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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531966/how-do-disturbances-and-climate-effects-on-carbon-and-water-fluxes-differ-between-multi-aged-and-even-aged-coniferous-forests
#1
Xuguang Tang, Hengpeng Li, Mingguo Ma, Li Yao, Matthias Peichl, Altaf Arain, Xibao Xu, Michael Goulden
Disturbances and climatic changes significantly affect forest ecosystem productivity, water use efficiency (WUE) and carbon (C) flux dynamics. A deep understanding of terrestrial feedbacks to such effects and recovery mechanisms in forests across contrasting climatic regimes is essential to predict future regional/global C and water budgets, which are also closely related to the potential forest management decisions. However, the resilience of multi-aged and even-aged forests to disturbances has been debated for >60years because of technical measurement constraints...
May 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530231/constraining-climate-sensitivity-and-continental-versus-seafloor-weathering-using-an-inverse-geological-carbon-cycle-model
#2
Joshua Krissansen-Totton, David C Catling
The relative influences of tectonics, continental weathering and seafloor weathering in controlling the geological carbon cycle are unknown. Here we develop a new carbon cycle model that explicitly captures the kinetics of seafloor weathering to investigate carbon fluxes and the evolution of atmospheric CO2 and ocean pH since 100 Myr ago. We compare model outputs to proxy data, and rigorously constrain model parameters using Bayesian inverse methods. Assuming our forward model is an accurate representation of the carbon cycle, to fit proxies the temperature dependence of continental weathering must be weaker than commonly assumed...
May 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529971/a-comparative-effectiveness-trial-of-three-walking-self-monitoring-strategies
#3
Caroline R Richardson, David E Goodrich, Angela R Larkin, David Ronis, Robert G Holleman, Laura J Damschroder, Julie C Lowery
PURPOSE: Walking programs improve health outcomes in adults at risk for cardiovascular disease and self-monitoring strategies can improve adherence to such programs. The objective of this study was to determine if a six-month internet-based walking program using web-enhanced pedometers results in more weight loss than walking programs based on time or simple pedometer-step count goals in adults with or at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: This was a multi-site, randomized controlled trial of 255 male Veterans who were ambulatory, insufficiently active, BMI ≥ 28, and who reported 1 ≥ CVD risk factors...
November 2016: Translational Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529720/recent-advances-in-metacommunities-and-meta-ecosystem-theories
#4
REVIEW
Frédéric Guichard
Metacommunity theory has provided many insights into the general problem of local versus regional control of species diversity and relative abundance. The metacommunity framework has been extended from competitive interactions to whole food webs that can be described as spatial networks of interaction networks. Trophic metacommunity theory greatly contributed to resolving the community complexity-stability debate by predicting its dependence on the regional spatial context. The meta-ecosystem framework has since been suggested as a useful simplification of complex ecosystems to apply this spatial context to spatial flows of both individuals and matter...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529478/slow-and-fast-responses-two-mechanisms-of-trial-outcome-processing-revealed-by-eeg-oscillations
#5
Nikita A Novikov, Yulia M Nurislamova, Natalia A Zhozhikashvili, Evgenii E Kalenkovich, Anna A Lapina, Boris V Chernyshev
Cognitive control includes maintenance of task-specific processes related to attention, and non-specific regulation of motor threshold. Depending upon the nature of the behavioral tasks, these mechanisms may predispose to different kinds of errors, with either increased or decreased response time (RT) of erroneous responses relative to correct responses. Specifically, slow responses are related to attentional lapses and decision uncertainty, these conditions tending to delay RTs of both erroneous and correct responses...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529188/grade-guidelines-17-assessing-the-risk-of-bias-associated-with-missing-participant-outcome-data-in-a-body-of-evidence
#6
Gordon H Guyatt, Shanil Ebrahim, Pablo Alonso-Coello, Bradley C Johnston, Alexander G Mathioudakis, Matthias Briel, Reem A Mustafa, Xin Sun, Stephen D Walter, Diane Heels-Ansdell, Ignacio Neumann, Lara A Kahale, Alfonso Iorio, Joerg Meerpohl, Holger J Schünemann, Elie A Akl
OBJECTIVE: To provide GRADE guidance for assessing risk of bias across an entire body of evidence consequent on missing data for systematic reviews of both binary and continuous outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic survey of published methodological research, iterative discussions, testing in systematic reviews, and feedback from the GRADE Working Group. RESULTS: Approaches begin with a primary meta-analysis using a complete case analysis followed by sensitivity meta-analyses imputing, in each study, data for those with missing data, and then pooling across studies...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528578/a-cluster-randomized-trial-to-reduce-caesarean-delivery-rates-in-quebec-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#7
Mira Johri, Edmond S W Ng, Clara Bermudez-Tamayo, Jeffrey S Hoch, Thierry Ducruet, Nils Chaillet
BACKGROUND: Widespread increases in caesarean section (CS) rates have sparked concerns about risks to mothers and infants and rising healthcare costs. A multicentre, two-arm, cluster-randomized trial in Quebec, Canada assessed whether an audit and feedback intervention targeting health professionals would reduce CS rates for pregnant women compared to usual care, and concluded that it reduced CS rates without adverse effects on maternal or neonatal health. The effect was statistically significant but clinically small...
