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feedforward control

Timothy Sadlon, Cheryl Y Brown, Veronika Bandara, Christopher M Hope, John E Schjenken, Stephen M Pederson, James Breen, Alistair Forrest, Marc Beyer, Sarah Robertson, Simon C Barry
Regulatory T cells (Treg) are critical for preventing autoimmunity and curtailing responses of conventional effector T cells (Tconv). The reprogramming of T-cell fate and function to generate Treg requires switching on and off of key gene regulatory networks, which may be initiated by a subtle shift in expression levels of specific genes. This can be achieved by intermediary regulatory processes that include microRNA and long noncoding RNA-based regulation of gene expression. There are well-documented microRNA profiles in Treg and Tconv, and these can operate to either reinforce or reduce expression of a specific set of target genes, including FOXP3 itself...
2018: Clinical & Translational Immunology
Philip Antwi, Jianzheng Li, Jia Meng, Kaiwen Deng, Frank Koblah Quashie, Jiuling Li, Portia Opoku Boadi
In this a, three-layered feedforward-backpropagation artificial neural network (BPANN) model was developed and employed to evaluate COD removal an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating industrial starch processing wastewater. At the end of UASB operation, microbial community characterization revealed satisfactory composition of microbes whereas morphology depicted rod-shaped archaea. pH, COD, NH4 + , VFA, OLR and biogas yield were selected by principal component analysis and used as input variables...
February 20, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Pei-Tseng Lee, Guang Lin, Wen-Wen Lin, Fengqiu Diao, Benjamin H White, Hugo J Bellen
In Drosophila , long-term memory (LTM) requires the cAMP-dependent transcription factor CREBB, expressed in the mushroom bodies (MB) and phosphorylated by PKA. To identify other kinases required for memory formation, we integrated Trojan exons encoding T2A-GAL4 into genes encoding putative kinases and selected for genes expressed in MB. These lines were screened for learning/memory deficits using UAS-RNAi knockdown based on an olfactory aversive conditioning assay. We identified a novel, conserved kinase, Meng-Po ( MP , CG11221 , SBK1 in human), the loss of which severely affects 3 hr memory and 24 hr LTM, but not learning...
February 23, 2018: ELife
Lu Liu, Siyuan Tian, Dingyu Xue, Tao Zhang, YangQuan Chen
A continuous time fractional-order feedforward control algorithm for tracking desired time varying input signals is proposed in this paper. The presented controller cancels the phase shift caused by the zeros and poles of controlled closed-loop fractional-order system, so it is called Fractional-Order Zero Phase Tracking Controller (FZPETC). The controlled systems are divided into two categories i.e. with and without non-cancellable (non-minimum-phase) zeros which stand in unstable region or on stability boundary...
February 16, 2018: ISA Transactions
Michael Yates, Sunjeev K Kamboj
Objectives: Drug related mental imagery is proposed to play a central role in addictive behaviour. However, little is known about such cognition or how it is pharmacologically modulated. Here, we test theoretical predictions of the 'elaborated intrusion' theory by comparing neutral with alcohol related mental imagery, and examine the effects of low dose alcohol on phenomenological aspects of this imagery. Methods: Alcohol related and neutral imagery was assessed after at risk drinkers (n = 40) consumed alcohol (0...
December 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
Anja Hohmann, Psyche Loui, Charles H Li, Gottfried Schlaug
Perceiving and producing vocal sounds are important functions of the auditory-motor system and are fundamental to communication. Prior studies have identified a network of brain regions involved in pitch production, specifically pitch matching. Here we reverse engineer the function of the auditory perception-production network by targeting specific cortical regions (e.g., right and left posterior superior temporal (pSTG) and posterior inferior frontal gyri (pIFG)) with cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)-commonly found to decrease excitability in the underlying cortical region-allowing us to causally test the role of particular nodes in this network...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Vlasta Bari, Marco Ranucci, Beatrice De Maria, Beatrice Cairo, Valeria Pistuddi, Alberto Porta
BACKGROUND: Postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) might be favored by cardiovascular control impairment. We hypothesize that cardiovascular regulation indexes derived from directional model-based analysis of the spontaneous fluctuations of heart period (HP) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) can identify subjects at risk to develop AF after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. METHODS: Beat-to-beat HP and SAP series were derived from electrocardiogram (ECG) and invasive arterial pressure recorded for 5 min just before CABG surgery in conscious condition...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Scott F Owen, Joshua D Berke, Anatol C Kreitzer
Fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs) are a prominent class of forebrain GABAergic cells implicated in two seemingly independent network functions: gain control and network plasticity. Little is known, however, about how these roles interact. Here, we use a combination of cell-type-specific ablation, optogenetics, electrophysiology, imaging, and behavior to describe a unified mechanism by which striatal FSIs control burst firing, calcium influx, and synaptic plasticity in neighboring medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs)...
