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feedback control

Tian Gan, Liming Wang, Lisha Zhang, Wei Fang, Ruolei Gu
This study used the event-related potential technique to explore the neural correlates of outcome evaluation about helping others during a decision task. The results showed that the amplitude of feedback-related negativity elicited by 'failed outcome' (indicating a failure in helping others) was larger than that elicited by 'successful outcome' (indicating a success in helping others). Failed outcome also elicited a larger and longer P300 than successful outcome. The feedback-related negativity and P300 reflect the automatic process in an early stage and the control process in a late stage of outcome evaluation, respectively...
December 7, 2016: Neuroreport
Marta Franceschi, Lucia Seminara, Strahinja Dosen, Matjia Strbac, Maurizio Valle, Dario Farina
Myoelectric prostheses are successfully controlled using muscle electrical activity, thereby restoring lost motor functions. However, the somatosensory feedback from the prosthesis to the user is still missing. The sensory substitution methods described in the literature comprise mostly simple position and force sensors combined with discrete stimulation units. The present study describes a novel system for sophisticated electrotactile feedback integrating advanced distributed sensing (electronic skin) and stimulation (matrix electrodes)...
October 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Shuo Wang, Heinz Schattler
We consider cancer chemotherapy as an optimal control problem with the aim to minimize a combination of the tumor volume and side effects over an a priori specified therapy horizon when the tumor consists of a heterogeneous agglomeration of many subpopulations. The mathematical model, which accounts for different growth and apoptosis rates in the presence of cell densities, is a finite-dimensional approximation of a model originally formulated by Lorz et al. [18,19] and Greene et al. [10,11] with a continuum of possible traits...
December 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Sravya Atluri, Matthew Frehlich, Ye Mei, Luis Garcia Dominguez, Nigel C Rogasch, Willy Wong, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Faranak Farzan
Concurrent recording of electroencephalography (EEG) during transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an emerging and powerful tool for studying brain health and function. Despite a growing interest in adaptation of TMS-EEG across neuroscience disciplines, its widespread utility is limited by signal processing challenges. These challenges arise due to the nature of TMS and the sensitivity of EEG to artifacts that often mask TMS-evoked potentials (TEP)s. With an increase in the complexity of data processing methods and a growing interest in multi-site data integration, analysis of TMS-EEG data requires the development of a standardized method to recover TEPs from various sources of artifacts...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
A H Tahoun
In this paper, the stabilization problem of actuators saturation in uncertain chaotic systems is investigated via an adaptive PID control method. The PID control parameters are auto-tuned adaptively via adaptive control laws. A multi-level augmented error is designed to account for the extra terms appearing due to the use of PID and saturation. The proposed control technique uses both the state-feedback and the output-feedback methodologies. Based on Lyapunov׳s stability theory, new anti-windup adaptive controllers are proposed...
October 20, 2016: ISA Transactions
Michael El Boghdady, Benjie Tang, Iain Tait, Afshin Alijani
BACKGROUND: Surgical checklists are used for error reduction. Checklists are infrequently applied during procedures and have been limited to lists of procedural steps as aid memoires. We aimed to study the effect of a self-administered checklist on the laparoscopic task performance of novices during a standardized task. METHODS: Twenty novices were randomized into 2 equal groups, those receiving paper feedback (control group) and those receiving paper feedback and the checklist (checklist group)...
August 16, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
Akos A Gerencser, Shona A Mookerjee, Martin Jastroch, Martin D Brand
Analysis of the cellular mechanisms of metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, is complicated by the large number of reactions and interactions in metabolic networks. Metabolic control analysis with appropriate modularization is a powerful method for simplifying and analyzing these networks. To analyze control of cellular energy metabolism in adherent cell cultures of the INS-1832/13 pancreatic β-cell model we adapted our microscopy assay of absolute mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔψM) to a fluorescence microplate reader format, and applied it in conjunction with cell respirometry...