May 22, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528394/a-novel-dual-wavelength-laser-stimulator-to-elicit-transient-and-tonic-nociceptive-stimulation
#8
Xiaoxi Dong, Tianjun Liu, Han Wang, Jichun Yang, Zhuying Chen, Yong Hu, Yingxin Li
This study aimed to develop a new laser stimulator to elicit both transient and sustained heat stimulation with a dual-wavelength laser system as a tool for the investigation of both transient and tonic experimental models of pain. The laser stimulator used a 980-nm pulsed laser to generate transient heat stimulation and a 1940-nm continuous-wave (CW) laser to provide sustained heat stimulation. The laser with 980-nm wavelength can elicit transient pain with less thermal injury, while the 1940-nm CW laser can effectively stimulate both superficial and deep nociceptors to elicit tonic pain...
May 20, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528342/an-insight-into-the-changes-in-skin-texture-and-properties-following-dietary-intervention-with-a-nutricosmeceutical-containing-a-blend-of-collagen-bioactive-peptides-and-antioxidants
#9
Licia Genovese, Andrea Corbo, Sara Sibilla
BACKGROUND: Skin aging is a multifactorial phenomenon which causes alterations in skin physiological functions and, most visibly, phenotypic changes. In particular, during the aging process, hyaluronic acid, collagen, and elastin fibers undergo structural and functional changes. AIMS: This study aimed to give an insight into the photo-protective benefits and efficacy of an oral liquid nutricosmeceutical containing collagen bioactive peptides and antioxidants to counteract the signs of aging...
May 20, 2017: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528138/torque-ripple-reduction-of-brushless-dc-motor-based-on-adaptive-input-output-feedback-linearization
#10
M Shirvani Boroujeni, G R Arab Markadeh, J Soltani
Torque ripple reduction of Brushless DC Motors (BLDCs) is an interesting subject in variable speed AC drives. In this paper at first, a mathematical expression for torque ripple harmonics is obtained. Then for a non-ideal BLDC motor with known harmonic contents of back-EMF, calculation of desired reference current amplitudes, which are required to eliminate some selected harmonics of torque ripple, are reviewed. In order to inject the reference harmonic currents to the motor windings, an Adaptive Input-Output Feedback Linearization (AIOFBL) control is proposed, which generates the reference voltages for three phases voltage source inverter in stationary reference frame...
May 17, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528137/fuzzy-dynamic-output-feedback-h%C3%A2-control-for-continuous-time-t-s-fuzzy-systems-under-imperfect-premise-matching
#11
Tao Zhao, Songyi Dian
This paper addresses a fuzzy dynamic output feedback H∞ control design problem for continuous-time nonlinear systems via T-S fuzzy model. The stability of the fuzzy closed-loop system which is formed by a T-S fuzzy model and a fuProd. Type: FTPzzy dynamic output feedback H∞ controller connected in a closed loop is investigated with Lyapunov stability theory. The proposed fuzzy controller does not share the same membership functions and number of rules with T-S fuzzy systems, which can enhance design flexibility...
May 17, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527749/visual-and-proprioceptive-feedback-differently-modulate-the-spatial-representation-of-number-and-time-in-children
#12
Elena Nava, Luca Rinaldi, Hermann Bulf, Viola Macchi Cassia
There has been compelling evidence favoring the idea that human adults similarly represent number and time along a horizontal mental number line (MNL) and mental time line (MTL), respectively. Yet, analogies drawn between the MNL and MTL have been challenged by recent studies suggesting that adults' representations of number and time arise from different spatial frames of reference; whereas the MNL relies on both hand-centered and object-centered coordinates, the MTL appears to be exclusively anchored on object-centered coordinates...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527226/play-seriously-effectiveness-of-serious-games-and-their-features-in-motor-rehabilitation-a-meta-analysis
#13
Diana Tăut, Sebastian Pintea, Jan-Paul W R Roovers, Miguel-Angel Mañanas, Adriana Băban
BACKGROUND: Evidence for the effectiveness of serious games (SGs) and their various features is inconsistent in the motor rehabilitation field, which makes evidence based development of SGs a rare practice. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of SGs in motor rehabilitation for upper limb and movement/balance and to test the potential moderating role of SGs features like feedback, activities, characters and background. METHODS: We ran a meta-analysis including 61 studies reporting randomized controlled trials (RCTs), controlled trials (CTs) or case series designs in which at least one intervention for motor rehabilitation included the use of SGs as standalone or in combination...
