therefore carried out in a matched cohort of 9 marijuana smokers (MS) and 9 nonsmokers (NS). In addition to their regular marijuana use, MS smoked four marijuana cigarettes in a monitored setting on the day of each vaccination...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338068/single-and-combined-effects-of-plant-derived-thc-cbd-and-synthetic-win-55-212-cannabinoids-on-cognition-and-cannabinoid-associated-withdrawal-signs-in-mice
#4
Alyssa M Myers, Patrick B Siegele, Jeffrey D Foss, Ronald F Tuma, Sara Jane Ward
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It has been suggested that the non-euphorogenic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) can ameliorate adverse effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). We determined whether CBD ameliorates cognitive deficits and withdrawal signs induced by cannabinoid CB1/CB2 receptor agonists or produces these pharmacological effects on its own. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The effects of THC or the CB1/CB2 receptor full agonist WIN55212 (WIN) alone, CBD alone, or their combination were tested across a range of doses...
January 16, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331863/airborne-volatile-aromatic-hydrocarbons-at-an-urban-monitoring-station-in-korea-from-2013-to-2015
#5
Azmatullah Khan, Jan E Szulejko, Ki-Hyun Kim, Richard J C Brown
The concentrations of C6-C10 volatile aromatic hydrocarbons (AHCs) in air were measured at an urban air quality monitoring station in Jong-Ro, Seoul, Korea, between 2013 and 2015. Their temporal patterns (e.g., diurnal, intraweek, daily) were assessed individually and collectively as groups of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, styrene, and xylene (BTESX); total aliphatic hydrocarbon (TALHC: C2-C12); total aromatic hydrocarbon (TARHC: C6-C10); and total hydrocarbon (THC: C2-C12). The highest mean AHC concentrations over the 3-year study (in ppb (v/v)) were observed for toluene (6...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317112/cannabinoid-disposition-after-human-intraperitoneal-use-an-insight-into-intraperitoneal-pharmacokinetic-properties-in-metastatic-cancer
#6
Catherine J Lucas, Peter Galettis, Shuzhen Song, Nadia Solowij, Stephanie E Reuter, Jennifer Schneider, Jennifer H Martin
BACKGROUND: Medicinal cannabis is prescribed under the provision of a controlled drug in the Australian Poisons Standard. However, multiple laws must be navigated in order for patients to obtain access and imported products can be expensive. Dose-response information for both efficacy and toxicity pertaining to medicinal cannabis is lacking. The pharmacokinetic properties of cannabis administered by traditional routes has been described but to date, there is no literature on the pharmacokinetic properties of an intraperitoneal cannabinoid emulsion...
January 6, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311404/recreational-drug-and-psychosocial-profile-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-patients-seeking-antiviral-therapy
#7
Nayana George, Sherrie M Harrell, Kimberly D Rhodes, Andres Duarte-Rojo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Practitioners treating hepatitis C (HCV) provide healthcare to a special population with high rates of substance abuse and psychiatric disorders. We investigated the psychosocial profile in HCV patients and tested what variables affect commencement of antiviral therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Recreational drug use (RDU), marijuana (THC), alcohol use, and psychiatric history were initially investigated with a questionnaire prior to history and physical...
December 27, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311110/long-lasting-in-vivo-effects-of-the-cannabinoid-cb1-antagonist-am6538
#8
Carol A Paronis, Girish R Chopda, Kiran Vemuri, Ani S Zakarian, Alexandros Makriyannis, Jack Bergman
AM6538 is a cannabinoid antagonist that binds CB1 receptors expressed in HEK-293 cells in a wash-resistant manner. The effects of AM6538 in live animals has not previously been established. We characterized the antagonist effects of AM6538 in male mice, using a warm-water tail-withdrawal assay, and in male squirrel monkeys trained to discriminate the CB1 agonist AM4054 from vehicle. The cannabinoid agonists WIN 55,212, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and AM4054 all produced 100% maximum possible antinociceptive effects in mice following vehicle pretreatment...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310049/-positive-urine-testing-for-cannabis-is-associated-with-increased-risk-of-traffic-crashes
#9
Giovanna Del Balzo, Rossella Gottardo, Silvia Mengozzi, Romolo M Dorizzi, Federica Bortolotti, Svetlana Appolonova, Franco Tagliaro
Although recent Cannabis use is widely reported to be associated with drug-related traffic accidents, the evidence that Cannabis users show an increased risk of being involved in road crashes is still not unequivocally proved. The purpose of the present work is to provide an objective assessment of this hypothesis, by comparing the frequency of occurrence of positive urine analyses in drivers involved in traffic accidents (n = 1406) with that observed in a control population undergoing mandatory urine drug testing (n = 1953)...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309259/biotrickling-filtration-of-air-borne-styrene-a-comparison-of-filtration-media
#10
Fu-Jen Chuang, Ming-Shean Chou, Hsiao-Yu Chang
This study compares the performances of fern and plastic chips as packing media for the biofiltration of a styrene-laden waste gas stream emitted in a plant for the manufacture of plastic door plates. Fern chips (with a specific surface area of 1,090 m2 m-3) and plastic chips (with a specific surface area of 610 m2 m-3) were packed into a pilot-scale with a total media volume of 50 L for the performance test. Field waste gas with styrene concentrations in the range of 161-2390 mg Am-3 (@28-30oC) was introduced to the bed and a fixed EBRT (empty bed retention time) of 21 s, a volumetric gas flow rate of 8...