February 8, 2018: Cell
Yun-Guang Gao, Fa-Yang Jiang, Jian-Cheng Song, Li-Jun Zheng, Fei-Yan Tian, Pu-Long Geng
Grid-connected inverters with LCL filters need high steady-state control accuracy, fast dynamic response performance, and strong robustness to guarantee the power quality. However, there are many problems in traditional control strategies that restrict improvements to control system performance, such as poor dynamic performance of traditional single-repetitive control, large ripples, low steady-state accuracy of inverter current feedback based repetitive dual-loop control or grid-current feedback based single-loop proportional-integral control...
February 2, 2018: ISA Transactions
Bahadir Kasap, A John Van Opstal
In dynamic visual or auditory gaze double-steps, a brief target flash or sound burst is presented in midflight of an intervening eye-head gaze shift. Behavioral experiments in humans and monkeys have indicated that the subsequent eye- and head movements to the target are goal-directed, regardless stimulus timing, first gaze-shift characteristics, and initial conditions. This remarkable behavior requires that the gaze-control system (i) has continuous access to accurate signals about eye-in-head position, and ongoing eye-head movements, (ii) that it accounts for different internal signal delays, and (iii) that it is able to update the retinal (TE) and head-centric (TH) target coordinates into appropriate eye-centered and head-centered motor commands on millisecond time scales...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Caglar Gulcehre, Sarath Chandar, Kyunghyun Cho, Yoshua Bengio
We extend the neural Turing machine (NTM) model into a dynamic neural Turing machine (D-NTM) by introducing trainable address vectors. This addressing scheme maintains for each memory cell two separate vectors, content and address vectors. This allows the D-NTM to learn a wide variety of location-based addressing strategies, including both linear and nonlinear ones. We implement the D-NTM with both continuous and discrete read and write mechanisms. We investigate the mechanisms and effects of learning to read and write into a memory through experiments on Facebook bAbI tasks using both a feedforward and GRU controller...
January 30, 2018: Neural Computation
Guy Avraham, Raz Leib, Assaf Pressman, Lucia S Simo, Amir Karniel, Lior Shmuelof, Ferdinando A Mussa-Ivaldi, Ilana Nisky
To accurately estimate the state of the body, the nervous system needs to account for delays between signals from different sensory modalities. To investigate how such delays may be represented in the sensorimotor system, we asked human participants to play a virtual pong game in which the movement of the virtual paddle was delayed with respect to their hand movement. We tested the representation of this new mapping between the hand and the delayed paddle by examining transfer of adaptation to blind reaching and blind tracking tasks...
November 2017: ENeuro
Meg Simione, Jordan R Green
The perturbing effects of vibration applied to head and body structures are known to destabilize motor control and elicit corrective responses. Although such vibration response testing may be informative for identifying sensorimotor deficits, the effect of whole-head vibration has not been tested on oromotor control. The purpose of this study was to determine how jaw movements respond to the perturbing effects of whole-head vibration during jaw motor tasks. Ten healthy adults completed speech, chewing, and two syllable repetition tasks with and without whole-head vibration...