May 19, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527155/status-of-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-in-china-a-national-survey
#14
Shibo Lin, Wei Guan, Pankaj Hans, Hui Liang
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a favorable bariatric procedure. This study evaluated the status of LSG in China. METHODS: During the 4(th) International Forum of Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery in May 2016, Nanjing China, an on-the-spot questionnaire was filled out by 105 attending surgeons with experience of LSG. The feedback data was collected and analyzed. RESULTS: For preoperative preparations, surgeons preferred blood glucose control with insulin (61...
May 19, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526671/telehealth-interventions-to-support-self-management-of-long-term-conditions-a-systematic-metareview-of-diabetes-heart-failure-asthma-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Peter Hanlon, Luke Daines, Christine Campbell, Brian McKinstry, David Weller, Hilary Pinnock
BACKGROUND: Self-management support is one mechanism by which telehealth interventions have been proposed to facilitate management of long-term conditions. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this metareview were to (1) assess the impact of telehealth interventions to support self-management on disease control and health care utilization, and (2) identify components of telehealth support and their impact on disease control and the process of self-management. Our goal was to synthesise evidence for telehealth-supported self-management of diabetes (types 1 and 2), heart failure, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cancer to identify components of effective self-management support...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526329/a-behaviour-change-intervention-to-reduce-sedentary-time-in-people-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#16
Sonia Wing Mei Cheng, Jennifer Alison, Sarah Dennis, Emmanuel Stamatakis, Lissa Spencer, Renae McNamara, Susan Sims, Zoe McKeough
INTRODUCTION: Replacing sedentary behaviour with light intensity physical activity (ie, activities classified as less than three metabolic equivalents, such as slow-paced walking) may be a more realistic strategy for reducing cardiometabolic risk in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease than only aiming to increase levels of moderate-vigorous intensity physical activity. Behaviour change interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have not yet been developed or tested...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525642/dynamics-of-sequestration-based-gene-regulatory-cascades
#17
Tatenda Shopera, William R Henson, Tae Seok Moon
Gene regulatory cascades are ubiquitous in biology. Because regulatory cascades are integrated within complex networks, their quantitative analysis is challenging in native systems. Synthetic biologists have gained quantitative insights into the properties of regulatory cascades by building simple circuits, but sequestration-based regulatory cascades remain relatively unexplored. Particularly, it remains unclear how the cascade components collectively control the output dynamics. Here, we report the construction and quantitative analysis of the longest sequestration-based cascade in Escherichia coli...
May 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525313/a-tunable-three-dimensional-in-vitro-culture-model-of-growth-plate-cartilage-using-alginate-hydrogel-scaffolds
#18
Alek G Erickson, Taylor D Laughlin, Sarah M Romereim, Catherine N Sargus-Patino, Angela K Pannier, Andrew T Dudley
Defining the final size and geometry of engineered tissues through precise control of the scalar and vector components of tissue growth is a necessary benchmark for regenerative medicine, but it has proved to be a significant challenge for tissue engineers. The growth plate cartilage that promotes elongation of the long bones is a good model system for studying morphogenetic mechanisms because cartilage is composed of a single cell type, the chondrocyte; chondrocytes are readily maintained in culture; and growth trajectory is predominately in a single vector...
May 18, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524710/integrating-end-user-feedback-in-the-concept-stage-of-development-of-a-novel-sensor-access-system-for-environmental-control
#19
Susan Koch Fager, Tabatha Sorenson, Susanne Butte, Alexander Nelson, Nilanjan Banerjee, Ryan Robucci
PURPOSE: This article illustrates user-centred design of a novel sensor access system for environmental control in the concept stage of development. METHODS: Focus groups of individuals with disabilities and rehabilitation healthcare professionals were provided with video illustration of the technology and asked to provide quantitative and qualitative feedback through a semistructured interview process. Qualitative methods were employed to analyse transcribed comments to develop themes supporting ongoing development of the technology...
May 19, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522547/a-regulatory-hierarchy-of-the-arabidopsis-branched-chain-amino-acid-metabolic-network
#20
Anqi Xing, Robert L Last
The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) Ile, Val and Leu are essential nutrients that humans and other animals obtain from plants. However, total and relative amounts of plant BCAAs rarely match animal nutritional needs, and improvement requires a better understanding of the mechanistic basis for BCAA homeostasis. We present an in vivo regulatory model of BCAA homeostasis derived from analysis of feedback-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana mutants for the three allosteric committed enzymes in the biosynthetic network: threonine deaminase (also named L-O-methylthreonine resistant 1, OMR1), acetohydroxyacid synthase small subunit 2 (AHASS2) and isopropylmalate synthase 1 (IPMS1)...
May 18, 2017: Plant Cell
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