January 8, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307655/rhoa-mlc-signaling-pathway-is-involved-in-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-tetrahydrocannabinol-impaired-placental-angiogenesis
#11
Xinwen Chang, Hua Li, Yuhong Li, Qizhi He, Julei Yao, Tao Duan, Kai Wang
Cannabis is a widely used illicit drug and its abuse during pregnancy has been related to adverse reproductive outcomes. In addition, placental angiogenesis is considered to be responsible for the transport of nutrients critical for placental development and fetal growth. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major component of cannabis, on placental angiogenesis, involving endothelial cell (EC) proliferation, migration and tube formation. Here, we observe dramatic alterations in placental vascular network of cannabis users correlated with an impaired HUVE cell proliferation, migration and tube formation after treated with THC...
January 4, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307631/physicochemical-properties-of-anti-vibrio-harveyi-egg-yolk-antibody-igy-and-its-immunological-influence-in-indian-white-shrimp-fenneropenaeus-indicus
#12
Thankamani Kumaran, Eswaramoorthy Thirumalaikumar, Chinnadurai Lelin, Pandi Palanikumar, Mariavincent Michaelbabu, Thavasimuthu Citarasu
Edible antibodies specific to host pathogens is an attractive approach to establish protective immunity, especially against gastrointestinal pathogens both in humans and animals. The edible antibody of anti-Vibrio harveyi IgY (anti-V. h IgY) was produced by antigen mixed with immunoadjuvant Asparagus racemosus and Glycine max. Hens were immunized and eggs were collected five weeks after the immunization. Anti-V. harveyi IgY stability in different digestive enzymes such as trypsin and chymotrypsin were evaluated to determine its ability to withstand in the gastrointestinal tract of F...
January 4, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307505/practical-considerations-in-medical-cannabis-administration-and-dosing
#13
REVIEW
Caroline A MacCallum, Ethan B Russo
Cannabis has been employed medicinally throughout history, but its recent legal prohibition, biochemical complexity and variability, quality control issues, previous dearth of appropriately powered randomised controlled trials, and lack of pertinent education have conspired to leave clinicians in the dark as to how to advise patients pursuing such treatment. With the advent of pharmaceutical cannabis-based medicines (Sativex/nabiximols and Epidiolex), and liberalisation of access in certain nations, this ignorance of cannabis pharmacology and therapeutics has become untenable...
January 4, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305987/l-3-4-dihydroxyphenylalanine-l-dopa-induces-neuroendocrinological-physiological-and-immunological-regulation-in-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei
#14
Ratchaneegorn Mapanao, Hsin-Wei Kuo, Chin-Chuan Chang, Kuan-Fu Liu, Winton Cheng
L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) is a precursor for dopamine (DA) synthesis. Assessments were conducted to analyze the effects of l-DOPA on mediating regulation of neuroendocrinological, immunological, and physiological parameters in the shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei when they were individually injected with 0.01 N HCl or l-DOPA at 0.5 or 1.0 μmol shrimp-1 for 60, 120, and 240 min. For catecholamine synthesis evaluation, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DA beta hydroxylase (DBH) activities, l-DOPA, DA, and norepinephrine (NE) levels in hemolymph were determined...