January 23, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Sebastian Ströh, Christian Puller, Sebastian Swirski, Maj-Britt Hölzel, Lea I S van der Linde, Jasmin Segelken, Konrad Schultz, Christoph Block, Hannah Monyer, Klaus Willecke, Reto Weiler, Martin Greschner, Ulrike Janssen-Bienhold, Karin Dedek
In the mammalian retina, horizontal cells receive glutamatergic inputs from many rod and cone photoreceptors and return feedback signals to them, thereby changing photoreceptor glutamate release in a light-dependent manner. Horizontal cells also provide feedforward signals to bipolar cells. It is unclear, however, how horizontal cell signals also affect the temporal, spatial and contrast tuning in retinal output neurons, the ganglion cells. To study this, we generated a genetically modified mouse line in which we eliminated the light dependency of feedback by deleting glutamate receptors from mouse horizontal cells...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Zhuocheng Xiao, Jiwei Zhang, Andrew T Sornborger, Louis Tao
Line attractors in neuronal networks have been suggested to be the basis of many brain functions, such as working memory, oculomotor control, head movement, locomotion, and sensory processing. In this paper, we make the connection between line attractors and pulse gating in feed-forward neuronal networks. In this context, because of their neutral stability along a one-dimensional manifold, line attractors are associated with a time-translational invariance that allows graded information to be propagated from one neuronal population to the next...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Long Tian, Zhongxiao Xu, Lirong Chen, Wei Ge, Haoxiang Yuan, Yafei Wen, Shengzhi Wang, Shujing Li, Hai Wang
The light-matter quantum interface that can create quantum correlations or entanglement between a photon and one atomic collective excitation is a fundamental building block for a quantum repeater. The intrinsic limit is that the probability of preparing such nonclassical atom-photon correlations has to be kept low in order to suppress multiexcitation. To enhance this probability without introducing multiexcitation errors, a promising scheme is to apply multimode memories to the interface. Significant progress has been made in temporal, spectral, and spatial multiplexing memories, but the enhanced probability for generating the entangled atom-photon pair has not been experimentally realized...
September 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Janske G P Willems, Wytse J Wadman, Natalie L M Cappaert
The perirhinal (PER) and lateral entorhinal (LEC) cortex form an anatomical link between the neocortex and the hippocampus. However, neocortical activity is transmitted through the PER and LEC to the hippocampus with a low probability, suggesting the involvement of the inhibitory network. This study explored the role of interneuron mediated inhibition, activated by electrical stimulation in the agranular insular cortex (AiP), in the deep layers of the PER and LEC. Activated synaptic input by AiP stimulation rarely evoked action potentials in the PER-LEC deep layer excitatory principal neurons, most probably because the evoked synaptic response consisted of a small excitatory and large inhibitory conductance...
January 17, 2018: Hippocampus
Higinio Dopeso, Hui-Ke Jiao, Angel M Cuesta, Anne-Theres Henze, Liane Jurida, Michael Kracht, Amparo Acker-Palmer, Boyan K Garvalov, Till Acker
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, in large part due to its high propensity to metastasize and develop therapy resistance. Adaptive responses to hypoxia and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are linked to tumor metastasis and drug resistance, but little is known about how oxygen sensing and EMT intersect to control these hallmarks of cancer. Here we show that the oxygen sensor PHD3 links hypoxic signaling and EMT regulation in the lung tumor microenvironment. PHD3 was repressed by signals that induce EMT and acted as a negative regulator of EMT, metastasis and therapeutic resistance...
January 16, 2018: Cancer Research
Carla Ibañez, Carolin Delker, Cristina Martinez, Katharina Bürstenbinder, Philipp Janitza, Rebecca Lippmann, Wenke Ludwig, Hequan Sun, Geo Velikkakam James, Maria Klecker, Alexandra Grossjohann, Korbinian Schneeberger, Salome Prat, Marcel Quint
Thermomorphogenesis is defined as the suite of morphological changes that together are likely to contribute to adaptive growth acclimation to usually elevated ambient temperature [1, 2]. While many details of warmth-induced signal transduction are still elusive, parallels to light signaling recently became obvious (reviewed in [3]). It involves photoreceptors that can also sense changes in ambient temperature [3-5] and act, for example, by repressing protein activity of the central integrator of temperature information PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4 [6])...
January 5, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Juan Ren, Qingze Zou
In this paper, an adaptive-scanning mode (ASM) of atomic force microscope (AFM) with near-minimum sample deformation is proposed for imaging live biological samples in liquid. Conventional contact mode (CM) imaging of live cells is rather slow (scan rate  <  0.2 Hz), and as the imaging speed increases, significant deformation of the soft and highly corrugated cell membrane is induced. Such a low speed CM imaging of live biological samples is not only time consuming, but also incapable of capturing dynamic biological evolutions occurring in seconds to minutes...
December 28, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
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