October 20, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Jinlei Xi, Shijing He, Cizhao Wei, Wanyao Shen, Juan Liu, Ke Li, Yufeng Zhang, Jiang Yue, Zheqiong Yang
The continuous growth of mouse incisors depends on epithelial stem cells (SCs) residing in the SC niche, called labial cervical loop (LaCL). The homeostasis of the SCs is subtly regulated by complex signaling networks. In this study, we focus on retinoic acid (RA), a derivative of Vitamin A and a known pivotal signaling molecule in controlling the functions of stem cells (SCs). We analyzed the expression profiles of several key molecules of the RA signaling pathway in cultured incisor explants upon exogenous RA treatment...
September 29, 2016: Stem Cell Research
Cathleen E Willging, Amy E Green, Mary M Ramos
BACKGROUND: Reducing youth suicide in the United States (U.S.) is a national public health priority, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer or questioning (LGBTQ) youth are at elevated risk. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) endorses six evidence-based (EB) strategies that center on meeting the needs of LGBTQ youth in schools; however, fewer than 6 % of U.S. schools implement all of them. The proposed intervention model, "RLAS" (Implementing School Nursing Strategies to Reduce LGBTQ Adolescent Suicide), builds on the Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, and Sustainment (EPIS) conceptual framework and the Dynamic Adaptation Process (DAP) to implement EB strategies in U...
October 22, 2016: Implementation Science: IS
Bahtijor Rasulov, Eero Talts, Ulo Niinemets
Plant isoprene emissions respond to light and temperature similarly to photosynthesis, but CO2-dependencies of isoprene emission and photosynthesis are profoundly different with photosynthesis increasing and isoprene emissions decreasing with increasing CO2 concentration due to reasons not yet understood. We studied isoprene emission, net assimilation rate and chlorophyll fluorescence under different CO2 and O2 concentrations in the strong isoprene emitter hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x P. tremuloides), and used rapid changes in ambient CO2 or O2 concentrations or light level to induce oscillations...
October 21, 2016: Plant Physiology
Sarah A Moore, Ruth Da Silva, Madelaine Balaam, Lianne Brkic, Dan Jackson, Dan Jamieson, Thomas Ploetz, Helen Rodgers, Lisa Shaw, Frederike van Wijck, Christopher Price
BACKGROUND: Loss of upper limb function affects up to 85 % of acute stroke patients. Recovery of upper limb function requires regular intensive practise of specific upper limb tasks. To enhance intensity of practice interventions are being developed to encourage patients to undertake self-directed exercise practice. Most interventions do not translate well into everyday activities and stroke patients continue to find it difficult remembering integration of upper limb movements into daily activities...
October 21, 2016: Trials
Elizabeth E Hjort, Weiqi Huang, Liping Hu, Elizabeth A Eklund
Icsbp/Irf8 is an interferon regulatory transcription factor that functions as a suppressor of myeloid leukemias. Consistent with this activity, Icsbp represses a set of genes encoding proteins that promote cell proliferation/survival. One such gene encodes Gas2, a calpain inhibitor. We previously found that increased Gas2-expression in Bcr-abl+ cells stabilized βcatenin; a Calpain substrate. This was of interest, because βcatenin contributes to disease progression in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Calpain has additional substrates implicated in leukemogenesis, including Stat5...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Lisa K Fazio, Casey A Kennedy, Robert S Siegler
We examined whether playing a computerized fraction game, based on the integrated theory of numerical development and on the Common Core State Standards' suggestions for teaching fractions, would improve children's fraction magnitude understanding. Fourth and fifth-graders were given brief instruction about unit fractions and played Catch the Monster with Fractions, a game in which they estimated fraction locations on a number line and received feedback on the accuracy of their estimates. The intervention lasted less than 15 minutes...
2016: PloS One
Laurence Questienne, Filip Van Opstal, Jean-Philippe van Dijck, Wim Gevers
Cognitive control allows adapting our behaviour to improve performance. A behavioural signature of cognitive control is the Gratton effect. This effect is observed in conflict tasks and indicates smaller congruency effects after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. Metacognitive experience may play a role in this effect: when participants introspect on their conflict experience, the Gratton effect follows the conflict introspection instead of the stimulus congruency (Desender, Van Opstal, & Van den Bussche, 2014)...