January 3, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302228/cannabis-cannabinoids-and-health
#15
Genevieve Lafaye, Laurent Karila, Lisa Blecha, Amine Benyamina
Cannabis (also known as marijuana) is the most frequently used illicit psychoactive substance in the world. Though it was long considered to be a "soft" drug, studies have proven the harmful psychiatric and addictive effects associated with its use. A number of elements are responsible for the increased complications of cannabis use, including the increase in the potency of cannabis and an evolution in the ratio between the two primary components, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (toward a higher proportion of Δ9-THC), Synthetic cannabinoid (SC) use has rapidly progressed over the last few years, primarily among frequent cannabis users, because SCs provide similar psychoactive effects to cannabis...
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301050/field-detection-of-drugs-of-abuse-in-oral-fluid-using-the-alere%C3%A2-dds%C3%A2-2-mobile-test-system-with-confirmation-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-lc-ms-ms
#16
Alex J Krotulski, Amanda L A Mohr, Melissa Friscia, Barry K Logan
The collection and analysis of drugs in oral fluid (OF) at the roadside has become more feasible with the introduction of portable testing devices such as the Alere™ DDS®2 Mobile Test System (DDS®2). The objective of this study was to compare the on-site results for the DDS®2 to laboratory-based confirmatory assays with respect to detection of drugs of abuse in human subjects. As part of a larger Institutional Review Board approved study, two OF samples were collected from each participant at a music festival in Miami, FL, USA...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300962/pharmacokinetic-characterization-of-11-nor-9-carboxy-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-in-urine-following-acute-oral-cannabis-ingestion-in-healthy-adults
#17
Nicolas J Schlienz, Edward J Cone, Evan S Herrmann, Natalie A Lembeck, John M Mitchell, George E Bigelow, Ronald Flegel, Charles P LoDico, Eugene D Hayes, Ryan Vandrey
Understanding the urine excretion profile for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) metabolites is important for accurate detection and interpretation of toxicological testing for cannabis use. Prior literature has primarily evaluated the urinary pharmacokinetics of the non-psychoactive THC metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) following smoked cannabis administration. The present study examined the urine THCCOOH excretion profile following oral cannabis administration in 18 healthy adults...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288812/flow-cytometic-analysis-of-penaeus-monodon-haemocyte-responses-to-poly-i-c
#18
Jian-An Xian, Xiu-Xia Zhang, Jing-Feng Sun, Lei Wang, Dong-Mei Wang, Jun-Tao Li, Rui-Jun Duan, Yao-Peng Lu, Pei-Hua Zheng
This study was aimed at investigating the cellular responses of Penaeus monodon haemocytes to poly I:C stimulation using flow cytometric assay. Total haemocyte count (THC), percentages of different haemocyte subpopulations [hyaline cells (HC), semigranular cells (SGC) and granular cells (GC)], non-specific esterase activity (EA), total reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) production, nitric oxide (NO) production, apoptotic haemocyte ratio and plasmic phenoloxidase (PO) activity were determined in poly I:C-injected shrimp...
December 27, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287930/ptl401-a-new-formulation-based-on-pro-nano-dispersion-technology-improves-oral-cannabinoids-bioavailability-in-healthy-volunteers
#19
Jacob Atsmon, Irina Cherniakov, Dvora Izgelov, Amnon Hoffman, Abraham J Domb, Lisa Deutsch, Frederic Deutsch, Daphna Heffetz, Hagit Sacks
There is growing clinical interest in developing and commercializing pharmaceutical-grade cannabinoid products, containing primarily tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). The oral bioavailability of THC and CBD is very low due to extensive "first pass" metabolism. A novel oral THC and CBD formulation, PTL401, utilizing an advanced self-emulsifying oral drug delivery system, was designed to circumvent the "first pass" effect. In this study, the bioavailability of THC and CBD from the PTL401 capsule was compared with similar doses from a marketed reference oromucosal spray (Sativex®)...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286085/estrogen-receptor%C3%A2-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-dependent-effects-of-saikosaponin%C3%A2-d-on-the-suppression-of-oxidative-stress%C3%A2-induced-rat-hepatic-stellate-cell-activation
#20
Renye Que, Yanting Shen, Jianlin Ren, Zhihui Tao, Xiaoyan Zhu, Yong Li
Saikosaponin-d (SSd) is one of the major triterpenoid saponins derived from Bupleurum falcatum L., which has been reported to possess antifibrotic activity. At present, there is little information regarding the potential target of SSd in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which serve an important role in excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition during the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. Our recent study indicated that SSd may be considered a novel type of phytoestrogen with estrogen‑like actions. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of SSd on the proliferation and activation of HSCs, and the underlying mechanisms associated with estrogen receptors...
December 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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