October 21, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Wubing He, Lihong Chen, Lin Zheng, Liuping Luo, Lingyun Gao
BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DCs) and regulatory T (Treg) cells are crucial for inducing immune tolerance. However, the suppressive function of infused Treg cells and immature DCs (imDCs) following solid organ transplantation remains unclear. METHODS: ImDCs derived from DA-donor rats and Treg cells isolated from spleens of Lewis rats were prepared. A heterotopic liver transplantation model was established to examine the immune tolerance effects of infusion of Treg-imDCs, imDCs and Treg cells individually...
October 17, 2016: Molecular Immunology
Yuan Wu, Yun Wang, Xue-Fei Mi, Jun-Xiang Shan, Xin-Min Li, Jian-Long Xu, Hong-Xuan Lin
Cytokinins and gibberellins (GAs) play antagonistic roles in regulating reproductive meristem activity. Cytokinins have positive effects on meristem activity and maintenance. During inflorescence meristem development, cytokinin biosynthesis is activated via a KNOX-mediated pathway. Increased cytokinin activity leads to higher grain number, whereas GAs negatively affect meristem activity. The GA biosynthesis genes GA20oxs are negatively regulated by KNOX proteins. KNOX proteins function as modulators, balancing cytokinin and GA activity in the meristem...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
David S Freedman, Joseph B Schroeder, Gregory I Telian, Zhengyang Zhang, Smrithi Sunil, Jason T Ritt
OBJECTIVE: Behavioral neuroscience studies in freely moving rodents require small, light-weight implants to facilitate neural recording and stimulation. Our goal was to develop an integrated package of 3D printed parts and assembly aids for labs to rapidly fabricate, with minimal training, an implant that combines individually positionable microelectrodes, an optical fiber, zero insertion force (ZIF-clip) headstage connection, and secondary recording electrodes, e.g. for electromyography (EMG)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Peter J Gawthrop, Edmund J Crampin
Bond graphs can be used to build thermodynamically-compliant hierarchical models of biomolecular systems. As bond graphs have been widely used to model, analyse and synthesise engineering systems, this study suggests that they can play the same rôle in the modelling, analysis and synthesis of biomolecular systems. The particular structure of bond graphs arising from biomolecular systems is established and used to elucidate the relation between thermodynamically closed and open systems. Block diagram representations of the dynamics implied by these bond graphs are used to reveal implicit feedback structures and are linearised to allow the application of control-theoretical methods...
October 2016: IET Systems Biology
Alessandro Borri, Pasquale Palumbo, Abhyudai Singh
Synthetic biology combines different branches of biology and engineering aimed at designing synthetic biological circuits able to replicate emergent properties useful for the biotechnology industry, human health and environment. The role of negative feedback in noise propagation for a basic enzymatic reaction scheme is investigated. Two feedback control schemes on enzyme expression are considered: one from the final product of the pathway activity, the other from the enzyme accumulation. Both schemes are designed to provide the same steady-state average values of the involved players, in order to evaluate the feedback performances according to the same working mode...
October 2016: IET Systems Biology
Noortje H Rijken, Remko Soer, Ewold de Maar, Hilco Prins, Wouter B Teeuw, Jan Peuscher, Frits G J Oosterveld
The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of an intervention consisting of mental coaching combined with either electro encephalogram (EEG) alpha power feedback or heart rate variability (HRV) feedback on HRV, EEG outcomes and self-reported factors related to stress, performance, recovery and sleep quality in elite athletes. A prospective pilot study was performed with two distinct cohorts. Soccer players were provided with four sessions of mental coaching combined with daily HRV biofeedback (Group A); track and field athletes were provided with four sessions of mental coaching in combination with daily neurofeedback (Group B)...
October 19, 2016: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
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